Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.
The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Female parents, human or animal.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology. (1/1302)

How do organisms sense the amount of oxygen in the environment and respond appropriately when the level of oxygen decreases? Oxygen sensing and the molecular stratagems underlying the process have been the focus of an endless number of investigations trying to find an answer to the question: "What is the identity of the oxygen sensor?" Dynamic changes in pO2 constitute a potential signaling mechanism for the regulation of the expression and activation of reduction-oxidation (redox)-sensitive and oxygen-responsive transcription factors, apoptosis-signaling molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The transition from placental to lung-based respiration causes a relatively hyperoxic shift or oxidative stress, which the perinatal, developing lung experiences during birth. This variation in DeltapO2, in particular, differentially regulates the compartmentalization and functioning of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In addition, oxygen-evoked regulation of HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB is closely coupled with the intracellular redox state, such that modulating redox equilibrium affects their responsiveness at the molecular level (expression/transactivation). The differential regulation of HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB in vitro is paralleled by oxygen-sensitive and redox-dependent pathways governing the regulation of these factors during the transition from placental to lung-based respiration ex utero. The birth transition period in vivo and ex utero also regulates apoptosis signaling pathways in a redox-dependent manner, consistent with NF-kappaB being transcriptionally regulated in order to play an anti-apoptotic function. An association is established between oxidative stress conditions and the augmentation of an inflammatory state in pathophysiology, regulated by the oxygen- and redox-sensitive pleiotropic cytokines.  (+info)

Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study. (2/1302)

BACKGROUND: The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. METHODS: 2,716 infants born between 1986-1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn) were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks), birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference) and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect). Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1-2, 3-7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams), birth length (in centimeters), and head and chest circumference (in centimeters) were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. RESULTS: Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant determinants of birth size. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the absence of an adverse relation between Lake Ontario fish consumption and reduced birth size as measured by weight, length and head circumference. Biological determinants and maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remain important determinants of birth size.  (+info)

Developmental dynamics of the definitive mouse placenta assessed by stereology. (3/1302)

The mouse is an excellent model for studying the genetic basis of placental development, but analyses are restricted by the lack of quantitative data describing normal murine placental structure. This study establishes a technique for generating such data, applies stereological techniques on systematic uniform random sections of placentas between E12.5-E18.5 of gestation (E1.0 = day of the vaginal plug), and considers the results in the context of development of the labyrinth zone. Half of each placenta was wax embedded and exhaustively sectioned to determine absolute volumes of the labyrinth zone (Lz), junctional zone (Jz), and decidua using the Cavalieri principle. The other half was resin embedded and 1-microm sections were used to generate all volume, surface, and length densities within the Lz. Maximum placental volume is reached by E16.5, whereas the Lz volume fraction increases until E18.5 at the expense of the Jz and decidua. Within the Lz, the absolute volume and surface area of maternal blood spaces (MBS) expand rapidly between E14.5 and E16.5, with no increase thereafter. In contrast, fetal capillary development is linear and continues for longer than that of the MBS. The interhemal membrane separating maternal and fetal circulations undergoes thinning prior to expansion of maternal and fetal surface areas, achieving a harmonic mean thickness of 4.39 microm by E18.5. The specific diffusion capacity for oxygen of the interhemal membrane is maximal by E16.5, which may be necessary to support rapid fetal growth until the end of gestation.  (+info)

Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production. (4/1302)

The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte.  (+info)

Tissue-specific elevated genomic cytosine methylation levels are associated with an overgrowth phenotype of bovine fetuses derived by in vitro techniques. (5/1302)

Epigenetic perturbations are assumed to be responsible for abnormalities observed in fetuses and offspring derived by in vitro techniques. We have designed an experiment with bovine Day 80 fetuses generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and artificial insemination (AI) to determine the relationship between fetal phenotype and genome-wide 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content. When compared with AI controls, SCNT and IVF fetuses displayed significantly increased body weight (61% and 28%), liver weight (100% and 36%), and thorax circumference (20% and 11%). A reduced crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio (1.175 +/- 0.017 in SCNT and 1.292 +/- 0.018 in IVF vs. 1.390 +/- 0.018 in AI, P < 0.001 and P < 0.002) was the external hallmark of this disproportionate overgrowth phenotype. The SCNT fetuses showed significant hypermethylation of liver DNA in comparison with AI controls (3.46% +/- 0.08% vs. 3.17% +/- 0.09% 5mC, P < 0.03), and the cytosine methylation levels for IVF fetuses (3.34% +/- 0.09%) were, as observed for phenotypic parameters, intermediate to the other groups. Regressions of fetal body and liver weight and thorax circumference on 5mC content of liver DNA were positive (P < 0.073-0.079). Furthermore, a significant negative regression (P < 0.021) of the crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio on liver 5mC was observed. The 5mC content of placental cotyledon DNA was 46% lower than in liver DNA (P < 0.0001) but did not differ among groups. These data are in striking contrast with the recently reported hypomethylation of DNA from SCNT fetuses and indicate that hypermethylation of fetal tissue, but not placenta, is linked to the overgrowth phenotype in bovine SCNT and IVF fetuses.  (+info)

Use of assisted reproductive technologies in the propagation of rhesus macaque offspring. (6/1302)

The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) as tailored to the production of rhesus monkeys at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) are described. Efficient fertilization of mature oocytes recovered by aspiration from females subjected to follicular stimulation was achieved with fresh or frozen sperm by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryo development to the early cleavage stage occurred at high frequency. Cryopreserved embryos showed high postthaw survival and were also transferred in efforts to establish pregnancies. Three methods of transfer were evaluated, two involving embryo placement into the oviduct, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy, and a nonsurgical, transcervical approach that resulted in uterine deposition. Early cleaving embryos (Days 1-4) were transferred into the oviducts of synchronized recipients with optimal results and pregnancy rates of up to 36%. Pregnancy rates were similar when two fresh or frozen embryos were transferred (28- 30%), although more than two embryos had to be thawed to compensate for embryo loss during freeze-thawing. Normal gestational lengths, birth weights, and growth curves were seen with ART-produced infants compared with infants produced by natural mating in the timed mated breeding (TMB) colony at the ONPRC. In 72 singleton pregnancies established following the transfer of ART-produced embryos, the live-birth rate, at 87.5%, was statistically identical to that for the TMB colony. Further development of the ARTs should result in increasing use of these techniques to augment conventional approaches to propagating monkeys, especially those of defined genotypes.  (+info)

Nutritional manipulation of fetal adipose tissue deposition and uncoupling protein 1 messenger RNA abundance in the sheep: differential effects of timing and duration. (7/1302)

A range of epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that suboptimal nutrition at different stages of gestation is associated with an increased prevalence of adult hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. The timing of prenatal nutrient restriction is important in determining postnatal outcomes-including obesity. The present study, aimed to determine the extent to which fetal adiposity and expression of the key thermogenic protein, uncoupling protein (UCP)1, are altered by restriction of maternal nutrient intake imposed during four different periods, starting from before conception. Maternal nutrient intake was restricted from 60 days before until 8 days after mating (periconceptional nutrient restriction; R-C), from 60 days before mating and throughout gestation (R-R), from 8 days gestation until term (C-R), or from 115 days gestation until term. Fetal perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) was sampled near to term at approximately 143 days. UCP1 mRNA, but not protein, abundance in PAT was increased in fetuses in the R-R group (C-C 63 +/- 18; R-C 83 +/- 43; C-R 103 +/- 38; R-R 167 +/- 50 arbitrary units (P < 0.05)). In contrast, the abundance of UCP1 mRNA, but not protein, in fetal PAT was decreased when maternal nutrition was restricted from 115 days gestation. The major effect of maternal nutrient restriction on adipose tissue deposition occurred in the C-R group, in which the proportion of fetal fat was doubled, whereas maternal nutrient restriction from 115 days gestation reduced fetal fat deposition. In conclusion, there are differential effects of maternal and therefore fetal nutrient restriction on UCP1 mRNA expression and fetal fat mass and these effects are dependent on the timing and duration of nutrient restriction.  (+info)

Fetal growth, maternal prenatal smoking, and risk of invasive meningococcal disease: a nationwide case-control study. (8/1302)

