Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Fertility Agents, Male: Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Flurogestone Acetate: A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).

Post-traumatic epilepsy: its complications and impact on occupational rehabilitation--an epidemiological study from India. (1/4600)

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of seizure disorder, neuropsychiatric disorders and reproductive outcome of employees with post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) and their effect on occupational rehabilitation. A case-comparison group study design was used to compare 30 subjects with PTE with (1) 129 non-PTE and (2) 55 non-PTE matched control employees. The 55 non-PTE matched controls were selected from the 129 non-PTE employees on the basis of age, age at onset of seizure, age at marriage and length of employment. The PTE group had a lower fertility rate than the controls and more neuropsychiatric disorders and seizure disability. PTE employees were more occupationally rehabilitated than non-PTE employees (p = 0.033). Of the 30 PTE subjects, thirteen who were rehabilitated by placement had more seizure disability (p = 0.007) and a higher fertility rate (p = 0.018). High prevalence of seizure disability and increased fertility rate among the placed PTE employees suggested that there might be some association between severity of seizures and increased production of live offspring and work placement. Work suitability or placement should not be judged on clinical assessment only but psychosocial seizure assessment, disability evaluation and other psychometric tests which are of equal importance.  (+info)

Molecular control of the implantation window. (2/4600)

Human endometrium is the end organ of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Therefore, endometrium is susceptible to changes in the cases of infertility that originate from disturbances in the normal functioning of this axis. In addition, some cases of unexplained infertility may be due to altered endometrial function. This disturbed endometrial function may originate from lesions in the molecular repertoire that are crucial to implantation. Human endometrium becomes receptive to implantation by the blastocyst within a defined period during the menstrual cycle. The duration of this so-called 'endometrial receptivity' or 'implantation' period seems to span from few days after ovulation to several days prior to menstruation. Successful implantation results from a co-ordinated series of events that would allow establishment of a timely dialogue between a receptive endometrium and an intrusive blastocyst. The members of the molecular repertoire that make endometrium receptive to implantation are gradually being recognized. Among these are the cytokines, integrins, heat shock proteins, tastin and trophinin. In addition, the expression of a second set of genes including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and ebaf, may be the appropriate signal for the closure of the 'implantation window', for making the endometrium refractory to implantation and for preparing it for the menstrual shedding.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (3/4600)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Endometrial oestrogen and progesterone receptors and their relationship to sonographic appearance of the endometrium. (4/4600)

The rapid development of ultrasonographic equipment now permits instantaneous assessment of follicles and endometrium. The sonographic appearance of the endometrium has been discussed in relation to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, a generally agreed view of the relationship of the sonographic appearance to fecundity in IVF cycles has not emerged. We have studied the relationship between steroid receptors and the sonographic appearance of the preovulatory endometrium in natural cycles and ovulation induction cycles. Preovulatory endometrial thickness was not found to be indicative of fecundity, although a preovulatory endometrial thickness of <9 mm related to an elevated miscarriage rate. The preovulatory endometrial echo pattern did not predict fecundity. No relationships were found among endometrial appearance, endometrial steroid receptors and steroid hormone concentrations in serum. Oestrogen or progesterone receptor concentrations were not related to endometrial thickness or to concentrations of serum oestradiol, the only significant correlation being found between the endometrial concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. The ratio of progesterone:oestrogen receptor concentration was somewhat less in echo pattern B (not triple line) endometrium compared with pattern A (triple line) endometrium. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations appeared stable on gonadotrophin induction, though fewer numbers were found during clomiphene cycles than in natural cycles. With regard to the distribution of receptor concentration between clomiphene and natural cycles, most women using clomiphene had very low oestrogen receptor populations. Pregnancy rates were low, in spite of high ovulatory rates during clomiphene treatment and were mainly related to low oestrogen receptor concentrations in preovulatory endometrium.  (+info)

Germ cell development in the XXY mouse: evidence that X chromosome reactivation is independent of sexual differentiation. (5/4600)

