Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Postmortem examination of the body.
A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The number of males per 100 females.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
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The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term to my knowledge. It is a place name that can refer to a state in the United States or a country in Europe. If you have a different context or meaning in mind, I would be happy to help further if I can.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
#### My apologies, but the term 'Washington' is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. It refers to various concepts, primarily related to the U.S. state of Washington or the District of Columbia, where the nation's capital is located. If you have any questions about medical topics or conditions, please feel free to ask!
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Endocrine biomarkers of early fetal loss in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) following exposure to dioxin. (1/1902)

This study examines the endocrine alterations associated with early fetal loss (EFL) induced by an environmental toxin, TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), in the cynomolgus macaque, a well-documented reproductive/developmental model for humans. Females were administered single doses of 1, 2, and 4 microgram/kg TCDD (n = 4 per dose group) on gestational day (GD) 12. Urinary estrogen metabolites (estrone conjugates) were monitored to establish the day of ovulation, and serum hormones (estradiol, progesterone, chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin) were measured to assess ovarian and placental endocrine status before and after treatment. EFL occurred between GDs 22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated with TCDD. The primary endocrine alterations associated with TCDD treatment were significant decreases in serum estradiol and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (p < 0.02). Less pronounced decreases in serum progesterone (p = 0.10) and relaxin (p < 0.08) also followed TCDD treatment. In contrast, immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were not reduced by TCDD exposure at any level, indicating that TCDD targets specific components of the chorionic gonadotropin synthesis machinery within the trophoblast to alter the functional capacity of the hormone. These data demonstrate the value of endocrine biomarkers in identifying a toxic exposure to primate pregnancy many days before direct signs of reproductive toxicity were apparent. The increased EFL that occurred after exposure to TCDD might reflect a toxic response initially mediated via endocrine imbalance, leading to placental insufficiency, compromised embryonic circulation, and subsequent EFL.  (+info)

Early embryonic death of mice deficient in gamma-adaptin. (2/1902)

Intracellular protein transport and sorting by vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways requires the formation of a protein coat on the membrane. The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) promotes the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. AP-1 interacts with various sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of cargo molecules, thus indicating a function in protein sorting. We generated mutants of the gamma-adaptin subunit of AP-1 in mice to investigate its role in post-Golgi vesicle transport and sorting processes. gamma-Adaptin-deficient embryos develop until day 3.5 post coitus and die during the prenidation period, revealing that AP-1 is essential for viability. In heterozygous mice the amount of AP-1 complexes is reduced to half of controls. Free beta1- or micro1 chains were not detectable, indicating that they are unstable unless they are part of AP-1 complexes. Heterozygous mice weigh less then their wild-type littermates and show impaired T cell development.  (+info)

Rac1 is required for the formation of three germ layers during gastrulation. (3/1902)

The Rac1, a member of the Rho family proteins, regulates actin organization of cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. We used genetic analysis to elucidate the role of Rac1 in mouse embryonic development. The rac1 deficient embryos showed numerous cell deaths in the space between the embryonic ectoderm and endoderm at the primitive streak stage. Investigation of the primary epiblast culture isolated from rac1 deficient embryos indicated that Rac1 is involved in lamellipodia formation, cell adhesion and cell migration in vivo. These results suggest that Rac1-mediated cell adhesion is essential for the formation of three germ layers during gastrulation.  (+info)

Absence of tumor necrosis factor rescues RelA-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. (4/1902)

Mice lacking the RelA (p65) subunit of NF-kappaB die between days 14 and 15 of embryogenesis because of massive liver destruction. Fibroblasts and macrophages isolated from relA-/- embryos were found to be highly sensitive to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytotoxicity, raising the possibility that endogenous TNF is the cause of liver cell apoptosis. To test this idea, we generated mice lacking both TNF and RelA. Embryogenesis proceeds normally in such mice, and TNF/RelA double-deficient mice are viable and have normal livers. Thus, the RelA-mediated antiapoptotic signal that protects normal cells from TNF injury in vitro can be shown to be operative in vivo.  (+info)

Pregnancy in patients after valve replacement. (5/1902)

This report is based on information obtained from a questionnaire sent to major cardiac centres in the United Kingdom. This produced details of 39 pregnancies in 34 patients after valve replacement. The 39 pregnancies gave rise to 30 healthy babies. The small size of the series probably reflects both the increasing rarity of young women with rheumatic heart disease in this country and the cautious attitude of their cardiologists. This makes it likely that these women represented the best end of the spectrum of cardiac function after valve replacement. Twenty-four pregnancies in 20 women who were not given anticoagulants producted 23 healthy babies and 1 spontaneous abortion. This group comprised 6 patients with free aortic homografts, 1 patient with a fascia lata mitral valve, 1 with a Beall tricuspid prosthesis, 1 with a combined mitral homograft and Starr Edwards aortic prosthesis, and 1 with mitral and aortic frame-mounted fascia lata valves. There were no maternal deaths or thromboembolic complications in this group which included 5 patients who were in atrial fibrillation. Fifteen pregnancies in 14 women who received anticoagulants gave rise to 7 healthy babies. The fetal losses were one stillbirth, one intrauterine death at 34 weeks, and 3 spontaneous abortions; one surviving child has hydrocephalus as a result of blood clot and there were 2 maternal deaths. This group included 13 patients with Starr Edwards valves, 11 mitral and 2 aortic. A patient with a Hammersmith mitral valve was the only one to have been treated with heparin and her valve thrombosed. One patient with a mounted mitral homograft had a cerebral embolus. Nine of these patients were in atrial fibrillation. In 3 additional patients the valve replacement was carried out during pregnancy. Two of the patients survived operation. In one of these who was treated with warfarin the pregnancy well, but there is an increased fetal wastage in patients pregnancy gave rise to a congenitally malformed baby who died in the neonatal period. The baby born to the mother who did not receive anticoagulants has a hare-lip and talipes. Women with artificial valves can tolerate the haemodynamic load of pregnancy well, but there is an increased fetal wastage in patients taking oral anticoagulants. This is probably largely attributable to fetal haemorrhage but there is also a risk of malformation caused by a teratogenic effect of warfarin. Experience gained in non-pregnant patients suggests that withholding anticoagulatns in pregnant patients with prosthetic valves would usually be undersirable but warfarin should be avoided. The advantages of biological valves were apparent in this series.  (+info)

Uterine artery embolization--a successful treatment to control bleeding cervical pregnancy with a simultaneous intrauterine gestation. (6/1902)

A case of a woman suffering from a bleeding heterotopic cervical pregnancy is described. The concurrent cervical pregnancy and intrauterine gestation were diagnosed by ultrasound and bleeding was initially controlled with selective fluoroscopic uterine artery embolization. A selective fetal reduction was done with ultrasound-guided intracardiac potassium chloride. Uterine artery embolization has been used successfully to control haemorrhage in cervical pregnancies when the main goal was to allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility. This is the first report of arterial embolization used to control bleeding for maintaining a concurrent intrauterine heterotopic pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization patient. Unfortunately, subsequent conservative measures led to undesired outcome. This procedure initially controlled the bleeding without disrupting the intrauterine fetal cardiac activity.  (+info)

Maternal diabetes mellitus and congenital malformation. Survey of 205 cases. (7/1902)

Twenty-five out of 205 (i.e. 12%) babies born to diabetic mothers in the Birmingham Maternity Hospital in the period 1969-1974 were malformed as against 6% in a control group. The incidence was highest in the group where mothers were on insulin at the time of conception (17 out of 117, i.e. 15%). No correlation was observed between major malformation in this group and age of onset or duration of the diabetes, progressive vascular complications, maternal age, or parity. Cardiovascular malformations were over-represented.  (+info)

Consanguinity and recurrence risk of stillbirth and infant death. (8/1902)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the recurrence risk for stillbirth and infant death and compare results for offspring of first-cousin parents with results for offspring of unrelated parents. METHODS: The study population consisted of all single births with a previous sibling born in Norway between 1967 and 1994. Altogether, 629,888 births were to unrelated parents, and 3466 births were to parents who were first cousins. The risk of stillbirth and infant death was estimated for subsequent siblings contingent on parental consanguinity and survival of the previous sibling. RESULTS: For unrelated parents, the risk of early death (stillbirth plus infant death) for the subsequent sibling was 17 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 67 of 1000 if the previous child died before 1 year of age. For parents who were first cousins, the risk of early death for the subsequent sibling was 29 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 116 of 1000 if the previous child died. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrence of stillbirth and infant death is higher for offspring of first-cousin parents compared with offspring of unrelated parents.  (+info)

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Fetal mortality refers to the death of a fetus after reaching viability, typically defined as 20 weeks of gestation or greater. The term "stillbirth" is often used interchangeably with fetal mortality and is generally defined as the birth of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Fetal mortality can be caused by a variety of factors, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, placental problems, infections, and complications during labor and delivery. In some cases, the cause of fetal mortality may remain unknown.