BACKGROUND: The prenatal period may be important for susceptibility to infections. We evaluated whether low birthweight, prematurity, and prenatal maternal smoking were associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease. METHODS: We linked the Danish nationwide National Registry of Patients, the Birth Registry, and social registries to obtain data on fetal growth and social factors on 1921 cases of meningococcal disease hospitalized between 1 January, 1980 and 31 December, 1999 (median age 31 months, interquartiles 13-65 months) and 37 451 population controls. The impact of maternal smoking was examined in a subsample of 462 cases and 9240 controls born after 1990, when data on smoking became available in the Birth Registry. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios (OR) of meningococcal disease associated with low birthweight (<2500 g) varied between 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.3) in infants <12 months to 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in children >60 months of age at hospitalization for meningococcal disease. Premature children had an increased risk of meningococcal disease during the first year of life only (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The effect of low birthweight was very similar among mature and premature children. The adjusted OR for maternal smoking was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: Low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of meningococcal disease throughout childhood, while an effect of prematurity persists only for 12 months. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with the risk of meningococcal disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inadequate weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women. T2 - What is the effect on fetal growth?. AU - Catalano, Patrick M.. AU - Mele, Lisa. AU - Landon, Mark B.. AU - Ramin, Susan M.. AU - Reddy, Uma M.. AU - Casey, Brian. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Varner, Michael W.. AU - Rouse, Dwight J.. AU - Thorp, John M.. AU - Saade, George. AU - Sorokin, Yoram. AU - Peaceman, Alan M.. AU - Tolosa, Jorge E.. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - Objective We sought to evaluate inadequate gestational weight gain and fetal growth among overweight and obese women. Study Design We conducted an analysis of prospective singleton term pregnancies in which 1053 overweight and obese women gained 5 kg (14.4 6.2 kg) or 188 who either lost or gained 5 kg (1.1 4.4 kg). Birthweight, fat mass, and lean mass were assessed using anthropometry. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as 10th percentile of a standard US population. Univariable and multivariable analysis evaluated the association ...
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the PPARgamma2 Ala12 allele influences growth in early life and whether this association is modified by breast-feeding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort study from early fetal life onward. PPARgamma2 was genotyped in DNA obtained from cord blood samples in 3,432 children. Information about breast-feeding was available from questionnaires. Weight, head circumference, and femur length were repeatedly measured in second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at the ages of 1.5, 6, 11, 14, and 18 months. RESULTS: Genotype frequency distribution was 77.6% (Pro12Pro), 20.7% (Pro12Ala), and 1.7% (Ala12Ala). Growth rates in weight from second trimester of pregnancy to 18 months were higher for Pro12Ala and Ala12Ala than for Pro12Pro carriers (differences 1.11 g/week [95% CI 0.47-1.74] and 2.65 g/week [0.45-4.87], respectively). We found an interaction between genotype and breast-feeding duration (P value
Fetal Development : A pregnancy is one of the most intriguing miracles in life. Every week is filled with wonderful new developments as the unborn baby quickly crosses one milestone after another. At 24 weeks, an
Fetal Development Pictures Week 3 - See how your baby is developing at 3 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
Fetal Development Pictures Week 10 - See how your baby is developing at 10 weeks pregnant, and browse SureBaby.coms fetal development week by week picture
This volume contains most of the papers presented at the First International Symposium on The Effect of Prolonged Drug Usage on Fetal Development held at the Beit-Berl Convention Center, Kfar Saba, Is
Oct 22, 2019 (WiredRelease via COMTEX) -- The report comes out as an intelligent and thorough assessment tool as well as a great resource that will help you...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during pregnancy.
In the article, Lab-Grown Mouse Embryos Form Limbs and Organs scientists had managed to develop a method that would allow them to grow a mouse embryo outside its mothers uterus. Traditionally when studying the embryonic development of a species; which had allowed scientists to understand how a single cell would develop into a body with specific cell types. To see how fetal development occurs and what important features are present during different stages surgical images were taken from cutting into the womb of the mouse. This time however scientists were able to artificially create a womb which allowed them to analyze the gestation of the embryo in real time without having to cut into the womb.. Having the right conditions to grow the embryo was important to maintain proper functionality and development. Conditions such as the right amount of pressure, oxygen, and nutrients were vital to sustain the embryos genetic material and even managed to get the embryo to develop functioning systems ...
Emphasizing the importance of proper prenatal care and nutrition, this two-sided fetal development tear pad shows development from conception to birth.
When babies are born very early, they miss most or all of the important last trimester, often described by doctors as fetal development interrupted.
Chapter 2: Nutrition for Fetal Development We cannot always or even often control events, but we can control how we respond to them. When things happen which dismay we ought to look to GOD for HIS meaning, remembering that HE is not taken by surprise nor can HIS purposes be thwarted in the end. Elisabeth…
Relationship that a child has with its mother - foetal development, and with its family during the first year conditions its emotional responses
Providing options for pregnant women. Pregnancy testing, ultrasound scan, STI education & treatment, education, and support available. You are not alone.
Its fascinating to see how your baby is growing every week. Track babys development week by week and find out how your baby transforms from a pea-sized embryo
Week 29: Much is happening at 29 weeks! Different organs are changing rapidly…for one, the babys eyes are getting to a more focused state. If the mother feels consistent taps from inside their belly, that might be the baby hiccuping (probably from all the nutrients he/she is getting from the mothers digested food!). If the ...
While you are aware of your wifes expanding belly, do you know what changes are taking place inside? Click here for a resource that will update you on the monthly development of your baby.
Click on your specific week to get a detailed description of how your baby is developing, or see how your baby is growing with our month-by-month pictures. - BabyCenter
At nine weeks pregnant, your babys embryonic tail has gone and hes now looking a bit more human. By the end of this week, hell measure about 2.3cm long. - BabyCentre UK
At 32 weeks pregnant, your doctor may recommend you start tracking your little ones kicks and movements. Find out how to do this here.
3 Months Pregnant - pregnancy starts to show. Tests, fetal development, the health of the mother, visiting a doctor. What to expect being 3 months pregnant?
Few methods are able to analyze single molecules. Analysis problems occur due to the instability of thin molecular layers and especially single molecules with respect to their thermal-, chemical- and photo-degradation or to external mechanical fields caused scanning probe techniques. A disadvantage of Raman scattering methods is the large amount of heat produced by the focused plasmons localized at the active site, which can cause damage of the molecules. Graphene exhibits plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and blue spectral region and thus can enhance Raman signals. Graphene is a monoatomically thick and flexible layer, which provides thermal and electrical conductivity as well as high optical transparency and impermeability to gases and liquids. Thus graphene can act as protective layer against local heating.,br,,br, ,!--break--,,strong,Technology,/strong,,br, This novel method allows the analysis of substances in very small quantities, even single molecules, with common techniques. The ...
Watch NHRC_probes_starvation_deaths_in_Orissa video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of NHRC_probes_starvation_deaths_in_Orissa are available. Watch and share videos and updates by Ani.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) is associated with growth patterns in fetal life and infancy. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasounds in early, mid-, and late pregnancy. Anthropometry in infancy was assessed at birth and at the ages of 6 weeks, 6 months, and 14 months. DNA for genotyping of the INS VNTR promoter region was available in 859 children. RESULTS: The genotype distribution was I/I 50.8%, I/III 40.0%, and III/III 9.2%. III/III individuals had a shorter gestational age (P|0.005 versus I/I) and a lower birth weight (P|0.05 versus I/I). There were no differences in birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Class III homozygotes had a smaller abdominal circumference/head circumference (HC) ratio (P|0.005 versus I/I) in mid-pregnancy, but not in late
As the fetus is too big to measure from head to toe at your gestational age, measurements usually include the width of the head (biparietal diameter), circumference of the head, and the abdominal circumference. The length of the upper leg bone (femur length) may also be measured. All these measurements give the doctor a good picture of your babys growth and if IUGR is suspected. A doppler study to check on the bloodflow in the cord might be part of it as well. Keep in mind that measurements can vary from technician to technician and can be difficult to perform if baby is very active or not lying in the right position ...
SAN DIEGO -- Although antidepressants may have an effect on fetuses in utero, so may the lack of the drug during pregnancy. |o:p||/o:p|
For mothers-to-be, the symptoms of gum disease – a problem thats common during pregnancy – are often overlooked. Nurture your dental health
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Dr. Fedro Peccatoris study indicates that babies have good development regardless of the chemotherapy that the pregnant mother received during treatment.
Pregnancy is very crucial period of women. This article explains 2nd Month of Pregnancy Common Symptoms and Fetal Development,diet exercises and other things also.
Fetal Development Milestones. At conception everything about your child has been determined. Your babys heart begins beating just 3 weeks after conception.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Fetal Weight by people in this website by year, and whether Fetal Weight was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
In two recent studies, researchers at UC Davis have shown that the placenta can provide critical information about early changes to the intra-uterine environment that may influence fetal development and ultimately, children’s brains.
In two recent studies, researchers at UC Davis have shown that the placenta can provide critical information about early changes to the intra-uterine environment that may influence fetal development and ultimately, children’s brains.
Delivery is just weeks away, which is why your baby is pretty much ready for life outside your womb. Still, he or she needs to keep packing on the pounds! *******Pregnancy.Healthguru****/?YT
Everything you need to know about the 20th week of pregnancy is here- from the tips to get you comfortable to the changes your little one undergoes.
Moms-to-be have bookshelves filled with pregnancy books that tell them everything they need to know about their pregnancies. But how much of that information
Pregnancy is a time of celebration, inquisitiveness, tiredness and a lot of emotional and physical changes. But even though on the outside you are going through
Fetal has shown a childs heart begins to beat at only 21 days and she can feel pain at 20 weeks yet there are those that argue abortion should be an option up to discharge.
Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of focused fetal gene expression analysis of target genes found in amniotic fluid using Standardized NanoArray PCR (SNAP) technology. This analysis could be used to monitor fetal ...
At 39 weeks pregnant, stay on the lookout for the signs of labour, and try to relax as much as you can during this final stage. Learn more here.
I had an ultrasound done yesterday and everything was fine. The fetal development is good but the report says |b|spine: posterior|/b|. I want to know the meaning of this and if it is a defect in the position of the fetus? Secondly, if it is a defect then what causes it and is it curable? I am 19 weeks and 5 days pregnant.
JEG-3 nuclear extract for use in WB and EMSA. Used to study proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cells related to fetal development and cancer.
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes.. ...
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. ...
Some people feel that theyCannotReadThisAndItShowsInASpellChecker and therefore can_read_and_spell_this_much_better is their choice, otherwise weWouldWriteAllSpokenLanguagesAndBooksThatWayForReadability. You could say that they come from a C background or that they are a little older. :-) Some other people say, e.g., those who come from Java background, that readingTheNamesLikeThisIsNotAProblemAtAll and they prefer that style. Im sure we all heard the arguments pro and contra more times than we care to hear. Obviously, a visual perception differs from person to person. If a person has a difficulty reading getMainType(), they should not be forced to write get_main_type() in their Zope code for the sake of consistency which is in this particular issue non-existent. This is really the least important style issue. Best regards, -- Zvezdan Petkovic _______________________________________________ Zope3-dev mailing list [email protected] Unsub: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing the effects of low Boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in rodents using in vitro and in vivo model systems. AU - Lanoue, Louise. AU - Taubeneck, Marie W.. AU - Muniz, Jesus. AU - Hanna, Lynn A.. AU - Strong, Philip L.. AU - Murray, F. Jay. AU - Nielsen, Forrest H.. AU - Hunt, Curtiss D.. AU - Keen, Carl L. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - To date, boron (B) essentiality has not been conclusively shown in mammals. This article summarizes the results of a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments designed to investigate the role of B in mammalian reproduction. In the first study, rat dams were fed either a low (0.04 μg B/g) or an adequate (2.00 μg B/g) B diet for 6 wk before breeding and through pregnancy; reproductive outcome was monitored on gestation day 20. Although low dietary B significantly lowered maternal blood, liver, and bone B concentrations, it had no marked effects on fetal growth or development. The goal of the second study was to assess the effects ...
Wee,s is a complete information to everything that your body and your child goes through during each week of pregnancy. Conclusion: Dengue in pregnancy requires early diagnosis and treatment. The previous two weeks the fatigue has really hit me arduous. Kim has been fairly vocal about her incessant want for beignets, which she also craved while deevlopment was preggers with North. They were on name for me 247 fetal development 13 weeks pregnant pregnancy six weeks postpartum, got here prrgnant typically, and checked in virtually daily to see how we were doing. 113 an everyday schedule, when doable, but tempo your actions. Theres also plenty of room to show pictures of your growing double bump in addition to ultrasound photos of your twin babies. Its possible youll need a medical exam or assessments performed fetal development 13 weeks pregnant pregnancy your supplier. This recurring have to pee is one of the most typical symptoms of early being pregnant. Missing your interval is also one of ...
