The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Sexual activities of animals.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Toxopneustidae possessing trigeminate ambulacral plating.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The reproductive organs of plants.
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
A technique in assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED) consisting of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, follicular aspiration of preovulatory oocytes, in-vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes at the pronuclear stage (before cleavage).
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.
Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is used for forage.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.

Ontogeny of expression of a receptor for platelet-activating factor in mouse preimplantation embryos and the effects of fertilization and culture in vitro on its expression. (1/4970)

Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a potent ether phospholipid. It is one of the preimplantation embryo's autocrine growth/survival factors. It may act via a G protein-linked receptor on the embryo; however, the evidence for this is conflicting. The recent description of the intracellular form of the PAF:acetlyhydrolase enzyme as having structural homology with G proteins and Ras also suggests this as a potential intracellular receptor/transducer for PAF. This study used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the ontogeny of expression of the genes for these proteins in the oocyte and preimplantation-stage embryo. Transcripts for the G protein-linked PAF receptor were detected in the late 2-cell-stage embryo and in all stages from the 4-cell stage to blastocysts. They were also present in unfertilized oocytes and newly fertilized zygotes but only at relatively low levels. The incidence of expression was generally low and variable in late zygotes and early 2-cell embryos. Expression past the 2-cell stage was alpha-amanitin sensitive. The results indicated that mRNA for this receptor is a maternal transcript that was degraded during the zygote-2-cell stage. New expression of the receptor transcript required activation of the zygotic genome. Fertilization of embryos in vitro caused this transcript not to be expressed in the zygote. Culture of zygotes (irrespective of their method of fertilization) caused expression from the zygotic genome to be retarded by more than 24 h. This retardation did not occur if culture commenced at the 2-cell stage. The transcripts for the subunits of intracellular PAF:acetylhydrolase were not detected in oocytes or at any stage of embryo development examined, despite their being readily detected in control tissue. This study confirms the presence of the G protein-linked PAF receptor in the 2-cell embryo and describes for the first time its normal pattern of expression during early development. The adverse effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture on the expression of this transcript may be a contributing factor for the poor viability of embryos produced in this manner. The reduced expression of PAF-receptor mRNA following IVF predicts that such embryos may have a deficiency in autocrine stimulation and also suggests that supplementation of growth media with exogenous PAF would be only partially beneficial. The effect of IVF and culture may also explain the conflicting literature.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (2/4970)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (3/4970)

The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes. (4/4970)

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa. (5/4970)

The molecular basis of many forms of male infertility is poorly defined. One area of research that has been studied intensely is the integrity of the DNA in the nucleus of mature ejaculated spermatozoa. It has been shown that, in men with abnormal sperm parameters, the DNA is more likely to possess strand breaks. However, how and why this DNA damage originates in certain males and how it may influence the genetic project of a mature spermatozoon is unknown. Two theories have been proposed to describe the origin of this DNA damage in mature spermatozoa. The first arises from studies performed in animal models and is linked to the unique manner in which mammalian sperm chromatin is packaged, while the second attributes the nuclear DNA damage in mature spermatozoa to apoptosis. One of the factors implicated in sperm apoptosis is the cell surface protein, Fas. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa, how these spermatozoa arrive in the ejaculate of some men, and what consequences they may have if they succeed in their genetic project.  (+info)

In-vitro fertilization and culture of mouse embryos in vitro significantly retards the onset of insulin-like growth factor-II expression from the zygotic genome. (6/4970)

In this study, the effect of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture of mouse embryos in vitro on the normal expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IFG-II) ligand and receptor was examined. The expression of IGF-II increased in a linear fashion at least up to the 8-cell stage of development. IGF-II expression in embryos collected fresh from the reproductive tract was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in embryos fertilized in the reproductive tract and cultured in vitro (in-situ fertilized: ISF), and its expression was further reduced (P < 0.001) in IVF embryos at all development stages tested. The expression of IGF-II was significantly (P < 0.001) lower when embryos were cultured individually in 100 microl drops compared with culture in groups of 10 in 10 microl drops of medium. The addition of platelet activating factor to culture medium partially overcame this density-dependent decline of expression. Culture of ISF and IVF zygotes also caused the onset of new IGF-II mRNA transcription from the zygotic genome to be significantly (P < 0.001) retarded, until at least the 8-cell stage of development. This effect was greater (P < 0.05) for IVF than for ISF embryos. Neither IVF nor culture had any obvious effect on IFG-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIr) mRNA expression.  (+info)

Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in embryos from smoking couples: evidence for transmission by spermatozoa. (7/4970)

Tobacco smoking is deleterious to reproduction. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Its reactive metabolite induces DNA-adducts, which can cause mutations. We investigated whether B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts are detectable in preimplantation embryos in relation to parental smoking. A total of 17 couples were classified by their smoking habits: (i) both partners smoke; (ii) wife non-smoker, husband smokes; and (iii) both partners were non-smokers. Their 27 embryos were exposed to an anti-BPDE monoclonal antibody that recognizes BPDE-DNA adducts. Immunostaining was assessed in each embryo and an intensity score was calculated for embryos in each smoking group. The proportion of blastomeres which stained was higher for embryos of smokers than for non-smokers (0.723 versus 0.310). The mean intensity score was also higher for embryos of smokers (1.40+/-0.28) than for non-smokers (0.38+/-0.14; P = 0.015), but was similar for both types of smoking couples. The mean intensity score was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked by fathers (P = 0.02). Increased mean immunostaining in embryos from smokers, relative to non-smokers, indicates a relationship with parental smoking. The similar levels of immunostaining in embryos from both types of smoking couples suggest that transmission of modified DNA is mainly through spermatozoa. We confirmed paternal transmission of modified DNA by detection of DNA adducts in spermatozoa of a smoker father and his embryo.  (+info)