The rate of fetal mortality is an important public health indicator and is closely monitored by healthcare providers and researchers. Reducing fetal mortality requires a multifaceted approach that includes prenatal care, identification and management of risk factors, and access to high-quality obstetric care.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

A stillbirth is defined as the delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The baby may die at any time during the pregnancy, but death must occur after 20 weeks to be classified as a stillbirth. Stillbirths can have many different causes, including problems with the placenta or umbilical cord, chromosomal abnormalities, infections, and birth defects. In some cases, the cause of a stillbirth may not be able to be determined.

Stillbirth is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on the parents and other family members. It is important for healthcare providers to offer support and resources to help families cope with their loss. This may include counseling, support groups, and information about memorializing their baby.

A death certificate is a formal legal document that records the date, location, and cause of a person's death. It is typically issued by a medical professional, such as a physician or medical examiner, and is used to establish the fact of death for legal purposes. The information on a death certificate may be used for a variety of purposes, including settling the deceased person's estate, assisting with insurance claims, and supporting public health surveillance and research.

In order to complete a death certificate, the medical professional must determine the cause of death and any significant contributing conditions. This may involve reviewing the deceased person's medical history, conducting a physical examination, and ordering laboratory tests or autopsy. The cause of death is typically described using standardized codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

It is important to note that the information on a death certificate is considered confidential and is protected by law. Only authorized individuals, such as the deceased person's next of kin or legal representative, are permitted to access the document.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Abruptio placentae, also known as placental abruption, is a medical condition that occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus before the baby is born. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy to provide oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus.

In abruptio placentae, the separation of the placenta from the uterus can cause bleeding, which can be serious or life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. The severity of the condition depends on how much of the placenta has separated from the uterus and how much bleeding has occurred.

Abruptio placentae can cause a range of symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, contractions, and fetal distress. In severe cases, it can lead to preterm labor, low birth weight, and even stillbirth. The exact cause of abruptio placentae is not always known, but risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, cocaine use, trauma to the abdomen, and advanced maternal age. Treatment may involve hospitalization, bed rest, medication to prevent contractions, or delivery of the baby if the pregnancy is at term.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including the abdomen (ascites), around the heart (pericardial effusion), and/or within the lungs (pleural effusion). This accumulation can also affect the skin, causing it to become edematous. Hydrops Fetalis is often associated with various underlying causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, genetic disorders, and structural defects that impair the fetus's ability to maintain fluid balance. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. The prognosis for Hydrops Fetalis is generally poor, with a high mortality rate, although early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes in certain situations.

"Cola" is not a medical term. It is a type of flavored carbonated soft drink that originated in the United States. The term "cola" comes from the name of the kola nut, which contains caffeine and has been used as a flavoring ingredient in these drinks. There are many brands of cola, but the two most well-known are Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.

Colas typically contain carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup or sugar, caramel color, phosphoric acid, natural flavors (including extracts of the kola nut), and sometimes caffeine. Some people may use the term "cola" to refer specifically to Coca-Cola or Pepsi-Cola, while others may use it as a generic term for any type of cola-flavored soft drink.

While colas are widely consumed around the world, they have been associated with certain health concerns due to their high sugar content and other ingredients. For example, excessive consumption of colas has been linked to obesity, tooth decay, and bone density loss. However, it's important to note that these risks can be mitigated by consuming colas in moderation and maintaining a balanced diet.

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. It is characterized by the loss of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness, and apnea (no breathing). In medical terms, death can be defined as:

1. Cardiopulmonary Death: The irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions.
2. Brain Death: The irreversible loss of all brain function, including the brainstem. This is often used as a definition of death when performing organ donation.

It's important to note that the exact definition of death can vary somewhat based on cultural, religious, and legal perspectives.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

A birth certificate is an official document that serves as legal proof of a person's birth and provides important information about the individual, including their full name, date and place of birth, sex, parents' names, and other identifying details. In medical terms, a birth certificate may be used to establish a patient's identity, age, and other relevant demographic information.

Birth certificates are typically issued by the government agency responsible for vital records in the jurisdiction where the individual was born, such as a state or county health department. They are considered legal documents and are often required for various purposes, such as enrolling in school, applying for a passport, or obtaining government benefits.

It is important to note that birth certificates may be amended or corrected if there are errors or discrepancies in the information they contain. In some cases, individuals may also need to obtain certified copies of their birth certificate from the appropriate government agency in order to provide proof of their identity or other personal information.

The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby through the umbilical cord. It also removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's side of the placenta contains many tiny blood vessels that connect to the baby's circulatory system. This allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother's and baby's blood. After the baby is born, the placenta is usually expelled from the uterus in a process called afterbirth.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Perinatal mortality is the death of a baby around the time of birth. It specifically refers to stillbirths (fetal deaths at 28 weeks of gestation or more) and deaths in the first week of life (early neonatal deaths). The perinatal period is defined as beginning at 22 weeks (154 days) of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. Perinatal mortality rate is the number of perinatal deaths during this period, expressed per 1000 total births (live births + stillbirths). High perinatal mortality rates can indicate poor quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

Placental function tests are medical assessments used to determine the adequacy and health of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy, providing oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus while removing waste products. Efficient placental function is crucial for a healthy pregnancy and normal fetal development.

There are several placental function tests available, including:

1. Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) Test: This test measures the levels of PlGF, a protein produced by the placenta. Decreased PlGF levels may indicate impaired placental function and increased risk for complications such as preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction.
2. Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 1 (sFlt-1) Test: sFlt-1 is a protein that inhibits the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is essential for placental blood vessel formation. Elevated sFlt-1 levels can disrupt VEGF function, leading to poor placental perfusion and increased risk for preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction.
3. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) Test: PP13 is a protein produced by the placenta that helps maintain the integrity of blood vessels. Elevated PP13 levels may indicate placental damage and increased risk for preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction.
4. Doppler Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to assess blood flow in the uterine and umbilical arteries, providing information about the placenta's ability to supply oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. Reduced or abnormal blood flow may indicate impaired placental function.
5. Mean Transverse Cervical Diameter (MTCD) Measurement: This ultrasound measurement evaluates the size of the cervix, which can provide information about the risk for preterm labor and delivery. A smaller cervical diameter may indicate increased risk for preterm birth, which can be associated with placental insufficiency.

These tests help healthcare providers monitor placental health during pregnancy, identify potential complications early, and develop appropriate management strategies to ensure the best possible outcomes for both mother and baby.

Fetal growth retardation, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a condition in which a fetus fails to grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by various factors such as maternal health problems, placental insufficiency, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic disorders. The fetus may be smaller than expected for its gestational age, have reduced movement, and may be at risk for complications during labor and delivery. It is important to monitor fetal growth and development closely throughout pregnancy to detect any potential issues early on and provide appropriate medical interventions.

Fetal resorption, also known as fetal demise or intrauterine fetal death, is a medical term that refers to the absorption of a nonviable fetus by the mother's body after its death in utero. This process typically occurs before the 20th week of gestation and may go unnoticed if it happens early in pregnancy.

During fetal resorption, the fetal tissue is broken down and absorbed by the mother's body, leaving no visible remains of the fetus. The placenta and other surrounding tissues may still be present, but they often undergo changes as well. In some cases, a small amount of fetal tissue may be expelled from the uterus during the resorption process.

The causes of fetal resorption can vary, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, and environmental factors. It is essential to seek medical attention if a woman suspects fetal resorption or experiences any unusual symptoms during pregnancy, such as vaginal bleeding or decreased fetal movement, to ensure proper diagnosis and management.

