Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Female parents, human or animal.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).

Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology. (1/1302)

How do organisms sense the amount of oxygen in the environment and respond appropriately when the level of oxygen decreases? Oxygen sensing and the molecular stratagems underlying the process have been the focus of an endless number of investigations trying to find an answer to the question: "What is the identity of the oxygen sensor?" Dynamic changes in pO2 constitute a potential signaling mechanism for the regulation of the expression and activation of reduction-oxidation (redox)-sensitive and oxygen-responsive transcription factors, apoptosis-signaling molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The transition from placental to lung-based respiration causes a relatively hyperoxic shift or oxidative stress, which the perinatal, developing lung experiences during birth. This variation in DeltapO2, in particular, differentially regulates the compartmentalization and functioning of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In addition, oxygen-evoked regulation of HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB is closely coupled with the intracellular redox state, such that modulating redox equilibrium affects their responsiveness at the molecular level (expression/transactivation). The differential regulation of HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB in vitro is paralleled by oxygen-sensitive and redox-dependent pathways governing the regulation of these factors during the transition from placental to lung-based respiration ex utero. The birth transition period in vivo and ex utero also regulates apoptosis signaling pathways in a redox-dependent manner, consistent with NF-kappaB being transcriptionally regulated in order to play an anti-apoptotic function. An association is established between oxidative stress conditions and the augmentation of an inflammatory state in pathophysiology, regulated by the oxygen- and redox-sensitive pleiotropic cytokines.  (+info)

Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study. (2/1302)

BACKGROUND: The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. METHODS: 2,716 infants born between 1986-1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn) were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks), birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference) and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect). Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1-2, 3-7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams), birth length (in centimeters), and head and chest circumference (in centimeters) were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. RESULTS: Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant determinants of birth size. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the absence of an adverse relation between Lake Ontario fish consumption and reduced birth size as measured by weight, length and head circumference. Biological determinants and maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remain important determinants of birth size.  (+info)

Developmental dynamics of the definitive mouse placenta assessed by stereology. (3/1302)

The mouse is an excellent model for studying the genetic basis of placental development, but analyses are restricted by the lack of quantitative data describing normal murine placental structure. This study establishes a technique for generating such data, applies stereological techniques on systematic uniform random sections of placentas between E12.5-E18.5 of gestation (E1.0 = day of the vaginal plug), and considers the results in the context of development of the labyrinth zone. Half of each placenta was wax embedded and exhaustively sectioned to determine absolute volumes of the labyrinth zone (Lz), junctional zone (Jz), and decidua using the Cavalieri principle. The other half was resin embedded and 1-microm sections were used to generate all volume, surface, and length densities within the Lz. Maximum placental volume is reached by E16.5, whereas the Lz volume fraction increases until E18.5 at the expense of the Jz and decidua. Within the Lz, the absolute volume and surface area of maternal blood spaces (MBS) expand rapidly between E14.5 and E16.5, with no increase thereafter. In contrast, fetal capillary development is linear and continues for longer than that of the MBS. The interhemal membrane separating maternal and fetal circulations undergoes thinning prior to expansion of maternal and fetal surface areas, achieving a harmonic mean thickness of 4.39 microm by E18.5. The specific diffusion capacity for oxygen of the interhemal membrane is maximal by E16.5, which may be necessary to support rapid fetal growth until the end of gestation.  (+info)

Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production. (4/1302)

The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte.  (+info)

Tissue-specific elevated genomic cytosine methylation levels are associated with an overgrowth phenotype of bovine fetuses derived by in vitro techniques. (5/1302)

Epigenetic perturbations are assumed to be responsible for abnormalities observed in fetuses and offspring derived by in vitro techniques. We have designed an experiment with bovine Day 80 fetuses generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and artificial insemination (AI) to determine the relationship between fetal phenotype and genome-wide 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content. When compared with AI controls, SCNT and IVF fetuses displayed significantly increased body weight (61% and 28%), liver weight (100% and 36%), and thorax circumference (20% and 11%). A reduced crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio (1.175 +/- 0.017 in SCNT and 1.292 +/- 0.018 in IVF vs. 1.390 +/- 0.018 in AI, P < 0.001 and P < 0.002) was the external hallmark of this disproportionate overgrowth phenotype. The SCNT fetuses showed significant hypermethylation of liver DNA in comparison with AI controls (3.46% +/- 0.08% vs. 3.17% +/- 0.09% 5mC, P < 0.03), and the cytosine methylation levels for IVF fetuses (3.34% +/- 0.09%) were, as observed for phenotypic parameters, intermediate to the other groups. Regressions of fetal body and liver weight and thorax circumference on 5mC content of liver DNA were positive (P < 0.073-0.079). Furthermore, a significant negative regression (P < 0.021) of the crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio on liver 5mC was observed. The 5mC content of placental cotyledon DNA was 46% lower than in liver DNA (P < 0.0001) but did not differ among groups. These data are in striking contrast with the recently reported hypomethylation of DNA from SCNT fetuses and indicate that hypermethylation of fetal tissue, but not placenta, is linked to the overgrowth phenotype in bovine SCNT and IVF fetuses.  (+info)

Use of assisted reproductive technologies in the propagation of rhesus macaque offspring. (6/1302)

The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) as tailored to the production of rhesus monkeys at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) are described. Efficient fertilization of mature oocytes recovered by aspiration from females subjected to follicular stimulation was achieved with fresh or frozen sperm by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryo development to the early cleavage stage occurred at high frequency. Cryopreserved embryos showed high postthaw survival and were also transferred in efforts to establish pregnancies. Three methods of transfer were evaluated, two involving embryo placement into the oviduct, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy, and a nonsurgical, transcervical approach that resulted in uterine deposition. Early cleaving embryos (Days 1-4) were transferred into the oviducts of synchronized recipients with optimal results and pregnancy rates of up to 36%. Pregnancy rates were similar when two fresh or frozen embryos were transferred (28- 30%), although more than two embryos had to be thawed to compensate for embryo loss during freeze-thawing. Normal gestational lengths, birth weights, and growth curves were seen with ART-produced infants compared with infants produced by natural mating in the timed mated breeding (TMB) colony at the ONPRC. In 72 singleton pregnancies established following the transfer of ART-produced embryos, the live-birth rate, at 87.5%, was statistically identical to that for the TMB colony. Further development of the ARTs should result in increasing use of these techniques to augment conventional approaches to propagating monkeys, especially those of defined genotypes.  (+info)

Nutritional manipulation of fetal adipose tissue deposition and uncoupling protein 1 messenger RNA abundance in the sheep: differential effects of timing and duration. (7/1302)

A range of epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that suboptimal nutrition at different stages of gestation is associated with an increased prevalence of adult hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. The timing of prenatal nutrient restriction is important in determining postnatal outcomes-including obesity. The present study, aimed to determine the extent to which fetal adiposity and expression of the key thermogenic protein, uncoupling protein (UCP)1, are altered by restriction of maternal nutrient intake imposed during four different periods, starting from before conception. Maternal nutrient intake was restricted from 60 days before until 8 days after mating (periconceptional nutrient restriction; R-C), from 60 days before mating and throughout gestation (R-R), from 8 days gestation until term (C-R), or from 115 days gestation until term. Fetal perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) was sampled near to term at approximately 143 days. UCP1 mRNA, but not protein, abundance in PAT was increased in fetuses in the R-R group (C-C 63 +/- 18; R-C 83 +/- 43; C-R 103 +/- 38; R-R 167 +/- 50 arbitrary units (P < 0.05)). In contrast, the abundance of UCP1 mRNA, but not protein, in fetal PAT was decreased when maternal nutrition was restricted from 115 days gestation. The major effect of maternal nutrient restriction on adipose tissue deposition occurred in the C-R group, in which the proportion of fetal fat was doubled, whereas maternal nutrient restriction from 115 days gestation reduced fetal fat deposition. In conclusion, there are differential effects of maternal and therefore fetal nutrient restriction on UCP1 mRNA expression and fetal fat mass and these effects are dependent on the timing and duration of nutrient restriction.  (+info)

Fetal growth, maternal prenatal smoking, and risk of invasive meningococcal disease: a nationwide case-control study. (8/1302)

