Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.

Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. (1/3222)

BACKGROUND: Studies of iron status and coronary heart disease (CHD) have yielded conflicting results. In a systematic review ("meta-analysis"), we quantitatively assessed epidemiological associations reported in prospective studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were identified by computer-assisted searches of the published literature, scanning of relevant reference lists, hand searching of relevant journals, and discussions with relevant authors. The following was abstracted: size and type of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, assay methods, degree of adjustment for confounders, and relationship of CHD risk to the baseline assay results. Twelve studies were identified, involving a total of 7800 CHD cases, with several reporting on >1 marker of iron status. For serum ferritin, with 570 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals with baseline values >/=200 versus <200 microg/L yielded a combined risk ratio of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3). For transferrin saturation, with 6194 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of the baseline measurements yielded a combined risk ratio of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). Comparisons of individuals in top and bottom thirds of baseline measurements also yielded nonsignificant risk ratios in combined analyses of studies involving total iron-binding capacity (combined risk ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5), serum iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0), and total dietary iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Published prospective studies do not provide good evidence to support the existence of strong epidemiological associations between iron status and CHD.  (+info)

The identification of ferritin in the nucleus of K562 cells, and investigation of a possible role in the transcriptional regulation of adult beta-globin gene expression. (2/3222)

We studied the subcellular distribution of ferritin in K562 cells by immunofluorescence techniques and have made a reappraisal of a direct binding interaction between ferritin and the proximal promoter region of the human beta-globin gene, as previously mentioned in the literature. Confocal microscopy indicates that ferritin, the iron-storage protein, is present in the nucleus of K562 cells, in addition to its expected cytoplasmic localisation. The stain distribution suggests that it is not directly associated with the nuclear matrix. Using a gel mobility shift assay, a protein that cross-reacts with monoclonal ferritin antibodies competitively binds to a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the region situated 150 base pairs upstream from the beta-globin transcription start site. Despite this antibody cross-reactivity, the protein is unlike cytosolic ferritin as it appears to be highly sensitive to both temperature and freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-crosslinking experiments indicate that the molecular mass of the protein factor lies between 90 and 100 kDa. In conclusion, while the intranuclear location of ferritin is described in the present study, ferritin is not in direct contact with the beta-globin promoter region.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (3/3222)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Ferroxidase activity of ferritin: effects of pH, buffer and Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations on Fe(II) autoxidation and ferroxidation. (4/3222)

It is widely accepted that iron deposition in the iron storage protein ferritin in vitro involves Fe(II) oxidation, and that ferritin facilitates this oxidation at a ferroxidase site on the protein. However, these views have recently been questioned, with the protein ferroxidase activity instead being attributed to autoxidation from the buffer alone. Ligand exchange between another protein with ferroxidase activity and ferritin has been proposed as an alternative mechanism for iron incorporation into ferritin. In the present work, a pH stat apparatus is used to eliminate the influence of buffers on iron(II) oxidation. Here we show that the recent experiments questioning the ferroxidase activity of ferritin were flawed by inadequate pH control, that buffers actually retard rather than facilitate iron(II) oxidation, and that horse spleen ferritin has ferroxidase activity when measured under proper experimental conditions. Furthermore, high pH (7.0), a high Fe(II) concentration and the presence of Fe(III) all favour Fe(II) autoxidation in the presence or absence of ferritin.  (+info)

Streptavidin facilitates internalization and pulmonary targeting of an anti-endothelial cell antibody (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1): a strategy for vascular immunotargeting of drugs. (5/3222)