Fertilization, embryonic development, and offspring from mouse eggs injected with round spermatids combined with Ca2+ oscillation-inducing sperm factor. (8/4970)

Round spermatids, precursor male gametes, are known to possess the potential to achieve fertilization and embryonic development when injected into eggs. However, injection of spermatids alone seldom activates eggs in the mouse, as spermatids by themselves cannot induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+, a prerequisite for egg activation. We injected a mouse round spermatid into an egg simultaneously with partially purified sperm factor from differentiated hamster spermatozoa. The combined injection produced repetitive Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ oscillations) lasting for at least 4 h as observed at fertilization, and induced activation in 92% of eggs. This method provided 75% fertilization success associated with male and female pronucleus formation and development to 2-cell embryos, while only 7% of eggs were fertilized by injection of a spermatid alone. Of the 2-cell embryos, approximately 50% developed to blastocysts during 5 days of culture in vitro, while no blastocysts were obtained following injection of sperm factor alone. Furthermore, the 2-cell embryos, that were created by spermatids and sperm factor and transplanted into foster mothers, developed into normal offspring, although the percentage was only 22%. All infants grew into healthy adults carrying normal chromosomes. The sperm factor served as a complementary factor for successful fertilization by round spermatid injection.  (+info)

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Male infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Low sperm count or poor sperm quality: This is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Sperm count is typically considered low if less than 15 million sperm are present in a sample of semen. Additionally, sperm must be of good quality to fertilize an egg successfully.
2. Varicocele: This is a swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect sperm production and quality.
3. Erectile dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can make it difficult to conceive.
4. Premature ejaculation: This can make it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg during sexual intercourse.
5. Blockages or obstructions: Blockages in the reproductive tract, such as a blockage of the epididymis or vas deferens, can prevent sperm from leaving the body during ejaculation.
6. Retrograde ejaculation: This is a condition in which semen is released into the bladder instead of being expelled through the penis during ejaculation.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as testosterone and inhibin can affect sperm production and quality.
8. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypogonadism, and hyperthyroidism, can affect fertility.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and stress can all impact fertility.
10. Age: Male fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 40.

There are several treatment options for male infertility, including:

1. Medications to improve sperm count and quality
2. Surgery to repair blockages or obstructions in the reproductive tract
3. Artificial insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
4. Donor sperm
5. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
6. Hormone therapy to improve fertility
7. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and alcohol, losing weight, and reducing stress.

It's important to note that male infertility is a common condition and there are many treatment options available. If you're experiencing difficulty conceiving, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

There are several possible causes of oligospermia, including:

* Hormonal imbalances
* Varicocele (a swelling of the veins in the scrotum)
* Infections such as epididymitis or prostatitis
* Blockages such as a vasectomy or epididymal obstruction
* Certain medications such as anabolic steroids and chemotherapy drugs
* Genetic disorders
* Environmental factors such as exposure to toxins or radiation

Symptoms of oligospermia may include:

* Difficulty getting an erection
* Premature ejaculation
* Low sex drive
* Painful ejaculation

Diagnosis of oligospermia typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and semen analysis. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to improve sperm count and quality, surgery to correct blockages or varicoceles, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

It's important to note that a low sperm count does not necessarily mean a man is infertile. However, it can make it more difficult to conceive a child. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle changes, some men with oligospermia may be able to improve their fertility and have children.

There are several types of fallopian tube diseases, including:

1. Hydrosalpinx: A condition in which the fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to inflammation and scarring.
2. Salpingitis: An inflammation of the fallopian tubes, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
3. Tubal pregnancy: A rare condition in which a fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: A condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, often in the fallopian tube.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs in the pelvis, which can cause scarring and damage to the fallopian tubes.
6. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
7. Adenomyosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, often affecting the fallopian tubes.
8. Fimbrial tumors: Rare growths that can occur in the fallopian tubes, often benign but can be cancerous.
9. Mullerian duct anomalies: Congenital abnormalities of the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs.
10. Oophoritis: Inflammation of the ovaries, which can affect the fallopian tubes.

Fallopian tube diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy, and ultrasound. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and can include antibiotics for infections, surgery to remove blockages or scar tissue, or assisted reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) if the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked.

OHSS typically occurs when too many eggs are stimulated to mature during ovulation, leading to an imbalance in hormone levels. The syndrome is more common in women who undergo IVF with high-dose fertility medications, multiple embryo transfer, or those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Symptoms of OHSS may include:

1. Enlarged ovaries that are painful to the touch
2. Abdominal bloating and discomfort
3. Pelvic pain
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Diarrhea or constipation
6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding
7. Elevated hormone levels (estradiol and/or LH)

OHSS can be diagnosed through ultrasound and blood tests. Treatment options for OHSS include:

1. Cancellation of further fertility treatment until symptoms resolve
2. Medications to reduce hormone levels and inflammation
3. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of fluid from the ovaries
4. Hospitalization for monitoring and supportive care

Prevention is key, and fertility specialists take several measures to minimize the risk of OHSS, such as:

1. Monitoring hormone levels and ultrasound assessment of ovarian response during treatment
2. Adjusting medication dosages based on individual patient needs
3. Limited embryo transfer to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies
4. Avoiding the use of high-dose stimulation protocols in women with PCOS or other risk factors

Early detection and proper management are crucial to prevent complications and ensure a successful outcome for fertility treatment. If you suspect you may have OHSS, it is essential to consult a fertility specialist immediately.