Agrochemicals are a broad range of chemical products used in agriculture to enhance crop production and protect plants from pests. They include fertilizers, which provide nutrients to plants, and pesticides, which include herbicides (weed killers), insecticides (insect killers), fungicides (fungus killers), and other substances used to control pests. Agrochemicals are used to improve crop yield, quality, and resistance to environmental stressors, but their use can also have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not managed properly.

Parvovirus B19, Human is a single-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects humans. It belongs to the Parvoviridae family and Erbovirus genus. This virus is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, a mild, self-limiting illness characterized by a facial rash and occasionally joint pain or inflammation.

Parvovirus B19 has a strong tropism for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, where it replicates and causes temporary suppression of red blood cell production (aplastic crisis) in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders such as sickle cell disease or spherocytosis.

Additionally, Parvovirus B19 can cause more severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, and fetuses. Infection during pregnancy may lead to hydrops fetalis, anemia, or even fetal death, particularly in the first and second trimesters. Transmission of the virus occurs primarily through respiratory droplets and occasionally via blood transfusions or vertical transmission from mother to fetus.

Parvoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family. These viruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The most well-known member of this family is the human parvovirus B19, which is responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations such as:

1. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A common childhood exanthem characterized by a "slapped cheek" rash and a lace-like rash on the extremities.
2. Transient aplastic crisis: A sudden and temporary halt in red blood cell production, which can lead to severe anemia in individuals with underlying hematologic disorders.
3. Hydrops fetalis: Intrauterine death due to severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women, leading to heart failure and widespread fluid accumulation in the fetus.

Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded DNA genome. They primarily infect and replicate within actively dividing cells, making them particularly harmful to rapidly proliferating tissues such as bone marrow and fetal tissues. In addition to parvovirus B19, other Parvoviridae family members can cause significant diseases in animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

High-risk pregnancy is a term used to describe a situation where the mother or the fetus has an increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or in the postpartum period. These risks may be due to pre-existing medical conditions in the mother, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Other factors that can contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include advanced maternal age (35 years and older), obesity, multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.), fetal growth restriction, placental issues, and a history of previous pregnancy complications or preterm labor.

High-risk pregnancies require specialized care and monitoring by healthcare professionals, often involving maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians, perinatologists, and neonatologists. Regular prenatal care, frequent checkups, ultrasound monitoring, and sometimes additional testing and interventions may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells, is withdrawn from the uterus through a hollow needle inserted into the abdomen of a pregnant woman. This procedure is typically performed between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy.

The main purpose of amniocentesis is to diagnose genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities in the developing fetus, such as Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, and neural tube defects. The fetal cells obtained from the amniotic fluid can be cultured and analyzed for various genetic characteristics, including chromosomal structure and number, as well as specific gene mutations.

Amniocentesis carries a small risk of complications, such as miscarriage, infection, or injury to the fetus. Therefore, it is generally offered to women who have an increased risk of having a baby with a genetic disorder or chromosomal abnormality, such as those over the age of 35, those with a family history of genetic disorders, or those who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a genetic condition.

It's important to note that while amniocentesis can provide valuable information about the health of the fetus, it does not guarantee a completely normal baby, and there are some risks associated with the procedure. Therefore, the decision to undergo amniocentesis should be made carefully, in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual circumstances and preferences of each woman.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected natural death caused by the cessation of cardiac activity. It is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, and is often associated with underlying heart disease, although it can occur in people with no known heart condition. SCD is typically defined as a natural death due to cardiac causes that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, or if the individual was last seen alive in a normal state of health, it can be defined as occurring within 24 hours.

It's important to note that sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is different from SCD, although they are related. SCA refers to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity, which if not treated immediately can lead to SCD.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy, characterized by Hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells), Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count. It is often considered a variant of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia, although it can also occur without these conditions.

The symptoms of HELLP syndrome include headache, nausea and vomiting, upper right abdominal pain, and visual disturbances. It can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the baby, such as liver failure, placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The exact cause of HELLP syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be related to problems with the blood vessels that supply the placenta. Treatment typically involves delivering the baby as soon as possible, even if the baby is premature. Women who have had HELLP syndrome are at increased risk for complications in future pregnancies.

Fetofetal transfusion is a medical condition that can occur in pregnancies with multiple fetuses, such as twins or higher-order multiples. It refers to the transfer of blood from one fetus (donor) to another (recipient) through anastomotic connections in their shared placenta.

In some cases, these anastomoses can result in an imbalance in blood flow between the fetuses, leading to a net transfer of blood from one fetus to the other. This situation is more likely to occur when there is a significant weight or size difference between the fetuses, known as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).

In TTTS, the recipient fetus receives an excess of blood, which can lead to high-output cardiac failure, hydrops, and potential intrauterine demise. Meanwhile, the donor fetus may become anemic, growth-restricted, and at risk for hypovolemia and intrauterine demise as well. Fetofetal transfusion can be diagnosed through ultrasound evaluation and managed with various interventions, including laser ablation of anastomotic vessels or fetoscopic surgery, depending on the severity and gestational age at diagnosis.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

A premature birth is defined as the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention due to maternal or fetal complications. Premature babies, also known as preemies, may face various health challenges depending on how early they are born and their weight at birth. These challenges can include respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, issues with feeding and digestion, developmental delays, and vision problems. With advancements in medical care and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), many premature babies survive and go on to lead healthy lives.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

"Vital statistics" is a term used in public health and medical contexts to refer to the statistical data collected on births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and other key life events. These statistics are considered important for monitoring population trends, planning public health programs and policies, and conducting demographic and epidemiological research.

The specific data collected as part of vital statistics may vary by country or region, but typically includes information such as the date and place of the event, the age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics of the individuals involved, as well as any relevant medical information (such as cause of death or birth weight).

Vital statistics are often collected and maintained by government agencies, such as health departments or statistical offices, and are used to inform a wide range of public health and policy decisions.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Placental circulation refers to the specialized circulatory system that develops during pregnancy to allow for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother's blood and the fetal blood in the placenta. The placenta is a highly vascular organ that grows within the uterus and is connected to the developing fetus via the umbilical cord.

In the maternal side of the placenta, the spiral arteries branch into smaller vessels called the intervillous spaces, where they come in close contact with the fetal blood vessels within the villi (finger-like projections) of the placenta. The intervillous spaces are filled with maternal blood that flows around the villi, allowing for the exchange of gases and nutrients between the two circulations.

On the fetal side, the umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta, and one umbilical vein that returns oxygenated blood back to the fetus. The umbilical arteries branch into smaller vessels within the villi, where they exchange gases and nutrients with the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces.

Overall, the placental circulation is a crucial component of fetal development, allowing for the growing fetus to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients to support its growth and development.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

Hazardous waste, as defined in the medical context, refers to any waste that poses a substantial danger to public health or the environment. These wastes can be generated from various sources, including industrial processes, healthcare activities, and household items. They often contain properties that make them harmful, such as being toxic, corrosive, reactive, or ignitable.

In the medical field, hazardous waste may include:

1. Infectious waste: Waste contaminated with potentially infectious materials, such as used needles, surgical instruments, and cultures from medical laboratories.
2. Pathological waste: Human or animal tissues, organs, or fluids that may pose a risk of infection.
3. Pharmaceutical waste: Expired, unused, or contaminated medications, including both prescription and over-the-counter drugs.
4. Chemical waste: Including solvents, disinfectants, heavy metals, and other chemicals used in medical laboratories, research facilities, and healthcare settings.
5. Radioactive waste: Materials that emit radiation, such as those used in medical imaging or cancer treatments.

Proper handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste are crucial to minimize the risks they pose to human health and the environment. Regulations governing hazardous waste management vary by country and region but generally require proper labeling, containment, transportation, and disposal methods to ensure safety.

Fetal monitoring is a procedure used during labor and delivery to assess the well-being of the fetus. It involves the use of electronic devices to measure and record the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. The information obtained from fetal monitoring can help healthcare providers identify any signs of fetal distress, such as a decreased fetal heart rate, which may indicate the need for interventions or an emergency cesarean delivery.

There are two main types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. External fetal monitoring involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to detect the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Internal fetal monitoring, which is typically used during high-risk deliveries, involves inserting an electrode into the fetus' scalp to measure the fetal heart rate more accurately.