Conjugation of drugs with antibodies to surface endothelial antigens is a potential strategy for drug delivery to endothelium. We studied antibodies to platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, a stably expressed endothelial antigen) as carriers for vascular immunotargeting. Although 125I-labeled anti-PECAM bound to endothelial cells in culture, the antibody was poorly internalized by the cells and accumulated poorly after intravenous administration in mice and rats. However, conjugation of biotinylated anti-PECAM (b-anti-PECAM) with streptavidin (SA) markedly stimulated uptake and internalization of anti-PECAM by endothelial cells and by cells expressing PECAM. In addition, conjugation with streptavidin markedly stimulated uptake of 125I-labeled b-anti-PECAM in perfused rat lungs and in the lungs of intact animals after either intravenous or intraarterial injection. The antioxidant enzyme catalase conjugated with b-anti-PECAM/SA bound to endothelial cells in culture, entered the cells, escaped intracellular degradation, and protected the cells against H2O2-induced injury. Anti-PECAM/SA/125I-catalase accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection or in the perfused rat lungs and protected these lungs against H2O2-induced injury. Thus, modification of a poor carrier antibody with biotin and SA provides an approach for facilitation of antibody-mediated drug targeting. Anti-PECAM/SA is a promising candidate for vascular immunotargeting of bioactive drugs.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the mouse ferritin H gene. Involvement of p300/CBP adaptor proteins in FER-1 enhancer activity. (6/3222)

We previously identified a major enhancer of the mouse ferritin H gene (FER-1) that is central to repression of the ferritin H gene by the adenovirus E1A oncogene (Tsuji, Y., Akebi, N., Lam, T. K., Nakabeppu, Y., Torti, S. V., and Torti, F. M. (1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 5152-5164). To dissect the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of ferritin H, E1A mutants were tested for their ability to repress FER-1 enhancer activity using cotransfection with ferritin H-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs. Here we report that p300/CBP transcriptional adaptor proteins are involved in the regulation of ferritin H transcription through the FER-1 enhancer element. Thus, E1A mutants that failed to bind p300/CBP lost the ability to repress FER-1, whereas mutants of E1A that abrogated its interaction with Rb, p107, or p130 were fully functional in transcriptional repression. Transfection with E1A did not affect endogenous p300/CBP levels, suggesting that repression of FER-1 by E1A is not due to repression of p300/CBP synthesis, but to E1A and p300/CBP interaction. In addition, we have demonstrated that transfection of a p300 expression plasmid significantly activated ferritin H-CAT containing the FER-1 enhancer, but had a marginal effect on ferritin H-CAT with FER-1 deleted. Furthermore, both wild-type p300 and a p300 mutant that failed to bind E1A but retained an adaptor function restored FER-1 enhancer activity repressed by E1A. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, mimicked p300/CBP function in activation of ferritin H-CAT and elevation of endogenous ferritin H mRNA, suggesting that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP or its associated proteins may contribute to the activation of ferritin H transcription. Recruitment of these broadly active transcriptional adaptor proteins for ferritin H synthesis may represent an important mechanism by which changes in iron metabolism are coordinated with other cellular responses mediated by p300/CBP.  (+info)

Iron-deficient diet reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-deficient mice. (7/3222)

BACKGROUND: Iron deposition is evident in human atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that iron may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. To test this idea, the correlation between the extent of iron deposition and the severity of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of a low-iron diet on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in these animals was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Iron deposition in tissues of apoE-deficient mice was examined by Perls' staining method. The results clearly demonstrated that iron deposits are present in atherosclerotic lesions and tissue sections of heart and liver in an age-dependent manner. When the young mice received a low-iron diet for 3 months, the hematocrit, serum iron, hemoglobin, and cholesterol concentrations were not significantly altered compared with those of littermates placed on a chow diet. However, the serum ferritin level of animals in the iron-restricted group was 27% to 30% lower than that of the control group in either sex. Furthermore, the lipoproteins isolated from the iron-restricted group exhibited greater resistance to copper-induced oxidation. Histological examination revealed that atherosclerotic lesions developed in mice fed a low-iron diet were significantly smaller than those found in control littermates. Likewise, the iron deposition as well as tissue iron content was much less in aortic tissues of the iron-restricted animals. Circulating autoantibodies to oxidized LDL and immunostains for epitopes of malondialdehyde-modified LDL detected on lesions were also significantly lower in mice fed a low-iron diet. CONCLUSIONS: Iron deposition is closely associated with the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. Restriction in dietary iron intake leads to significant inhibition of lesion formation in these animals. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of a low-iron diet may be mediated, at least in part, by the reduction of iron deposition as well as LDL oxidation in vascular lesions.  (+info)

Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. (8/3222)