Here are some key points to consider when discussing azoospermia:

1. Causes: Azoospermia can be caused by various factors, including blockages due to surgery, injury, or infection, hormonal imbalances, anatomical abnormalities like varicocele, and chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Diagnosis: Azoospermia is typically diagnosed through semen analysis, which involves examining a semen sample under a microscope to determine the presence of sperm cells. Other tests may also be performed to identify any underlying causes, such as hormone level testing and ultrasound imaging.
3. Treatment: Treatment for azoospermia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to address hormonal imbalances or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like IVF or ICSI can also be used to help achieve pregnancy.
4. Prognosis: The prognosis for azoospermia varies depending on the underlying cause and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier the condition is diagnosed and treated, the better the prognosis.
5. Impact on fertility: Azoospermia can significantly impact fertility, as the absence of sperm in the semen makes it difficult or impossible to achieve pregnancy through natural means. However, with the help of ART, many men with azoospermia can still achieve fatherhood.
6. Psychological impact: Azoospermia can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on men and their partners, particularly if they are trying to conceive. It is important to provide support and counseling to help cope with the challenges of this condition.
7. Prevention: There is no known prevention for azoospermia, as it is often caused by underlying genetic or hormonal factors. However, identifying and addressing any underlying causes early on can improve outcomes and increase the chances of achieving pregnancy.

* Severe abdominal pain, often on one side of the abdomen
* Vaginal bleeding, which may be heavy or light
* Faintness or dizziness
* Shoulder pain or a sense of heaviness in the shoulder
* Feeling faint or lightheaded

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. This can happen due to various reasons such as pelvic inflammatory disease, previous surgery, or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus or fallopian tubes. If left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can lead to severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.

There are several methods for diagnosing an ectopic pregnancy, including:

* Ultrasound: This test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the uterus and surrounding tissues. It can help identify the location of the pregnancy and detect any abnormalities.
* Blood tests: These tests can measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, the level of hCG may be lower than expected.
* Laparoscopy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves inserting a thin, lighted tube through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the pelvic organs. It can help confirm the diagnosis and locate the ectopic pregnancy.

Treatment for an ectopic pregnancy usually involves medication or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition. Medications such as methotrexate can be used to dissolve the pregnancy tissue and allow it to pass out of the body. Surgery may be necessary if the pregnancy is not responding to medication or if there are any complications. In some cases, the fallopian tube may need to be removed if it is severely damaged or if there is a risk of further damage.

Preventive measures for ectopic pregnancy include:

* Using contraception: Using a reliable form of contraception can help prevent unintended pregnancies, which can reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
* Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex and multiple partners can help reduce the risk of infection and other complications that can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
* Getting regular pelvic exams: Regular pelvic exams can help detect any abnormalities or changes in the reproductive organs, which can help identify any potential problems early on.

It is important to note that while these measures can help reduce the risk of an ectopic pregnancy, they are not foolproof and there is always a risk of complications during any pregnancy. If you suspect you may be experiencing an ectopic pregnancy or have any other concerns, it is important to seek medical attention right away.

Endometriosis can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Painful periods (dysmenorrhea)
* Heavy menstrual bleeding
* Pelvic pain or cramping
* Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Bowel or urinary symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, or painful urination during menstruation

The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Some possible causes include:

* Retrograde menstruation: The backflow of endometrial tissue through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity during menstruation
* Coelomic metaplasia: The transformation of cells that line the abdominal cavity (coelom) into endometrial cells
* Immunological factors: Abnormal immune responses that lead to the growth and accumulation of endometrial cells outside of the uterus
* Hormonal factors: Fluctuations in estrogen levels, which can stimulate the growth of endometrial cells
* Genetic factors: Inherited traits that increase the risk of developing endometriosis

There are several risk factors for developing endometriosis, including:

* Family history: A woman's risk increases if she has a mother, sister, or daughter with endometriosis
* Early onset of menstruation: Women who start menstruating at a younger age may be more likely to develop endometriosis
* Frequent or heavy menstrual bleeding: Women who experience heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding may be more likely to develop endometriosis
* Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS are at higher risk for developing endometriosis
* Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing endometriosis

There is no cure for endometriosis, but there are several treatment options available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:

* Hormonal therapies: Medications that reduce estrogen levels or block the effects of estrogen on the endometrium can help manage symptoms such as pain and heavy bleeding
* Surgery: Laparoscopic surgery can be used to remove endometrial tissue and scar tissue, and improve fertility
* Alternative therapies: Acupuncture, herbal remedies, and other alternative therapies may help manage symptoms and improve quality of life

It's important for women with endometriosis to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the best treatment plan for their individual needs. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many women with endometriosis can go on to lead fulfilling lives.

There are several types of aneuploidy, including:

1. Trisomy: This is the presence of an extra copy of a chromosome. For example, Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).
2. Monosomy: This is the absence of a chromosome.
3. Mosaicism: This is the presence of both normal and abnormal cells in the body.
4. Uniparental disomy: This is the presence of two copies of a chromosome from one parent, rather than one copy each from both parents.

Aneuploidy can occur due to various factors such as errors during cell division, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or inheritance of an abnormal number of chromosomes from one's parents. The risk of aneuploidy increases with age, especially for women over the age of 35, as their eggs are more prone to errors during meiosis (the process by which egg cells are produced).

Aneuploidy can be diagnosed through various methods such as karyotyping (examining chromosomes under a microscope), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or quantitative PCR. Treatment for aneuploidy depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused. In some cases, treatment may involve managing symptoms, while in others, it may involve correcting the genetic abnormality itself.