BACKGROUND: The prenatal period may be important for susceptibility to infections. We evaluated whether low birthweight, prematurity, and prenatal maternal smoking were associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease. METHODS: We linked the Danish nationwide National Registry of Patients, the Birth Registry, and social registries to obtain data on fetal growth and social factors on 1921 cases of meningococcal disease hospitalized between 1 January, 1980 and 31 December, 1999 (median age 31 months, interquartiles 13-65 months) and 37 451 population controls. The impact of maternal smoking was examined in a subsample of 462 cases and 9240 controls born after 1990, when data on smoking became available in the Birth Registry. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios (OR) of meningococcal disease associated with low birthweight (<2500 g) varied between 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.3) in infants <12 months to 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in children >60 months of age at hospitalization for meningococcal disease. Premature children had an increased risk of meningococcal disease during the first year of life only (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The effect of low birthweight was very similar among mature and premature children. The adjusted OR for maternal smoking was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: Low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of meningococcal disease throughout childhood, while an effect of prematurity persists only for 12 months. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with the risk of meningococcal disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inadequate weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women. T2 - What is the effect on fetal growth?. AU - Catalano, Patrick M.. AU - Mele, Lisa. AU - Landon, Mark B.. AU - Ramin, Susan M.. AU - Reddy, Uma M.. AU - Casey, Brian. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Varner, Michael W.. AU - Rouse, Dwight J.. AU - Thorp, John M.. AU - Saade, George. AU - Sorokin, Yoram. AU - Peaceman, Alan M.. AU - Tolosa, Jorge E.. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - Objective We sought to evaluate inadequate gestational weight gain and fetal growth among overweight and obese women. Study Design We conducted an analysis of prospective singleton term pregnancies in which 1053 overweight and obese women gained 5 kg (14.4 6.2 kg) or 188 who either lost or gained 5 kg (1.1 4.4 kg). Birthweight, fat mass, and lean mass were assessed using anthropometry. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as 10th percentile of a standard US population. Univariable and multivariable analysis evaluated the association ...
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the PPARgamma2 Ala12 allele influences growth in early life and whether this association is modified by breast-feeding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort study from early fetal life onward. PPARgamma2 was genotyped in DNA obtained from cord blood samples in 3,432 children. Information about breast-feeding was available from questionnaires. Weight, head circumference, and femur length were repeatedly measured in second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at the ages of 1.5, 6, 11, 14, and 18 months. RESULTS: Genotype frequency distribution was 77.6% (Pro12Pro), 20.7% (Pro12Ala), and 1.7% (Ala12Ala). Growth rates in weight from second trimester of pregnancy to 18 months were higher for Pro12Ala and Ala12Ala than for Pro12Pro carriers (differences 1.11 g/week [95% CI 0.47-1.74] and 2.65 g/week [0.45-4.87], respectively). We found an interaction between genotype and breast-feeding duration (P value
Fetal Development : A pregnancy is one of the most intriguing miracles in life. Every week is filled with wonderful new developments as the unborn baby quickly crosses one milestone after another. At 24 weeks, an
Fetal Development Pictures Week 3 - See how your baby is developing at 3 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Fetal Development Pictures Week 10 - See how your baby is developing at 10 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
This volume contains most of the papers presented at the First International Symposium on The Effect of Prolonged Drug Usage on Fetal Development held at the Beit-Berl Convention Center, Kfar Saba, Is
Oct 22, 2019 (WiredRelease via COMTEX) -- The report comes out as an intelligent and thorough assessment tool as well as a great resource that will help you...
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Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during pregnancy.
In the article, Lab-Grown Mouse Embryos Form Limbs and Organs scientists had managed to develop a method that would allow them to grow a mouse embryo outside its mothers uterus. Traditionally when studying the embryonic development of a species; which had allowed scientists to understand how a single cell would develop into a body with specific cell types. To see how fetal development occurs and what important features are present during different stages surgical images were taken from cutting into the womb of the mouse. This time however scientists were able to artificially create a womb which allowed them to analyze the gestation of the embryo in real time without having to cut into the womb.. Having the right conditions to grow the embryo was important to maintain proper functionality and development. Conditions such as the right amount of pressure, oxygen, and nutrients were vital to sustain the embryos genetic material and even managed to get the embryo to develop functioning systems ...
Emphasizing the importance of proper prenatal care and nutrition, this two-sided fetal development tear pad shows development from conception to birth.
When babies are born very early, they miss most or all of the important last trimester, often described by doctors as fetal development interrupted.
Chapter 2: Nutrition for Fetal Development We cannot always or even often control events, but we can control how we respond to them. When things happen which dismay we ought to look to GOD for HIS meaning, remembering that HE is not taken by surprise nor can HIS purposes be thwarted in the end. Elisabeth…
Relationship that a child has with its mother - foetal development, and with its family during the first year conditions its emotional responses
Providing options for pregnant women. Pregnancy testing, ultrasound scan, STI education & treatment, education, and support available. You are not alone.
Its fascinating to see how your baby is growing every week. Track babys development week by week and find out how your baby transforms from a pea-sized embryo
Week 29: Much is happening at 29 weeks! Different organs are changing rapidly…for one, the babys eyes are getting to a more focused state. If the mother feels consistent taps from inside their belly, that might be the baby hiccuping (probably from all the nutrients he/she is getting from the mothers digested food!). If the ...
While you are aware of your wifes expanding belly, do you know what changes are taking place inside? Click here for a resource that will update you on the monthly development of your baby.
Click on your specific week to get a detailed description of how your baby is developing, or see how your baby is growing with our month-by-month pictures. - BabyCenter
At nine weeks pregnant, your babys embryonic tail has gone and hes now looking a bit more human. By the end of this week, hell measure about 2.3cm long. - BabyCentre UK
At 32 weeks pregnant, your doctor may recommend you start tracking your little ones kicks and movements. Find out how to do this here.
3 Months Pregnant - pregnancy starts to show. Tests, fetal development, the health of the mother, visiting a doctor. What to expect being 3 months pregnant?
Few methods are able to analyze single molecules. Analysis problems occur due to the instability of thin molecular layers and especially single molecules with respect to their thermal-, chemical- and photo-degradation or to external mechanical fields caused scanning probe techniques. A disadvantage of Raman scattering methods is the large amount of heat produced by the focused plasmons localized at the active site, which can cause damage of the molecules. Graphene exhibits plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and blue spectral region and thus can enhance Raman signals. Graphene is a monoatomically thick and flexible layer, which provides thermal and electrical conductivity as well as high optical transparency and impermeability to gases and liquids. Thus graphene can act as protective layer against local heating.,br,,br, ,!--break--,,strong,Technology,/strong,,br, This novel method allows the analysis of substances in very small quantities, even single molecules, with common techniques. The ...
Watch NHRC_probes_starvation_deaths_in_Orissa video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of NHRC_probes_starvation_deaths_in_Orissa are available. Watch and share videos and updates by Ani.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) is associated with growth patterns in fetal life and infancy. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasounds in early, mid-, and late pregnancy. Anthropometry in infancy was assessed at birth and at the ages of 6 weeks, 6 months, and 14 months. DNA for genotyping of the INS VNTR promoter region was available in 859 children. RESULTS: The genotype distribution was I/I 50.8%, I/III 40.0%, and III/III 9.2%. III/III individuals had a shorter gestational age (P|0.005 versus I/I) and a lower birth weight (P|0.05 versus I/I). There were no differences in birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Class III homozygotes had a smaller abdominal circumference/head circumference (HC) ratio (P|0.005 versus I/I) in mid-pregnancy, but not in late
As the fetus is too big to measure from head to toe at your gestational age, measurements usually include the width of the head (biparietal diameter), circumference of the head, and the abdominal circumference. The length of the upper leg bone (femur length) may also be measured. All these measurements give the doctor a good picture of your babys growth and if IUGR is suspected. A doppler study to check on the bloodflow in the cord might be part of it as well. Keep in mind that measurements can vary from technician to technician and can be difficult to perform if baby is very active or not lying in the right position ...
Most of us know that what we eat and drink, what supplements we take and what substances we avoid during pregnancy go a long way in ensuring the health of our baby. Now, researchers have discovered that a mothers nutrition during pregnancy can significantly influence her childs risk of obesity many years later. The international study, led…
SAN DIEGO -- Although antidepressants may have an effect on fetuses in utero, so may the lack of the drug during pregnancy. |o:p||/o:p|
For mothers-to-be, the symptoms of gum disease – a problem thats common during pregnancy – are often overlooked. Nurture your dental health
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Dr. Fedro Peccatoris study indicates that babies have good development regardless of the chemotherapy that the pregnant mother received during treatment.
Pregnancy is very crucial period of women. This article explains 2nd Month of Pregnancy Common Symptoms and Fetal Development,diet exercises and other things also.
Fetal Development Milestones. At conception everything about your child has been determined. Your babys heart begins beating just 3 weeks after conception.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Fetal Weight by people in this website by year, and whether Fetal Weight was a major or minor topic of these publications ... is dedicated to childcare, compiled by doctors with a panel of consultants. This site contains ethical, authentic, scientific and relevant information about growth & assessment of a child and commonly occurring childhood ailments. You also get a FREE homepage for your child.
In two recent studies, researchers at UC Davis have shown that the placenta can provide critical information about early changes to the intra-uterine environment that may influence fetal development and ultimately, children’s brains.
In two recent studies, researchers at UC Davis have shown that the placenta can provide critical information about early changes to the intra-uterine environment that may influence fetal development and ultimately, children’s brains.