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

Ferritin has been purified from normal full-term human placentae and its antigenic and molecular characteristics compared with adult liver ferritin. Placental ferritin is composed predominantly of a single subunit type, co-migrating with a liver ferritin standard on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Comparison of dose-response curves in an immunoradiometric assay indicated some tissue-specific antigenicity for placental ferritin. This was supported by immunofluorescence studies on cryostat sections of human placentae by using antibodies to placental and spleen ferritin. Specific staining for placental ferritin was demonstrated within placental syncytiotrophoblast, particularly localized towards the microvillus plasma membrane. Ferritin has also been shown by electrophoretic and antigenic analysis to be present in protein fractions solubilized from isolated human syncytiotrophoblast microvillus plasma-membrane preparations, suggesting that ferritin may play an active ...
BACKGROUND: The expression of the two types of ferritin subunits, the H-subunit and L-subunit, has been shown to be differentially regulated by cytokines. The primary aim of the present study was to quantitatively measure the expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron in patients with chronic T-helper cell type-1 immune stimulation. METHODS: The expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron was quantitatively evaluated by post-embedding immunolocalisation with immunogold transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The present study showed up-regulation of the H-subunit of ferritin in the bone marrow macrophage in patients with pronounced cellular immune activation (94.7 ± 37.3 counts/μm2; n = 31 vs 72.4 ± 34.0 counts/μm2; n = 13, p-value = 0.037). CONCLUSION: This supports a possible role for H-subunit rich ferritins in the hypoferraemia of chronic disease ...
Ferritins (MW: ~ 450 kD) are polymeric proteins composed of 2 subunits a heavy chain and a light chain polypeptide, that reversibly bind and store iron in liver, spleen and bone marrow. The ferritin molecule consists of 24 self-assembling polypeptide subunits composed of the heavy and light chains. Ferritin light chain is the main intracellular iron storage protein. The proportion of heavy and light chain composing the ferritin molecule varies from tissue to tissue. This variation accounts for the differences in the rate of iron uptake and release in different tissues or organs. Recombinant Human Ferritin Light Chain is produced in E.coli as a single non-glycosylated polypeptide having a molecular weight of 19 kDa. Clinically, the monitoring of serum ferritin levels aides in the diagnosis and management of iron metabolic disorders. Serum levels increase in hepatic diseases, various malignancies, inflammation and late stage hemochromatosis. Ferritin levels are also indicative of the ero
Ferritin is the intracellular protein responsible for the sequestration, storage and release of iron. Ferritin can accumulate up to 4500 iron atoms as a ferrihydrite mineral in a protein shell and releases these iron atoms when there is an increase in the cells need for bioavailable iron. The ferritin protein shell consists of 24 protein subunits of two types, the H-subunit and the L-subunit. These ferritin subunits perform different functions in the mineralization process of iron. The ferritin protein shell can exist as various combinations of these two subunit types, giving rise to heteropolymers or isoferritins. Isoferritins are functionally distinct and characteristic populations of isoferritins are found depending on the type of cell, the proliferation status of the cell and the presence of disease. The synthesis of ferritin is regulated both transcriptionally and translationally. Translation of ferritin subunit mRNA is increased or decreased, depending on the labile iron pool and is ...
Ferritins are ubiquitous and can be found in practically all organisms that utilize Fe. They are composed of 24 subunits forming a hollow sphere with an inner cavity of ~80 A in diameter. The main function of ferritin is to oxidize the cytotoxic Fe(2+) ions and store the oxidized Fe in the inner cavity. It has been established that the initial step of rapid oxidation of Fe(2+) (ferroxidation) by H-type ferritins, found in vertebrates, occurs at a diiron binding center, termed the ferroxidase center. In bacterial ferritins, however, X-ray crystallographic evidence and amino acid sequence analysis revealed a trinuclear Fe binding center comprising a binuclear Fe binding center (sites A and B), homologous to the ferroxidase center of H-type ferritin, and an adjacent mononuclear Fe binding site (site C). In an effort to obtain further evidence supporting the presence of a trinuclear Fe binding center in bacterial ferritins and to gain information on the states of the iron bound to the trinuclear ...