In summary, aneuploidy is a condition where there is an abnormal number of chromosomes present in a cell, which can lead to various developmental and health problems. It can occur due to various factors and can be diagnosed through different methods. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused.

1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.

PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.

There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:

1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
3. Acne
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea

PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.

There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:

1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.

It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.

1. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common symptoms include pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects ovulation and can cause cysts on the ovaries. Symptoms include irregular periods, acne, and excess hair growth.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include pelvic pain, heavy bleeding, and infertility.
4. Ovarian cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the ovaries. It is rare, but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and vaginal bleeding.
5. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This is a condition in which the ovaries stop functioning before the age of 40. Symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and infertility.
6. Ovarian torsion: This is a condition in which the ovary becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, nausea, and vomiting.
7. Ovarian abscess: This is an infection that forms on the ovaries. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and vaginal discharge.
8. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, bleeding, and fainting.
9. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign or cancerous. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects the ovaries, causing symptoms such as irregular periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many possible conditions that can affect the ovaries. If you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your pelvic area, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.

Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures: IVF without the use any ovarian ... "Natural cycle in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for subfertile couples" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): ... "ISMAAR » Osamu Kato". Natural cycle IVF Archived 2012-05-12 at the Wayback Machine at the Human Fertilisation and Embryology ... Webarchive template wayback links, In vitro fertilisation). ...
... (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass"). The ... outcome of parenthood project during in vitro fertilization and after discontinuation of unsuccessful in vitro fertilization". ... "Is In Vitro Fertilization Being Overused?". CBS News. 12 August 2009. Smajdor A (May 2011). "The ethics of IVF over 40". ... "In vitro fertilization (IVF) - Mayo Clinic". Retrieved 29 October 2022. van Loendersloot LL, van Wely M, ...
The history of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) goes back more than half a century. In 1959 the first birth in a nonhuman mammal ... Carl Wood was dubbed "the father of IVF (in vitro fertilisation)" for having pioneered the use of frozen embryos. In the US, ... In 1959, Min Chueh Chang at the Worcester Foundation, proved fertilisation in vitro was capable of proceeding to a birth of a ... The first pregnancy achieved through in vitro human fertilisation of a human oocyte was reported in The Lancet from the Monash ...
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization. In-vitro fertilization is the ... In vitro fertilization". The New England Journal of Medicine. 356 (4): 379-86. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp065743. PMID 17251534. Levy B ... process of combining an egg (oocyte) and sperm outside of the body with intent of fertilization. PGD is the testing of ...
ISBN 978-1-4471-2392-7. Elder K, Dale B (2 December 2010). In-Vitro Fertilization. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26-. ISBN ... An in vitro study using porcine skin and several formulations of transdermal progesterone found that only minute quantities of ...
In vitro fertilization is the technique of letting fertilization of the male and female gametes (sperm and egg) occur outside ... In vitro fertilization". N Engl J Med. 356 (4): 379-86. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp065743. PMID 17251534. Kurinczuk JJ, Hansen M, Bower ... "In vitro fertilization (IVF): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2018-11-07. Zhang Y, Zhang YL, Feng ... Olson CK, Keppler-Noreuil KM, Romitti PA, Budelier WT, Ryan G, Sparks AE, Van Voorhis BJ (2005). "In vitro fertilization is ...
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Medical experts therefore recommend considering in vitro fertilization after one failed COH/IUI cycle for women aged over 40 ... Seattle Sperm Bank Adams, Robert (1988). in vitro fertilization technique. Monterey CA. Ginsburg, Elizabeth (June 4, 2018). " ... purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse or in vitro fertilisation ... Timing is critical, as the window and opportunity for fertilization is little more than twelve hours from the release of the ...
IVF, or in vitro fertilisation, is when mature eggs are collected from ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab and then ... "In vitro fertilization (IVF)". Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 15, 2020. Griffiths A. "Aneuploidy". An Introduction to ... Preimplantation refers to the state of existing or occurring between the fertilization of an ovum and its implementation in the ...
In vitro double fertilization is often used to study the molecular interactions as well as other aspects of gamete fusion in ... One of the major obstacles in developing an in vitro double fertilization between male and female gametes is the confinement of ... Zenkteler, M. (1990). "In vitro fertilization and wide hybridization in higher plants". Crit Rev Plant Sci. 9 (3): 267-279. doi ... Evidence of double fertilization in Gnetales, which are non-flowering seed plants, has been reported. Double fertilization was ...
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Sequeira PM (2011). "Anesthesia for in vitro fertilization". In Urman RD, Gross WL, Philip BK (eds.). Anesthesia outside of the ... Transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR), also referred to as oocyte retrieval (OCR), is a technique used in in vitro fertilization ... 1997). "Ureteral lesion secondary to vaginal ultrasound follicular puncture for oocyte recovery in in-vitro fertilization". ... "The role of seminal plasma for improved outcomes during in vitro fertilization treatment: review of the literature and meta- ...
First in vitro fertilization baby. In January 1993 Integris opened a free, all volunteer healthcare clinic to provide ...