It is important to take supplements as well as add iron-rich foods to your diet as an iron deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anemia, which can adversely affect fetal growth and maternal health.
Hadlocks-formula is being widely used for the estimation of fetal weight. Hadlock involved the femur length in his formula and since then it has been an imperative part of every fetal growth assessment. Image quality is of utmost importance in order to perform a correct measurement. Here are some tips on how to achieve this:…
Studies are initiated to identify how caffeine during pregnancy plays a role in increasing the babys risk of developing leukemia in childhood.
Dr. Alan Patterson answered: Yes: Preg can make them grow , twist or rupture so if you have one and are pg , you will need close ...
The proposed Cough and Cold Preaparations Market report will encompass all the qualitative &amp; quantitative aspects including the market size, market estimates, growth rates &amp; forecasts &amp; hence will give you a holistic view of the market. The study also includes detailed analysis of market drivers, restraints, technological advancements &amp; competitive landscape along with various micro &amp; macro factors influencing the market dynamics.The Cough and Cold Preaparations Market sample...
Twins fetal development at 3 weeks. The placenta also forms during this month. The progesterone helps prepare the endometrium (lining of the uterus). 8th month pregnancy foetal position and development A major development that occurs during the 8th month of pregnancy is the change in foetal position. The word trimester means â 3 months.â This can be confusing, because a normal pregnancy is 40 weeks, a bit longer than 9 months. At the end of month 6, your baby is about 12 inches long and can weigh close to 2 lbs! This is the month that his or her nervous system develops. At about 6 weeks, your babys heart beat can usually be detected. At this stage, you may begin to feel your baby moving around. As the fertilized egg grows, a water-tight sac forms around it, gradually filling with fluid. Throughout the third trimester, your baby will gain weight quickly, adding body fat that will help after birth. This is called the amniotic sac, and it helps cushion the growing embryo. If the fertilized egg ...
Hambidge KM, Bann CM, McClure EM, Westcott JE, Garcés A, Figueroa L, Goudar SS, Dhaded SM, Pasha O, Ali SA, Derman RJ, Goldenberg RL, Koso-Thomas M, Somannavar MS, Herekar V, Khan U, Krebs NF. Maternal Characteristics Affect Fetal Growth Response in the Women First Preconception Nutrition Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Oct 21; 11(10 ...
The study aimed to reveal alterations in expression and methylation levels of the growth-related imprinted genes and in fetuses of diabetic mice. of severely affect fetal growth in the mouse.9 Deletion of leads to the birth of pups that are 27% heavier than their wild-type littermates and increases expression.23 Genome-wide methylation can change extensively during […]. ...
Pregnancy affects your blood sugar and may increase your risk for hypoglycemia. We explain this connection and how to manage and prevent your symptoms.
Title: Non-invasive biomarkers of fetal brain development reflecting prenatal stress: an integrative multi-scale multi-species perspective on data collection and analysis ...
The first sense to emerge, touch happens as early as 7 ½ weeks, when your baby can first sense touch on the lips and nose, and quickly extends to the
There can be no better feeling than seeing two red lines in the pregnancy test kit. The news of expanding the family is indeed very gratifying. Each day, each week
by Elyse Wild • photography by Two Eagles Marcus The path to discovery is often dark, illuminated only by the insatiable. Read more ...
Health News) One of the risks of delivering a pre-term or low-weight baby is neurological impairment. Often, these two conditions go hand-in-hand with children born before the desired 40-week mark having … Read More ...
By 10 weeks pregnant your babys forehead is temporarily bulging, the outer part of her ear is fully developed and her chin is no longer bent down to her chest. - BabyCentre UK
The Markwins-owned brand is rolling out to two-thirds of Ulta doors in February, with exclusive items like the Liquid Catsuit eye shadow.
Get to know what you need to take care of when 17 weeks and 3 days pregnant pregnant. Check baby fetal development signs, baby movement, nutrition, diet suggestions & more.
Get to know what you need to take care of when 16 weeks and 3 days pregnant pregnant. Check baby fetal development signs, baby movement, nutrition, diet suggestions & more.
Scientific Instrument Services carries a wide selection of parts for all models of Agilent (Hewlett Packard) mass spectrometers. In order to aid you in the selection of replacement parts for your instrument, the following part number cross reference chart can be used. If a part number is not listed, it either means we do not have that part in our inventory or perhaps we are not aware of the Agilent part number in relation to our inventory. If you are looking for a part not listed below, give us ...
Scientific Instrument Services carries a wide selection of parts for all models of Agilent (Hewlett Packard) mass spectrometers. In order to aid you in the selection of replacement parts for your instrument, the following part number cross reference chart can be used. If a part number is not listed, it either means we do not have that part in our inventory or perhaps we are not aware of the Agilent part number in relation to our inventory. If you are looking for a part not listed below, give us ...
BURNSVILLE, Minn. (PRWEB) August 31, 2015 -- To continue its strong growth trajectory and commitment to outstanding client service, digital marketing agency PR
On fetal growth and childhood development. Main article: Nutrition and pregnancy. Vitamins are essential for the normal growth ... Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells, ... and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus develops from the ...
Lymphocyte development and education is most active in fetal development, but continues throughout life as immature lymphocytes ... Fetal development[edit]. The fetus has a different genetic makeup than the mother, as it also translates its father's genes, ... Long-term exposure to a foreign antigen from fetal development or birth may result in establishment of central tolerance, as ... It occurs during lymphocyte development in the thymus[14][15] and bone marrow for T and B lymphocytes, respectively. In these ...
Fetal cardiovascular development[edit]. The FBN-1 gene is involved in a variety of embryonic developmental programs. The ... heart development. • camera-type eye development. • metanephros development. • regulation of cellular response to growth factor ... skeletal system development. • kidney development. • embryonic eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic eye morphogenesis. • ... While expression of fibrillin-2 decreases significantly after fetal development, the expression of fibrillin-1 continues into ...
"Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111 (7): 954-7. doi:10.1172/JCI18236 ... Fetal self-sufficiency of thyroid hormones protects the fetus against e.g. brain development abnormalities caused by maternal ... and fetal production of thyroxine (T4) reaches a clinically significant level at 18-20 weeks.[32] Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) ... Polak, M.; Luton, D. (2014). "Fetal thyroïdology". Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 28 (2): 161- ...
... hormones play a particularly crucial role in brain maturation during fetal development and first few years of postnatal ... "Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development". J. Clin. Invest. 111 (7): 954-7. doi:10.1172/JCI18236. PMC 152596. PMID ... can manifest problems of physical growth and development as well as brain development, termed cretinism.[70][21] Children with ... In the development of the embryo, at 3-4 weeks gestational age, the thyroid gland appears as an epithelial proliferation in the ...
As IGF2 promotes development of fetal pancreatic beta cells, it is believed to be related to some forms of diabetes mellitus. ... Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth". Hormone Research. ... in utero embryonic development. • embryonic placenta development. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive ... skeletal system development. • cellular protein metabolic process. • insulin receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation ...
Burri, PH (1984). "Fetal and postnatal development of the lung". Annual Review of Physiology. 46: 617-628. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Development[edit]. The development of the human lungs arise from the laryngotracheal groove and develop to maturity over ... "Respiratory System Development". UNSW Embryology. Retrieved 23 February 2016.. *^ a b c d Miura, T (2008). "Modeling Lung ... Maina, John N. (2005). The lung air sac system of birds development, structure, and function; with 6 tables. Berlin: Springer. ...
As fetal development proceeds, gyri and sulci begin to take shape with the emergence of deepening indentations on the surface ... This is principally because the primordium of the cranium during the period of fetal brain development is not yet ossified ( ... In most mammals, gyrification begins during fetal development. Primates, cetaceans, and ungulates have extensive cortical gyri ... Adolescent Brain Development: Current Themes and Future Directions. 72 (1): 36-45. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.10.009. PMC 2815169 ...
Pregnancy and fetal development progress through various changes. The period of one week from fertilisation to implantation of ... Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a ... Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... From the third month to the end of nine months is the period of fetal maturation. Intake of drugs during this period may modify ...
Plus, M. (2011). "Fetal development". Retrieved 31 October 2011. Latham, K. E. (2005). "Early and delayed aspects ... The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an ... Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise ... This energy will hopefully allow the cloned embryo to begin development. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in ...
"Parathyroid hormone-related peptide in normal human fetal development". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 5 (3): 259-66. doi: ... skeletal system development. • osteoblast development. • cell-cell signaling. • female pregnancy. • negative regulation of ... epidermis development. • regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • bone mineralization ... It aids in normal mammary gland development.[5][6] It is necessary for maintenance of the mammary bud. Loss of PTHrP or its ...
"Mammary Development - Fetal". University of Illinois. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012. CS1 ... After initial development of the milk lines they go into remission. Most humans have two nipples, but in some cases more than ... The mammary ridge or mammary crest is a primordium specific for the development of the mammary gland. The mammary ridge is ... Milk lines appear in the seventh week of embryonic development before human sexual differentiation, which explains why male ...
"Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development". Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil). 65 (12): 1363-9 ... From these studies it is possible to conclude that prenatal protein nutrition is vital to the development of the fetus, ... Altered fat distribution: Protein undernutrition can have varying effects depending on the period of fetal life during which ... "Exposure to undernutrition in fetal life determines fat distribution, locomotor activity and food intake in ageing rats" ...
Lye S, Challis JR (2001). "Chapter 12: Parturition". In Bocking AD, Harding R (eds.). Fetal growth and development. Cambridge, ... directly by action on the fetal adrenal gland, and indirectly via the mother's pituitary gland. DHEA has a role in preparing ... "Steroids modulate corticotropin-releasing hormone production in human fetal membranes and placenta". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab ... "Placental stress factors and maternal-fetal adaptive response: the corticotropin-releasing factor family". Endocrine. 19 (1): ...
Hepper, P. G., & Shahidullah, B. S. (1994). Development of fetal hearing. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal ... Speech acquisition focuses on the development of spoken language by a child. Speech consists of an organized set of sounds or ... Oller, J. W.; Oller, S. D.; Badon, L. C. (2006). Milestones: Normal Speech and Language Development Across the Life Span. San ... Lasky, R.E. & Trickey, A.W. (2005). The Development of the Auditory System from Conception to Term. NeoReviews 6(3). DOI: ...
Pepper, M. Reese; Black, Maureen M. (August 2011). "B12 in fetal development". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 22 (6 ... fetal and breast milk levels remain a concern. EPA and DHA supplementation has been shown to reduce platelet aggregation in ... with appropriate attention to specific nutrient components can provide a healthy alternative lifestyle at all stages of fetal, ...
... fetal development, and the risk of chronic disease". The Journal of Nutrition. 140 (3): 437-45. doi:10.3945/jn.109.116327. PMID ... The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ...
During the fetal stage of development this occurs by two processes: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. ... This process includes the development of a cartilage model, its growth and development, development of the primary and ... The process includes: the development of the ossification center, calcification, trabeculae formation and the development of ... They mostly appear during fetal development, though a few short bones begin their primary ossification after birth. They are ...
The primary curves (thoracic and sacral curvatures) form during fetal development. The secondary curves develop after birth. ... Development[edit]. The striking segmented pattern of the spine is established during embryogenesis when somites are ... Development of the appropriate shapes of the vertebral bodies is regulated by HOX genes. ...
Christian, P; Stewart, CP (March 2010). "Maternal micronutrient deficiency, fetal development, and the risk of chronic disease ... The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[24][26] While some of these ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ...
Following embryonic development the fetal stage of development takes place. In human prenatal development, fetal development ... Fetal viability refers to a point in fetal development at which the fetus may survive outside the womb. The lower limit of ... featuring numerous motion pictures of human fetal movement. "In the Womb" (National Geographic video). Fetal development: ... also called fetal growth restriction (FGR); factors affecting fetal growth can be maternal, placental, or fetal. Maternal ...
"Fetal development: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 16 March 2013. Randall, VA; Hibberts, NA; Thornton ... In addition, the past decade has seen the rapid increase in the development of eyelash conditioners. These conditioners are ...
... (MCPH1) is a gene that is expressed during fetal brain development. Certain mutations in MCPH1, when homozygous, ... cerebral cortex development. • establishment of mitotic spindle orientation. • regulation of gene expression. • regulation of ... bone development. • regulation of chromosome condensation. • protein localization to centrosome. • neuronal stem cell ... MCPH1 is expressed in the fetal brain, in the developing forebrain, and on the walls of the lateral ventricles. Cells of this ...
The effects of carbon monoxide exposure are decreased later in fetal development during the fetal stage, but they may still ... More specifically, fetal exposure to rubella during weeks five to ten of development (the sixth week particularly) can cause ... Reyes, F. I.; Boroditsky, R. S.; Winter, J. S.; Faiman, C (1974). "Studies on human sexual development. II. Fetal and maternal ... The timing of the mother's infection during fetal development determines the risk and type of birth defect. As the embryo ...