Fetal monitoring can provide valuable information about the fetus's well-being during labor and delivery, but it is important to note that it has limitations and may not always detect fetal distress in a timely manner. Therefore, healthcare providers must use their clinical judgment and other assessment tools, such as fetal movement counting and visual examination of the fetus, to ensure the safe delivery of the baby.

The sex ratio is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in demography and population health. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a given population. It is typically expressed as the number of males for every 100 females. A sex ratio of 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females.

In the context of human populations, the sex ratio at birth is usually around 103-107 males per 100 females, reflecting a slightly higher likelihood of male births. However, due to biological factors such as higher male mortality rates in infancy and childhood, as well as social and behavioral factors, the sex ratio tends to equalize over time and can even shift in favor of women in older age groups.

It's worth noting that significant deviations from the expected sex ratio at birth or in a population can indicate underlying health issues or societal problems. For example, skewed sex ratios may be associated with gender discrimination, selective abortion of female fetuses, or exposure to environmental toxins that affect male reproductive health.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Mandatory reporting is a legal requirement that healthcare professionals, as well as other designated individuals or organizations, must report suspected or confirmed cases of abuse, neglect, or exploitation of vulnerable populations to the appropriate authorities. These vulnerable populations often include children, elderly persons, and individuals with disabilities. The purpose of mandatory reporting is to ensure the protection and safety of these at-risk individuals and to facilitate interventions that can address and prevent further harm.

Healthcare professionals who are mandated reporters typically include doctors, nurses, mental health professionals, social workers, and teachers, among others. Mandatory reporting requirements vary by jurisdiction but generally involve immediate notification upon suspicion or knowledge of maltreatment. Failing to report as required can result in legal consequences for the mandated reporter, including potential penalties such as fines, license suspension, or even criminal charges.

The specifics of mandatory reporting laws and regulations differ between countries, states, and provinces; therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the requirements applicable to their particular practice settings.

Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is a term used in pediatrics to describe newborn infants who are smaller in size than expected for the number of weeks they have been in the womb. It is typically defined as a baby whose weight is below the 10th percentile for its gestational age. SGA can be further classified into two categories: constitutionally small (also known as physiologically small) and pathologically small. Constitutionally small infants are those who are genetically predisposed to being smaller, while pathologically small infants have a growth restriction due to factors such as placental insufficiency, maternal hypertension, or chromosomal abnormalities.

It is important to note that SGA is not the same as premature birth. Premature babies are those born before 37 weeks of gestation, regardless of their size. However, a baby can be both premature and SGA.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder, typically characterized by the onset of high blood pressure (hypertension) and damage to organs, such as the kidneys, after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is often accompanied by proteinuria, which is the presence of excess protein in the urine. Pre-eclampsia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated or unmanaged.

The exact causes of pre-eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is believed that placental issues, genetic factors, and immune system problems may contribute to its development. Risk factors include first-time pregnancies, history of pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies, chronic hypertension, obesity, older age (35 or older), and assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies.

Pre-eclampsia can progress to a more severe form called eclampsia, which is characterized by the onset of seizures. HELLP syndrome, another severe complication, involves hemolysis (breaking down of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

Early detection and management of pre-eclampsia are crucial to prevent severe complications. Regular prenatal care, including frequent blood pressure checks and urine tests, can help identify early signs of the condition. Treatment typically involves close monitoring, medication to lower blood pressure, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity, and, in some cases, delivery of the baby if the mother's or baby's health is at risk.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

Non-steroidal abortifacient agents are medications or substances that can cause abortion by interfering with the normal functioning of the hormones in the reproductive system. These agents do not contain steroids and work primarily by preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus or by causing the shedding of the uterine lining, leading to the termination of an early pregnancy.

Examples of non-steroidal abortifacient agents include:

1. Mifepristone (RU-486): This medication works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. When used in combination with another medication called misoprostol, it can cause an abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
2. Misoprostol: This medication is primarily used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers but can also be used as an abortifacient agent. It causes uterine contractions and cervical dilation, leading to the expulsion of the contents of the uterus.
3. High-dose estrogen and progestin: These hormones can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and cause an early abortion when taken in high doses.
4. Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as pennyroyal, tansy, and savin, have been used traditionally as abortifacient agents. However, their effectiveness and safety are not well-established, and they can cause serious side effects or even death when taken in large quantities.

It is important to note that the use of non-steroidal abortifacient agents for the purpose of inducing an abortion should only be done under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider, as there are potential risks and complications associated with their use. Additionally, some of these agents may be restricted or illegal in certain jurisdictions, so it is essential to comply with local laws and regulations regarding their use.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

"Paternal exposure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it generally refers to the potential impact on offspring due to exposures experienced by the father prior to conception. These exposures could include environmental factors such as radiation, chemicals, or infections, as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol use, or drug use. Some studies suggest that these exposures may have an effect on the developing embryo or fetus, but more research is needed to fully understand the extent and nature of these effects.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

Intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) is a medical procedure in which blood is transfused into the fetal circulation through the umbilical vein while the fetus is still in the uterus. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe anemia in the fetus, most commonly caused by hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility between the mother and fetus.

During the procedure, ultrasound guidance is used to insert a thin needle through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the umbilical vein of the fetus. The blood is then transfused slowly, allowing the fetal body to adjust to the increased volume. The procedure may need to be repeated every 2-4 weeks until the baby is mature enough for delivery.

IUT is a highly specialized procedure that requires significant expertise and experience in maternal-fetal medicine and interventional radiology. It carries risks such as preterm labor, infection, fetal bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), and fetal loss, but it can be life-saving for the fetus when performed appropriately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"Attitude to Death" is not a medical term per se, but it does refer to an individual's perspective, feelings, and beliefs about death and dying. It can encompass various aspects such as fear, acceptance, curiosity, denial, or preparation. While not a medical definition, understanding a person's attitude to death can be relevant in healthcare settings, particularly in palliative and end-of-life care, as it can influence their decisions and experiences around their own mortality.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York" is not a medical term or concept. New York refers to a state in the United States, as well as its largest city. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Congenital Syphilis is a medical condition that occurs when a mother with active syphilis infects her fetus through the placenta during pregnancy. If left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to serious health problems in the newborn and can even cause death. The symptoms of congenital syphilis can appear at any time during the first two years of life, and they may include:

* Skin rashes or sores on the body, including the hands and feet
* Deformities of the bones and teeth
* Vision problems or blindness
* Hearing loss
* Developmental delays
* Neurological issues, such as seizures or difficulty coordinating movements
* Anemia
* Jaundice
* Enlarged liver and spleen

If congenital syphilis is diagnosed early, it can be treated with antibiotics, which can help to prevent serious health problems and reduce the risk of transmission to others. However, if left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to long-term complications, such as developmental delays, neurological damage, and blindness. It is important for pregnant women to be screened for syphilis early in pregnancy and receive appropriate treatment to prevent the transmission of this serious infection to their unborn child.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood. These antibodies are directed against phospholipids, a type of fat molecule found in cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The presence of these antibodies can lead to abnormal blood clotting, which can cause serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.

APS can occur either on its own (primary APS) or in conjunction with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (secondary APS). The exact cause of APS is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of APS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the blood clots. They may include:

* Recurrent miscarriages or stillbirths
* Blood clots in the legs, lungs, or other parts of the body
* Skin ulcers or lesions
* Headaches, seizures, or stroke-like symptoms
* Kidney problems
* Heart valve abnormalities

Diagnosis of APS typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Treatment may include medications to prevent blood clots, such as anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, as well as management of any underlying autoimmune disorders.

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used in obstetrics and gynecology to prevent and treat ulcers caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs long term, induce labor, manage postpartum hemorrhage, and cause abortion. It is also used off-label for cervical ripening before gynecologic surgery and to treat miscarriage.

In addition, Misoprostol has been found to be effective in reducing the risk of gastric ulcers and NSAID-induced dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain or discomfort) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions who require long-term NSAID therapy.

It is important to note that Misoprostol should not be used during pregnancy unless under the supervision of a healthcare provider for specific medical indications, such as preventing or treating stomach ulcers in pregnant women taking NSAIDs or inducing labor. It can cause miscarriage and birth defects if taken during early pregnancy.