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As of August 2007, she a'nd her team were responsible for the birth of 500 babies through in vitro fertilization. She is ... In In 1998, Gwet-Bell supervised the birth of the first Cameroonian child born through in vitro fertilization. The baby was ... Ernestine Gwet-Bell (born 1953) is a gynaecologist from Cameroon, who supervised the first successful in vitro fertilisation ( ... Kovacs, Gabor; Brinsden, Peter; DeCherney, Alan (2018-06-14). In-Vitro Fertilization: The Pioneers' History. Cambridge ...
... allows oocytes from the ovarian tissue to be used directly for in vitro fertilization, as an alternative to ... doi:10.1016/s0921-4488(99)00097-8. Niwa K (1993). "Effectiveness of in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization techniques ... they can then be fertilised in vitro, known as in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm ... "Effect of oocyte harvesting techniques on in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization in sheep". Small Ruminant Research. 36 ...
Chang, M. C. (1959). "Fertilization of Rabbit Ova in vitro". Nature. 184 (4684): 466-67. Bibcode:1959Natur.184..466C. doi: ... grown from ova having undergone in vitro fertilisation and transferred to a surrogate mother. The term pheromone is coined. ...
"Identical twins and in vitro fertilization". Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. 3 (2): 114-117. doi:10.1007 ... Artificial induction of ovulation and in vitro fertilization-embryo replacement can also give rise to fraternal and identical ... "Outcome in 242 in vitro fertilization-embryo replacement or gamete intrafallopian transfer-induced pregnancies". Fertility and ...
Ovulation Induction and in Vitro Fertilization. Year Book Medical Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8151-0871-9. Sweetman, Sean C ...
In vitro fertilization generates multiple embryos. The surplus of embryos is not clinically used or is unsuitable for ... After 4-6 days of this intrauterine culture, the embryos are harvested and grown in in vitro culture until the inner cell mass ... Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. Isolating the ... Studies have shown that cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs are validated in vitro models to test drug responses and predict ...
30-minute documentary on Vitro Fertilization. Interviewees included Patrick Steptoe CBE and Professor Robert Winston. Co- ...
Z; Fancsovits, P; Akos, M; Tóthné Gilán, Z; Hauzman, E; Papp, Z (2006). "[In vitro fertilization at our department. A decade's ...
For 30 years, he was editor of the Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, now known as the Journal of Assisted ... In 1982 was appointed as founding editor-in-chief of The Journal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (JIVF-ET), ... "New form of in vitro fertilization stirs debate". St. Louis Post. Retrieved 2020-04-19. "Why a gentler, less costly approach to ... His department established the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) program in the city of Chicago and the Midwest. Gleicher ...
In vitro fertilization occurs in a laboratory. The process of in vitro fertilization is when mature eggs are removed from the ... "In vitro fertilization (IVF) - Mayo Clinic". Retrieved 2022-04-11. Asplund, Kjell (2020). "Use of in vitro ... 14 days after fertilization the primitive streak forms. The formation of the primitive streak has been known to some countries ... There have been a number of attempts to understand the processes of gastrulation using in vitro techniques in parallel and ...
It is also commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Estrogen helps maintain the endometrial lining of the uterus and ... Clinical Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 11-. ISBN 978-93-5025-095-2. Archived from the original on ... "Role of cytochrome P450 in estradiol metabolism in vitro". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 22 (2): 148-154. PMID 11741520. Schubert ...
According to In-Vitro Fertilisation website source, "In 1995, Dmitri Dozortsev and his coworkers A. Rybouchkin, Petra De Sutter ... In particular, he is best known for his studies of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer. Dozortsev currently serves as ... "The History of IVF -The Milestones (Year 1995 Milestone - Paragraph 6)". In-Vitro Fertilisation. Dozortsev, Dmitri; Serafim, ... "Fertilization and early embryolgoy: Human oocyte activation following intracytoplasmic injection: the role of the sperm cell". ...
She was conceived via in vitro fertilization. Her middle name, Eilish, was originally meant to be her first name, while Pirate ...
Gardner DK, Simón C (26 June 2017). Handbook of In Vitro Fertilization (Fourth ed.). CRC Press. pp. 131-. ISBN 978-1-4987-2947- ... which is an essential component in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Typically, after GnRH agonists have induced a state of ... discontinuation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist administration in short-term protocol for in-vitro fertilization". ...
It concerns a wide range of scientific and technological approaches: from in vitro diagnostics to in vitro fertilisation, from ... "New challenges in human in vitro fertilization". Science. 260 (5110): 932-936. Bibcode:1993Sci...260..932W. doi:10.1126/science ... In vitro Diagnostics - EDMA Archived November 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Winston, R. M.; Handyside, A. H. (14 May 1993 ... Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (2007). 6. is Health, Center for Devices and Radiological (2019-10-25). "In Vitro Diagnostics". ...
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures are effective in improving fertility in many women with endometriosis, especially in ... Polat, Mehtap; Yaralı, Irem; Boynukalın, Kübra; Yaralı, Hakan (2015). "In Vitro Fertilization for Endometriosis-Associated ... or otherwise interfere with fertilization, implantation and, rarely, the carrying of the fetus to term. Endometriosis is ... and lead to disordered myometrial contractions that can affect fertilization and embryo transport. Increased levels of adhesion ...
... in vitro fertilization, pornography, and contraception. The party's first election was the 1987 provincial election, where the ...
In vitro fertilisation, including ICSI, is associated with an increased risk of imprinting disorders, with an odds ratio of 3.7 ... In support of this hypothesis, genomic imprinting has been found in all placental mammals, where post-fertilisation offspring ... A similar imprinting phenomenon has also been described in flowering plants (angiosperms). During fertilization of the egg cell ... a second, separate fertilization event gives rise to the endosperm, an extraembryonic structure that nourishes the embryo in a ...
"Detection of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fragmentation in Human Sperm: Correlation with Fertilization in Vitro." Biology of ... There is also a negative association between the percentage of sperm that contain fragmented DNA and the fertilization rate and ... "Different Restriction Enzyme-generated Sticky DNA Ends Can Be Joined in Vitro." Nucleic Acids Research 12.4 (1984): 1863-874. ...
Some in vitro fertilization techniques, particularly injecting a sperm into an oocyte, may interfere with this. The fact that ... Wolff JN, Gemmell NJ (November 2008). "Lost in the zygote: the dilution of paternal mtDNA upon fertilization". Heredity. 101 (5 ... Meusel MS, Moritz RF (December 1993). "Transfer of paternal mitochondrial DNA during fertilization of honeybee (Apis mellifera ... which is used for propelling the sperm cells and sometimes the tail is lost during fertilization. In 1999 it was reported that ...