Development for discussing developmental biology, i.e. embryological/fetal, associated with structure ... History development of field, including notable founders. *Investigations investigations, diagnostics, and related techniques ... one may wish to note that a drug is still in development, is only used in veterinary medicine, or has been withdrawn from the ...
... hormones play a particularly crucial role in brain maturation during fetal development and first few years of postnatal ... p. 493 (Table 33-3). ISBN 978-0-7817-4059-3. Zoeller RT (April 2003). "Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development". ... can manifest problems of physical growth and development as well as brain development, termed cretinism. Children with ... Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) remains low, less than 15 ng/dL until 30 weeks, and increases to 50 ng/dL at full-term. The fetus ...
See Environmental toxins and fetal development. See Drugs in pregnancy. Genetic mutations can cause a wide variety of fetal ... Brain damage may be caused by a number of factors, including fetal malformation due to genetic mutation or exposure to toxins, ... This can result in fetal distress or physical trauma to the child, especially broken clavicles and damage to the brachial ... Gunn, AJ; Bennet, L (2009). "Fetal hypoxia insults and patterns of brain injury: insights from animal models". Clin Perinatol. ...
"Stages of Fetal Development - First Trimester , Department of Health , State of Louisiana". Retrieved 2021-02-16. ... which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium. It has also been suggested that hCG levels are linked to the ... "Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss". Environmental Health Perspectives. 74: 57-66. doi: ... Talwar GP, Gupta JC, Rulli SB, Sharma RS, Nand KN, Bandivdekar AH, Atrey N, Singh P (2015). "Advances in development of a ...
The mystery of fetal development", Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. (published December 10, 1995), 115 (30), pp. 3712-3, PMID 8539733 ... Eric Wieschaus's Short Talk: "Finding Genes that Control Development" Eric F. Wieschaus on including the Nobel ... for their work revealing the genetic control of embryonic development. As of 2018, Wieschaus is the Squibb Professor in ... and spatial pattern of their transcription may provide the triggers controlling the normal sequence of embryonic development. ...
Utiger Robert D (1999). "Editorial: Maternal Hypothyroidism and Fetal Development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 341 (8 ... The infants may also be at risk for suppressed psychomotor development and slightly lower IQ. In a study of induced ... This study also looked at neural development in rats and found that maternal hypothyroidism in rat mothers is related to ... Blazer S.; Moreh-Waterman Y.; Miller-Lotan R.; Tamir A.; Hochberg Z. (2003). "Maternal hypothyroidism may affect fetal growth ...
Then, they could reliably identify fetal DNA, which would in turn allow them to diagnose certain fetal genetic conditions such ... This is especially true in the life sciences, where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by ... detecting the presence of a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin in the sample.. ... The point of the invention is that the inventors discovered in 1996 that fetal DNA might be floating around in the mother's ...
Biomechanical factors include fetal head constraint during pregnancy.[27] It has been found by Jacob et al. that constraint ... The primary goal of surgical intervention is to allow normal cranial vault development to occur.[42] This can be achieved by ... This did not quite result in a true normalization of the cranial vault, causing the development of numerous modifications.[53][ ... These last two are both important factors influencing bone development.[27]. Environmental factorsEdit. Environmental factors ...
skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell proliferation. •organ ... Coolen NA, Schouten KC, Middelkoop E, Ulrich MM (2010). «Comparison between human fetal and adult skin». Arch. Dermatol. Res. ... 2010). «Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous ...
Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the development of acne.[30][51] It is unclear whether eradication ... No adverse fetal events have been reported from the topical use of dapsone.[150] If retinoids are used there is a high risk of ... The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... Orion E, Wolf R (November-December 2014). "Psychologic factors in the development of facial dermatoses". Clinics in Dermatology ...
oocyte development. • positive regulation of type IV hypersensitivity. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... 2008). "Zona pellucida components are present in human fetal ovary before follicle formation". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 289 (1-2 ... positive regulation of ovarian follicle development. • positive regulation of acrosomal vesicle exocytosis. • negative ... fertilization and preimplantation development. The protein encoded by this gene is a major structural component of the ZP and ...
"Fetal Homicide Laws". Retrieved 2008-03-20.. *↑ Roche, Natalie E. (2004). "Therapeutic Abortion". Retrieved 2006-03- ... If it does not get the right number its development happens wrong (it does not grow right.) It may have many bad birth defects. ... Fetal Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Practice (Elsevier Health Sciences 1999), page 835. ... Lee SJ, Ralston HJ, Drey EA, Partridge JC, Rosen MA (2005). "Fetal pain: a systematic multidisciplinary review of the evidence ...
"The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop Report on Electronic Fetal Monitoring". Obstetrics ... Moderate baseline fetal heart rate variability reflects the delivery of oxygen to the fetal central nervous system. Its ... or Sinusoidal fetal heart rate FIGO has recently modified the guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring, proposing following ... as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
The company's core technology is based on its ability to increase the percentage of fetal DNA that is found in the maternal ... is known for its research in the prenatal diagnostic field and its development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis testing which ... "JAMA Network , JAMA , Methods to Increase the Percentage of Free Fetal DNA Recovered From the Maternal Circulation". Jama.ama- ... "Methods to Increase the Percentage of Free Fetal DNA Recovered from the Maternal Circulation". The Journal of the American ...
Embryology is the study of the early development of organisms.. *Endocrinology is the study of hormones and their effect ... The Hebrew contribution to the development of modern medicine started in the Byzantine Era, with the physician Asaph the Jew.[ ... These are collectively known as the Royal Colleges, although not all currently use the term "Royal". The development of a ... From ancient times, Christian emphasis on practical charity gave rise to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals ...
A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig ... Male prenatal development[edit]. Testes formation[edit]. During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of ... This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex ... Male pubertal development[edit]. At the time of puberty, androgen levels increase dramatically in males, and androgens mediate ...
They therefore list it for urgent research and development to develop new diagnostic tests, vaccines, and medicines.[33][34] ... fetal death also occurs in nearly all those cases. Abortion decreases the risk of death to the mother.[24] Some survivors ... The spatial clustering for this disease is still in development as a lack of easy-available diagnosis, limited public health ... "Development of a New Vaccine for the Prevention of Lassa Fever". PLoS Med. 2 (6): e183. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020183. PMC ...
... is a disorder that occurs when the fetus' aortic valve does not fully open during development. The aortic ... Fetal aortic stenosis impairs left ventricular development, which can lead to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. If untreated, ... In fetal life, this is condition is manageable because the ductus arteriosus acts as a bypass, and supports the delivery of ... In this procedure, fetal positioning is crucial. It is important that the left chest is located anteriorly, and that there are ...
... all Australian and New Zealand nephrologists participate in career-long professional and personal development through the Royal ...
Khlat M (December 1989). "Inbreeding effects on fetal growth in Beirut, Lebanon". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 80 ... disorders of sex development, schizophrenia and several others.[63][76] Moreover, there is an increased risk for congenital ... Fetuses produced by inbreeding also face a greater risk of spontaneous abortions due to inherent complications in development.[ ...
There are casts showing foetal development and the anatomy and pathology of the intestine. ... 20th-century developments[edit]. At the start of the 20th century the College's need for a large meeting and ceremonial hall ... Part of the public engagement development is done in collaboration with academic institutes, writers, artists, musicians and ...
The amniotic fluid is then recycled by fetal swallowing.[29]. Urination after injury. Occasionally, if a male's penis is ... The hyperactive state in the former condition suggests the development of denervation hypersensitization even though the ... "Amniotic Fluid: Not Just Fetal Urine Anymore". Journal of Perinatology. 25 (5): 341-348. doi:10.1038/ PMID ...
DevelopmentEdit. Findings from a 2009 study demonstrated a critical late role for BMP 2b in the morphogenesis of semicircular ... Transverse section through head of fetal sheep, in the region of the labyrinth. X 30. ...
Stress and development[edit]. Schematic overview of the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Stress activates the HPA-axis ... Horton TH (Jan 2005). "Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: animal models of induced life history variation". Am. J. Hum ... There may be a critical period during development during which the level of stress hormones in the bloodstream contribute to ... The HPA Axis plays a clear role in the production of corticosteroids, which govern many facets of brain development and ...
... vocabulary development, concept development, and comprehension skill development. Many children with low vision can be ... Two experimental treatments for retinal problems include a cybernetic replacement and transplant of fetal retinal cells.[71] ... Social developmentEdit. Social development includes interactions with the people surrounding the infant in the beginning of its ... Communication developmentEdit. Visual impairment can have profound effects on the development of infant and child communication ...
Learning objectives may be predetermined and included in the development of a simulation scenario, or they may be emergent as ... This pregnant patient simulator is meant for child birthing simulations and is a Maternal Fetal Simulator. It was created for ... "Fidelis Lucina is the only childbirth simulator with validated maternal-fetal physiology. The physiological modeling allows ... Development and Rationale for a Blended Approach to Health Care Simulation Debriefing. Simulation in Healthcare, 10, 106-115. ...
Gehring WJ (1998). Master Control Genes in Development and Evolution: The Homeobox Story. New Haven: Yale University Press. ... The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 27 (8): 844-50. doi:10.3109/14767058.2013.837879. PMID 23981182.. ... In the history of Earth, the development of Earth's aerobic atmosphere resulted in an iron deficiency in plants.[46] Compared ...
... and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start to form ... a b A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), pp. 86 ... Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although ... A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 95. ISBN ...
"Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 2014-01-17. Retrieved 4 March 2016.. ... European Concerted Action: DADA (Decision-making After the Diagnosis of a fetal Abnormality)". Prenatal diagnosis. 19 (9): 808- ...
Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?. Hum. Reprod ... Serum (blood) levels of androgens (hormones associated with male development), including androstenedione and testosterone may ... Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress in the development of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ...
Hassan HJ, Leonardi A, Chelucci C, et al. (1990). „Blood coagulation factors in human embryonic-fetal development: preferential ...
He first realised that the addition of bovine fetal calf serum (FCS) to Swiss 3T3 cells increased the polymerisation of actin ... "Directed selective pressure on a beta-lactamase to analyse molecular changes involved in development of enzyme function". ...
To illustrate this, Hirschfeld describes a case where a doctor said that if the ultrasound examination revealed "some fetal ... "Cuban Medical Internationalism and the Development of the Latin American School of Medicine, Robert Huish and John M. Kirk ( ... and the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP). Since 1989, this collaboration has played a very important role in that Cuba, ... notes that pregnant women may be forced to undergo abortions if fetal abnormalities are detected or forcibly placed under ...
The Current State of the Human Rights and Development Debate seen through the Lens of the Millennium Development Goals". Human ... Ellerman, David (2005). Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development ... Salevao, Lutisone (2005). Rule of Law, Legitimate Governance and Development in the Pacific. ANU E Press. ISBN 978-0731537211 ... The development of this tradition of natural justice into one of natural law is usually attributed to the Stoics.[59] ...
multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • vasculature development. • regulation of ... fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, pancreatic islet, and diffuse-type gastric cancer". Int. J. Oncol. 30 (3): 751-5. doi:10.3892/ ... post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine production. • angiogenesis. • neuron ... labyrinthine layer blood vessel development. • cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye ...
Assessment of fetal growth and development. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson ... Fetal development and physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. ... It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. ... Fetal Health and DevelopmentRead more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ... Fetal Development (National Institutes of Health) * Fetal Diseases (National Institutes ... Fetal Health and Development is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Fetal development (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Intrauterine growth restriction (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Your Babys Development: The First Trimester (American Academy of Family Physicians) * Your Babys Development: The Second ...
The finding that ultrasound influences brain development in mouse embryos could support the case against boutique ultrasounds ... generally recommend that women receive two ultrasound checkups during the course of their pregnancy to assess fetal development ... Exposure to ultrasound while pregnant may affect brain development in the fetus, suggests a study on mice. ... director of the Center for Fetal Medicine and Womens Ultrasound, in Los Angeles, California, US. ...
Fetal Development Week Five. Welcome to week five of pregnancy! Your baby has grown from the size of a poppy seed to the size ...
This section includes links to more in-depth articles including week-by-week development, information about labor and birth, ... An introduction to fetal development and growth during the stages of pregnancy. ... Home › Fetal Development. Fetal Development. Learn how your baby grows throughout pregnancy with our collection of articles ... Stages Of Development. Every pregnant mom wants to know more about how her baby is developing. Fetal Development will give you ...