When ferritin is reconstituted from Fe and apoferritin in vitro in the presence of Pi, the product obtained differs both from native ferritin and from ferritin reconstituted in the absence of Pi. When the latter is incubated with Pi the product resembles native ferritin with respect both to the pattern of Pi incorporated per molecule or per Fe atom and to the ease of release of this Pi relative to Fe release. It is concluded that much of the Pi of native ferritin is adsorbed on surfaces of ferritin iron-core crystallites. The results also suggest that Pi is not present at the intracellular site of Fe incorporation into ferritin, but is added after Fe. ...
Ferritin is a major iron storage protein and essential for iron homeostasis. It has a wide range of functions in the body including iron delivery, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Ferritin is overexpressed in many cancer cells, but its precise role in cancer is unclear. In the present study, we examined the functional roles of ferritin in protecting the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line against treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. The effects of ferritin (human liver ferritin) and doxorubicin on the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line were evaluated using the cell viability assay. The impact of decreasing ferritin light chain (FTL) and ferritin heavy chain (FTH) expression on doxorubicin sensitivity was assessed using siRNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also measured using the fluorescence probe CM-H2DCFDA. The mechanism of modulated chemosensitivity was evaluated by western blot analysis. Ferritin treatment activated MCF-7 cell proliferation in a ...
Define iron-storage disease. iron-storage disease synonyms, iron-storage disease pronunciation, iron-storage disease translation, English dictionary definition of iron-storage disease. Noun 1. iron-storage disease - pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of 40-cm segment umbilical cord milking on hemoglobin and serum ferritin at 6 months of age in full-term infants of anemic and non-anemic mothers. AU - Bora, R.. AU - Akhtar, S. S.. AU - Venkatasubramaniam, A.. AU - Wolfson, Julian. AU - Rao, Raghu. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the effect of early clamping and milking of a 40-cm umbilical cord LUCM (long umbilical cord and milking) on hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin concentrations at 6 months of age and to evaluate whether the effect is different in infants of anemic and non-anemic mothers. Study design: Eligible term-infants of anemic (maternal Hb,11.0 g dl-1) and non-anemic mothers (Hb ≥11.0 g dl-1) were randomized to LUCM or control groups (N=100 each). In the LUCM group, the umbilical cord was clamped at 40-cm length and milked. The control group had the cord clamped at 5 cm and not milked. Neonatal morbidities until discharge and Hb and serum ferritin at 6 months of age were compared. ...
Acute administration of iron to rats has been previously shown to induce liver ferritin synthesis by increasing the translation of inactive cytoplasmic ferritin mRNAs for both heavy (H) and light (L) subunits by mobilizing them onto polyribosomes. In this report rat hepatoma cells in culture are used to explore the relationship of this response to intracellular iron levels. After adding iron as ferric ammonium citrate to the medium, latent ferritin H- and L-mRNAs were extensively transferred to polyribosomes, accompanied by increased uptake of [35S]methionine into ferritin protein. Because total cellular levels of L- and H-mRNA were not significantly changed by exposure to iron, the increased ferritin mRNAs on polyribosomes most probably come from an inactive cytoplasmic pool, consistent with the inability of actinomycin-D and of cordycepin to inhibit iron-induced ferritin synthesis. When deferoxamine mesylate, an intracellular iron chelator, was added after the addition of iron to the medium, ferritin
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. The protein is produced by almost all living organisms, including algae, bacteria, higher plants, and animals. In humans, it acts as a buffer against iron deficiency and iron overload. Ferritin is found in most tissues as a cytosolic protein, but small amounts are secreted into the serum where it functions as an iron carrier. Plasma ferritin is also an indirect marker of the total amount of iron stored in the body, hence serum ferritin is used as a diagnostic test for iron-deficiency anemia. Ferritin is a globular protein complex consisting of 24 protein subunits forming a nanocage with multiple metal-protein interactions. It is the primary intracellular iron-storage protein in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, keeping iron in a soluble and non-toxic form. Ferritin that is not combined with iron is called apoferritin. Ferritin genes are highly conserved between species. All vertebrate ferritin ...