In 1986, he delivered the first child born from the in-vitro fertilization procedure in all of Puerto Rico at the Regional ... His work is known as GIFT (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer) and TET (Tubal Embryo Transfer). Beauchamp returned to ... In 1982, Beauchamp was responsible and is credited with delivering the first triplets born by in-vitro fertilization in the ... by the American Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Board who in 1985 performed the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) ...
He is also Principal Investigator for in Vitro Fertilization and human embryonic stem cell research at the NUS National ...
In vitro studies with various divalent metal ions have shown that zinc and manganese are preferred over magnesium, while copper ... an early event of fertilization". Cell. 23 (2): 543-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(81)90150-1. PMID 6258805. S2CID 44821877. Lu J, ...
Calcium plays a part in fertilization of an egg, controls several developmental process and may regulate cellular processes ... Magnesium acts as an allosteric inhibitor for the enzyme vacuolar pyrophosphatase (V-PPiase). In vitro, the concentration of ...
This kind of positive pressure is also used in operating theaters and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) labs.[citation needed] ...
... while his latest In Vitro Fertilization translated also into Russian and Turkish, with co-author Kay Elder is used for ... Dale has published over 130 peer review papers and 7 books on fertilization and embryology. His first book Fertilization in ... His studies span animals and humans, from the identification of novel ion channels specific to fertilization, the fertilization ... One of his first discoveries, with Louis J De Felice from the US, was a novel non specific ion channel, the fertilization ...
Depending on the species, these nuclei fuse before or upon fertilization of the central cell. The three nuclei at the end of ... Vielle-Calzada (Mar-Apr 2002). "Beyond Promiscuity: From Sexuality to Apomixis in Flowering Plants". In Vitro Cellular & ... Therefore, upon fertilization the endosperm will be 5N rather than the typical 3N. Megasporangium Microspore Spore Double ... ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. Sargent, E. (1900). "Recent work on the results of fertilization in angiosperms". Annals of Botany. 14 (4 ...
In short, self-fertilization is advantageous when no mating partners are around, but might lead to inbreeding depression-the ... Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Benesh, Daniel P. (2014). "Making the in vitro breeding of Schistocephalus solidus more ... This species has been used to demonstrate that cross-fertilization produces a higher infective success rate than self- ... The later means that self-fertilisation can also occur when potential partners are available. Under some circumstances, there ...
Usually several grains of pollen adhere, but only one will successfully participate in fertilization of the ovule to form a ... An Integrated In Vitro-In Silico Approach. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1822, doi: Wikimedia ... Otherwise, the silk will remain attached indefinitely, and fertilization remains possible (with decreasing chances of success) ... in vitro gastrointestinal and thermal stability, and hematoprotective effects. eFood 2020, 1, 156-164, doi: ...
Initial phase (IP) males also achieve fertilizations through participating in group spawns. These groups consist of 20-50 or ... and in vitro steroidogenesis of the testes of two male phenotypes of the protogynous fish, Thalassoma duperrey (labridae)". ...
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an assisted reproductive technology used to treat infertility and to help families have ... without using fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization, had the following results on rates of conception by age: At age 30 75 ... "Effect of maternal age on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)". Science China Life Sciences. 55 ...
In 2005, Canada enacted a law permitting research on discarded embryos from in vitro fertilization procedures. However, it ... to allow scientists to conduct stem cell research on imported a large amount of embryos from in vitro fertilization treatments ... harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In January 2007, researchers ... Brazil has passed legislation to permit stem cell research using excess in vitro fertilized embryos that have been frozen for ...
... including the availability of in vitro fertilisation to lesbian and single women. In 2004 Szoke joined the Victorian Equal ...
Adam's parents conceived him through in-vitro fertilization and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) so he could donate cord ...
Anand Joshi, who suggests they do in vitro fertilisation (IVF), a fertility technique that will enhance their chances. They ... trust with in vitro fertilization. Principal photography commenced in November 2018 and wrapped up by April 2019. The film was ...
... and the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF). She then went through extensive physical treatments to create a 'product' from ...
... is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances ... Embryos from rescued in vitro-matured metaphase II (IVM-MII) oocytes show significantly higher fertilization rates and more ... Fertility, In vitro fertilisation, Female genital procedures, Cryobiology, Fertility medicine, Obstetrics, Human pregnancy, ... In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization. Chromosomal evaluation may be performed. ...
... culminating in Season 8 in an in vitro fertilisation that, despite some premature false alarms to the negative from a home ...
"Father of in vitro fertilization weighs in on future of reproductive medicine". WVEC. Archived from the original on July 14, ... 2014). "In Vitro Fertilization Comes to America: Memoir of a Medical Breakthrough". Williamsburg, VA: Jamestowne Bookworks. ... Howard W. Jones Jr., scientist behind United States first in-vitro fertilization baby, telling his story". WUSA (TV). Archived ... Jones Howard (2005). "Twenty-Five Years of In Vitro Fertilization: A Look Back and a Look Forward". Obstetrical & Gynecological ...
... equal access to legal presumptions of parentage in cases of in vitro fertilisation ("IVF") or assisted/self insemination (other ... 2008 Treatment of lesbian parents and their children is equalised in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008. The ... "Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008". Angela Eagle: My pride at being first lesbian MP to 'marry' ...
MacFarlane IJ, Lees EM, Conn EE (1975). "The in vitro biosynthesis of dhurrin, the cyanogenic glycoside of Sorghum bicolor". J ... "Dhurrin synthesis in sorghum is regulated at the transcriptional level and induced by nitrogen fertilization in older plants". ...
Messerlian says, including cancer, transplantation and in vitro fertilization protocols, and research she is conducting is ...