Prior to entry into meiosis, XX germ cells in the fetal ovary undergo X chromosome reactivation. The signal for reactivation is thought to emanate from the genital ridge, but it is unclear whether it is specific to the developing ovary. To determine whether the signals are present in the developing testis as well as the ovary, we examined the expression of X-linked genes in germ cells from XXY male mice. To facilitate this analysis, we generated XXY and XX fetuses carrying X chromosomes that were differentially marked and subject to nonrandom inactivation. This pattern of nonrandom inactivation was maintained in somatic cells but, in XX as well as XXY fetuses, both parental alleles were expressed in germ cell-enriched cell populations. Because testis differentiation is temporally and morphologically normal in the XXY testis and because all germ cells embark upon a male pathway of development, these results provide compelling evidence that X chromosome reactivation in fetal germ cells is independent of the somatic events of sexual differentiation. Proper X chromosome dosage is essential for the normal fertility of male mammals, and abnormalities in germ cell development are apparent in the XXY testis within several days of X reactivation. Studies of exceptional germ cells that survive in the postnatal XXY testis demonstrated that surviving germ cells are exclusively XY and result from rare nondisjunctional events that give rise to clones of XY cells.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a critical role in Drosophila spermatogenesis. (6/4600)

The Hsp90 chaperone protein maintains the activities of a remarkable variety of signal transducers, but its most critical functions in the context of the whole organism are unknown. Point mutations of Hsp83 (the Drosophila Hsp90 gene) obtained in two different screens are lethal as homozygotes. We report that eight transheterozygous mutant combinations produce viable adults. All exhibit the same developmental defects: sterile males and sterile or weakly fertile females. We also report that scratch, a previously identified male-sterile mutation, is an allele of Hsp82 with a P-element insertion in the intron that reduces expression. Thus, it is a simple reduction in Hsp90 function, rather than possible altered functions in the point mutants, that leads to male sterility. As shown by light and electron microscopy, all stages of spermatogenesis involving microtubule function are affected, from early mitotic divisions to later stages of sperm maturation, individualization, and motility. Aberrant microtubules are prominent in yeast cells carrying mutations in HSP82 (the yeast Hsp90 gene), confirming that Hsp90 function is connected to microtubule dynamics and that this connection is highly conserved. A small fraction of Hsp90 copurifies with taxol-stabilized microtubule proteins in Drosophila embryo extracts, but Hsp90 does not remain associated with microtubules through repeated temperature-induced assembly and disassembly reactions. If the spermatogenesis phenotypes are due to defects in microtubule dynamics, we suggest these are indirect, reflecting a role for Hsp90 in maintaining critical signal transduction pathways and microtubule effectors, rather than a direct role in the assembly and disassembly of microtubules themselves.  (+info)

The Parkes Lecture. Heat and the testis. (7/4600)

The evidence for the lower temperature of the testes of many mammals is summarized, and the reasons suggested for the descent of the testes into a scrotum are discussed. Descriptions are given of the various techniques used for studying the effects of heat on the testis, whole body heating, local heating of the testes (by inducing cryptorchidism, scrotal insulation or immersion of the scrotum in a water bath), and heating of tissue or cell preparations in vitro. The effects of heat are discussed, effects on the testis (weight, histology, physiology, biochemistry and endocrinology), on the numbers and motility of spermatozoa in rete testis fluid and semen, on fertilizing ability of spermatozoa and on the subsequent development of the embryos produced when spermatozoa from heated testes are used to fertilize normal ova. The possible mechanisms for the damaging effects of heat are discussed, as well as the importance of heat-induced abnormalities in male reproduction in domestic animals and humans.  (+info)

Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. (8/4600)

