Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Amniotic Band Syndrome: A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Neurosyphilis: Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
  • Fetal membranes were collected from a mid- gestational rabbit, and cultured on collagen support material for 14 days. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Conclusions: The results indicate that Nrf2 activation represents a key stress response in amnion mesenchyme cells and in pregnant mice to mitigate the adverse proinflammatory effects of thrombin on the fetal membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: We sought to determine whether activation of Nrf2 alters the effect of thrombin on prostaglandin synthesis, protease activation, and cytokine release in human amnion. (elsevier.com)
  • The amnion at the access site resealed in 58 - 64% of cases in groups II - IV, but none of the tested techniques was significantly better than the other. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Oxygen and nutrients in the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces diffuse through the walls of the villi and enter the fetal capillaries. (umich.edu)
  • Carbon dioxide and waste products diffuse from blood in the fetal capillaries through the walls of the villi to the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces. (umich.edu)
  • We aimed to determine the effects of hAECs on the acute fetal inflammatory response to IA LPS. (monash.edu)
  • STUDY DESIGN: At 117 days gestation, fetal sheep (n = 16) received intraamniotic LPS (20 mg). hAECs were delivered at 0, 6, and 12 hours into the fetal jugular vein (n = 4), trachea ( n = 4), or both (n = 4). (monash.edu)
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal procedure for the removal by needle of chorionic villi and culture and examination of the fetal cells obtained. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The idea to tap supportive structures for clues to fetal genetic health goes back to a 1971 case report that correctly identified 10 fetuses as male from Y chromosomes in chorionic villi pieces collected from the cervix . (plos.org)
  • As reviewed by Mesiano and Jaffe, 5 during much of gestation the fetal adrenal gland is deficient in the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), which catalyzes an essential step in the production of cortisol from cholesterol. (aappublications.org)
  • For fetal fibronectin testing, a sample of fluid is collected from the vagina or the opening to the uterus (cervix). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Chart review of cases also documented information on additional malformations so that MSAFP analyses on the subgroups of both isolated and complex fetal hydrocephalus could be performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Students will learn about the development of human body, starting with formation of gametes, fertilization, through early embryonic development, organogenesis, fetal growth, and finally up to birth. (cuni.cz)
  • Events in fetal life impact long-term health outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory, in which in utero or early life events can have a significant impact on adult outcomes, has become the organizing principle of fetal and perinatal biology ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The fetal bone marrow reacts to the hemolytic anemia by releasing immature RBCs called erythroblasts into the fetal peripheral circulation, causing erythroblastosis fetalis. (medindia.net)
  • Whereas pPROM initiated by bacterial infection requires immediate delivery to avoid fetal infection, the numerous pPROM cases that are unrelated to infection may be eligible for expectant management. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fact, a number of randomised clinical trials favour the use of amnions in burns for their promotion of wound healing, patient comfort, and reduced need for dressing changes. (parentsguidecordblood.org)
  • The clinical features of erythroblastosis fetalis result from destruction of fetal RBCs by maternal antibodies against them. (medindia.net)
  • This paper presents the current clinical application of human amnion in the treatment of skin losses, such as burns to the face and Lyell's syndrome (toxic epidermal necrolysis). (omicsonline.org)
  • In the present study, it was hypothesized that disruption of imprinting control in the H19 / Igf2 domain may be a mechanism of ethanol-induced growth retardationâ a key clinical feature of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). (las.ac.cn)