Rates of mood disorders are even higher among women who are treated via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and increase further upon ... Some studies reported women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment tend to have smaller oocytes that can decrease ... This in turn means that less oocytes are suitable for fertilisation and fertility is impaired. Another reason for decrease in ... In the absence of fertilization of a sperm, the endometrium lining will shed, and menstruation will occur in a 28-day cycle. ...
"Pope Benedict XVI Declares Embryos Developed For In Vitro Fertilisation Have Right To Life". Medical News Today. Archived from ... and in vitro fertilization (IVF), saying that the artificial process replaces the love and conjugal act between a husband and ...
In vitro means outside the body. Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a womans egg and a mans sperm in a laboratory dish. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a womans egg and a mans sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means outside the ... In vitro fertilization. In: Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, Lobo RA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
In vitro means outside the body. Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a womans egg and a mans sperm in a laboratory dish. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a womans egg and a mans sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means outside the ... In vitro fertilization. In: Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, Lobo RA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN IN VITRO FERTILIZATION NIH GUIDE, Volume 22, Number 26, July 23, 1993 PA NUMBER: PA-93-101 P.T. 34 ... This Program Announcement, Research Involving Human In Vitro Fertilization, is related to the priority area of family planning ... basic and clinical research involving human in vitro fertilization (IVF), for the purpose of enhancing the treatment of certain ... to in vitro technologies such as IVF. Many of these techniques are being used empirically, without appropriate rigorous ...
In vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Eight- to twelve-week-old female FVB mice were superovulated by i.p. injection of 5 ... Mice generated by in vitro fertilization exhibit vascular dysfunction and shortened life span. Emrush Rexhaj,1 Ariane Paoloni- ... Cardiometabolic differences in children born after in vitro fertilization: follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5 ... Suboptimal in vitro culture conditions result in compromised ability to maintain genomic imprinting of in vitro compared with ...
... for the first time a litter of puppies was born entirely from in vitro fertilization. ... First Puppies Born by In Vitro Fertilization. Margherita Olivo December 15th 2015 ... for the first time a litter of puppies was born entirely from in vitro fertilization. ... This made it possible to "achieve a success rate of 80-90% fertilization" said Travis. "With a combination of gene editing ...
4 percent had been conceived using in vitro fertilization ... In Vitro Fertilization. Among 200 infants and children with ... 4 percent were conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), according to a study published online Sept. 20 in The Journal of ...
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... more and more subfertility couples are opting for combined acupuncture to improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization ... more and more subfertility couples are opting for combined acupuncture to improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization ... Shen C, Wu M, Shu D, Zhao X, Gao Y. The role of acupuncture in in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Jie Y. Systematic Review of Acupuncture in In-Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. Masters thesis. Heilongjiang university ...
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Acupuncture versus placebo acupuncture for in vitro fertilisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis Meaghan E Coyle 1 , ... In vitro fertilisation for unexplained subfertility. Pandian Z, Gibreel A, Bhattacharya S. Pandian Z, et al. Cochrane Database ... Acupuncture versus placebo acupuncture for in vitro fertilisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis Meaghan E Coyle et al. ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of acupuncture in in vitro fertilisation. El-Toukhy T, Sunkara SK, Khairy M, Dyer R, ...
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  • Health and Well-Being Outcomes of Adolescents Conceived Through In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. (
  • Currently, more and more subfertility couples are opting for combined acupuncture to improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). (
  • In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an effective treatment method for subfertility couples ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The fertilization of an egg by a sperm gives rise to a zygote or pre-embryo which is kept in the incubator for about two to five days where it continues to grow and divide. (
  • If the fertilisation is successful, the fertilised egg will be transferred into the uterus, within which it will develop into an embryo . (
  • In the case of in vitro fertilisation using donor eggs, this step is carried out on the egg donor and the woman who will receive the embryos has her endometrium hormonally prepared so that it is at the optimum stage to receive the embryo. (
  • Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes.We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth.Male-female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. (
  • Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple.Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. (
  • If my tubes are tied, can we use my eggs and my husband's sperm during the in vitro fertilization process? (
  • In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is the process of fertilizing eggs with the sperm outside of the human body. (
  • A couple of hours after egg collection, the male partner is asked toprovide semen sample following which the eggs are mixed with the sperm in a petri-dish to allow fertilization. (
  • In the laboratory, the identified eggs are stripped of surrounding cells and prepared for fertilisation. (
  • According to a June 22, 2016 editorial in The Seattle Times , opposition is being spearheaded by the conservative Family Research Council on the grounds that in vitro fertilization could result in the destruction of fertilized eggs (which is tantamount, in the eyes of Catholic and Protestant religious fundamentalists, to abortion). (
  • Medications are prescribed to promote production of more eggs for In-Vitro Fertilization procedure. (
  • Sperms and eggs are exposed to each other for fertilization. (
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure that involves collecting eggs from the ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm in a laboratory. (
  • The third step of this treatment is the insemination of the eggs in the laboratory, which can be done conventionally (conventional fertilisation which consists of putting the best sperm in contact with the eggs for a few hours so that they can fertilise the egg) or using the ICSI technique (injecting the sperm directly into the egg). (