Delivery is just weeks away, which is why your baby is pretty much ready for life outside your womb. Still, he or she needs to keep packing on the pounds! *******Pregnancy.Healthguru****/?YT
Everything you need to know about the 20th week of pregnancy is here- from the tips to get you comfortable to the changes your little one undergoes.
Moms-to-be have bookshelves filled with pregnancy books that tell them everything they need to know about their pregnancies. But how much of that information
Pregnancy is a time of celebration, inquisitiveness, tiredness and a lot of emotional and physical changes. But even though on the outside you are going through
Fetal has shown a childs heart begins to beat at only 21 days and she can feel pain at 20 weeks yet there are those that argue abortion should be an option up to discharge.
Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of focused fetal gene expression analysis of target genes found in amniotic fluid using Standardized NanoArray PCR (SNAP) technology. This analysis could be used to monitor fetal ...
At 39 weeks pregnant, stay on the lookout for the signs of labour, and try to relax as much as you can during this final stage. Learn more here.
I had an ultrasound done yesterday and everything was fine. The fetal development is good but the report says |b|spine: posterior|/b|. I want to know the meaning of this and if it is a defect in the position of the fetus? Secondly, if it is a defect then what causes it and is it curable? I am 19 weeks and 5 days pregnant.
I recently rewatched the CBC Doc Zone piece called The Disappearing Male about the environmental dangers affecting male fetal development. It touches on male infertility, increased ». ...
JEG-3 nuclear extract for use in WB and EMSA. Used to study proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cells related to fetal development and cancer.
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. ...
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes.. ...
Some people feel that theyCannotReadThisAndItShowsInASpellChecker and therefore can_read_and_spell_this_much_better is their choice, otherwise weWouldWriteAllSpokenLanguagesAndBooksThatWayForReadability. You could say that they come from a C background or that they are a little older. :-) Some other people say, e.g., those who come from Java background, that readingTheNamesLikeThisIsNotAProblemAtAll and they prefer that style. Im sure we all heard the arguments pro and contra more times than we care to hear. Obviously, a visual perception differs from person to person. If a person has a difficulty reading getMainType(), they should not be forced to write get_main_type() in their Zope code for the sake of consistency which is in this particular issue non-existent. This is really the least important style issue. Best regards, -- Zvezdan Petkovic _______________________________________________ Zope3-dev mailing list [email protected] Unsub: ...
... leading to unhealthy outcomes for fetal development such as poor or slow fetal growth, and increasing fetal morbidity and ... Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the ... One well-documented case of widespread mercury ingestion and subsequent fetal development complication took place in the 1950s ... Identifying potential hazards for fetal development requires a basis of scientific information. In 2004, Brent proposed a set ...
The use of fetal tissue in vaccine development is the practice of researching, developing, and producing vaccines through ... The vaccines do not contain any of the original fetal tissue or cells or cells derived from fetal materials. Although the ... Immunize Nevada: COVID-19 Vaccines & Fetal Cell Line History McKenna, Kyle Christopher (2018). "Use of Aborted Fetal Tissue in ... for Catholics to receive vaccines derived from fetal cell lines or in which such lines were used in testing or development, ...
"Insights into Early Fetal Development". Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. (Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and ... The development of cerebral connections during the first 20-45 weeks' gestation. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, ... "Prenatal and Early Postnatal Development of Human Motor Behavior" in Handbook of brain and behaviour in human development, ... "Prenatal and Early Postnatal Development of Human Motor Behavior" in Handbook of brain and behaviour in human development, ...
Still, the environment in which the fetal gilt develops is significant to the reproductive and physiological development. Fetal ... Fetal Pig Dissection Standard Fetal Pig Dissection Lab Where to Buy Fetal Pigs Alternatives to Dissecting Fetal Pigs Ethical ... The development of the lymphatic system and the formation of blood circulation occur at different stages of fetal pig ... These taste buds develop during fetal development. Adult pigs have up to 15,000 taste buds, a much larger number than the ...
... preterm labour and delayed motor development in infancy. Studying the foetal stress response in vivo is not commonly done due ... Depression and Anxiety on Fetal Neurobehavioral Development". Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology. 52 (3): 425-440. doi:10.1097/ ... High levels of fetal cortisol induce higher CRH expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the ... This is due to the fact that the stress response in humans forms very early in our foetal stage, therefore is vulnerable to the ...
Additionally, ethanol may alter fetal development by interfering with retinoic acid signaling. Acetaldehyde, the main ethanol ... 96-06). Seattle: University of Washington, Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit. Malbin, D. (1993). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fetal ... Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) refers to individuals with a known, or highly suspected, ... Optimal human development generally occurs in identifiable stages (e.g., Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Erik ...
... s are high levels of proteins present during the fetal stage of development. Often related proteins assume similar ... Fetal hemoglobin, the fetal version of hemoglobin. Fetal Troponin T and Troponin I isoforms. Kal-Koshvandi AT (July 2020). " ... in which case the fetal varieties are called fetal isoforms. Sometimes, the genes coding fetal isoforms occur adjacent to their ... In other cases fetal isoforms can be produced by alternate splicing using fetal exons to produce proteins that differ in only a ...
... is a disorder that occurs when the fetus' aortic valve does not fully open during development. The aortic ... Fetal aortic stenosis impairs left ventricular development, which can lead to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. If untreated, ... Management before birth is done by a fetal aortic valvuloplasty. In this procedure, fetal positioning is crucial. It is ... In fetal life, this is condition is manageable because the ductus arteriosus acts as a bypass, and supports the delivery of ...
Plus, M. (2011). "Fetal development". Retrieved 31 October 2011. Latham, K. E. (2005). "Early and delayed aspects ... The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an ... Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise ... This energy will hopefully allow the cloned embryo to begin development. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in ...
"Mammary Development - Fetal". Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. ... After initial development of the milk lines they go into remission. Most humans have two nipples, but in some cases more than ... "Development of the Mammary Gland (Mammogenesis)]" (PDF). Biology of Lactation 342-460B. McGill University. Archived from the ... The mammary ridge or mammary crest is a primordium specific for the development of mammary glands. The mammary ridge is ...
Lye S, Challis JR (2001). "Chapter 12: Parturition". In Bocking AD, Harding R (eds.). Fetal growth and development. Cambridge, ... October 2002). "Placental stress factors and maternal-fetal adaptive response: the corticotropin-releasing factor family". ... directly by action on the fetal adrenal gland, and indirectly via the mother's pituitary gland. DHEA has a role in preparing ... "Steroids modulate corticotropin-releasing hormone production in human fetal membranes and placenta". The Journal of Clinical ...
The impact of unfavorable immune activation on fetal development and the risk of pregnancy complications is an active field of ... Frank HG (2011). "Placental development". Fetal and neonatal physiology. WB Saunders. pp. 108-120. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-3479 ... Studies have shown that there is a bad compatibility between specifically maternal KIR AA and fetal HLA-C2 which leads to ... The maternal-fetal interface has the ability to protect against pathogens by providing reproductive immunity. Simultaneously, ...
Pepper, M. Reese; Black, Maureen M. (August 2011). "B12 in fetal development". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 22 (6 ... fetal and breast milk levels remain a concern. DHA supplements derived from DHA-rich microalgae are available, and the human ... with appropriate attention to specific nutrient components can provide a healthy alternative lifestyle at all stages of fetal, ...
Katugampola H, Gevers EF, Dattani MT (2020). "Endocrinology of Fetal Development". In Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koeng ... The development and treatment of neonatal diabetes will vary based on the particular genetic cause. Known genetic variants ... The first sign of neonatal diabetes is often slowed fetal growth, followed by unusually low birthweight. At some point within ... The onset of NDM can be caused by abnormal pancreatic development, beta cell dysfunction or accelerated beta cell dysfunction. ...
"The development of fetal hearing". Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review. 6 (3): 167-179. doi:10.1017/S0965539500001108. Lasky, ... Oller, J. W.; Oller, S. D.; Badon, L. C. (2006). Milestones: Normal Speech and Language Development Across the Life Span. San ... Speech acquisition focuses on the development of vocal, acoustic and oral language by a child. This includes motor planning and ... Typology 1: Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development consists of 5 phases. Reflexive (0 to 2 months of age) consisting of ...
Following embryonic development the fetal stage of development takes place. In human prenatal development, fetal development ... Fetal viability refers to a point in fetal development at which the fetus may survive outside the womb. The lower limit of ... featuring numerous motion pictures of human fetal movement. In the Womb (National Geographic video). Fetal development: ... "Insights into Early Fetal Development". Archived from the original on 2013-06-01., Behind the Medical Headlines (Royal College ...
"Fetal development: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 16 March 2013. Randall, VA; Hibberts, NA; Thornton ... In addition, the past decade has seen the rapid increase in the development of eyelash conditioners. These conditioners are ...
... and continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy, prenatal development is also called antenatal development. ... The development of the human embryo follows fertilization, and continues as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of ... The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both ... Version Child Development Vol. 6. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. Niedziocha, Laura. "The Effects of Drugs And Alcohol on Fetal ...
... decreased fetal growth leading to lower birth weight, and impaired fetal lung development. There is evidence pointing towards ... If the exposure occurs during a critical phase of fetal development, it could have drastic and dire consequences for the fetus ... Ishimoto H, Jaffe RB (June 2011). "Development and function of the human fetal adrenal cortex: a key component in the feto- ... Fetal programming, also known as prenatal programming, is the theory that environmental cues experienced during fetal ...
... hormones play a particularly crucial role in brain maturation during fetal development and first few years of postnatal ... p. 493 (Table 33-3). ISBN 978-0-7817-4059-3. Zoeller RT (April 2003). "Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development". ... can manifest problems of physical growth and development as well as brain development, termed cretinism. Children with ... Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) remains low, less than 15 ng/dL until 30 weeks, and increases to 50 ng/dL at full-term. The fetus ...