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively active period of people's lives and, second, the extent to which market value influences individual's willingness to make strong demands of prospective mates. We show that female market value is determined principally by women's fecundity (and, to a lesser extent, reproductive value), while male market value is determined by men's earning potential and the risk of future pairbond termination (the conjoint probability that the male will either die or divorce his partner during the next 20 years). We then show that these selection preferences strongly influence the levels of demands that men and women make of prospective partners (although older males tend to overestimate their market value).  (+info)

  • In this latest study - published in the journal Fertility and Sterility and led by researchers from Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York, NY, and Rutgers School of Public Health in Piscataway, NJ - the team investigated whether stress may affect sperm and semen quality. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using standard fertility testing methods, researchers from the University of California, Davis, analyzed semen concentration, and sperm shape (morphology) and movement (motility) in each sample. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fertility home sperm tests include everything you need to see if your partner's sperm count is likely high enough for conception. (walgreens.com)
  • The move is expected to help cancer patients preserve their fertility, by pushing more insurers to pay for their procedure, and to boost banking of donated eggs, similar to sperm banking. (yahoo.com)
  • In part, this all happened because organizations, like sperm banks, operate completely independently from fertility clinics. (fastcompany.com)
  • HealthDayNews -- Laptop computers pose a long-term threat to the fertility of young men who use them because they can reduce sperm formation by raising temperatures in the genital area, a small new study says. (redorbit.com)
  • The Fertility Center offers comprehensive cryopreservation services, including egg banking, sperm banking and embryo banking. (massgeneral.org)
  • Men who lose the ability to produce sperm after chemotherapy might one day be able to regain their fertility. (newscientist.com)
  • Although chemotherapy drugs can damage the ovaries, eggs and cells that make sperm, fertility may return when treatment is finished. (cancer.ca)
  • DENVER , Sept. 27, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine (CCRM), a leading fertility treatment network, is conducting a clinical research study to explore how its natural antioxidant supplement, GameteHealth, could increase the odds of a successful pregnancy by improving sperm health. (prnewswire.com)
  • For patients at or beyond puberty, egg or sperm samples can be taken and frozen for future use - a relatively novel process itself called "onco-fertility. (sickkids.ca)
  • Ewelina Bolcun-Filas, Ph.D., works with mice to explore how to protect female fertility despite radiation-induced DNA damage, so female cancer patients retain the option of having children later in life. (jax.org)
  • Ewelina Bolcun-Filas, Ph.D., a principal investigator at The Jackson Laboratory since January 2015, is currently working with mice to explore how to protect female fertility despite radiation-induced DNA damage, so female cancer patients retain the option of having children later in life. (jax.org)
  • A BMI over the normal range will recommend the patient to try losing some weight, as we know an increase in fat tissue affects fertility outcomes. (youtube.com)
  • We will identify a group of men who are using laptop computers on a regular basis and see to what extent it affects fertility," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • Previous work has been carried out in modern Western populations, but the current research was conducted in a more traditional population, enabling the team to test how personality affects fertility rates in a `natural environmentà ´ characterized by high birth rates. (redorbit.com)
  • General health affects fertility, and STI testing is an important related field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joanne Franke Kelvin, RN, MSN, AOCN, clinical nurse specialist in fertility preservation at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, advises patients to be prepared when meeting with an oncologist or specialist. (nccn.org)
  • In my role as chief medical officer with Extend Fertility, a premier egg freezing service in New York City, I seek to educate women about their fertility and their fertility preservation options so that they can make informed decisions that are in line with their life goals. (usatoday.com)
  • It's none of our business to tell someone, 'No, you shouldn't delay childbearing if you choose for whatever reason,'" said Dr. James Grifo of New York University, whose center has frozen more than 1,100 batches of eggs, mostly for elective fertility preservation. (yahoo.com)
  • 3. Explain fertility preservation treatment options for male patients diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Enter, the SickKids Fertility Preservation Program . (sickkids.ca)