  • This paper presents a discussion of Freudian psychoanalytic theory, especially the concepts of infantile sexuality and narcissism, and the results of scientific partial research on emotional experiences of couples who underwent in vitro fertilization using donor eggs, aiming to understand the emotional aspects of these couples within the framework of psychoanalysis. (
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish. (
  • Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg. (
  • If the doctor thinks the chance of fertilization is low, the sperm may be directly injected into the egg. (
  • In infertile couples where women have blocked or absent fallopian tubes or where men have low sperm counts, the technique of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) offers a chance at parenthood to couples who until recently would have had no hope of having a "biologically related" child. (
  • The process in which the sperm fertilises the egg takes place outside the woman's reproductive system, in the laboratory, hence the term in vitro, which means outside the body. (
  • Subsequently, intrauterine insemination, ovarian stimulation, and in vitro fertilization have been successfully used in these patients. (
  • ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of silymarin on follicular development, we enrolled 40 healthy women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) due to male factor infertility in this trial. (
  • Infertility Treatment: How late is it to go for In Vitro. (
  • Men's Intake of Vitamin C and β-Carotene Is Positively Related to Fertilization Rate but Not to Live Birth Rate in Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment. (
  • We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. (
  • Secondary outcomes were fertilization, implantation, and clinical pregnancy rates. (
  • Embryos are placed into the woman's womb 3 to 5 days after egg retrieval and fertilization. (
  • The term "in vitro", from the Latin root meaning "in glass", is used, because early biological experiments involving cultivation of tissues outside the living organism from which they came, were carried out in glass containers such as " beaker s, test tube s, or petri dish es. (
  • However "in vitro" fertilisation is usually performed in the shallower containers called petri dish es. (
  • For some women, who don't react well or simply don't want ovarian stimulation, natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be a good option to become pregnant. (
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Many infertile couples have been treated with a variety of assisted reproductive techniques, ranging from such simple methods as timed natural intercourse or artificial insemination, through ovulation induction, to in vitro technologies such as IVF. (
  • Many women or couples, nowadays, wonder which is the i n vitro fertilization Price in Spain ? (
  • 3 The pregnancy rate is about the same for IVF using natural fertilization or ICSI. (
  • Patients can choose to visit the top IVF center in India for Tube Reversal or In-Vitro Fertilization. (
  • Can a 46 year old women get pregnant via in vitro fertilization? (
  • In vitro fertilization, or IVF, is an effective and common type of assisted reproductive technique to help women to become pregnant. (
  • Review Boards in connection with activi- shall be contingent upon the avail- ties involving fetuses, pregnant women, ability of appropriated funds of the em- or human in vitro fertilization. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture for women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • In the meantime, semen is prepared for fertilisation by removing inactive cells and seminal fluid. (
  • Is in vitro fertilization safe for plus sized women? (
  • Can a women get in vitro fertilization if she no longer has a period? (
  • And Planned Parenthood clinics are under constant threat of losing state and federal funding despite the fact that most offer a full range of women's health services (including cancer screening, in vitro fertilization, and sex education) that would not otherwise be accessible to women of scarce resources. (
  • Some insurance plans cover in vitro fertilization (IVF) but not the injections that women may also require. (
  • Dr. Rinehart shares important tips for women undergoing in vitro fertilization. (
  • Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. (
  • Ces patientes ont été soumises à une induction d'ovulation et ont reçu, sur la base d'une répartition aléatoire et en aveugle, de la silymarine (70 mg × 3 fois par jour) ou un placebo, dès le début du cycle d'induction. (
  • What is Natural Cycle In Vitro Fertilization? (
  • That is why we say that fertilization is done in the Natural Ovulation Cycle . (
  • The aim of natural cycle in vitro stimulation is to obtain a few high-quality oocytes. (
  • The Short-read Transpore Rapid Karyotyping (STORK) test can detect extra or missing chromosomes (i.e., aneuploidy) using samples collected from prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, as well as tissue obtained from miscarriage and biopsies from pre-implantation embryos produced using in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • This Program Announcement, Research Involving Human In Vitro Fertilization, is related to the priority area of family planning. (
  • Human in vitro fertilization : a case study in the regulation of medical innovation / Jennifer Gunning and Veronica English. (
  • Even if it is defenseless and dependent, a new human life is created at fertilization. (
  • Applications and proposals lacking quest either (1) indemnification to sat- definite plans for involvement of human isfy a verdict, judgment or award en- subjects. (
  • This made it possible to " achieve a success rate of 80-90% fertilization" said Travis. (
  • Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts were fitted to account for multiple ART cycles per woman while adjusting for confounding.Men's vitamin C intake was positively associated with fertilization rate. (
  • By 2016 around 6.5 million babies are born by using in-vitro fertilization technique. (
  • In this assisted fertilization technique the extraction of quality oocytes is achieved without the need for hormonal stimulation. (
  • Today, the term "in vitro" is used to refer to any biological procedure that is performed outside the organism it would normally be occurring in, to distinguish it from an in vivo procedure, where the tissue remains inside the living organism within which it is normally found. (
  • FRIDAY, Oct. 29, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Among infants and children with the skull deformity known as craniosynostosis, 4 percent were conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), according to a study published online Sept. 20 in The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery . (
  • Cryopreservation of germplasm for long term storage, in vitro fertilization and rederivation of lines. (
  • You can also take advantage of it if you have already undergone other assisted fertilization processes without successful multi-follicular growth. (
  • In-Vitro Fertilization has been used for a long time and has a safe track record. (
  • Relating in vitro to in vivo exposures with physiologically-based tissue dosimetry and tissue response models. (