See Environmental toxins and fetal development. See Drugs in pregnancy. Genetic mutations can cause a wide variety of fetal ... Brain damage may be caused by a number of factors, including fetal malformation due to genetic mutation or exposure to toxins, ... This can result in fetal distress or physical trauma to the child, especially broken clavicles and damage to the brachial ... Gunn, AJ; Bennet, L (2009). "Fetal hypoxia insults and patterns of brain injury: insights from animal models". Clin Perinatol. ...
"Stages of Fetal Development - First Trimester , Department of Health , State of Louisiana". Retrieved 2021-02-16. ... which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium. It has also been suggested that hCG levels are linked to the ... "Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss". Environmental Health Perspectives. 74: 57-66. doi: ... It has been hypothesized that hCG may be a placental link for the development of local maternal immunotolerance. For example, ...
The mystery of fetal development", Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. (published December 10, 1995), vol. 115, no. 30, pp. 3712-3, PMID ... Eric Wieschaus's Short Talk: "Finding Genes that Control Development" Eric F. Wieschaus on including the Nobel ... for their work revealing the genetic control of embryonic development. As of 2018, Wieschaus is the Squibb Professor in ... and spatial pattern of their transcription may provide the triggers controlling the normal sequence of embryonic development. ...
... is highly expressed in late state of fetal development. A disruption to the system by overexpressing miR-127 in a fetal ... May 2009). "MicroRNA-127 modulates fetal lung development". Physiol. Genomics. 37 (3): 268-78. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics. ... Rtl1 is a key gene in placenta formation and the loss or overexpression of Rlt1 have led to late-fetal or neonatal lethality in ... miR-127 functions to regulate the expression levels of genes involved in lung development, placental formation and apoptosis. ...
Utiger Robert D (1999). "Editorial: Maternal Hypothyroidism and Fetal Development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 341 (8 ... The infants may also be at risk for suppressed psychomotor development and slightly lower IQ. In a study of induced ... This study also looked at neural development in rats and found that maternal hypothyroidism in rat mothers is related to ... Blazer S.; Moreh-Waterman Y.; Miller-Lotan R.; Tamir A.; Hochberg Z. (2003). "Maternal hypothyroidism may affect fetal growth ...
Hirnholz, Jason C.; Benacerraf, Beryl R. (1983). "The development of human fetal hearing". Science. 222 (4623): 516-518. ... "The development of human fetal hearing". Science. 222 (4623): 516-518. Bibcode:1983Sci...222..516B. doi:10.1126/science.6623091 ... She was a pioneer in the use of prenatal ultrasound to diagnose fetal abnormalities, including Down syndrome. In 2021, she was ... She was also the author of the textbooks Ultrasound of Fetal Syndromes and Gynecologic Ultrasound: A Problem-Based Approach. In ...
As IGF-2 promotes development of fetal pancreatic beta cells, it is believed to be related to some forms of diabetes mellitus. ... Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth". Hormone Research. ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is a major growth ... high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (5): 3278- ...
... s have multiple effects on fetal development. An important example is their role in promoting maturation of the ... In addition, glucocorticoids play important roles in fetal development and body fluid homeostasis. Glucocorticoids function via ... promoting the development of a functioning gastro-intestinal system. Glucocorticoids also support the development of the ... Glucocorticoids are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in ...
"7 Weeks Pregnant - Symptoms, Fetal Development, Tips". Retrieved 2016-07-18. Wagner F, Erdösová B, Kylarová D (December 2004 ... Main development of sex organs starts. Gestational age: 8 weeks and 0 days until 8 weeks and 6 days old. 57-63 days from last ... Fetal heart tone (the sound of the heart beat) can be heard using doppler. Nipples and hair follicles begin to form. Location ... Fetal skin is almost transparent. More muscle tissue and bones have developed, and the bones become harder. The fetus makes ...
2007). "The fetal cerebellar vermis: assessment for abnormal development by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging". ... By 4 months of prenatal development, the vermis becomes fully foliated, while development of the hemispheres lags by 30-60 days ... "Early fetal development of the human cerebellum". Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 33 (6): 523-530. doi:10.1007/s00276-011-0796 ... J.D. Loeser; R.J. Lemire; J. Alvord (1973). "The development of the folia in the human cerebellar vermis". Anat. Rec. 173 (1): ...
Then, they could reliably identify fetal DNA, which would in turn allow them to diagnose certain fetal genetic conditions such ... This is especially true in the life sciences, where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by ... The point of the invention is that the inventors discovered in 1996 that fetal DNA might be floating around in the mother's ... Claim 1 is illustrative: 1. A method for detecting a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin performed on a maternal ...
Increased expression of the PTGS2 gene in the fetal membranes is connected to the presence of inflammation, causing uterine ... Legan M (August 2010). "Cyclooxygenase-2, p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of ... These facts underline the importance of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandins in the development of PVR. PTGS2 gene upregulation ... Arachidonic acid Cyclooxygenase Cyclooxygenase 1 NSAID Discovery and development of COX-2 selective inhibitors COX-2 selective ...
Also, not only does it aid in the development of HPV, but also if the woman is already HPV-positive, she is at an even greater ... Cordeiro CN, Gemignani ML (March 2017). "Gynecologic Malignancies in Pregnancy: Balancing Fetal Risks With Oncologic Safety". ... Although smoking has been linked to cervical cancer, it aids in the development of HPV, which is the leading cause of this type ... Smoking has also been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Smoking can increase the risk in women a few different ways ...
Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal ... Acuson Corporation's pioneering work on the development of Coherent Image Formation helped shape the development of diagnostic ... "Fetal Keepsake Videos". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-21. "Statement on Measurement of the Fetal Heart Rate ... Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Embryonic/fetal cardiac activity ...
Unlike pulmonary hypoplasia which in most cases result from the incomplete development of lung during prenatal development, ... Susan E, Wert (2004). Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (3rd ed.). Bradley P. Fuhrman and Jerry J. Zimmerman. (2011). Pediatric ... Breast development in females tends to make it less obvious for the observance of asymmetry, though it could still be indicated ... On the other hand, unilateral pulmonary agenesis is caused by the imbalance in the development of lung buds. Either one side of ...
He follows Piaget and Kohlberg and has proposed a holistic staged development of faith (or spiritual development) across the ... such as bowing the head and clasping the hands together in an almost fetal position, are suggestive of "social touch" actions. ... These stages of faith development were along the lines of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Kohlberg's stages of ... Gary Leak's Faith Development Scale, or FDS, has been subject to factor analysis by Leak. Other theorists in developmental ...
Goldscheider, Eric (10 August 2003). "Fetal positions". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2 October 2009. "NOVA Online/Odyssey of Life/ ... publication or other contribution which has resulted in an important advance in the scientific or technological development of ...
Another hypothesis proposed is that some imprinted genes act coadaptively to improve both fetal development and maternal ... In domesticated livestock, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in imprinted genes influencing foetal growth and development have ... including development of the placenta. Other imprinted genes are involved in post-natal development, with roles affecting ... gynogenetic embryos show better embryonic development relative to placental development, while for androgenones, the reverse is ...
It is thought to have some protective roles during fetal development and for a few hours after birth. The second stage varies ... Risk factors for fetal birth injury include fetal macrosomia (big baby), maternal obesity, the need for instrumental delivery, ... More invasive monitoring can involve a fetal scalp electrode to give an additional measure of fetal heart activity, and/or ... similar to a Doppler fetal monitor, that continuously emits ultrasound and detects motion of the fetal heart by the ...
The shift occurred as the AEC was replaced by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in 1974 and the ... detect fetal abnormalities, and locate blood clots without an operation. In the 1980s, PNL researchers introduced the first ... Originally named the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, PNL was established in 1965 when research and development at the Hanford ... The EIOC also is available to utilities, vendors, government agencies and universities interested in research, development or ...
The primary vitreous used in formation of the eye during fetal development remains in the eye upon birth and is hazy and ... It can be present in three forms: purely anterior (persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent posterior fetal ... Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also known as persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), is a rare congenital ...
Jarid1b is frequently expressed early in mouse embryonic development and is thought to maintain the expression of ... and spine density in mouse adult hippocampal neuroprogenitor-derived and mouse fetal hippocampus neurons. Decreased spine ... cell cycle signalling and mouse embryonic stem cell development. Balaguer et al. identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR- ... a master regulator of melanocyte development and function that is thought to be frequently misregulated in human melanomas. It ...
Students participate in lab dissections such as a sheep's heart during their freshman year, a fetal pig during their sophomore ... Form Development, Understanding Human Form, Animation, Web Design (Personal Portfolio Sites) Graduates of the Academy for ...
Abnormal genital development includes disorders of fetal origin, disorders in androgen synthesis or action, disorders in anti- ... In the normal prenatal stages of fetal development, the fetus is exposed to testosterone - albeit more in male fetuses than ... These genetic abnormalities occur during the prenatal stage of an individuals' fetal development. During this stage, genetic ... "Disorders of Sex Development Loci☆". Disorders of Sex Development Loci. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.06552-3. ISBN ...
... have been performed in animals and bepotastine besilate was not found to be teratogenic in rats during fetal development, even ...
In some studies, supplementation has been associated with motor development in very low birth weight infants and more vigorous ... Shah D, Sachdev HP (January 2006). "Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome". Nutrition Reviews. 64 (1): 15-30. doi: ... Black MM (August 1998). "Zinc deficiency and child development". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 68 (2 Suppl): 464S ... a time of rapid growth and development when nutritional needs are high. Low maternal zinc status has been associated with less ...