Premature obstetric labor, also known as preterm labor, is defined as regular contractions leading to cervical changes that begin before 37 weeks of gestation. This condition can result in premature birth and potentially complications for the newborn, depending on how early the delivery occurs. It's important to note that premature labor requires medical attention and intervention to try to stop or delay it, if possible, to allow for further fetal development.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

Infarction is the term used in medicine to describe the death of tissue (also known as an "area of necrosis") due to the lack of blood supply. This can occur when a blood vessel that supplies oxygen and nutrients to a particular area of the body becomes blocked or obstructed, leading to the deprivation of oxygen and nutrients necessary for the survival of cells in that region.

The blockage in the blood vessel is usually caused by a clot (thrombus) or an embolus, which is a small particle that travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a smaller vessel. The severity and extent of infarction depend on several factors, including the size and location of the affected blood vessel, the duration of the obstruction, and the presence of collateral circulation (alternative blood vessels that can compensate for the blocked one).

Common examples of infarctions include myocardial infarction (heart attack), cerebral infarction (stroke), and pulmonary infarction (lung tissue death due to obstruction in the lung's blood vessels). Infarctions can lead to various symptoms, depending on the affected organ or tissue, and may require medical intervention to manage complications and prevent further damage.

A Cesarean section, often referred to as a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. It involves making an incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus to remove the baby. This procedure may be necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the mother or the baby at risk.

There are several reasons why a C-section might be recommended, including:

* The baby is in a breech position (feet first) or a transverse position (sideways) and cannot be turned to a normal head-down position.
* The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother's birth canal.
* The mother has a medical condition, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, that could make vaginal delivery risky.
* The mother has an infection, such as HIV or herpes, that could be passed to the baby during a vaginal delivery.
* The labor is not progressing and there are concerns about the health of the mother or the baby.

C-sections are generally safe for both the mother and the baby, but like any surgery, they do carry some risks. These can include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and injury to nearby organs. In addition, women who have a C-section are more likely to experience complications in future pregnancies, such as placenta previa or uterine rupture.

If you have questions about whether a C-section is necessary for your delivery, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a place name, referring to either a state in the United States or a country in Eastern Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

Hematologic pregnancy complications refer to disorders related to the blood and blood-forming tissues that occur during pregnancy. These complications can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus if not properly managed. Some common hematologic pregnancy complications include:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia during pregnancy.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets (cells that help blood clot) in the blood. Mild thrombocytopenia is relatively common during pregnancy, but severe thrombocytopenia can increase the risk of bleeding during delivery.
3. Gestational thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (GTTP): A rare but serious disorder that can cause blood clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to a decrease in the number of platelets and red blood cells. GTTP can cause serious complications such as stroke, kidney failure, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): A condition characterized by abnormal clotting and bleeding throughout the body. DIC can be triggered by various conditions such as severe infections, pregnancy complications, or cancer.
5. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome: A serious complication of pregnancy that can cause damage to the liver and lead to bleeding. HELLP syndrome is often associated with preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys.

It's important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for these and other potential complications, and to seek prompt medical attention if any concerning symptoms arise.

Monozygotic twins, also known as identical twins, are derived from a single fertilized egg (ovum) that splits and develops into two separate embryos. This results in the formation of genetically identical individuals who share the same genetic material, with the exception of potential mutations that may occur after the split. Monozygotic twins have the same sex, blood type, and other genetic traits. They are a unique pair of siblings, sharing an extraordinary degree of resemblance in physical characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.

Fetal development is the process in which a fertilized egg grows and develops into a fetus, which is a developing human being from the end of the eighth week after conception until birth. This complex process involves many different stages, including:

1. Fertilization: The union of a sperm and an egg to form a zygote.
2. Implantation: The movement of the zygote into the lining of the uterus, where it will begin to grow and develop.
3. Formation of the embryo: The development of the basic structures of the body, including the neural tube (which becomes the brain and spinal cord), heart, gastrointestinal tract, and sensory organs.
4. Differentiation of tissues and organs: The process by which different cells and tissues become specialized to perform specific functions.
5. Growth and maturation: The continued growth and development of the fetus, including the formation of bones, muscles, and other tissues.

Fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Proper nutrition, prenatal care, and avoidance of harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and drugs are important for ensuring healthy fetal development.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Washington" is not a medical term. It is a place name, referring to the U.S. state of Washington or the city of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Chorioamnionitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the fetal membranes, specifically the chorion and amnion, which make up the membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus in the uterus. This condition is typically caused by a bacterial infection that ascends from the lower genital tract of the mother and infects the amniotic cavity, leading to an inflammatory response.

The symptoms of chorioamnionitis can vary but often include fever, abdominal pain or tenderness, foul-smelling amniotic fluid, and an elevated white blood cell count in the mother's blood. In some cases, it may also be associated with preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes.

Chorioamnionitis can have serious consequences for both the mother and the baby. It can increase the risk of complications such as sepsis, pneumonia, and endometritis in the mother, and may lead to premature birth, respiratory distress syndrome, and brain injury in the newborn. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics to the mother to help clear the infection and prevent further complications.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