Published in Review of Diabetic Studies, Volume 5, Issue 4, Winter 2008, pages 245-252. Le, T.D., Bae, S., Hsu, C.E., Singh, K.P., Blair, S.N., Shang, N. (2009) Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Serum Ferritin Concentration and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Review of Diabetic Studies; 5:245-52.. © Review of Diabetic Studies 2009, The Society for Bio medical Diabetes Research ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - H and L ferritins in myocardium in iron overload. AU - Arbustini, Eloisa. AU - Grasso, Maurizia. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Arosio, Paolo. AU - Gavazzi, Antonello. AU - Diegoli, Marta. AU - Bramerio, Manuela. AU - Levi, Sonia. AU - Barosi, Giovanni. PY - 1991/11/1. Y1 - 1991/11/1. N2 - Ferritin is an iron-containing protein composed of 2 subunits (H and L) with largely different primary structures and immunochemical properties. 1 The normal L-subunit-rich, basic isoferritin is prevalent in the liver and spleen, whereas the H-subunit-rich, acidic isoferritin predominates in the heart, pancreas and kidneys.2 A variation in heart isoferritin was reported in iron-overloaded patients,2 and the absence of the more acidic isoferritin was hypothesized to be specific for hereditary hemochromatosis.3 These observations prompted us to perform immunohistochemical investigations on H and L ferritins in endomyocardial biopsy samples of patients with primary or secondary iron overload, using ...
Iron is an essential element for the living organisms but free iron can be toxic. Iron metabolism disorders affect a large portion of human population. There exists a need for development of a reference technique to measure body iron stores. The ideal technique for determination of body iron stores would to measure ferritin concentration along with ferritin iron saturation. This study uses the principle of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) to measure serum ferritin bound iron. IDMS requires the biosynthesis of a ferritin spike with isotopically enriched iron and sulphur. The aim of this project was to synthesize a ferritin spike for serum ferritin and ferritin bound iron quantification for development of a reference technique to determine body iron stores. This study involved the biosynthesis of a ferritin spike labelled with isotopic iron and sulphur ...
In adults, ZPP/H is inversely correlated with plasma ferritin,12,14 and inversely related to the amount of stainable iron in the marrow.13 We observed a fall in plasma ferritin in the first year of life, which agrees with the known changes in body iron stores in neonates.11,19 However, rather than seeing the expected increase in ZPP/H during this period, a decrease was seen. Indeed ZPP/H and ferritin were directly, not inversely, related. When the entire dataset was examined using multiple regression, with age included in the model, there was no relation between log (ZPP/H) and log (ferritin). However, there was an inverse relation between average ZPP/H residuals for each subject, from a multiregression model, and corresponding log (ferritin) residuals. This suggests that subjects with a higher than average plasma ferritin tend to have lower ZPP/H (the between subject correlation). However, the relation was relatively weak (r = −0.22). When a similar model was used that incorporated subject, ...
CAD is a multifactorial chronic disease that develops from the interplay of genetic, lifestyle, physiological and other factors; a well understanding of the interaction between these risk factors is important to identify the target groups for CAD. In our previous study,20 serum ferritin was found to be an independent risk factor of CAD, and several studies21 have reported that obesity could elevate serum ferritin levels. However, whether there is an interaction of BMI with serum ferritin levels and CAD risk, and the extent to which the interaction influences the CAD risk are still unknown, and no study has reported the biological interaction of serum ferritin and BMI with CAD risk so far. Thus, in the present study, we explored the possible biological interaction of serum ferritin levels and BMI with CAD risk, and found evidence of additive interaction. This finding provided further evidence that iron overload to the risk of CAD appeared to be most significant among persons with higher ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Cadmium atom in PDB 1ier: Cubic Crystal Structure of Native Horse Spleen Ferritin
Ferritin is a protein in the body that stores iron and releases it. A simple blood test can determine this value for you. When Ferritin builds up, iron overload is the result. Over time, these excesses build up in major organs and if it is not removed, these organs can become diseased. This can be a genetic trait, in which it is called Hemochromatosis. However, this is the case only about 10% of patients with high Ferritin. Elevated Ferritin is a lot more common for other reasons than you think and is to not be overlooked. Untreated hemochromatosis can be fatal. More often though, the iron overload presents in patients with obesity, chronic inflammation, daily alcohol consumption, heart disease, liver disease, renal failure, joint paint, metabolic syndrome or diabetes, or even cancer.. Dr. Paul Adams of division of Gastroenterology University of Western Ontario, Canada says it is important to remember that elevated ferritin does not equal iron overload and there are many patients with elevated ...