... may be helping their childs growth and development, a new study suggests. ... Eating chocolate during pregnancy may benefit fetal growth, development. Published Saturday 6 February 2016 Published Sat 6 Feb ... Eating 30 g of chocolate daily during pregnancy was linked to benefits for fetal growth and development in the new study. ... "Eating chocolate during pregnancy may benefit fetal growth, development." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Feb. 2016. ...
New research shows that increased levels of inflammatory markers during pregnancy can lead to changes in fetal brain ... Maternal Inflammation Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. By Janice Wood Associate News Editor ... Wood, J. (2018). Maternal Inflammation Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 28, 2020, from ... Home » News » Parenting » Maternal Inflammation Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%! ...
Fetal Development: What Parents Want to Know Fetal Development: What Parents Want to Know (contd) : Fetal Development: What ... FIGURE 7-9 Fetal side of placenta (Shiny Shultz). FETAL CIRCULATION : FETAL CIRCULATION Placenta assumes function of the fetal ... Fetus Growth and Development : Fetus Growth and Development 4 weeks: 4-6 mm, brain formed from anterior neural tube, limb buds ... FETAL CIRCULATION Umbilical vein divides into 2 branches One circulates a small amount of blood through the fetal liver and ...
Human Life International has excellent resources on the miracle of fetal development. Click here to access this must-have ... Fetal Development. The Miracle of Fetal Development By Brian Clowes, PhD , April 16, 2021 , 10 ... There are two ways to define the time period that marks various milestones in fetal development: gestational and fertilization ... Fetal Pain Is a Reason to End Abortion By HLI Staff , July 25, 2016 , 3 ...
As you head into the home stretch, fetal development focuses on growth as your baby adds weight and length. The digestive ... Folate (found in beans, avocadoes, leafy greens and fortified whole grain bread), to ensure the development of healthy new ... Omega 3 (which you can get from salmon, sardines, herring, walnuts and DHA eggs), for healthy brain and eye development ... More on Fetal Development. Fetal Heartbeat: The Development of Babys Circulatory System ...
Fetal development week by week Fetal ultrasound images month by month Fetal development videos Babys movements Bonding with ... Track your babys development. Join now to receive free weekly newsletters tracking your babys development and yours ... Conception and prenatal development. Professional version. [Accessed May 2018] Hill MA. 2018. Embryology ... Hormonal cycles: fertilization and early development. In: Marshal J and Raynor M. ed. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 16th ed. ...
... with pages about embryonic and fetal development, fetal development videos, and awe-inspiring close-up fetal photography. ... Answers to your questions about the growth and development of your baby as it transitions from conception to childbirth, ... Learn the different stages of fetal development and potential genetic disorders that can cause problems for your baby. ... Fetal Development Stages. Your Fetal Development Questions. Congratulations! You have discovered that you are pregnant and you ...
... shows that the consumption of Cannabis during pregnancy can impair the development of the fetus brain with long-lasting ... Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development. Karolinska Institutet. Journal. EMBO Journal. Funder. Swedish ... IMAGE: Professor Tibor Harkany has shown that the use of Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development. The ... It is stressed that Cannabis exposure in experimental models precisely coincided with the fetal period when nerve cells form ...
Its common to have concerns about early fetal development and whats to be expected. Heres how to optimize your health during ... Fetal Development. The development of a baby is a beautifully intricate process. From the moment the egg and sperm meet, your ... Gestational Age Week 6 (Fetal age: 4 weeks). Between 5 ½ to 6 ½ weeks, a fetal pole or even a fetal heartbeat may be detected ... this information should be used as a general guide for healthy pregnancy development, although early fetal development may vary ...
The development of the response of rabbit fetal tissues to thyroxine was investigated by determining changes in α- ... The development of the response of rabbit fetal tissues to thyroxine was investigated by determining changes in α- ... be explained by the appearance of the response of the rabbit fetal tissues to maternal thyroxine at this stage of development, ...
... and Fetal Development reviews the current findings of how maternal exercise throughout gestation influences fetal development ... and Fetal Development reviews the current findings of how maternal exercise throughout gestation influences fetal development ... Physiology of Prenatal Exercise and Fetal Development. Authors. * Linda E. May Series Title. SpringerBriefs in Physiology. ... Describes current findings of how maternal exercise throughout gestation influences fetal development of key organ systems ...
Treatments and Tools for Fetal development. Find Fetal development information, treatments for Fetal development and Fetal ... MedHelps Fetal development Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Low, Slow rising HCG, but fetal heartbeat found - Pregnancy: Ages 18-24 Community ...
Formation of Ovarian Follicles During Fetal Development in Sheep. Heywood R. Sawyer, Peter Smith, Derek A. Heath, Jennifer L. ... "Formation of Ovarian Follicles During Fetal Development in Sheep," Biology of Reproduction, 66(4), 1134-1150, (1 April 2002) ... "Formation of Ovarian Follicles During Fetal Development in Sheep," Biology of Reproduction 66(4), 1134-1150, (1 April 2002). ... Consequences of Fetal Irradiation on Follicle Histogenesis and Early Follicle... Minireview. Contribution of Germ Cells to the ...
... and the March of Dimes to create this unique peak into Babys development inside the womb. These images reveal all the ... this slideshow of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy gives you a look at each week of development. ... Fetal Development Milestones: Your baby is getting more plump each day.. What Youre Seeing: Your baby-to-bes brain is ... Fetal Development Milestones: Your baby is officially full term!. What Youre Seeing: Sometimes your doctor or midwife will ask ...
... and the March of Dimes to create this unique peak into Babys development inside the womb. These images reveal all the ... this slideshow of the 2nd trimester of pregnancy gives you a look at each week of development. ... Fetal Development Milestones: Fetal bones are becoming more visible on ultrasound. You may be able to feel some fetal movement ... Fetal Development Milestones: Male genitalia continue to form.. What Youre Seeing: Its a boy! In this image, its almost as ...
Full text of "Fetal Development During Pregnancy" See other formats DEEPER DECODING FETAL DEVELOPMENT DURING PREGNANCY AND GOD ... Sexual Development) PRENATAL SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT: From fertilization through about the first six weeks of development, male and ... A Prenatal Sexual Development About six weeks after conception, if a Y chromosome is present in the embryos cells (as it is in ... Scientific Article (Blastula) Human Development: Blastula (Sixth Day): 5 to 6 days after fertilization, the zygote has divided ...
... activate maternal immune response which may interfere with genes linked to prenatal brain development. ... Other infections like influenza have a more indirect impact on fetal development.. Previously studies have shown that a variety ... Maternal infections during pregnancy are a known risk factor for abnormal fetal development. Infections caused by Zika virus ... The effects caused by maternal immune activation may be very potent during fetal development and may cause different ...
Fetal development week by week Fetal ultrasound images month by month Fetal development videos Babys movements Bonding with ... Embryologic and fetal development of the human eyelid. Opthal Plast Reconstr Surg 32(6):407-14. [Accessed ... Fetal development. University of New South Wales Embryology. [Accessed October 2019] Hill MA. 2019b ... Track your babys development. Join now to receive free weekly newsletters tracking your babys development and yours ...
Fetal development is affected by many different things, including the mothers age, whether the mother smokes or drinks alcohol ... Many factors effect fetal development, but some key factors are diet, the mothers age, and whether the mother smokes or ... Improper nutrition during fetal development does not only hurt the fetus, but a pregnant womans own body will often suffer ... Without enough folic acid and vitamin B during fetal development, babies can be born with serious brain and spinal cord ...
Consult this guide to all aspects of fetal development. ... This comprehensive fetal development guide will tell you which ... Fetal Movement. Changes in Fetal Movement. Some days my baby kicks so hard, but then I can go a full day without noticing much ... Fetal Development. When youre pregnant, youre constantly wondering how your baby is doing in there. ... Fetal Movement When Youre Expecting Twins. Got multiples on the way? Heres what you need to know about when and how much ...
Development of Canadian screening tools for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.. Goh YI1, Chudley AE, Clarren SK, Koren G, Orrbine ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the most common cause of neurobehavioural handicap in North America. Screening for ... Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - MedlinePlus Health Information. *Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - MedlinePlus Health ... E, Rosales T, Rosenbaum C; Taskforce for Development of FASD Screening Tools. ...
We are expert in fetal assessment-particularly Doppler and computerised fetal heart rate tracing (cCTG); this is a pre ... fetal heart rate monitoring and the effect of steroids in fetal growth restriction. The TRUFFLE group meets twice per year in ... Fetal growth restriction is one of the major causes of morbidity and death in preterm babies. We estimate in the UK that about ... Our group was a founder member of the international TRUFFLE collaboration (Trial of Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) leading ...
They can affect fetal growth and organ damage development, especially the central nervous system. As agreed in the current ... The data available proves a changing influence of ketones on the central nervous system during fetal life and in adults as well ... care package for pregnant women with diabetes and begin some research on the explanation of its influence on fetal development. ... complicated by gestational diabetes is a condition associated with significantly increased risk of ketonemia development. ...
... A physicians assistant checks a pregnant woman who is three days overdue. (AP ... To date, no large-scale study in people has found any negative effect of caffeine exposure on fetal brain development, says ... was studying the role of adenosine in fetal brain development when an obvious experiment occurred to her: Why not use caffeine ... a neuroscientist at the University of Southern California and an expert in the effects of cocaine on fetal brain development. ...
Research in the Susiarjo lab is geared towards understanding how gestational exposure to EDCs alters fetal development. Here, ... June 21, 2018 - Exploring the Impact of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Maternal Health and Fetal Development June 21, 2018 ... Exploring the Impact of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Maternal Health and Fetal Development. ... which can negatively impact maternal health as well as fetal and placental development. In one study, they discovered that the ...
  • In the case of Zika, the virus has its impact by directly attacking fetal brain tissue. (
  • Doctors generally recommend that women receive two ultrasound checkups during the course of their pregnancy to assess fetal development, each of which can last around 30 minutes. (
  • Learn how your baby grows throughout pregnancy with our collection of articles about Fetal Development, Labor and Birth , Miscarriage and Stillbirth, and Cord Blood Banking. (
  • Good news for all you expectant mothers out there: eating 30 g of chocolate every day during pregnancy may benefit fetal growth and development. (
  • This is the conclusion of a new study recently presented at the 2016 Pregnancy Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine in Atlanta, GA. (
  • Eating 30 g of chocolate daily during pregnancy was linked to benefits for fetal growth and development in the new study. (
  • The uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index is a test that measures uterine, placental and fetal blood flow, and notches are an indicator of the risk of preeclampsia, hypertension and other possible pregnancy outcomes. (
  • New research shows that increased levels of inflammatory markers during pregnancy can lead to changes in fetal brain development which, in turn, may increase the child's risk of developing psychiatric disorders. (
  • Throughout a woman's pregnancy, her baby undergoes many stages of development in the womb before being born, and among these milestones which indicate life is the fetal heartbeat. (
  • Join now to receive free weekly newsletters tracking your baby's development and yours throughout your pregnancy. (
  • Also, learn more about the three different stages of your pregnancy and developmental processes in your baby though breathtaking photos of first trimester fetal growth, second trimester fetal growth , and third trimester fetal growth . (
  • Professor Tibor Harkany has shown that the use of Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development. (
  • The study highlights that consuming Cannabis during pregnancy clearly results in defective development of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that orchestrates higher cognitive functions and drives memory formation. (
  • This early part of development lays the foundation for a healthy pregnancy and delivery. (
  • Because every women is different and every pregnancy develops differently, this information should be used as a general guide for healthy pregnancy development, although early fetal development may vary due to the mother's health or a miscalculation of ovulation . (
  • Gestational age is the age of the pregnancy from the last normal menstrual period (LMP), and fetal age is the actual age of the growing baby. (
  • Most references to pregnancy are usually in gestational age rather than fetal age development, but we have included both so that it is clear what stage development is being discussed. (
  • Doctors will often use the quantitative test if they are closely monitoring the development of a pregnancy. (
  • It is believed that poor nutrition during pregnancy will adversely affect the development of the fetus?s nephrons, resulting in fewer of these crucial blood filtration units in the kidneys. (
  • The development of the response of rabbit fetal tissues to thyroxine was investigated by determining changes in α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity of the liver mitochondria of pregnant rabbits and their fetuses during administration of thyroxine at different times of pregnancy. (
  • After the 24th day of pregnancy an increase in activity of this enzyme was observed in the fetuses also, where it can be explained by the appearance of the response of the rabbit fetal tissues to maternal thyroxine at this stage of development, and increasing until the end of pregnancy. (
  • This information will help researchers and scientists better understand the physiological effects of exercise during pregnancy on offspring development. (
  • While most women may only receive one or two ultrasounds during pregnancy, which is normal, this slideshow of the 3rd trimester of pregnancy gives you a look at each week of development. (
  • The Subject is Referring to Fetus development during Pregnancy. (
  • Maternal infections during pregnancy are a known risk factor for abnormal fetal development. (