Later on in development, the germ cell nests break down through invasion of granulosa cells. The result is individual oogonia ... This allows organelles redistribution during oocyte differentiation, leading to about 20% of the foetal germ cells ... The germ cell nest (germ-line cyst) forms in the ovaries during their development. The nest consists of multiple interconnected ... Pepling, Melissa E. (2006). "From primordial germ cell to primordial follicle: mammalian female germ cell development". Genesis ...
... fatal fetal, due to myocardial calcification Cardiomyopathy, X linked, fatal infantile Restrictive cardiomyopathy ... Cutis laxa corneal clouding mental retardation Cutis laxa osteoporosis Cutis laxa with joint laxity and retarded development ...
President Clinton announces the nomination of Terry Duvernay for Deputy Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and Andrew ... "Clinton Revokes Abortion Curbs : Executive orders: President ends ban on fetal tissue research, overturns gag rule at clinics ... October 28 - President Clinton signs the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent ... October 21 - President Clinton signs the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies ...
He has a congenital disorder called sacral agenesis which prevented fetal development of certain parts of his lower spine and ...
... failure of neurons to migrate properly during early development of the fetal brain. Ventriculomegaly can also be observed in ... The development of gross and fine motor skills, as well as fluent and receptive language skills are shown to be delayed in ... A significant level of SON expression in fetal tissue has suggested a regulatory role of SON in cellular proliferation and or ... Lu, Xinyi; Ng, Huck-Hui; Bubulya, Paula A. (2014-04-30). "The role of SON in splicing, development, and disease". Wiley ...
Wangikar, P.B; Dwivedi, P; Sinha, N; Sharma, A.K; Telang, A.G (2005). "Effects of aflatoxin B1 on embryo fetal development in ... Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... Embryotoxicity Embryonic death and impaired embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius in chicken by aflatoxin B1 has been ... Teratogenicity The teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 in rabbits have been reported to include reduced fetal weights, wrist ...
Some examples of these could be foetal growth restriction, preterm birth, and perinatal mortality, which refers to the foetal ... It adapts during pregnancy to allow the development of the foetus whose genetic load is only partially shared with their mother ... This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 ...
Furthermore, it has been found that the expression of TXA synthase may be of critical importance to the development and ... 1992). "Genomic organization of human fetal specific P-450IIIA7 (cytochrome P-450HFLa)-related gene(s) and interaction of ... "The role of prostacyclin synthase and thromboxane synthase signaling in the development and progression of cancer". Biochimica ...
"The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop Report on Electronic Fetal Monitoring". Obstetrics ... The first commercial fetal monitor (Hewlett-Packard 8020A) was released in 1968. CTG monitoring is widely used to assess fetal ... Fetal stethoscope Nonstress test (NST) Biophysical profile (BPP) Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo (June 2018). "Electronic fetal ... A saltatory pattern of fetal heart rate is defined in cardiotocography (CTG) guidelines by FIGO as fetal heart rate (FHR) ...
The company's core technology is based on its ability to increase the percentage of fetal DNA that is found in the maternal ... is known for its research in the prenatal diagnostic field and its development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis testing which ... Dhallan, Ravinder (2007). "A non-invasive test for prenatal diagnosis based on fetal DNA present in maternal blood: a ... "Methods to Increase the Percentage of Free Fetal DNA Recovered from the Maternal Circulation" The Lancet "A non-invasive test ...
These physiologic effects are vital for the development of the fetal cardiopulmonary system. In addition to this, endothelin ... "Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists in fetal development and pulmonary arterial hypertension". Reproductive Toxicology. 56: 45-51 ...
Fetal expression lowers in all tissues over time with development except for the intestines, which shows increasing expression ... based splicing detection reveals neural enrichment and tissue-specific induction of circular RNA during human fetal development ...
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network". American Journal of ... Premature rupture of fetal membranes (or PROM as it is more commonly referred) occurs in roughly 10% of pregnancies and is one ... PAMG-1 is an important biomarker for the detection of premature rupture of fetal membrane (PROM) The high concentration of PAMG ... report, "That the PartoSure test was found to be statistically superior to fFN fetal fibronectin and CL [cervical length ...
Fetuses produced by inbreeding also face a greater risk of spontaneous abortions due to inherent complications in development. ... Khlat M (December 1989). "Inbreeding effects on fetal growth in Beirut, Lebanon". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 80 ... disorders of sex development, schizophrenia and several others. Moreover, there is an increased risk for congenital heart ...
Assessment of fetal growth and development. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson ... Fetal development, physiology, and effects on long-term health. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbes ... It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. ... Fetal Health and DevelopmentRead more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ...
Promoting optimal fetal development : report of a technical consultation  WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development ... WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, ... WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, ... of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, Switzerland)‎; World Health Organization (‎World Health ...
Promoting optimal fetal development : report of a technical consultation  WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development ... WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, ... WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, ... of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (‎2003 : Geneva, Switzerland)‎; World Health Organization (‎World Health ...
the development and regulation of hormone systems in the fetus,. *the endocrine control of fetal growth, development and ... Our research findings have important implications for the understanding of normal fetal growth and development; the ... What are the mechanisms by which hormones regulate normal development of the fetus? ... consequences of prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal endocrine disorders; and the mechanisms underlying the ...
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during ... Fetal Development. The development of a baby is a beautifully intricate process. From the moment the egg and sperm meet, your ... Gestational Age Week 6 (Fetal age: 4 weeks). Between 5 ½ to 6 ½ weeks, a fetal pole or even a fetal heartbeat may be detected ... this information should be used as a general guide for healthy pregnancy development, although early fetal development may vary ...
Theres a fetal development picture I see all the time that Im about 80% sure is just a good painting, but Im not posting it ... Fellow Pro-Lifers: We Must Be Accurate on Fetal Development. Opinion , Josh Brahm , Jun 18, 2012 , 2:53PM , Fresno, CA ... The fetal development facts implied by virtually the entire letter from the unborn child are all inaccurate. Remember, the ... One of the areas we need to be super careful about is when we talk about fetal development "facts." Just because you read ...
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Alcohol Exposure Affects Fetal Brain Development. Alcohol Exposure Affects Fetal Brain Development. Written by Jessica Williams ... Fetal alcohol exposure is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the United States. The cause of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ... The reason for these memory and learning problems is that alcohol exposure interferes with brain development. It can reduce the ... Some show signs of fetal alcohol exposure in their facial features, but not all. Looking "normal" presents its own difficulties ...
Development of fetal hearing. / Hepper, Peter; Shahidullah, S.. In: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal ... Hepper P, Shahidullah S. Development of fetal hearing. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 1994;71: ... Hepper, P & Shahidullah, S 1994, Development of fetal hearing, Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition ... Hepper, Peter ; Shahidullah, S. / Development of fetal hearing. In: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal ...
... during embryo-foetal development, direct evidence of their interaction with embryonic thyroid receptors (TRs) is still lacking ... Even though several studies highlighted the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) during embryo-foetal development, direct ... Maternal thyroid hormones are transcriptionally active during embryo-foetal development: results from a novel transgenic mouse ... β-gal expression was assayed in tissue sections of transgenic mouse embryos at different stages of development. In vitro, TRE2 ...
... and anxiety in pregnant women that occurred as a result of the COVID-29 pandemic may have an impact on fetal brain development. ... The authors suggest this variability and inconsistency indicates multiple factors are involved in fetal brain development. ... The potential long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of altered fetal brain development in COVID-era pregnancies merit ... and anxiety in pregnant women that occurred as a result of the COVID-29 pandemic may have an impact on fetal brain development. ...
Study finds THC and CBD use by pregnant women could disrupt fetal development. ... "The development of the embryo in this time period is very similar across all vertebrates," said Scott Parnell, a member of the ... Researchers said that they found the effects of CBD and THC are potentially very similar to what is seen in fetal alcohol ... The researchers added that cannabinoid use disrupted signaling between molecules and cells that control growth and development ...
The Impact of Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Fetal Development Abstract  The purpose of this review paper is to ... Impact of Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Fetal Development. ✅ Paper Type: Free Essay. ✅ Subject: Medical. ... The Impact of Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Fetal Development Abstract The purpose of this review paper is to briefly ... al., 2004). We can see a picture begin to develop here of the risks for both the women and fetal development in untreated ...
Tag Archives: fetal development. FACT CHECK: Governor DeSantis is Correct; Babies at 15 Weeks Can Feel Pain. Charlotte Lozier ... Justice Breyer is Wrong: Modern Advances in Ultrasound and Fetal Surgery Anything But "Slim". Charlotte Lozier Institute , June ... First-of-Its-Kind Website Makes Science of Prenatal Development Understandable & Accessible. Charlotte Lozier Institute , ... and development, the nonprofit Charlotte Lozier Institute (CLI) today debuted, the most accurate, scientific, ...
Piglet maturation, which occurs at the end of gestation, leads to a state of full development after birth. Therefore, maturity ... Functional enrichment and graph inference studies underlined genes involved in muscular development around 90 days of gestation ... From: Muscle transcriptomic investigation of late fetal development identifies candidate genes for piglet maturity ... Example of difference between LW and MS at fetal gestational age 110: pathway of Gluconeogenesis. This figure represents the ...
Process of human fetal growth in hand drawn style for pregnancy and mother and baby healthcare infographic. Stock Vector and ... Download Embryo month stages of development vector illustration set isolated on pink background. ... Embryo month stages of development vector illustration set isolated on pink background. Process of human fetal growth in hand ...