  • World Fertility Data 2019 presents data on age-specific fertility rates, total fertility and mean age at childbearing for 201 countries or areas of the world. (un.org)
  • The empirical data used for deriving estimates in World Population Prospects 2019 are not necessarily the same as reported in World Fertility Data 2019 due to the time lag between the two publications. (un.org)
  • Moreover, fertility estimates in World Population Prospects 2019 may incorporate additional adjustments to account for cohort sizes in consecutive censuses. (un.org)
  • SART Fertility Experts - Donor Eggs: Fresh or frozen? (deezer.com)
  • Butter from grass-fed cows, organ meats, sunflower seeds, almonds, dark leafy green vegetables, unrefined olive oil and pastured eggs are all a healthy part of a fertility diet. (foxnews.com)
  • Dr. Evelyn Mok-Lin, a reproductive endocrinologist and medical director of the center, said several of these patients originally requested a fertility workup, often because their friends had gotten one done, and were worried by their low antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels or how many ovarian eggs they have left. (healthline.com)
  • For most of these couples, they decide to seek help through fertility treatment, which can include exploring their options using donor eggs. (issuu.com)
  • For example fertility in demography is the actual production of live births by a female, while in clinical medicine it refers to the potential for a woman to become pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the drop in live births, America's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - a prediction of how many children the average woman will have in her lifetime - has dropped to a new low of 1.76, approaching the all-time low of 1.74 children per woman reached in 1976. (theweek.com)
  • Annual data of live births, fertility rates, percentage of births outside marriage, sex ratio, mean age of mother and country of birth of mother and father. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Numbers of live births, fertility rates, percentage of births outside marriage/civil partnership, sex ratio, mean age of mother, area of usual residence of mother and country of birth of mother. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • However, at the moment there is insufficient evidence available to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of fertility monitoring on live births or pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility refers to the ability of a couple to conceive and give birth to a child. (news-medical.net)
  • Currently, there is no requirement that physicians test for gluten intolerance in women trying to conceive - just as there is no requirement that they test for thyroid antibodies, vitamin D deficiency and other common fertility and IVF saboteurs. (bellaonline.com)
  • And since stress is known to interfere with fertility, and some research shows that women with severe depression are less likely to conceive than women who are not depressed, any of these stress-busting methods may help you get in a baby-making frame of mind and body. (whattoexpect.com)
  • General fertility rate (GFR) - the number of births in a year divided by the number of women aged 15-44, times 1000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total fertility rate (TFR) - the total number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she were to experience the prevailing age-specific fertility rates of women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Anti-Fertility Vaccine (AFV) proved to be a different kind of campaign with women world over opening the campaign together and confronting the role of WHO in population control. (google.com)
  • These tables present detailed fertility data for cohorts of women as they pass through their childbearing years and include central birth rates, cumulative birth rates, birth distributions, and birth probabilities. (cdc.gov)
  • And what is more, Smith's potential maximum fertility is an overstatement for two reasons: first, the average age at first marriage for northwestern European women was not twenty and second about one-third of all marriages were broken by the death of one partner before age forty-five, which Smith is using as a shorthand measurement for the onset of menopause. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Basing his conclusions on fifty-four published studies describing age-specific marital fertility rates for women in early modern northwestern Europe , Michael Flinn agrees with Smith, describing an average age at first marriage for women that fluctuated around twenty-five. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fertility in every woman is completely different, and these period calculator are based in the overall population of fertile women. (youtube.com)
  • Supplements are also available to help women maximize their fertility. (walgreens.com)
  • Other fertility supplements for women may provide hormonal support. (walgreens.com)
  • This new partnership with Fertility Authority will improve the health and well-being of the women in EmpowHer's global audience. (prweb.com)