"Fetal Viability and Death" (PDF). United States. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and ... Fetal viability depends largely on the fetal organ maturity, and environmental conditions. According to Websters Encyclopedic ... Fetal Viability and Registration of Births and Deaths". Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists UK. Archived from the ... That stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside the womb by natural or ...
... is one cause of intrauterine death (IUD). The Kleihauer-Betke test is a blood test used to measure ... Fetal-maternal haemorrhage occurs when this membrane ceases to function as a barrier and fetal cells may come in contact with ... Fetal-maternal haemorrhage is the loss of fetal blood cells into the maternal circulation. It takes place in normal pregnancies ... Fetal-maternal haemorrhage can also be diagnosed by flow cytometry, using anti-foetal hemoglobin antibodies (anti-HbF). If ...
... and the PNM may only include late fetal death and neonatal death. Fetal death can also be divided into death prior to labor, ... Fetal mortality refers to stillbirths or fetal death. It encompasses any death of a fetus after 20 weeks of gestation or 500 gm ... antenatal (antepartum) death, and death during labor, intranatal (intrapartum) death. Neonatal mortality refers to death of a ... "NVSS - Fetal Deaths". 8 November 2017. "Ending Newborn Deaths" (PDF). "Million babies die a year - charity - IOL ...
... deaths, fetal deaths, marriages, and divorces) and other civil status events pertaining to the population as provided by decree ... deaths and fetal deaths; and marriages, divorces, separations, and annulments of marriage. The functioning of the three systems ... or single mothers Sociocultural practices around death or fear of being blamed for a death when registering the event ... The death certificate permits the removal of individuals from the register, which is important for updating electoral rolls, ...
White BA, Labhsetwar SA, Mian AN (November 2002). "Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and fetal death". Obstetrics and Gynecology. ...
"Maternal brain death and prolonged fetal survival". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 74 (3 Pt 2): 434-7. PMID 2761925. Powner, DJ; ... Brain stem death Clinical death Heart transplantation Legal death Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers Transplant surgery ... Organs from brain deaths, however, have a better success rate, and currently most organ donation is from these deaths. How long ... The ambiguity around brain death and true death has followed it to present day. In an effort to clarify some of these gray ...
Fetal death can be caused by asphyxia. Obstructed labor is the leading cause of uterine rupture worldwide. Maternal death can ... This resulted in 23,000 maternal deaths down from 29,000 deaths in 1990 (about 8% of all deaths related to pregnancy). It is ... In 2013 it resulted in 19,000 maternal deaths down from 29,000 deaths in 1990. Globally, obstructed labor accounts for 8% of ... Most deaths due to this condition occur in the developing world. The main causes of obstructed labour include a large or ...
It is an indicator of fetal death. When fetal death has occurred loss of alignment and overriding of the bones of cranial vault ... Most estimates place the precise time of fetal death at about 4-7 days before overlapping and separation of the fetal skull ... Olds' Maternal-Newborn Nursing, 8th edition, p. 1136 S. A. Journal of Radiology, March 1964, OVERLAPPING OF THE FOETAL SKULL ... A pathogonomic sign of intra-uterine death. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Chicago, 1922, 34: 754. 00509 at CHORUS The ...
Males experience a higher likelihood of fetal death. There are two types of SGBS, each found on a different gene: SGBS is also ... Due to the high percentage of male deaths during the neonatal period, early detection of tumors is crucial. In order to detect ... This particular gene is widely expressed, especially in tissues derived from the mesoderm during fetal development. The ... Chen, Chih-Ping (1 June 2012). "Prenatal findings and the genetic diagnosis of fetal overgrowth disorders: Simpson-Golabi- ...
... and fetal death due to uterine vessels occlusion. No significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were found in a study ... Cervical assessment from Fetal Medicine Foundation. Retrieved Feb 2014. Christiansen, Ole (2014). Recurrent pregnancy loss. ...
... fetal death also occurs in nearly all those cases. Abortion decreases the risk of death to the mother. Some survivors ... On 25 February 2018, there were 1081 suspected cases and 90 reported deaths; 317 of the cases and 72 deaths were confirmed as ... The risk of death once infected is about one percent and frequently occurs within two weeks of the onset of symptoms. Of those ... The risk of death is greater in those who are pregnant. A "Swollen baby syndrome" may occur in newborns, infants and toddlers ...
August 2006). "In utero antiepileptic drug exposure: fetal death and malformations". Neurology. 67 (3): 407-412. doi:10.1212/01 ... "Fetal valproate syndrome" (FVS) has been used to refer to the effects of valproate exposure in utero. However, similar to the ... Death AK, McGrath KC, Handelsman DJ (December 2005). "Valproate is an anti-androgen and anti-progestin". Steroids. 70 (14): 946 ... Kumar S, Wong H, Yeung SA, Riggs KW, Abbott FS, Rurak DW (July 2000). "Disposition of valproic acid in maternal, fetal, and ...
Premature termination of the pregnancy (abortion). Fetal death in utero and previous history of stillbirth. Twin pregnancy ... and also reduces fetal death. Some observational/retrospective studies have shown that non-indicated, elective inductions ... Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). There are health risks to the woman in continuing the pregnancy (e.g. she has pre ... Inducing labour after 41 weeks of completed gestion is likely to reduce the risk of perinatal death and stillbirth compared ...
Farrow JR, Davis GJ, Roy TM, McCloud LC, Nichols GR (November 1990). "Fetal death due to nonlethal maternal carbon monoxide ... Carbon monoxide poisoning in pregnant women may cause severe adverse fetal effects. Poisoning causes fetal tissue hypoxia by ... Carbon monoxide also crosses the placenta and combines with fetal hemoglobin, causing more direct fetal tissue hypoxia. ... severe fetal poisoning or death may still occur. National Center for Environmental Health (30 December 2015). "Carbon Monoxide ...
The halo sign of temporal arteritis should not be confused with Deuel's halo sign, which is a sign of fetal death. The halo ... Shaff MI (April 1975). "An evaluation of the radiological signs of fetal death". S. Afr. Med. J. 49 (18): 736-8. PMID 1169818. ...
... B has been proposed as a zoonotic virus, associated with diabetes and intrauterine fetal death in humans. However ... "Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths". Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular ... The 2014 outbreak is a higher number than expected, and is thought to be linked to maternal-fetal transmission. "ICTV Master ...
If left untreated, the result may be fetal death. The destruction of RBCs leads to elevated bilirubin levels ( ... A sample of fetal blood can be taken from the umbilical vein prior to the transfusion. Often, this is all done at the same PUBS ... Intraperitoneal transfusion-blood transfused into fetal abdomen Intravascular transfusion-blood transfused into fetal umbilical ... Blood is taken from the mother, and using PCR, can detect fetal DNA. This blood test is non-invasive to the fetus and can help ...
In November 2016, the group falsely claimed in a blog post that the flu shot increases risk of fetal death. This post would go ... "Instagram post falsely says flu shot causes fetal death". Politifact. The Poynter Institute. Archived from the original on ...
Klinger FG, Rossi V, De Felici M (2015). "Multifaceted programmed cell death in the mammalian fetal ovary". The International ... Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent amongst humans who have ovaries and leads to many deaths in the United States. Since FSH ... Matsuda F, Inoue N, Goto Y, Maeda A, Cheng Y, Sakamaki K, Manabe N (October 2008). "cFLIP regulates death receptor-mediated ... July 2008). "Role of cell death ligand and receptor system on regulation of follicular atresia in pig ovaries". Reproduction in ...
All can reflect embryonic or fetal death or both. The only outward sign may be a decrease in maternal abdominal girth when ... Diagnostic surveys have indicated that PPV is the major infectious cause of embryonic and fetal death. In addition to its ... Consequences of maternal infection during this interval are embryonic and fetal death followed by resorption and mummification ... causes reproductive failure of swine characterized by embryonic and fetal infection and death, usually in the absence of ...
Foetal deaths and miscarriages were common. Perhaps the best known dioxin accident occurred in Seveso, Italy, in 1976. A tank ... Among fishermen with high dioxin concentrations in their bodies, cancer deaths were decreased rather than increased. All this ... and typically a delayed death of the animal in 1 to 6 weeks. By far most toxicity studies have been performed using 2,3,7,8- ... including foetal, neonatal, and possibly pubescent stages. Well established developmental effects are cleft palate, ...
In most cases, Ballantyne syndrome causes fetal or neonatal death. In contrast, maternal involvement is limited at the most to ... Fetal hydrops suggests the presence of an important and probably fatal fetal pathology. It can be associated with parvovirus ... It seems much more likely that an etiology of severe fetal hydrops may cause Ballantyne syndrome when the fetal status greatly ... "Spontaneous reversal of mirror syndrome in a twin pregnancy after a single fetal death". European Journal of Obstetrics & ...
High fetal and neonatal death make the process very inefficient. Resulting cloned offspring are also plagued with development ... This study used fetal and infantile somatic cells to produce their ESC. In April 2014, an international research team expanded ... Wilmut, I.; Schnieke, A. E.; McWhir, J.; Kind, A. J.; Campbell, K. H. S. (1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult ... The biochemistry also has to be extremely precise, as most late term cloned fetus deaths are the result of inadequate ...
... intrauterine fetal death, and sudden infant death syndrome in humans. In addition, studies are being conducted worldwide to ... 2006). "Intrauterine death, fetal malformation, and delayed pregnancy in Ljungan virus-infected mice". Birth Defects Research ... 2007). "Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths". Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and ... This stressful situation results in disease, death and population decline, leading to a pattern of cyclic variation in ...