Week 08 in Fetal Development - Head Development - 3DSAJ18157h. Medical Illustration. Add to my lightbox. Find More Like This. ... Week 33 in Fetal Development - Medical Illustration, Human Anatomy Drawing. This image may only be used in support of a single ... Fetal Growth and Development During Pregnancy - exh41392a-nl. Medical Exhibit. Add to my lightbox. Find More Like This. ... Week 05 in Fetal Development - Embryo Taking Shape - 3DSAJ18157e. Medical Illustration. Add to my lightbox. Find More Like This ...
Fetal and Infant Development Nature/Nurture and The Development of Human Potential ... Fetal Development. We are playing pretend. Congratulations! You have graduated, are romantically involved with a significant ... Infant Skill Development. Now that you have thought about what type of parent you would like to become, you are most likely to ... Infant Development. Once again, congratulations! You are the proud parent of a healthy infant . The term "infant" is derived ...
Special Issue: Modelling Development In Vitro. Our special issue on Modelling Development In Vitro is now complete. You can ... An important goal of developmental biology is to understand human embryonic/fetal development and the causes of congenital ... Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources Dianne Gerrelli, Dianne Gerrelli * ... Preprints in Development. As part of our efforts to support the use of preprints and help curate the preprint literature, we ...
The objective was to determine the effect of fetal tooth germ growth and development disturbance due to diabetic hyperglycemia ... EFFECT OF HYPERGLICEMIA DURING PREGNANCY TO FETAL TOOTH GERM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. ... Rat offspring right maxilla was taken and decalcified to observe tooth germ growth and development. Each tissue samples in ... Rat offspring who born from diabetic mother suggested had tooth germ growth and development disturbance. ...
This suggests that periconceptional glycemic control is the main determinant of abnormal fetal development in diabetic women. ... Various fetal biophysical tests can ensure that the fetus is well oxygenated, including fetal heart rate testing, fetal ... Surging maternal and fetal glucose levels are accompanied by episodic fetal hyperinsulinemia. Fetal hyperinsulinemia promotes ... including fetal heart rate testing, fetal movement assessment, ultrasonographic biophysical scoring, and fetal umbilical ...
Is high consumption of fatty fish during Pregnancy a risk factor for Fetal Development?. Find more questions on Fetal ... Pregnancy And Baby Care Ask a question Fetal Development. Ask a question :: Fetal Development. When you are expecting a baby, ... This type of division is very important in fetal development as ... * How does alcohol affect fetal development? - July 13, ... What are the Stages of Fetal Development? - July 8, 2010 Fetal Development StagesYour baby goes through many phases during the ...
The Impact of Maternal Inflammation on the Development of the Fetal Immune System. This event is in the past. ... C.S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development. Vice Chair of Research. John M. Malone Jr., M.D. Endowed Professor. ...
Fetal development week by week Ultrasound images Fetal development videos Baby movements Pregnancy health Emotional health Boy ... Fetal development: Fetal growth. University of New South Wales Embryology. [Accessed December 2019] ... Track your babys development. Join now to receive free weekly newsletters tracking your babys development and yours ... All Pregnancy Early pregnancy Pregnancy due date calculator Fetal development ...
GARNER, David M.; VAN LEEUWEN, Peter; GRONEMEYER, Dietrich and MOOSAVI, Shakeeb. Assessment of fetal development by HRV and ... The overall reduction in heart rate and increase in fetal HRV is associated with fetal growth and the increase in neural ... Journal of Human Growth and Development. Print version ISSN 0104-1282. On-line version ISSN 2175-3598. Abstract. ... INTRODUCTION: Fetal heart rate and its variability during the course of gestation have been extensively researched. ...
By: WHO Technical Consultation Towards the Development of a Strategy for Promoting Optimal Fetal Development (2003 : Geneva, ... Promoción del desarrollo fetal óptimo : informe de una reunión consultiva técnicaSubject(s): Fetal development , Birth weight ... Promoting optimal fetal development : report of a technical consultation. ...
Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects ... Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects ... Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects ... Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects ...
Maturation of fetal body systems : report of a WHO Scientific Group [meeting held in Geneva from 21 to 27 August 1973] by WHO ... Perinatal factors affecting human development : proceedings of the special session held during the Eighth Meeting of the PAHO ... by WHO Scientific Group on Maturation of Fetal Body Systems , World Health Organization. ... by WHO Scientific Group on Maturation of Fetal Body Systems , World Health Organization. ...
Enjoy Pregnancy Music For Fetal development :. All the benefits of music during labor are also valid for a calm, relaxed and ... How Music Impacts Fetal Development in Pregnants?. By Yashasvi Apr 12, 2022 ... 1. Aids in Better Fetal Refluxes:. When you listen to music, your baby doesnt hear the tunes or the sound of the instruments. ... Exposing your baby to good music can help in the better development of their hearing abilities. It slowly gets used to ...
... development includes growing muscles & various systems. Know more about it here. ... Your babys development. Making faces-and muscles!. Things are really taking shape as the skeletal and nervous systems begin to ...
  • This early part of development lays the foundation for a healthy pregnancy and delivery. (
  • Because every women is different and every pregnancy develops differently, this information should be used as a general guide for healthy pregnancy development, although early fetal development may vary due to the mother's health or a miscalculation of ovulation . (
  • Gestational age is the age of the pregnancy from the last normal menstrual period (LMP), and fetal age is the actual age of the growing baby. (
  • Most references to pregnancy are usually in gestational age rather than fetal age development, but we have included both so that it is clear what stage development is being discussed. (
  • Doctors will often use the quantitative test if they are closely monitoring the development of a pregnancy. (
  • We will be looking at depression and anxiety during pregnancy as risk factors for adverse outcomes to both mothers and fetal development. (
  • As well as depression and anxiety being an insult to both neurological and neurobehavioral development of fetuses exposed during pregnancy. (
  • Recent studies have shown that anxiety and depression in pregnancy have had adverse implications for embryonic and fetal development. (
  • Process of human fetal growth in hand drawn style for pregnancy and mother and baby healthcare infographic. (
  • The objective was to determine the effect of fetal tooth germ growth and development disturbance due to diabetic hyperglycemia during pregnancy. (
  • Is high consumption of fatty fish during Pregnancy a risk factor for Fetal Development? (
  • Understanding the fetal development is a very important aspect of preparing yourself for your pregnancy so that you can take care of yourself in a better manner. (
  • Fetal Development StagesYour baby goes through many phases during the nine months of pregnancy. (
  • Look at our estimated fetal weight charts to learn more about how twins grow in the second half of pregnancy. (
  • Pregnant women may have a healthy pregnancy, a concern for fetal/placental abnormalities with a clinical fetal MRI ordered by their doctor, or a concern for fetal/placental abnormalities without a clinical fetal MRI ordered by their doctor. (
  • This is the third part of a 3 part series on your baby's development during pregnancy. (
  • Maternal metabolism undergoes significant modifications throughout pregnancy to facilitate fetal growth and satisfy the increased energy needs of the mother. (
  • There is infinite happiness if we can accompany the development of our future baby during pregnancy. (
  • Baby tracker for pregnant women that shows fetal development from week to week and day to day with illustrations of pregnancy USG. (
  • Find out information about the development of the fetus and mother's body in this pregnancy apps. (
  • Uterine natural killer cells secrete the growth factors pleiotrophin and osteoglycin that promote fetal growth and prevent retardation in the early months of pregnancy. (
  • During pregnancy, they promote the growth of blood vessels, improve birth weight and fetal growth. (
  • Retrieved on Dec 05, 2022 from (
  • The earliest weeks of pregnancy are a critical time for fetal development. (
  • When dysregulation of the maternal HPA axis occurs - as a result of exposure to stressful life events or the experience of anxiety or depressive symptoms during pregnancy - the baby is exposed to higher levels of cortisol and this may lead to long-standing alterations in the fetal HPA axis, making the child more susceptible to depression or anxiety as an adult. (
  • We already know that maternal diet before and during early pregnancy plays a significant role in fetal development," says Desrosiers. (
  • Fluoxetine during pregnancy: impact on fetal development. (
  • A longitudinal assessment of trophoblastic invasion and endothelial integrity might represent a way to evaluate the satisfactory evolution of pregnancy and could result in early detection of the condition that leads to the development of PE [ 21 ]. (
  • DHA is one of the primary building elements of the cellular membrane and is required to create fresh tissue, particularly for the fetal growth of the brain, nervous system, and retina, all of which continue to evolve within the first pregnancy months [ 9 ]. (
  • It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. (
  • What are the mechanisms by which hormones regulate normal development of the fetus? (
  • An anesthetic regimen typically used during surgery on pregnant mothers appears to have a negative effect on the development of the fetus, according to a new study on mice conducted by neurobiologists from the National Center for Toxicological Research, in Arizona. (
  • Understandably, there is concern for the development of the fetus, but also for the immediate health of the mother and possible preterm labor. (
  • We examined 215 fetal magnetocardiograms (FMCG), each of 5 min duration, in 11 fetuses during the second and third trimesters (at least 10 data sets per fetus). (
  • Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. (
  • The scope of this project also includes testing of newly developed radio frequency (RF) receive-only coil arrays that would inherently provide the means for faster imaging of the fetus, and thus complement the software developments. (
  • We conclude that the placenta protects the developing fetus from maternal changes in serum BDNF that could otherwise have adverse consequences for fetal development. (
  • In a recent study published in the Nutrients journal, researchers assessed the impact of maternal obesity on brain development in the fetus. (
  • Following the development of the fetus in the womb from week to week will make us feel its presence more and grow the affection felt by our future baby. (
  • Listen to music with high-quality music specially arranged for the fetus in the womb so that its development is healthy, fit and intelligent in the future. (
  • A specific type of natural killer cells in the uterus called the CD49a+Eomes+ subset secretes growth-promoting factors called pleiotrophin and osteoglycin, which support the development of the fetus. (
  • The exact mechanism through which the growth factors secreted by the natural killer cells promote fetal growth is not clear but it could be that they directly cross over from the mother to the fetus, or indirectly promote the growth of the placenta and blood vessels, thereby improving the nourishment to the fetus. (
  • Protein is an essential nutrient because they deliver the cornerstones for the development of developing fetus tissues immediately after conception. (
  • Even before birth, at about 20 weeks of fetal development, hearing begins, and prepares your baby to listen to the sounds around him. (
  • Week 25 corresponds to 23 weeks of fetal development. (