  • A minimally invasive treatment can help restore fertility in women with uterine fibroids, according to a new study published online, June 13, in the journal Radiology . (prweb.com)
  • Previous research has found that one out of every four women with fibroids has problems related to fertility. (prweb.com)
  • Despite its less invasive nature, UFE has yet to be fully embraced in the medical community as a fertility-preserving treatment for women with symptomatic fibroids due to concerns that the procedure may cause inadequate blood flow to the endometrium, or lining of the uterus, and the ovaries. (prweb.com)
  • Most Americans are aware that a Baby Boom erupted after World War II and lasted until the Pill gave women control over their fertility, but few now remember the downturn in births before the boom. (worldwatch.org)
  • Northern European women (also U.S. non-Hispanic women) have fertility rates that are only slightly below replacement level. (worldwatch.org)
  • What proportion of women have fertility problems? (infoplease.com)
  • they have the lowest total fertility, but almost all married women have at least one child. (repec.org)
  • We find that, on the one hand, the social norm of unequal gender division of childcare significantly contributes to the low fertility of South Korea, and its effect varies across education: The social norm lowers fertility for highly educated women but increases it for the less educated. (repec.org)
  • Pro-natal policies can increase average fertility, but they are not effective in mitigating the role of this norm as they cannot sufficiently boost fertility for highly educated women. (repec.org)
  • The opposite effect was observed decades later, as women delayed childbearing into their 30s, resulting in TFRs that underestimated true fertility. (theweek.com)
  • Leading Indian fertility doctors and surrogate mothers criticised a move to ban commercial surrogacy, saying it will severely limit options for childless couples and women who carry others' babies as a way out of poverty. (gulf-times.com)
  • Fertility Fest is headed up by two visionary women at Fertility Fest, Jessica Hepburn and Gabby Vauntier-Farr, and their education initiative is funded by the Arts Council of England and the Wellcome Trust. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • The technology could allow women to preserve fertility in cases where they are going to lose it prematurely - say in the case of women undergoing chemotherapy for cancer. (bbc.co.uk)
  • According the Center for Disease Control, more than 7.4 million women have used fertility services. (foxnews.com)
  • The woman, Kijuana Chambers, 33, said the decision would prevent other disabled women from seeking fertility treatment. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health reports that 9% of men and roughly 11% of women of reproductive age in the United States have experienced fertility problems. (fastcompany.com)
  • Men and women are equally likely to have fertility problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • In both men and women , radiation therapy to the area of the brain that includes the pituitary gland can sometimes affect fertility. (cancer.ca)
  • Video covering fertility patterns for UK born and non-UK born women, including examination of EU countries. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Vechery and co-founder Carly Leahy believe information is the first step to helping women who aren't quite ready for kids learn about their fertility health. (healthline.com)
  • Modern Fertility will then provide women with a "simple, easy to understand" online report. (healthline.com)
  • That analysis will include Modern Fertility's proprietary fertility score - still in development - which will compare an individual's fertility health to that of other women her age. (healthline.com)
  • That includes Modern Fertility, which has the marketing savvy and ease-of-use to reach thousands of women. (healthline.com)
  • Individual fertility assessment tests are gaining in popularity as a way for women to gauge the quality and quantity of their actual egg supply. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Practitioners claim homeopathy can help women with a variety of fertility problems from blocked tubes and endometriosis to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Practitioners claim giving women with fertility problems the same hormone that is causing them the problem can aid fertility. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Healthy women are fertile from puberty until menopause, although fertility is typically much reduced towards the extremes of this period. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company announced in a 2017 blog post that it would offer fertility benefits for up to $20,000 for parents working with a surrogate, and benefits up to $5,000 for employees who adopt. (entrepreneur.com)
  • These supplements may help to maintain a healthy balance of hormones for overall health and fertility. (walgreens.com)
  • To change that, Modern Fertility is launching an at-home testing kit that will analyze 10 hormones related to fertility. (healthline.com)
  • For fertility of plants and soil, see Soil fertility . (wikipedia.org)