... is regularly used in some Canadian hospitals for labour induction for fetal deaths early in pregnancy, and for ... June 2019). "Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 ( ... citing reports of maternal and fetal deaths when it was used to induce labor. The American College of Obstetricians and ... A randomised control trial of misoprostol use found a 38% reduction in maternal deaths due to post partum haemorrhage in ...
"Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks)". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 (6): CD002253. doi ...
The risk of premature delivery is about 10%. The risk of fetal death in the perioperative period after an appendectomy for ... The risk of fetal death is 20% in perforated appendicitis. There has been debate regarding which surgical approach is preferred ... Overall, there is no increased risk of fetal loss or preterm delivery with the laparoscopic approach (LA) as compared to the ... Placing the patient in a 30-degree left lateral decubitus position alleviates this pressure and prevents fetal distress. One ...
Fetal complications include preterm delivery, low birth weight, and death. Increasing rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome ... Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy confers an increased rate of fetal death in utero and spontaneous abortion ( ... Thyroid disease in pregnancy can, if uncorrected, cause adverse effects on fetal and maternal well-being. The deleterious ... Untreated depression has been linked to premature birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction, and postnatal ...
These defects, caused by Foxp1 inactivation, lead to fetal death. Disruptions of FoxP1 have been identified in very rare human ...
Karlsson, M.; Jacobsson, B. (2007). "Intrauterine fetal death associated with Rothia dentocariosa: A case report". American ...
Fetal death refers to the spontaneous intrauterine death of a fetus at any time during pregnancy. Fetal deaths later in ... 4. Fetal Mortality: United States, 2020 [PDF - 804 KB]. *Vol. 69, No. 4. Cause-of-death Data From the Fetal Death File,2015- ... 7. Cause of Fetal Death: Data From the Fetal Death Report, 2014 [PDF - 600 KB] ... However, a few states report fetal deaths for all periods of gestation. Fetal death data is published annually by the National ...
... Documentation of the Fetal Death Tape File for 2001 Data. DSN: CC36.FETDTH01 ( U.S. Fetal Death Data ) CC36. ... US Fetal death data are limited to deaths occurring within the United States to U.S. residents and nonresidents. Fetal deaths ... Fetal death data for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Guam are limited to deaths occurring within the respective territories. ... FETDTH01.PRVIG ( Territorial Fetal Death Data - Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Guam ) ...
Six drugs/drug classes were added to the list for potential risk of fetal death. They were ferumoxytol (Feraheme); sodium ... Cite this: FDA Watch List Adds Drugs With Anaphylaxis, Herpes, Fetal Death Risk - Medscape - Oct 28, 2019. ... and fetal death.. The latest updates, which span April to June 2019, were created from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System ( ...
... fetal deaths - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality are also examined. Key Findings from the Report: A total of 23,595 fetal deaths at Read ... Fetal and Perinatal Mortality: United States, 2013. A new NCHS report presents 2013 fetal and perinatal mortality data by ... maternal age, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and state of residence, as well as by fetal birthweight, gestational age, ...
According to the 2003 revision of the Procedures for Coding Cause of Fetal Death Under ICD-10, the National Center for Health ... The loss of a fetus at any stage is a fetal demise. ... Evaluation of Fetal Death) and Evaluation of Fetal Death What ... 3] The US fetal mortality rate was 5.74 fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more per 1000 live births and fetal deaths. ... Causes of Fetal Death. The etiology of fetal demise is unexplained in 25-60% of all cases. An unexplained stillbirth is a fetal ...
What do I need to purchase a certified copy of a birth, death, or fetal death record?. A ... What do I need to purchase a certified copy of a birth, death, or fetal death record? ...
2003). U.S. standard certificate of fetal death. National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.). Division of Vital Statistics. "U ... Title : U.S. standard certificate of fetal death Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.). Division ... National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.) (1987). Hospitals and physicians handbook on birth registration and fetal death ... National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.) "Hospitals and physicians handbook on birth registration and fetal death ...
Late fetal deaths and infant mortality 1948-1972 / edited by E. Peritz and U.O. Schmelz. by Peritz, E , Schmelz, U. O , Israel ... Fetal and infant deaths : New Zealand health statistics report. by New Zealand Health Information Service. ... - /pub/Health_Statistics/nchs/Dataset_Documentation/NVSS/fetal_death/. [To Parent Directory]. 6/22/2012 12:54 PM ...
Fetal deaths per 1000 births, Categories: Reproductive, maternal and child health ... This data item is used to calculate the fetal death rate and includes fetal deaths according to national criteria (preferably ... Fetal death is death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of ... Fetal death rate: (Fetal deaths*1000)/(total births)._ ... Fetal deaths per 1000 births. Indicator full name: Fetal deaths ...
Abortion, Induced Death Certificates Epidemiologic Methods Female Fetal Death Gestational Age Humans Pregnancy Time Factors ... The reported rise in early fetal deaths may be due, among other factors, to changes in reporting practices or to earlier deaths ... Between 1968 and 1978, the rates for spontaneous deaths, recorded on Upstate New York fetal death certificates, that occurred ... the rates of reported spontaneous fetal deaths after 16 to 19 weeks gestation dropped only 4 percent. The rates for such deaths ...
FARIA-SCHUTZER, Débora Bicudo et al. It is a great empty: reports of women who have experienced fetal death during pregnancy. ... Palavras-chave : perinatal death; mourning; motherhood; qualitative research. · resumo em Português , Espanhol · texto em ... The objective of this article is to discuss emotional experiences of women who had fetal loss after twenty weeks of pregnancy, ... that considers the woman since the moment which is given to death news. ...
Creasy and Resniks Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 41. ...
A new fetal death classification system]. [A new fetal death classification system]. / Método de clasificación de mortinatos ... The obstetric condition relevant to the death method for classification of fetal death is effective to identify the originating ... Fetal deaths occurred during pregnancy in 82% of cases and during labor in 17%. Intrapartum asphyxia occurred in 0.8% of ... To report a system for classification of fetal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS:. Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with ...
"Fetal Viability and Death" (PDF). United States. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and ... Fetal viability depends largely on the fetal organ maturity, and environmental conditions. According to Websters Encyclopedic ... Fetal Viability and Registration of Births and Deaths". Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists UK. Archived from the ... That stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside the womb by natural or ...
Death.. Many chemicals cause mild central nervous system depression that may be misdiagnosed as inebriation and, if undetected ... Asthma morbidity and death from asthma are increasing. More than 100 toxicants cause asthma, and many more can exacerbate it [ ... Impaired fetal growth,. *Infertility,. *Low birth weight,. *Menstrual irregularities,. *Premature birth,. *Structural (e.g., ...
Fetal Birth Injury, Fetal Death, Fetal Distress, Fetal Heart Rate Tracings, Fetal Intolerance Of Labor, Fibroids, Gestational ... Expert Speciality: Fetal Death. Tristan E Bickman, MD. Fertility/Infertility, Gynecology, OBGYN, Obstetrics & Gynecology ...
In addition, previous studies reveal that pregnant women who consume a lot of coffee have high risks of fetal […] ... Fetal Death. Retrieved May 9, 2022 ( Copy to ... Fetal Death. 05 2022. Fresh Essays. 04 2024 ,,.. ... Fetal Death. [online]. Available from: [Accessed 18 April 2024].. ...
Repeating misscarriage and fetal deaths Hi ladies,I hope you are all doing fine and can have your babies in your hands asap.I ... Now Im 8 weeks 5 days and we went to obygn and they have told me that there is no fetal cardiac activity. (Heart beat of my ...
Intrauterine Fetal Death (Orphan). Treatment of intrauterine fetal death not accompanied by complete expulsion of products of ... Maternal shock, maternal death, fetal bradycardia, and fetal death have been reported ... Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.. B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk ... Uterine activity and fetal status should be monitored by trained obstetric personnel in hospital setting ...
Fetal Movements During Fetal Brain Death-Like Status ...
Man settles claim for fetal death. Monday September 14th 2015 The Zydron Law Firm ... Friedmans research failed to turn up any Virginia cases that have addressed the new fetal death provisions. On Aug. 12, the ... Virginias wrongful death statute does not allow a cause of action for the death of an unborn child." But in 2012, the General ... The amendment, which went into effect in 2012, allows a civil action to be brought in the wrongful death of a child in utero, ...
Stillbirth (fetal death). Stillbirth is more likely in pregnant people with diabetes. The baby may grow slowly in the uterus ... Fetal movement counting. This means counting the number of movements or kicks in a certain period of time, and watching for a ...
  • Fetal death refers to the spontaneous intrauterine death of a fetus at any time during pregnancy. (
  • Fetal deaths later in pregnancy (at 20 weeks of gestation or more, or 28 weeks or more, for example) are also sometimes referred to as stillbirths. (
  • holera infections during pregnancy are associated with We analyzed fetal outcome for all pregnant women high rates of fetal death, especially when women are by initial signs and symptoms, TG, and clinical evolution. (
  • According to the 2003 revision of the Procedures for Coding Cause of Fetal Death Under ICD-10, the National Center for Health Statistics defines fetal death as "death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and which is not an induced termination of pregnancy. (
  • The objective of this article is to discuss emotional experiences of women who had fetal loss after twenty weeks of pregnancy, collected in field research. (