  • This paper will be reviewing the current and past research on maternal depression, anxiety and its impact on fetal development. (
  • Embryologic and Fetal Development of the Human Orbit. (
  • Used with organs, regions, and animal headings for embryologic and fetal development. (
  • It is important to be informed in order to address any concerns regarding early fetal development. (
  • If a possible complication in early fetal development is suspected, your health care provider will use a combination of blood tests and ultrasound tests to make a clear diagnosis. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of transitory protein supplements on early fetal development in rats. (
  • As part of normal fetal development, the PVR is very high to allow blood to preferentially flow to the placenta instead of to the lungs. (
  • One daily tablet promotes healthy fetal development with 100% DV of Folate from Organic Lemon Peel and Vegan D3 from Lichen. (
  • Adequate nutrition and a conducive intrauterine environment are essential for healthy fetal development. (
  • When such cells are transferred into pregnant mice with impaired fetal growth, the impairment of fetal growth could be reversed. (
  • Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of developmental disorders, including impaired fetal growth and development of multiple organ systems. (
  • Depression, stress, and anxiety in pregnant women that occurred as a result of the COVID-29 pandemic may have an impact on fetal brain development. (
  • The goal of Advanced Fetal Imaging - Phase II is to advance fetal MRI imaging by designing MRI coils specifically for pregnant women and testing recently developed MRI image acquisition techniques. (
  • Pregnant women with a concern for fetal/placental abnormalities with a clinical fetal MRI at Boston Children's Hospital are eligible for the 15 minute research add-on MRI scan. (
  • The findings suggest SSRI use by pregnant women may be associated with changes in fetal brain development, particularly in regions of the brain related to emotional processing. (
  • It can also increase the incidence of early mental retardation (iodine deficiency-related retardation is the most preventable kind, in fact), and even stunted infant brain development, provided the kid even makes it out alive: iodine deficient pregnant women are at a higher risk for miscarriages and stillbirths. (
  • Folic acid, a B vitamin found in orange juice is important for fetal development. (
  • Vitamin A is important for fetal growth and development, but at high doses, vitamin A supplements can increase the risk of birth defects ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • Even though several studies highlighted the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) during embryo-foetal development, direct evidence of their interaction with embryonic thyroid receptors (TRs) is still lacking. (
  • The development of the embryo in this time period is very similar across all vertebrates," said Scott Parnell, a member of the UNC Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies. (
  • Embryo month stages of development vector illustration set isolated on pink background. (
  • One mechanism potentially accounting for the programming of disease risk is passage across the placenta of maternal factors impacting fetal development during sensitive periods, as has been suggested for the stress hormone cortisol 3 , 6 . (
  • Residence in each of the exposed housing areas was associated with late fetal death. (
  • These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. (
  • To review the recent data about orbital development and sort out the controversies from the very early stages during embryonic life till final maturation of the orbit late in fetal life , and to appreciate the morphogenesis of all the definitive structures in the orbit in a methodical and timely fashion. (
  • Fetal alcohol exposure is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the United States. (
  • The reason for these memory and learning problems is that alcohol exposure interferes with brain development. (
  • Some show signs of fetal alcohol exposure in their facial features, but not all. (
  • We aimed to determine whether prolonged, low-dose, exposure of pregnant sheep to a mixture of environmental chemicals affects fetal ovarian development. (
  • Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. (
  • Safe levels of exposure to carcinogens have not been demonstrated, but lowered exposure to carcinogens decreases the probability of cancer development. (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the most common preventable developmental disorder, resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure ( 1 ). (
  • Maternal nano-titanium dioxide (nano -TiO2) inhalation exposure during gestation results in decreased fetal female mass, maternal estrogen production, and placental mass. (
  • These results demonstrate that maternal nano-TiO2 inhalation exposure during gestation has greater impacts on fetal females and their placental units. (
  • The good news is that environmental health experts in Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSUs) throughout North America are committed to protecting children from exposure to harmful substances from the earliest stages of development before birth throughout childhood. (
  • This cohort study examined the relationship between VOC exposure and fetal growth retardation (measured as SGA and decreased MBW) and preterm delivery in three groups with different exposures to contaminated drinking water and in an unexposed comparison population. (
  • In addition, the effects of timing and duration of exposure were examined by linking data from family base housing with birth and fetal death certificate data. (
  • Ovaries and blood were collected from fetuses (n = 15 control and n = 8 treated) on Day 110 of gestation for investigation of fetal endocrinology, ovarian follicle/oocyte numbers and ovarian proteome. (
  • Treated fetuses were 14% lighter than controls but fetal ovary weights were unchanged. (
  • If you missed it, you can find out about your baby's development in the first trimester and second trimester. (
  • Follow this 3 part series to learn about your baby's development throughout your first, second, and third trimester. (
  • Get tips & info on supporting your baby's early language development skills from birth to 6 months! (
  • Scientists have discovered, she said, that a baby's fetal cells show up more often in a mother's healthy breast tissue and less often in a woman who has breast cancer (43 versus 14 percent). (
  • One kind of fetal cells that enter into the mother's body is the baby's stem cells. (
  • The baby's fetal stem cells can actually become the mother's own cells that make up her liver, heart, or brain. (
  • In what any ethicist might declare to be legitimate 'embryonic stem cell therapy,' the baby's fetal stem cells migrate to the mother's injured sites and offer themselves as a healing remedy, becoming part of the mother's very body. (
  • Pinctott calls the evidence "striking" that a baby's fetal cells "repair and rejuvenate moms. (
  • Both Johnson and Artlett defend the hypothesis that the baby's fetal cells have a beneficent purpose, not to hurt the mother, but to protect, defend, and repair her for the rest of her life, especially when she becomes seriously ill. (
  • Chicken is an excellent source of protein necessary for the baby's body development. (
  • Protein is also suitable for increasing a baby's birth weight and general body development [ 5 ]. (
  • Example of difference between LW and MS at fetal gestational age 110: pathway of Gluconeogenesis. (
  • STUDY DESIGN: In the Infant Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, we evaluated postnatal growth, nutrition, morbidity, and motor development up to 2 years of age in the children who contributed data to the construction of the international fetal growth, newborn infant size and body composition at birth, and preterm postnatal growth standards. (
  • CONCLUSION: The cohort enrolled in the INTERGROWTH-21st standards remained healthy with adequate growth and motor development up to 2 years of age, which supports its appropriateness for the construction of international fetal and preterm postnatal growth standards. (
  • For each of the three categories of exposed births defined later, MBW, the prevalence of SGA and preterm births, and the ratio of fetal deaths per singleton live births were compared with these outcomes in unexposed births. (
  • In the present study, researchers assessed the impact of maternal obesity and microbiota in the maternal gut on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. (
  • It is based on information from the Endowment for Human Development, a highly respected scientific source on embryology and fetal development. (
  • Additionally, I really enjoyed my embryology class during my undergraduate career, so I wanted to learn more about the process of brain development in utero. (
  • Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long-term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention. (
  • An important goal of developmental biology is to understand human embryonic/fetal development and the causes of congenital anomalies. (
  • From cute hiccups to strong kicks, and from her sweet yawns to her playful curiosity, Olivia reveals the truth about human development in the womb that was once hidden from view. (
  • "Olivia is a spectacular and medically accurate portrayal of the development of a baby girl within the womb. (
  • Mapping the development of babies while they are still in the womb is the premise of a European project which aims to design techniques designed to pinpoint problems earlier, and develop appropriate therapies. (
  • In vivo, β-gal staining, absent until embryonic day 9.5-10.5 (E9.5-E10.5), was observed as early as E11.5-E12.5 in different primordia (i.e. central nervous system, sense organs, intestine, etc.) of the TRE2× transgenic embryos, while the foetal thyroid function (FTF) was still inactive. (
  • Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. (
  • The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. (
  • Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status. (
  • Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones in the mother also impact fetal brain development. (
  • T4 molecular weight, 65%), and a severe deficiency can manifest in the development of goiter , which is the thyroid gland swelling up in an attempt to keep up the pace of iodine uptake from the blood and thyroid hormone production. (
  • β-gal expression was assayed in tissue sections of transgenic mouse embryos at different stages of development. (
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (
  • The cause of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) is so straightforward and the entire problem so seemingly preventable that learning how many people are affected by the condition can be shocking, tragic, and certainly frustrating. (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is one of the most common causes of developmental disabilities and neurobehavioral deficits. (
  • These disorders have been hypothesized to be the expression of one common underlying disorder, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) that arises during fetal life [3] , [4] . (
  • These findings suggest that the mother's depression may affect the structure and organization of the fetal brain, particularly the development of the amygdala, the region of the brain which modulates vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. (
  • We also summarize scientific reports that tested potential benefits of micronutrient supplementation in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and in humans. (
  • The 30th National Coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine Intake (NCSOII) hosted by the Association for Indian Coalition for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) has been attended by various National, International and State level public and private stakeholders including Government agencies, Salt industry, Development agencies and Civil societies etc. (
  • Lastly, contrarily to the DES effect, the negative effect of BPA on testosterone produced by the mouse fetal testis was maintained after invalidation of estrogen receptor α (ERα). (
  • Moreover, fetal testis migration into the scrotum is dependent on testosterone and Insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a hormone produced by Leydig cells [9] , [10] . (