  • The effects caused by maternal immune activation may be very potent during fetal development and may cause different characteristics in the individual depending on when it occurs during pregnancy. (
  • Foods consumed by the mother during pregnancy are linked to how successfully fetal development and the birth of a healthy child progresses. (
  • This comprehensive fetal development guide will tell you which systems and features are forming when, plus give good insight into baby kicks and other milestones in your little one's growth during pregnancy. (
  • Pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes is a condition associated with significantly increased risk of ketonemia development. (
  • Our gallery of fetal images, drawn by a certified medical illustrator, shows what's happening in your belly from pre-conception until your pregnancy is full term. (
  • Eating less during early pregnancy impaired fetal brain development in a nonhuman primate model, researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio reported today. (
  • It supports the view that poor diets in pregnancy can alter development of fetal organs, in this case the brain, in ways that will have lifetime effects on offspring, potentially lowering IQ and predisposing to behavioral problems. (
  • A home pregnancy test should be positive at this stage of development (most tests claim positive results one week after a missed period). (
  • Washington, DC - It's long been known that alcohol use in pregnancy can lead to children with mental retardation and birth defects, but researchers who study fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have not made definitive progress on preventing the disorder, detecting it early, or effectively treating it, say researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center. (
  • The inner cells become the embryo and the outer cells will become the fetal support system during pregnancy. (
  • In a study funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), J. Lee Nelson, M.D., and her colleagues report in the Feb. 21 issue of The Lancet , that women with scleroderma have significantly higher levels of non-self fetal cells circulating in their blood decades after pregnancy than healthy women who have previously given birth. (
  • Prof Vaidya concludes, 'These findings are important because we know that optimum thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy are essential for normal foetal brain development, and this study shows that this common pollutant may be adversely affecting brain development in children. (
  • Also illustrates critical organ development during the early weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Fetal Development at Week 20 Pregnancy is a wonderful 40 week long journey to a new beginning. (
  • All You Need to Know about Fetal Development at Week 24 A pregnancy is one of the most intriguing miracles in life. (
  • Fetal Development at Week 9 of Pregnancy Every expectant mother patiently waits for the arrival of her baby for a term of 40 long weeks. (
  • Fetal Development at Week 30 - The Final Count Down Begins Welcome to the third trimester or week 30 of your pregnancy. (
  • Fetal Development and Changes at Week 2 Congratulations on the confirmation of your pregnancy. (
  • All You Need to Know About Fetal Development Week 1 Fetal development in pregnancy week 1 includes the fertilized egg moving into the fallopian tubes where it starts merging to become a zygote. (
  • From an Embryo to a Fetus - Fetal Development at Week 10 The fetal development during week 10 of pregnancy will result in the baby growing from an embryo to a fetus. (
  • Fetal Development at Week 11 of Pregnancy Your baby is 11 weeks old and is as big as a lipstick tube. (
  • Development of internal organs as well as facial features may take place during the 8th week of pregnancy. (
  • Baby in the 10th week of pregnancy is undergoing rapid developments. (
  • In the 13th week of pregnancy, your baby is quite small and undergoing development at a fast pace. (
  • In the 30th week of pregnancy there is already tremendous fetal development that has already happened with your baby. (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. (
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy - the leading cause of birth defects - can have serious and irreversible consequences on development, from birth to adulthood. (
  • The scientific literature addressing alcohol use during pregnancy and the wide range of associated consequences has grown immensely over time in breadth, scope and understanding since the first article on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in the U.S. appeared in a 1973 edition of The Lancet. (
  • In 2004, the term Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) was adopted as an umbrella term describing the wide range of physical, mental, behavioural and learning disabilities that can result from alcohol use during pregnancy, encompassing the four conditions listed above. (
  • For the first time, abnormal brain development following a Zika infection during pregnancy has been documented experimentally in the offspring of a non-human primate. (
  • This study brings us closer to determining if a Zika vaccine or therapy will prevent fetal brain injury, but also be safe to take in pregnancy,' she added. (
  • This is the only direct evidence that shows that the Zika virus can cross the placenta late in pregnancy and affect the fetal brain by shutting down certain aspects of brain development,' said one of the study's senior authors, Dr. Michael Gale, Jr., UW professor of immunology. (
  • However, contracting the Zika virus during pregnancy is a serious concern, because the fetal brain may be destroyed or quit developing. (
  • Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during pregnancy, even the earliest stages before a woman knows she is pregnant. (
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past decade there has been mounting evidence that ambient air pollution during pregnancy influences fetal growth. (
  • Dr. Palmer's laboratory has found that giving a mild infection to rats and mice during pregnancy causes changes in the production of brain cells in the developing offspring, a process which might also contribute to the development of autism in humans. (
  • This research should provide new insight into the mechanisms of how the maternal immune system affects fetal brain development, and may suggest new therapeutic avenues for reducing the risk of neurological disorders during pregnancy. (
  • This analysis could be used to monitor fetal development, enabling clinicians to determine very early in pregnancy whether fetal organ systems are developing normally. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Aug. 12, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity during pregnancy may hinder fetal brain development, a new study suggests. (
  • Learn more about obesity and pregnancy from the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development . (
  • Choline, an essential nutrient, can help prevent fetal brain development problems in infants whose mothers experience common infections, such as influenza, during pregnancy. (
  • The study, which was reported in March issue of Pediatrics , found that children whose mother's took antidepressants during pregnancy were more likely to have slightly delayed development milestones during the first 19 months of life. (
  • Taken together, recent insights into the regulation of mouse placental development have opened up new avenues for research that will promote the study of human pregnancy conditions, notably those based on defects in placentation that underlie the most common pregnancy pathologies such as IUGR and pre-eclampsia. (
  • also referred to as fetal growth restriction, FGR) is a common pregnancy complication, affecting around 3-8% of pregnancies worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The study was performed in mice, which are very accurate models for the development that occurs during early pregnancy, according to the study's senior author, Scott Parnell, Ph.D., assistant professor of cell biology and physiology in the UNC School of Medicine. (
  • The goal of this study is to further develop a non-invasive prenatal blood test that can diagnose genetic disorders in the fetus by looking at fetal DNA (genetic material) found in the mother's bloodstream during pregnancy. (
  • To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7-17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. (
  • We conclude that, at concentrations relevant to human exposure and within a particular narrow 'early window' of sensitivity within first trimester, ibuprofen causes direct endocrine disturbances in the human fetal testis and alteration of the germ cell biology. (
  • By using two novel models of human prostate development involving embryonic stem cells, this study is the first to show that low doses of BPA can actually reprogram human fetal prostate tissue in a manner that raises the risk of prostate diseases as men age," said the study's presenting author, Esther Calderon-Gierszal, a PhD student at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. (
  • The study was the first to generate a human fetal prostate model grown in a dish in a laboratory. (
  • When the human fetal prostate model grown in the laboratory was exposure to low doses of BPA, investigators reported that exposure altered fetal prostate formation and increased the number of stem cells in the adult prostate, which could lead to aberrant growth and disease with aging. (
  • The use of fetal tissue in vaccine development is the practice of researching, developing, and producing vaccines through growing viruses in cultured (laboratory-grown) human fetal cells. (
  • Three methods for the preparation of islets from human fetal pancreas (17.4 ± 1.2 wk gestational age) were compared. (
  • Culture of minced pancreas digested for 5 min with collagenase resulted in fragments that superficially appeared to be islets but did not have the size characteristics of human fetal islets and contained fibrous and duct elements not seen in islets. (
  • These islets were morphologically similar to islets of the intact human fetal pancreas and isolated islets from rat neonatal pancreas. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of miRNAs in human fetal heart in order to identify valuable targets for further study of heart defects. (
  • Affymetrix microarrays were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from human fetal heart tissue at 5, 7, 9 and 23 weeks of gestation. (
  • A total of 703 miRNAs were expressed in human fetal heart. (
  • In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first miRNA expression profiling study of human fetal heart tissue. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the developmental characteristics of podocytes in the human fetal metanephros using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. (
  • According to Lars Henning Pedersen, MD, PhD, of Aarhus University in Denmark, and colleagues, "The potential delay in development thus might have limited, if any, clinical significance for the children but may suggest that human fetal brain development is susceptible to antidepressant exposure… longer follow-up monitoring of the children, with the use of more developmental endpoints, is needed. (
  • It is now a fetus, the stage of development up until birth. (
  • Exposure to ultrasound while pregnant may affect brain development in the fetus, suggests a study on mice. (
  • Improper nutrition during fetal development does not only hurt the fetus, but a pregnant woman's own body will often suffer because vitamins and nutrients can be robbed from her and transferred to the child. (
  • A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. (
  • These proteins could affect fetal development in several ways, including by acting directly on the developing fetal brain, or by impairing the ability of the mother's placenta to supply blood and oxygen to the fetus. (
  • Introduction -Fetal programming is the concept by which a fetus adapts to the intrauterine environment by altering blood flow to various organs which may induce permanent structural and/or functional change in those organs, altering disease susceptibility in later life. (
  • The purpose of this study is to collect maternal blood samples from pregnant women carrying a fetus with a confirmed diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality or genetic disorder including microdeletions in order to further develop a non-invasive prenatal screening test based on fetal DNA isolated from maternal blood. (
  • Fetal movement refers to motion of a fetus caused by its own muscle activity. (
  • Physiology of Prenatal Exercise and Fetal Development reviews the current findings of how maternal exercise throughout gestation influences fetal development of key organ systems, and also encompasses the relationship between maternal activity level and fetal, birth, and neonatal effects. (
  • Maternal immune activation dysregulation of the fetal brain transcriptome and relevance to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder. (
  • Cha noted that while maternal depression (with or without SSRI treatment) was accounted for, the study did not examine other critical factors that could affect fetal development, including a family history of depression. (
  • He also said more and larger investigations will be needed to see how fetal brain changes linked to maternal SSRI use might translate into mental health difficulties later in life. (
  • Since T4 is essential for normal foetal brain development, this suggests that perchlorate exposure could decrease maternal thyroid hormone levels, which may lead to brain development defects in babies. (
  • Researchers at the University of Southern California wanted to know how maternal inflammation affects this conversion and whether this affects the developing fetal brain. (
  • After either 24 or 48 hours, the team analyzed the maternal blood, placenta, and fetal brains. (
  • The results suggest maternal inflammation increases the amount of serotonin in the placenta and the fetal brain, impairing the growth of serotonin nerve cells, the researchers say. (
  • It may be possible that there are several ways that maternal inflammation may impact the fetal brain, and one of the mechanisms is through aberrant neurotransmitter levels. (
  • However, the researchers caution that understanding whether early disruptions in brain development caused by maternal inflammation contribute to later mood disorders requires additional study. (
  • She is a UW Medicine physician and researcher, and a University of Washington professor of obstetrics and gynecology who specializes in maternal and fetal infections. (
  • Maternal infection is likely to affect fetal development via proteins that are produced as part of the mother's immune response. (
  • In this study, Dr. Palmer and colleagues will evaluate these two hypotheses to determine how maternal immune proteins affect both the placenta and fetal brain development. (
  • According to the investigators, further studies using this gene panel approach could elucidate the complex immune pathways involved in the maternal-fetal relationship. (
  • Changes in maternal glucose metabolism after the administration of dexamethasone for fetal lung development. (
  • Antenatal dexamethasone administration for fetal lung development may impair maternal glucose tolerance. (
  • The effects on maternal fasting blood glucose and insulin levels of dexamethasone administrated to promote fetal lung maturation correlated with embryo number and the presence of IGT. (
  • These measurements were then correlated with each other, standard fetal biometry, maternal body composition, and birth and placental weights. (
  • We did not find any significant relationships between maternal body composition and fetal cardiac function or structure within our small cohort. (
  • Conclusions - Assessment of fetal cardiac function and structure in relation to maternal nutritional status and stress has the potential for detecting fetuses adapting to an adverse intra-uterine environment. (
  • This could assist identification of the maternal factors which lead to increased risk of disease in adult life and facilitate the development of targeted diet and lifestyle interventions. (
  • However, instructing women to monitor fetal movements is potentially associated with increased maternal anxiety. (