  • In Ireland, under the Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act 2018, fetal viability is defined as "the point in a pregnancy at which, in the reasonable opinion of a medical practitioner, the foetus is capable of survival outside the uterus without extraordinary life-sustaining measures. (
  • Pregnant patients: It is unknown whether use during pregnancy can cause fetal harm. (
  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome ( TTTS ), also known as feto-fetal transfusion syndrome ( FFTS ), twin oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios sequence ( TOPS ) and stuck twin syndrome , is a complication of monochorionic multiple pregnancies (the most common form of identical twin pregnancy) in which there is disproportionate blood supply between the fetuses. (
  • Opioid use during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of poor health outcomes for both mothers and babies such as maternal death, poor fetal growth, and preterm birth. (
  • To explore whether epidemiological shifts regarding reproduction and pregnancy have influenced the spectrum of indications for late termination of singleton pregnancies (TOP) above 17 weeks of gestation and to evaluate temporal changes in maternal demographics and fetal indications over the last 16 years. (
  • Women scheduled for termination of pregnancy and women with a miscarriage or perinatal death prior to or at the first ultrasound were not included. (
  • In the United States, the term stillbirth or fetal demise does not have a standard definition. (
  • Stillbirth is the preferred term among parent groups, and this term is increasingly used in place of fetal death . (
  • those occurring after 20 weeks constitute a fetal demise or stillbirth. (
  • The obstetric condition relevant to the death method for classification of fetal death is effective to identify the originating obstetric cause of stillbirth and reduces the impact of fetal growth restriction and intrapartum asphyxia as the leading causes of death . (
  • A new NCHS report presents 2013 fetal and perinatal mortality data by maternal age, marital status, race, Hispanic origin, and state of residence, as well as by fetal birthweight, gestational age, plurality, and sex. (
  • For statistical purposes, fetal losses are classified according to gestational age. (
  • Changes in rates of spontaneous fetal deaths reported in Upstate New York vital records by gestational age, 1968-78. (
  • Fetal viability is generally considered to begin at 23 or 24 weeks gestational age in the United States. (
  • Thirty-six were pregnant women by facilitating intensive follow-up for de- excluded from analysis: 33 (0.35%) lacked fetal outcome hydration and rapid access to obstetric and neonatal services. (
  • Proteins helps in improving fetal growth and may also reduce the risk of fetal and neonatal death. (
  • Asthma morbidity and death from asthma are increasing. (
  • [ 3 ] The US fetal mortality rate was 5.74 fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more per 1000 live births and fetal deaths. (
  • Fetal death rate: (Fetal deaths*1000)/(total births). (
  • Up to 2010, deaths up to 20 weeks and 500 grams were registered as abortions or immature births. (
  • Retrospective cohort study of 29,916 births with 258 fetal deaths that occurred in a public hospital . (
  • With minor fluctuations, the total US fetal mortality rate has declined 23% since 1990 (7.49). (
  • In 2020, the fetal mortality rate in the United States was highest for non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (10.59) and non-Hispanic Black (10.34) women and lowest for non-Hispanic Asian women (3.93), followed by non-Hispanic White (4.73) and Hispanic (4.86) women. (
  • The fetal mortality rate for twins (12.12) was more than twice that for singletons (5.51) (Table 1). (
  • The impact of COVID-19 on maternal death and fetal death, a cohort study in Brazil. (
  • Most states report fetal deaths of 20 weeks of gestation or more and/or 350 grams birthweight. (
  • 1 In addition, from 2018 to 2021 overdose death rates involving the most common psychotropic drugs increased for pregnant and postpartum people and more than tripled among 35- to 44-year-olds, with most of these deaths due to opioids. (
  • The loss of a fetus at any stage is a fetal demise. (
  • Many states define a fetal demise using a fetal weight of greater than or equal to 350 g, a value which represents the 50th percentile for weight at 20 weeks of gestation. (
  • However, a few states report fetal deaths for all periods of gestation. (
  • The National Center for Health Statistics reported a total of 20,854 fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more in the United States in 2020. (
  • Fetal and infant deaths : New Zealand health statistics report. (
  • Carbohydrates in the diet regulate fetal growth , glucose levels, and the birth weight of the infant. (
  • 18 weeks) at the first routine foetal ultrasound examination, but was allowed until delivery. (
  • 1123 lamic Republic of Iran, the actual number · women who have had 2 spontaneous of diabetes-related deaths is not known. (
  • During September 1, 2011-December 31, 2014, a to- 2012, MSF established a CTC to improve fetal outcomes in tal of 936 pregnant women were admitted. (
  • In the United States, State laws require the reporting of fetal deaths, and Federal law mandates national collection and publication of fetal death data. (
  • Fetal death data is published annually by the National Center for Health Statistics, in reports and as individual-record data files. (
  • US Fetal death data are limited to deaths occurring within the United States to U.S. residents and nonresidents. (
  • Fetal deaths occurring to U.S. citizens outside the United States are not included in this data file. (
  • Fetal death data for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Guam are limited to deaths occurring within the respective territories. (
  • This data item is used to calculate the fetal death rate and includes fetal deaths according to national criteria (preferably with weight 500 g or more). (
  • The data referring to stillbirths for the years 2011-2013 are derived from the death certificates collected by Health Monitoring Unit. (
  • Conclusions: The present systematic review provides scientific data for counseling families with fetal gastroschisis. (
  • Let's start by looking at all deaths, taking data from the ONS Excel file Death Registration Summary Tables, 2013 . (
  • The data below are the numbers of deaths of males minus the number of deaths of females in each of the indicated age ranges. (
  • The remarkable thing about the above data is that the excess of male deaths is such a large percentage of the female deaths. (
  • The death is indicated by the fact that after such expulsion or extraction, the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles. (
  • A more recent definition of fetal death, according to the US National Center for Health Statistics, is the delivery of a fetus showing no signs of life as indicated by the absence of breathing, heartbeats, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movements of voluntary muscles. (
  • Fetal viability is the ability of a human fetus to survive outside the uterus. (
  • This leads to unequal levels of amniotic fluid between each fetus and usually leads to death of the undersupplied twin and, without treatment, usually death or a range of birth defects or disabilities for a surviving twin, such as underdeveloped, damaged or missing limbs, digits or organs (including the brain), especially cerebral palsy . (
  • The method for classification obstetric condition relevant to the death was applied, based on obstetric and placental pathological findings analyzed exclusively by a single obstetrician and a single pathologist . (
  • Ninety two percent of obstetric conditions causing fetal death were identified. (
  • Placental abruption as the final cause of fetal death was identified in 60% of cases with arterial hypertension , 43% of cases with placental pathology and 37% of ascending infections . (
  • Fetal growth restriction was identified in 50% of stillbirths . (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has updated its quarterly watch list with four dozen drugs and drug classes because it has received new safety information or identified possible signs of serious risk - including serious risks from conditions such as anaphylaxis, herpes zoster, and fetal death. (
  • Six drugs/drug classes were added to the list for potential risk of fetal death. (
  • At a median follow-up of 28.3 months, CALQUENCE in combination with obinutuzumab or as a monotherapy significantly reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 90% and 80%, respectively, vs. chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab. (
  • Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality are also examined. (
  • Up to age 84, the total number of deaths of males exceeded that of females by 37,192 in 2013. (
  • In 2006, recording deaths turned up by search engines, TNT collected 78 American names. (
  • This implies that conscientious news search missed about 20% of the incidents, during a year when a death subsequent to taser use attracted press interest. (
  • To report a system for classification of fetal deaths . (
  • Women of childbearing age were asked sion fetal death did not differ by age or clinical presentation whether they were pregnant. (
  • The Office for National Statistics (ONS) " Focus on Violent Crime and Sexual Offences " indicates that in 2012/13 there were 76 deaths of women and 15 deaths of men attributable to partner violence in England & Wales. (
  • Male deaths exceed female deaths in every age range - until the over 85s when there are few men remaining and the excess women must eventually die. (
  • Despite a 2.5-fold increase in incidence of late TOPs, no epidemiological changes in maternal or fetal characteristics were observed over the last 16 years. (
  • Fetal viability depends largely on the fetal organ maturity, and environmental conditions. (
  • In Haiti in 2011, pregnant wom- Multiple logistic regression modeling was used for adjust- en with clinical signs of cholera who sought treatment from ed analyses. (
  • He started an investigation into why historically poorer areas of England had disproportionately higher death rates from heart disease than other areas. (
  • That stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside the womb by natural or artificial life-support systems. (
  • Dehydration status was de- fection and effect of treatment changes on these deaths. (
  • Title : U.S. standard certificate of fetal death Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.). Division of Vital Statistics. (
  • A statistically significant decrease in average fetal body weights was observed only at 3870 mg/kg bw/day. (
  • There has long been a belief that divorce or partnership dissolution is significantly implicated in excess deaths of men. (
  • The ONS Excel file Death Registration Summary Tables, 2013 under the heading "intentional self-harm and event of undetermined intent" lists 4035 male deaths and 1123 female deaths (78% male). (