  • We have previously used an organ culture system that maintains the development of the different fetal testis cell types, to evaluate the effects of various endocrine disruptors on gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in the rat. (
  • Fetoplacental units, also based on fetal sex, nearest the cervix were removed, the umbilical vein and artery were separated and cut close to the pup. (
  • Rat offspring who born from diabetic mother showed lower body weight which is statistically significant, histologically delayed of enamel matrix formation, delayed of tooth development stages, and reduced in tooth size compared to control group. (
  • What Are The Stages Of Fetal Development - October 26, 2010 Stages of fetal development comprise nine months or 40 weeks. (
  • What are the Stages of Fetal Development? (
  • Stages of fetal development from week 1-40. (
  • The process of prenatal development occurs in three main stages. (
  • The production of growth factors was less from the fetal tissue that has undergone miscarriage. (
  • Recognizing the importance of demonstrating that, postnatally, this cohort still adhered to the World Health Organization prescriptive approach, we followed their growth and development to the key milestone of 2 years of age. (
  • Weight, length, and head circumference age- and sex-specific z-scores and percentiles and motor development milestones were estimated with the use of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and World Health Organization milestone distributions, respectively. (
  • At the 2-year visit, the children included in the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards were at the 49th percentile for length, 50th percentile for head circumference, and 58th percentile for weight of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. (
  • The cohort overlapped between the 3rd and 97th percentiles of the World Health Organization motor development milestones. (
  • The researchers added that cannabinoid use disrupted signaling between molecules and cells that control growth and development. (
  • Rat offspring right maxilla was taken and decalcified to observe tooth germ growth and development. (
  • Rat offspring who born from diabetic mother suggested had tooth germ growth and development disturbance. (
  • The satisfactory growth and development at 2 years of age of the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards cohort support its appropriateness for constructing international standards. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the babies in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project maintained optimal growth and development in childhood. (
  • Gene expression associated with fetal brain growth and development may be impacted by alterations in maternal hormone levels caused by obesity. (
  • Adverse fetoplacental environments profoundly impact fetal growth and development. (
  • In this review, we discuss studies examining the collective and interactive effects of nutrition (specifically iron, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, zinc, folate, vitamin B12, choline, and amino acids) relative to gestational alcohol consumption and its effects on fetal growth and development. (
  • The growth and development of 19 children, aged 19-24 months, with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection were thoroughly assessed. (
  • Perinatal factors affecting human development : proceedings of the special session held during the Eighth Meeting of the PAHO Advisory Committee on Medical Research, 10 June 1969. (
  • Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical step in male germ cell development that occurs during perinatal life. (
  • Our aim was to establish the kinetics of three epigenetic marks throughout perinatal development in rats in vivo and compare them after different culture times. (
  • This study reveals the chronology of three epigenetic marks (H3K4me2, H3K4me3 and 5mC) and the patterns of methylation of H19 and Snrpn differentially methylated regions in rat gonocytes during perinatal development. (
  • In humans, there is a barrier between the maternal and fetal circulations composed of a single continuous layer of syncytiotrophoblast over a layer of villous cytotrophoblast covering the endothelial cell-lined fetal blood vessels 20 . (
  • The first trimester is all about development," Dr. Patton says. (
  • Reviews of medical records in some American communities suggest that less than 1 out of every 1,000 children meets the diagnostic criteria for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). (
  • Researchers said that they found the effects of CBD and THC are potentially very similar to what is seen in fetal alcohol syndrome. (
  • The twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs in 20% of the monochorionic pregnancies and results from unbalanced foeto-foetal blood transfusion between the twins through placental anastomoses. (
  • BACKGROUND: This hypothesis-testing study evaluated the relationship between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) diagnoses within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD). (
  • Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome causes malformations in most parts of the body because the genetic error occurs during fetal development. (
  • The results of the study provide hope for treating conditions like fetal growth restriction, recurrent spontaneous abortion due to unknown cases and age-related fetal loss. (
  • That's because, in Welch's terms, Indiana's anti-abortion law is "underinclusive" - as restrictive as it is, it nevertheless allows abortions when the life or health of the mother is seriously at risk, when there's a lethal fetal anomaly and, early on, in cases of rape and incest. (
  • Fetal heart rate and its variability during the course of gestation have been extensively researched. (
  • The variations in the FMD and UtA-PI values, between 16 +0 and 19 +6 and 24 +0 and 27 +6 weeks of gestation, were compared, taking PE development into consideration. (
  • Results of search for 'ccl=su:{Fetal development. (
  • 1) identifying keywords for the literature search and (2) ommendations Assessment, Development, and Evalua- developing actionable, evidence-based recommendations. (
  • In this chapter, we will consider how nature and nurture interact to influence the course of human development from conception to adulthood. (
  • The first two weeks after conception are known as the germinal stage, the third through the eighth week is known as the embryonic period, and the time from the ninth week until birth is known as the fetal period. (
  • Increasingly, HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. (
  • The authors extensively review major studies detailing every aspect of human embryologic and fetal orbital morphogenesis including the development of extraocular muscles , orbital fat, vessels, nerves, and the supportive connective tissue framework as well as bone . (
  • The transcription factor RORγt is required for the development of several innate lymphoid populations, such as lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi cells) and cells that secrete interleukin 17 (IL-17) or IL-22. (
  • Nano-TiO2 exposed fetal females demonstrated significantly increased TXB2 production (11186.48 +/- 189.92 pg/ml) from LZ tissue compared to female sham-control (483.77 +/- 86.09 pg/ml) and male exposed (598.39 +/- 135.69 pg/ml). (
  • The chemical affects the liver, kidneys, immune function, and fetal development - large doses may cause death. (
  • We use a robust model of maternal nutrient restriction to cause FGR in utero in animal models to study brain development. (
  • Risomesomelia (3D mode) - defect of fetal`s development, a genetic anomaly. (
  • Studies show that babies whose mother listened to music regularly when pregnant have better brain development. (
  • The development of the human blood-CSF-brain barrier. (
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the nerve growth factor family expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system with a key role in the development and function of neurons 7 . (
  • Does maternal obesity impact fetal brain development? (
  • 31/10/2022 Health News Comments Off on Does maternal obesity impact fetal brain development? (
  • Study: Maternal Obesity and Gut Microbiota Are Associated with Fetal Brain Development. (
  • Catecholamines, oxytocin, and vasopressin are stress hormones that impact fetal brain development and functionality. (
  • Pleiotrophin may be involved in blood vessel proliferation and the development of the brain, bone and cartilage, while osteoglycin takes part in the development of the heart, skin and eyes. (
  • How Does Mother's Depression Affect the Fetal Brain? (
  • Researchers speculate that high cortisol levels may also alter the development of the fetal brain. (
  • I am currently working under the supervision of Bryan Richardson, PhD, and my research is focused on brain development in fetal growth restriction (FGR). (
  • Researchers from SickKids, the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) and the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), have recently identified the cells that are thought to give rise to certain brain tumours in children and discovered that these cells first appear in the embryonic stage of a mammal's development - far earlier than they had expected. (
  • Progress in the development of more effective brain cancer treatments has been hampered in large part by the complex heterogeneity - or the variety of cells - within each tumour," says Dr. Michael Taylor, pediatric neurosurgeon and senior scientist in developmental and stem cell biology at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and co-lead of the study. (
  • In their investigation, the cells of origin were observed much earlier in fetal development than one would expect, says Taylor, who is also a Professor in the Departments of Surgery and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the University of Toronto and Co-lead of OICR's Brain Cancer Translational Research Institute. (
  • Specifically, the higher occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias might be the result of increasing alterations of the function of fetal Leydig cells. (
  • however, it has been hypothesized that alterations of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may influence the development of the fetal HPA axis. (
  • Therefore, fetal and adult environments influence the differentiation of RORγt(+) cells differently. (
  • Our laboratory seeks to understand the fundamental biology and regenerative potential of multi-potent cardiac progenitor cells - building blocks used to form the heart during fetal development - by deciphering the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control their induction, maintenance, and differentiation. (
  • Iodine is a vital micronutrient needed regularly in small quantities for optimal mental and physical development. (
  • The investigators aim to more reliably obtain higher quality fetal MRI images when compared to current clinical fetal MRI. (
  • The main aim of this project is to evaluate and optimize the existing clinical magnetic resonance (MR) techniques for fetal imaging, and to also implement and test new MR technologies that would improve fetal imaging in general. (
  • Research fetal MRI image quality will be compared to the standard clinical fetal MRI image quality. (
  • Pinctott pointed out that as the quantity of fetal cells in a mother's body increase the activity of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis decreases. (
  • One would expect them [the fetal cells in the mother's body] to be attacked fairly rapidly. (
  • The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle, UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large-scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. (
  • Alcohol-induced alteration of the intrauterine environment is the main source of developmental deficits and nutritional insufficiencies can worsen the effects on fetal development. (
  • 2019. Change in fetal behavior in response to vibroacoustic stimulation. (
  • In the context of fetal programming, the amygdala has received special attention because the amygdala develops at an early embryonic stage and its development appears to be particularly sensitive to elevated levels of cortisol, which is the end-product of a dysregulated HPA axis. (