  • A new study in pregnant mice, published June 1 in The Journal of Neuroscience, offers a potential mechanism explaining why: Inflammation alters neurotransmitters and impairs growth of nerve cells in the developing fetal brain. (
  • According to the researchers, animal studies have shown that infections and inflammation in a pregnant animal lead to changes in offspring brain development and behavior. (
  • You may be able to feel some fetal movement, particularly if you have been pregnant before. (
  • To understand how activating a mother's immune system might affect the child's brain development, researchers examined the activity of genes in the brain after injecting pregnant rats and mice with a substance called lipopolysaccharide. (
  • It is necessary for a pregnant woman to consume high enough quantities of foods that are rich in certain vitamins and nutrients during fetal development in order to give birth to a healthy baby. (
  • A pregnant woman who is older than 30 years old is at risk for additional problems regarding fetal health as well as additional risks to her own health. (
  • For instance, if a mother consumes alcohol while she is pregnant, it can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. (
  • This article is a literature review of ketones' effect on the central nervous system and an attempt to initiate discussion whether we should consider including ketonemia assessment into the standard care package for pregnant women with diabetes and begin some research on the explanation of its influence on fetal development. (
  • Our first series of fetal development pictures starts off before you're even pregnant, as the ovary prepares to release an egg. (
  • MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who take certain antidepressants may unknowingly compromise the brain development of their child, researchers suggest. (
  • In addition to these important fetal developments, at 33 weeks pregnant your baby's bones are starting to become harder, although her skull is still soft and flexible enough to allow it to fit through the birth canal. (
  • Although further studies are required to confirm that perchlorate exposure in pregnant women can lead to impaired neurological development in offspring, these findings suggest that public health initiatives should be put in place to reduce perchlorateexposure, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women. (
  • Fetal Development at Week 13 Being pregnant is one of the most enriching experiences a woman can ever have. (
  • Fetal Development and Growth at Week 21 Being pregnant is one of the most challenging and crucial phases in a woman's life. (
  • A first-of-its-kind study with 144 pregnant women finds that socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact in the womb, altering several key regions in the developing fetal brain as well as cortical features. (
  • At 30 weeks pregnant , there is advanced fetal development. (
  • She added, 'By the time a pregnant woman develops symptoms, the fetal brain may already be affected and damaged. (
  • BPA is detected in serum of pregnant women, umbilical cord blood, and fetal plasma, indicating that developing fetuses are exposed to BPA. (
  • Please share with your friends to help inform the public just how beautiful life is (especially pregnant friends who would like to know about the development of their baby! (
  • Although you can't see into the womb, fetal development doesn't have to be a mystery. (
  • Also, learn how through the images provided by ultra sounds, doctors can detect medical conditions within your unborn baby and find out about the amazing medical advances, such as fetal surgery, to safely treat and operate on your baby while it is still in the womb. (
  • We've partnered with the American Institute of Ultrasound Medicine (AIUM), Johns Hopkins, and the March of Dimes to create this unique peak into Baby's development inside the womb. (
  • Keep clicking for a week-by-week look at your baby's development in the womb. (
  • This is important for normal development in the womb, as well as good practice for drinking breast milk or formula after birth! (
  • This means that they are at risk of being short of oxygen in the womb which can have long-term consequences for their development. (
  • At you will both read another outstanding overview of developmental markers AND be able to watch "A baby's first months-infinite possibilities," - where you will see the beginnings of life in the womb and the step-by-step process of fetal development. (
  • As I wrote in a review, "This documentary utilizes six different imaging technologies to give you unforgettable images inside the womb of the growing baby at the embryonic and fetal stages…Only 3 minutes and eleven seconds long, the video covers the waterfront -the docks, stevedores, and merchant vessels. (
  • YOUTUBE, CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA Fetal lambs that are developmentally similar to human infants born extremely prematurely (as early as at 23 weeks of gestation) can survive and continue to develop in an artificial womb for up to four weeks, researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute reported in Nature Communications today (April 25). (
  • These critical prenatal brain growth and development processes lay the foundation for normal brain function, which ready the infant for life outside the womb, enabling them to attain key developmental milestones after birth, including walking, talking, learning and social skills. (
  • The days and weeks following conception form a critical window within which the nutritional environment of the womb sets the tempo for fetal growth. (
  • 16th week of development inside the womb! (
  • Here goes fact #16 for the 16th week of development inside the womb! (
  • Here goes fact #17 for the 17th week of development inside the womb! (
  • Recent evidence demonstrates that the environment in early life can have important effects on fetal and postnatal growth, on development and on risk of developing common non-communicable diseases in later life. (
  • Citation Query Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development. (
  • It is suggested that long term inbreeding does not lead to appreciable effects on fetal growth and development. (
  • Understanding the complex biological cascade triggered by the mother's immune response to infections and their role in fetal brain development, will help identify targets for potential therapeutic intervention. (
  • Our findings affirm that a mother's obesity may play a role in fetal brain development, which might explain some of the cognitive and metabolic health concerns seen in children born to mothers with higher BMI [body mass index]," researcher Moriah Thomason said in a university news release. (
  • Using a previously developed SNAP gene panel as proof of concept, investigators from the Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Prevail Dx determined that 7 of the 21 genes assayed were expressed differently depending on fetal sex or gestational age. (
  • To gain new information regarding the origin of follicular cells, incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was used to identify proliferating cells at selected stages of development. (
  • Find out about the stages of fetal development from start to finish. (
  • Easy-to-track stages depict the development of the brain, heart, arms, and more. (
  • Notably, miRNAs have distinct expression patterns at different stages of development ( 10 ). (
  • There is evidence for a stage-specific role of miRNAs in heart development: mice with heart-specific deficiency of Dicer, a key miRNA-processing enzyme, have different abnormal heart phenotypes at different heart developmental stages ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • 3) How do the spontaneous retinal discharges that may be present in the fetal monkey compare with those documented in the retina of other species during comparable stages of development? (
  • There is a general lack of detailed information about the earliest stages of human motor development. (
  • However, the study of the early stages of fetal motor development should not be exclusively directed towards the und- standing of functioning in the neonate. (
  • You may also want to consider renting or buying a fetal doppler for home use, which will allow you to monitor your baby's development in between prenatal appointments. (
  • But Cha stressed that the association "may make it difficult to think prenatal exposure to SSRIs may have no impact on fetal brain development. (
  • To name just one more, " The case against abortion: prenatal development . (
  • S., Raivio, K., and Karjalainen, O.: Prenatal diagnosis and fetal pathology of I-cell disease (mucolipidosis type II). (
  • Emphasizing the importance of proper prenatal care and nutrition, this two-sided tear pad shows fetal development from conception to birth. (
  • The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on human development are well known and include an array of lifelong physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). (
  • In the future, fetal gene expression panels could prove useful in prenatal care to evaluate function in cases of at-risk pregnancies and fetal pathologies," commented lead investigator Lauren J. Massingham, MD, Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. (
  • This technique could be optimized to examine specific genes instrumental in fetal organ system function, which could be a useful addition to prenatal care. (
  • study included only women with live births without birth defects, the prevalence reported by this group may be an underestimate of the true prevalence of prenatal alcohol use since it also increases the risk of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), fetal death and birth defects. (
  • The fingers and toes are discernible and the fetal heartbeat may be audible by Doppler ultrasound. (
  • At the end of six weeks, the fetal heartbeat may be seen and heard during a special test called a vaginal ultrasound . (
  • Follow those important moments from conception to birth with this informative fetal development tear pad. (
  • This is the next crucial, main stage of fetal development, which comes about when the conception stage is successfully navigated. (
  • Rigorous research on the prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is relatively sparse and appears to be concentrated on targeted screening and brief intervention efforts. (
  • The placenta keeps the fetal body temperature several degrees warmer than mom's, as well as many more functions that provide for the baby's well-being until birth. (
  • Many of these genes play a role in the development of autism and other key brain developmental processes that occur before birth. (
  • Fetal period: ninth week to birth. (
  • Low birth weight, higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and a myriad of other health problems can arise in babies who experience secondhand smoke during fetal development. (
  • My son was so young, he took a while to complete his lung development, and his very early birth led to delayed development. (
  • BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between birth anthropometric measures and the subsequent development of asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness, and atopy in later childhood. (
  • In relation to fetal growth, Godfrey et al reported an association between measures of head circumference at birth and serum IgE levels in adulthood. (
  • In this study we have investigated the association between anthropometric measurements at birth and the development in childhood of clinical asthma, and its immunological and physiological markers of atopy and airway hyperresponsiveness. (
  • The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 1661 children born over one year from April 1972 at Queen Mary Maternity Hospital in Dunedin, New Zealand. (
  • Given the close association between placental defects and abnormal cardiovascular and brain development, these functional nodes may also shed light onto the etiology of birth defects that co-occur with placental malformations. (
  • Women who have already given birth have more relaxed uterine muscles that are consequently more sensitive to fetal motion, and for them fetal motion can sometimes be felt as early as 14 weeks. (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the most common cause of neurobehavioural handicap in North America. (
  • FAS is relatively uncommon, affecting .2 to 1.5 live births in every 1,000, but fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the less severe form of FAS, is much more common and has a broad range of the same symptoms, they say. (
  • Some intervention and prevention strategies can reduce the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). (
  • Our results suggest that a therapy to prevent fetal brain injury must either be a vaccine or a prophylactic medicine taken at the time of the mosquito bite to neutralize the virus. (
  • Our entire team is deeply committed to developing an animal model in which we can rapidly test a vaccine or therapy to determine if we can prevent fetal brain injury caused by the Zika virus,' said Adams Waldorf. (
  • There are two ways to define the time period that marks various milestones in fetal development: gestational and fertilization age. (
  • Browse through the gallery to see how big your baby will be each week, and when the major milestones of development will occur. (
  • Having a baby is an amazing journey filled with fascinating developments and important milestones, starting from the moment that the egg is fertilized and ending with a brand new bundle of joy. (
  • Development of Canadian screening tools for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are preventable, but continue to be manifest nearly four decades after the first article on fetal alcohol syndrome was published in the US. (
  • The review article by Nguyen and Thomas highlights the potential importance of nutritional factors that could influence the expression of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. (
  • Other infections like influenza have a more indirect impact on fetal development. (
  • This study indicates that chocolate could have a positive impact on placenta and fetal growth and development and that chocolate's effects are not solely and directly due to flavanol content," says Dr. Bujold. (
  • Nutrient deficiencies may have both short-term effects, by impacting the rate of alcohol metabolism, as well as longer-term consequences by epigenetic changes in fetal gene expression. (
  • It is stressed that Cannabis exposure in experimental models precisely coincided with the fetal period when nerve cells form connections amongst each other. (
  • To date, no large-scale study in people has found any negative effect of caffeine exposure on fetal brain development, says Kimford Meador, a neurologist at Emory University in Atlanta. (
  • The experiment modeled human BPA exposure feeding the mice low-dose BPA which led to the development of lesions in the human prostate tissue, including a precancerous lesion known as prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, or PIN. (
  • Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. (
  • Brain and fetal development damage caused by exposure to CBD and THC are very similar defects seen in fetal alcohol syndrome. (
  • The main objective of this research project is to understand how in utero Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects fetal gonadal development and reproduction in adulthood in mice. (
  • Although effects of BPA on adult reproductive organs have been studied extensively, impacts of in utero BPA exposure particularly on fetal gonadal development are not well understood. (
  • Therefore, the main goal of this Research Project is to test the hypothesis that in utero exposure to BPA causes gonadal defects in fetal and adult life via ERs. (
  • 3 in fetal gonads render embryos insensitive to deleterious effects of BPA in reproductive functions and 2) study whether over expression of ER increases the susceptibility of embryos to in utero exposure of BPA. (
  • In this study, the brain and facial developmental effects caused by one-time exposure to CBs-CBD and THC (the primary ingredients of marijuana)-are very similar to what is seen in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). (
  • They found that alcohol and CBs converge on the Sonic Hedgehog pathway to inhibit signaling between molecules in cells that control growth and development in the embryo. (