  • Students will use a GLOBE Soil Fertility Kit to prepare samples and determine whether nitrate, phosphate, and potassium are absent from a soil sample or present in low, medium or high concentrations. (globe.gov)
  • The forest is a living machine working with living material, and from this living machine comes soil fertility. (mofga.org)
  • When we see the soil as a biological entity, we reverse the actual definition of soil fertility completely. (mofga.org)
  • The historical question that comes into focus concerns the difference between Leridon's "biological maximum" and observed total fertility rates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bongaarts proposed a model where the total fertility rate of a population can be calculated from four proximate determinants and the total fecundity (TF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Young people have a particular interest in the impact of chemotherapy or radiotherapy on their future fertility, and recent media reports 1 of the successful transplantation of cryopreserved autologous ovarian tissue into a previously oophorectomised woman with non-malignant disease (K Oktay et al, Annual Meeting of American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Toronto, September 1999) will have caught the imagination of many. (bmj.com)
  • Debunking the most common fertility myths How likely are you to get pregnant on the first try? (usatoday.com)
  • A chief medical officer and reproductive endocrinologist with Extend Fertility debunks common fertility myths. (usatoday.com)
  • An overview of some of the most common fertility concerns or "factors" are listed below. (ohsu.edu)
  • http://www.fertilityonline.net a different fertility blog by Lucy Coleman. (youtube.com)
  • There are 3 different fertility signals you can monitor and record for natural family planning. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Fertility watches are another option for getting an idea of your most fertile days. (walgreens.com)
  • Each of these methods relies on different signs to predict your fertile days, so using them together gives you the best picture of your fertility and makes FAMs more accurate. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Fertility testing is the process by which fertility is assessed, both generally and also to find the fertile window. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern Fertility is hoping to stem that anxiety by "giving people the tools they need to have more control over their fertility," Afton Vechery, the co-founder of the startup told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • One of the most commonly cited studies on the effect of child subsidies on fertility, Whittington, Alm and Peters (1990), claimed a large positive effect of child tax benefits on fertility using time series methods. (nber.org)
  • He assigns all the fertility observations before 1990 with HIV prevalence rates of zero, and this appears to drive the significant negative effect found in his study. (repec.org)
  • When one restricts the sample to the period 1990-1998, where actual HIV data are available, the effect of HIV prevalence on fertility turns out to be positive for South Africa. (repec.org)
  • Personality traits are increasingly being studied to understand individual-level determinants of fertility patterns, and how differences in personality can be maintained by natural selection. (redorbit.com)
  • Gaining understanding of such individual-level determinants of reproductive decisions helps in the current debate on the role of individual versus social factors in explaining recent fertility changes around the world. (redorbit.com)
  • The "Three-step Analysis" of the fertility process was introduced by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake in 1956 and makes use of three proximate determinants: The economic analysis of fertility is part of household economics, a field that has grown out of the New Home Economics. (wikipedia.org)
  • due to unclear definitions for fertility, fecundity and derivative terms depending on whether the term is being used in demography, epidemiology or clinical medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, reproductive endocrinologists and clinical chemists specializing in fertility are skeptical about the actual scientific accuracy of the promised product, which is positioned as a replacement for more expensive in-office tests. (healthline.com)
  • What have you learned through your years of clinical work about fertility? (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • The results suggest that lead may continue to impair fertility today, both in the United States and in other countries that have significant amounts of lead in topsoil. (nber.org)
  • This revision supersedes previous versions of World Fertility Data published by the United Nations. (un.org)
  • Fertility Authority, the only web portal dedicated to fertility, ( http://www.fertilityauthority.com ), and EmpowHer, the home of women's health online, ( http://www.empowher.com ), are working together to advance women's reproductive health. (prweb.com)
  • This dialogue around fertility and women's reproductive health is incredibly important, but it can sometimes be challenging to know exactly where the accurate information ends and the mythmaking begins. (usatoday.com)
  • ORM Fertility announced today it now offers the Invocell Intravaginal Culture (IVC) System as part of its scope of reproductive health services. (prnewswire.com)
  • However, the studies that utilize the recent rounds of Demographic Health Surveys, where fertility outcomes are linked to HIV status based on testing, find no effect of the disease on the fertility behavior. (repec.org)
  • Fertility has a tendency to decline with age, but this doesn't occur at an alarming rate. (news-medical.net)
  • Further, lower fertility doesn't necessarily mean a decline in population: For countries like the United States, the UN projects that immigration will more than make up for any drop in the number of children born domestically. (businessinsider.com)
  • Fertility begins to decline significantly in your mid-30s. (ohsu.edu)
  • Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. (springer.com)
  • You're not alone Fertility problems affect about 15-20% of couples and this number is growing as more people leave it later in life to start a family while they focus on their careers. (issuu.com)
  • But she said she did not believe it would happen because she had so many fertility problems, including severe endometriosis and scarred fallopian tubes. (webmd.com)
  • Traditional Chinese acupuncture targeting fertility works by encouraging fresh blood to specific points that influence our reproductive organs such as our fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • How can epilepsy affect your fertility? (webmd.com)
  • The main Midwest Fertility Center office in Downers Grove, Illinois has open house every Tuesday. (flickr.com)
  • Our results suggest that the tension between the persistent gender ideology and rapid socioeconomic development is the main driving force behind the unique marriage and fertility patterns of East Asian societies, and that this tension has escalated in recent decades. (repec.org)
  • This damage can cause fertility problems that affect a woman's ability to become or stay pregnant or a man's ability to get a woman pregnant. (cancer.ca)
  • All fertility clinics that took part in the study comply with Australia's national guidelines that ban gender selection, the researchers wrote in their findings published on Wednesday in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (ibtimes.com)
  • A Modern Fertility test kit sells for $149, which Vechery calls "a fraction of the cost" of the same tests at hospitals or at fertility clinics. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Paul Turek, a board-certified urologist and men's sexual health and fertility expert as well as founder and director of The Turek Clinics in Los Angeles , San Francisco and Silicon Valley, has similar concerns. (healthline.com)
  • You can have fast economic development with low fertility or high fertility ( South Korea and Taiwan did it a few decades ago). (nytimes.com)
  • Notes for Editors: The paper, entitled `Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human populationà ´ was published on 7 June 2010 in Volume 107, Issue 22 of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Alexandra Alvergne, Markus Jokela and Virpi Lummaa. (redorbit.com)
  • Great attention is being given to plants with anti-fertility properties. (healthy.net)
  • Part of this vital work has focused upon folk use of anti-fertility herbs. (healthy.net)
  • TFR = TF × Cm × Ci × Ca × Cc These four indices can also be used to calculate the total marital fertility (TMFR) and the total natural fertility (TN). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence to suggest that acupuncture can enhance fertility. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • To see if these stem cells could be used to restore fertility, Orwig and his team took samples of the cells from the testes of prepubescent and adult male rhesus macaques, and froze them. (newscientist.com)
  • Social Norms and Fertility ," Working Papers 2018-064, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group. (repec.org)
  • Iodine is essential for thyroid function and also for fertility. (bellaonline.com)
  • In demographic contexts, fertility refers to the actual production of offspring, rather than the physical capability to produce which is termed fecundity . (wikipedia.org)
  • A key component of demographic projection is forecasting fertility rates in different countries around the world, and the UN has published their fertility estimates on their website. (businessinsider.com)
  • Taking into account families' fertility decisions, it examines not only the demographic changes due to longer life expectancy but also the effects of social security policy on demography and labor supply/individual retirement behaviors. (springer.com)
  • Agarwal said that his study was consistent with previous studies conducted in 2002 and 2005 that found a relationship between exposure to electromagnetic radiation and fertility, as well as with animal studies. (eweek.com)
  • ReUnite Rx offers discounts to patients who either have no insurance coverage or elect to pay out of pocket for fertility medications. (walgreens.com)
  • Both male and female patients can receive all fertility-related care in the convenience of one location. (massgeneral.org)