  • The development of the embryo in this time period is very similar across all vertebrates," said Parnell, a member of the UNC Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies. (
  • Even before the fetal stage begins, a six-week-old human embryo can arch its back and neck. (
  • However, the researchers identified a significant improvement in uterine artery Doppler pulsatility among both chocolate groups, suggesting that both low- and high-flavonol chocolate may benefit fetal growth and development. (
  • Thinking of buying a fetal Doppler monitor you can use yourself at home? (
  • Our European collaboration in TRUFFLE since 2002 has enabled us to determine the optimum timing of delivery in severe preterm fetal growth restriction, which should be based on the ductus venosus (DV) Doppler together with fetal heart rate tracing. (
  • Follow on work has examined the role of cerebral Doppler in outcome, fetal heart rate monitoring and the effect of steroids in fetal growth restriction. (
  • This motivated the study, published in the EMBO Journal , cunducted in mice and human brain tissue, to decipher the molecular basis of how the major psychoactive component from Cannabis called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC affects brain development of the unborn foetus. (
  • The more we understand about how brain development is disrupted by these effects, the higher the chance of finding amenable targets for potential therapeutic intervention or for informing how to prevent such risk from occurring in the first place," says Dr Tiziano Pramparo, senior author on the work from the University of California, San Diego. (
  • Carla Silva, a neuroscientist at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, was studying the role of adenosine in fetal brain development when an obvious experiment occurred to her: Why not use caffeine to study how adenosine alters brain development? (
  • Over the course of early brain development in mammals, GABA neurons migrate from a transitory, heart-shaped embryonic structure called the ganglionic eminence to the hippocampus, two curved ridges of brain tissue deep in the brain that are key to memory and learning. (
  • Although the work is an interesting, necessary start to understanding the influence of significant caffeine consumption on pregnancies, a number of questions need to be answered before sounding the alarm, says Barbara Thompson, a neuroscientist at the University of Southern California and an expert in the effects of cocaine on fetal brain development. (
  • Expecting mothers, who are exposed to elevated levels of a common environmental pollutant, perchlorate, had lower levels of a thyroid hormone crucial for normal foetal brain development. (
  • The results "represent a paradigm shift for the effect of inflammation on the fetal brain development," said Irina Burd, an associate professor of gynecology and obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University who studies fetal brain development and was not involved in the study. (
  • Parental occupation and education levels encompassing populations with lower SES hinder early brain development, potentially affecting neural, social-emotional and cognitive function later in the infant's life. (
  • Having a clear understanding of early brain development can also help policymakers identify intervention approaches such as educational assistance and occupational training to support and optimize the well-being of people with low SES since they face multiple psychological and physical stressors that can influence childhood brain development, Lu et al. (
  • While there has been extensive research about the interplay between socioeconomic status and brain development, until now little has been known about the exact time when brain development is altered in people at high-risk for poor developmental outcomes," said Catherine Limperopoulos, Ph.D. , director of the Developing Brain Institute and senior author. (
  • A much better technique for unlocking the secret signs of a developing fetal brain is MRI, said Glenn, who is the principal investigator involved of a project at UCSF funded by the National Institutes of Health to study fetal brain development in specific conditions and to correlate fetal MRI findings with neurodevelopmental outcomes. (
  • Primates, including people, are an order of mammals that share many features of brain development. (
  • These include the structure of the placenta, the timing of nerve and brain development, and the resulting proportions of gray and white matter in the brain. (
  • As U.S. obesity rates soar, it's important to understand how excess weight may affect early brain development, she said. (
  • Here's how and when fetal eyesight and vision develop in utero. (
  • Jones explained that these data demonstrate that hypoxia is a key factor causing fetal metabolic adaptations to in utero insults. (
  • Numerous studies have shown the influence of nutrient supply on development in utero. (
  • Dhull C., Khokhar S.K. (2019) Persistent Fetal Vasculature. (
  • The researchers used MRI to measure fetal brain volumes, including cortical gray matter, white matter, deep gray matter, cerebellum and brain stem. (
  • The data will be helpful for future studies, Glenn said, allowing doctors and researchers to compare these normally developing fetal brains to brain images of fetuses with developmental diseases or suspected abnormalities of hippocampal structure and function. (
  • The researchers' observations of how Zika virus arrested fetal brain formation in a pigtail macaque could provide a model for testing therapeutic interventions. (
  • While the virus can cause fetal demise in mice, mouse models have not enabled medical researchers to delve into the causal relationships between Zika virus infection and fetal brain injury. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of focused fetal gene expression analysis of target genes found in amniotic fluid using Standardized NanoArray PCR (SNAP) technology. (
  • Development of brain areas involved in decision-making and behavior may be affected as early as the second trimester, New York University researchers said. (
  • For the study, the researchers examined nearly 200 groups of active nerve cells in the fetal brain. (
  • Researchers used MRIs to measure activity in different regions of the fetal brain. (
  • At the end of the day, nothing has been reproducible, but it doesn't mean it couldn't be," says Lawrence Platt, director of the Center for Fetal Medicine and Women's Ultrasound, in Los Angeles, California, US. (
  • If a possible complication in early fetal development is suspected, your health care provider will use a combination of blood tests and ultrasound tests to make a clear diagnosis. (
  • A key fact to remember when choosing an ultrasound is that a transvaginal ultrasound can detect development in the uterus about a week earlier than a transabdominal ultrasound. (
  • Once the levels have reached at least 2,000, some type of development is expected to be seen in the uterus using high-resolution vaginal ultrasound. (
  • All of these are much more accurate than ultrasound because they're based on an analysis of fetal DNA. (
  • Fetal bones are becoming more visible on ultrasound . (
  • Video recordings were made of the fetal face and upper torso visualized by means of 4D full frontal or facial profile ultrasound recordings. (
  • But for obstetricians who oversee high-risk pregnancies and worry about complications with neuronal development, ultrasound images can be disappointing. (
  • You can also take an in depth look, look at amazing detailed pictures in First Trimester Fetal Growth, Second Trimester Fetal Growth, and Third Trimester Fetal Growth. (
  • Download our second trimester guide for more information about your baby's development, and more. (
  • Play media The parts of the fetal brain that control movement will not fully form until late in the second trimester, and the first part of the third trimester. (
  • Many other vaccines, including those for chicken pox and rubella, are made using fetal tissue from two pregnancies terminated in the 1960s, for reasons unrelated to vaccine development. (
  • At 16 weeks you can almost see through the fetal skin, and a very fine growth of hair called lanugo is forming on the head. (
  • If placental function is found to be impaired by the immune response, they will test several clinical strategies aimed at preserving placental function to determine whether these therapies allow the fetal brain to develop properly even in the presence of infection. (
  • As such, adequate placental function is instrumental for developmental progression throughout intrauterine development. (
  • Many environmental chemicals have already demonstrated detrimental effects on the female reproductive system and embryonic development [ 15 , 16 ]. (
  • Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 [Epub ahead of print]. (
  • There is also a knowledge gap in the association between socioeconomic status and fetal cortical folding - when the brain undergoes structural changes to create sulcal and gyral regions. (
  • Multiple miRNAs have been reported to play a vital role by regulating heart gene expression in heart development. (
  • The study appears today in the September issue of The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics ( 'Proof of Concept Study to Assess Fetal Gene Expression in Amniotic Fluid by NanoArray PCR' ). (
  • Dr. Massingham added, "Some genes in the current panel may prove to be useful components of a fetal gene expression panel. (
  • We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. (
  • Our pictures of fetal development show how he can make facial expressions, suck his thumb, and finally open his eyes by the end of this trimester. (
  • Results showed fetal arterial pCO2 was reduced and arterial lactate concentrations were increased by hypoxia, indicative of increased anearobic metabolism, and fetuses demonstrated reduced insulin and increased norepinephrine arterial concentrations. (
  • The 3-dimensional computational brain models among healthy fetuses helped determine fetal brain cortical folding. (
  • Nobody has ever looked at the development of this part of the brain in live, healthy fetuses. (
  • Detailed, magnificently illustrated photographic color illustrations of complete embryos and fetuses, close-up external and dissection views, cross sections, casts, and echograms, with particular attention in detail to organ and organ-system development. (
  • Fetuses aged 14 to 18 weeks show a pronounced circadian rhythm in their activity level, which can be detected both by fetal electrocardiogram and by measuring locomotor activity. (
  • If a child has fetal alcohol syndrome, he or she experiences problems such as mental retardation, inhibited growth, as well as a myriad of other physical and mental defects. (
  • 1 In 1996, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a congressionally-mandated report by the Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome that reviewed and summarized the knowledge amassed up to the mid-1990s. (
  • 3 The most studied condition of the spectrum is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (
  • Respiratory distress syndrome and mechanical ventilation are important factors in the development of BPD but mechanical ventilation need is not sufficent enough for prediction in a disease with many risk factors. (
  • They can affect fetal growth and organ damage development, especially the central nervous system. (
  • Heart development is a complicated spatio-temporal process of organ formation. (
  • A model of organ culture of 18 day old fetal rat intestine (Quaroni, 1985) was modified and characterized in the present work with the purpose of developing an in vitro model for the study of intestinal epithelial cell behaviour. (
  • After determining the sex, genital tubercles of fetal mice at gestational day 15 were removed. (
  • Although many studies have been conducted to investigate the genetic factors of heart development, the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is currently limited. (
  • Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single-cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures. (
  • In the present study, ovine ovaries collected at frequent time intervals between Day 38 and Day 100 of fetal life were examined by light and electron microscopy. (
  • Our group was a founder member of the international TRUFFLE collaboration (Trial of Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) leading to the multicentre TRUFFLE study which reported in 2015. (
  • Another key area is investigating how cardiovascular function changes in women with established fetal growth restriction and high blood pressure (PRECEPT study). (
  • Their study was a project for the Sexual Development and Reproduction Module under directorship of G. Ian Gallicano, PhD, an associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology. (
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. (
  • In a previous study, we have shown modifications in both contractile and series elastic properties of rat muscles undernourished during fetal development. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet during fetal life on the passive mechanical properties of a postural muscle (soleus) and a nonpostural muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). (
  • The aim of the present study was to establish in a repeated measures design the development of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. (
  • In the present study, we performed multielectrode recordings from the retinas of fetal monkeys of known gestational ages, spanning the period when segregated M and P pathways and eye-specific inputs form. (
  • The analysis is based on data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study 3 which is ideally suited for this purpose, having extensive data on patient reported symptomatology and objective measures of lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE measurements, and skin prick testing during childhood. (
  • Until now, she's been in the embryonic stage of development, which is when cells form to become her brain and nervous system, her limbs, and all her major organs. (
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play a central role in the development of urogenital organs. (
  • Together with conventional gene targeting approaches, recent advances in screening mouse mutants for placental defects, combined with the ability to rapidly induce mutations in vitro and in vivo by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, has provided new insights into the contribution of the genome to normal placental development. (
  • They went on to show that these drugs may be causing defects by interacting on a basic cellular level and disrupting signaling between molecules and cells that control growth and development. (
  • Third, the disturbance of female reproduction inevitably leads to abnormal fetal development. (
  • Medical experts agree that fetal pain begins at 14 weeks gestation, maybe even as early as 8 weeks. (
  • Hormonal cycles: fertilization and early development. (
  • It is important to be informed in order to address any concerns regarding early fetal development. (
  • Micro-CT provides an unprecedented look into early human development," wrote Dr. Yousif Dawood and Dr. Bernadette de Bakker of the University of Amsterdam. (
  • Elucidation of epigenetic processes may enable early intervention strategies to improve early development and growth. (
  • The goods new is the baby is healthy and above average in weight, however, the drs. are quite certain I will have an early csection, due to complications/high risk and have talked about giving me steroids to speed up the baby's lung development (I A. 29.5 weeks right now). (
  • They created hi-res 3D images of the developing fetal brains and showed that the volume of the hippocampus increases linearly during this time period. (
  • Stained sections of fetal mouse brains. (
  • 2006. Normal fetal motility: an overview. (
  • Another theory which potentially explains fetal yawning suggests that yawning is related to central nervous system (CNS) arousal modulation and hence related to waking motility patterns [6] . (
  • Generally speaking, fetal motility can be classified as either elicited or spontaneous, and spontaneous movements may be triggered by either the spine or the brain. (
  • Fetal growth restriction is one of the major causes of morbidity and death in preterm babies. (