Serum ferritin is a sensitive indicator of available iron stores (1), but in certain instances it cannot be used in diagnosis, e.g., in anemias of chronic disease, infections, inflammation, liver disease, and malignancies (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). Iron stores may be normal or increased, though accompanied by increased serum ferritin, in anemias of chronic disorders, aplastic anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and chronic hemolytic anemia. Because ferritin is also a positive acute-phase reactant protein that is increased in inflammation (2), serum ferritin concentration is not a reliable index of available iron stores in individuals with chronic diseases. There is no information, however, on whether ferritin can be used as a marker of available iron stores in the anemia of copper deficiency.. Unlike iron-deficiency anemia, in which body iron stores are usually depleted as evidenced by diminished serum ferritin concentrations, anemia of copper deficiency (8)(9)(10) results from increased hepatic iron stores ...
Ferritin cores from human spleen, limpet (Patella vulgata) haemolymph and bacterial (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) cells have been investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded over a range of temperatures from 1.3 to 78 K. At 78 K, all the spectra are quadrupole-split doublets with similar quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts, characteristic of iron(III), while at sufficiently low temperatures the spectra of all the samples show well-resolved magnetic splitting. At intermediate temperatures, the spectra from the human ferritin exhibit typical superparamagnetic behaviour, while those from the bacterial ferritin show behaviour corresponding to a transition from a magnetically ordered to a paramagnetic state. The spectra from the limpet ferritin show a complex combination of the two effects. The results are discussed in terms of the magnetic behaviour of small particles. The data are consistent with magnetic ordering temperatures of about 3 and 30 K for the ...
The power to study diabetes in men was low. This could be one of the reasons why the association between iron status and diabetes was only significant in women. Serum ferritin is the most commonly used marker of stored body iron (15). However, serum ferritin is positively and hemoglobin is negatively associated by inflammation and infection (16). We do not have information on C-reactive protein, which is often used as an indicator of inflammation or infection. The association between hemoglobin and serum ferritin may thus be confounded by these conditions. In our results, we found a high prevalence of anemia (18.3 and 31.5%, for men and women, respectively), but the percentage having serum ferritin ,15 μg/l was only ∼9%. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was thus low: 6.3% among women and 0.7% among men. Thalassemia is not a problem in this area, with a prevalence of 0.09% (17).. It is reported that the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus marker is 42.6% and hepatitis B surface antigen ...
Elevated ferritin levels in a blood test can mean an individual has hemochromatosis, an infection, Hodgkins disease leukemia, inflammatory conditions or a diet too high in iron, according to WebMD....
Ferritin was measured in sera obtained at diagnosis from 241 patients with neuroblastoma to determine (a) the incidence of elevated ferritin and (b) the relationship between ferritin level and outcome. Ferritin was infrequently elevated in sera from patients with Stages I and II disease but was abnormally elevated in 37 and 54% of those with Stages III and IV neuroblastoma, respectively. The mean and median levels for each stage were compared and were highest for Stages III and IV disease. Analysis of progression-free survival for children with Stages III and IV disease indicated that elevated ferritin was associated with a significantly poorer prognosis than was normal ferritin and that this correlation was independent of stage and age at diagnosis. Progression-free survival at 24 months of follow-up for patients with Stage III disease with normal ferritin was 76% and with elevated ferritin was 23%. For those with Stage IV disease, progression-free survival was 27 and 3% with normal and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum ferritin as a clinical marker for renal cell carcinoma. T2 - influence of tumor volume. AU - Partin, Alan Wayne. AU - Criley, Stuart R.. AU - Steiner, Mitchell S.. AU - Hsieh, Kisseng. AU - Simons, Jonathan W.. AU - Lumadue, Jeanne. AU - Carter, H Ballentine. AU - Marshall, Fray F.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objectives. At present, 35% to 50% of patients with clinically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) unpredictably have a recurrence after surgical therapy. Presently, no clinical serum marker exists to detect occult metastases and to allow measurement of response to therapy in RCC. Serum ferritin was previously reported to correlate with pathologic stage. We postulated that this increase in serum ferritin with increasing stage might reflect tumor volume, since higher stage tumors are often larger. Methods. Serum ferritin levels were measured preoperatively in 30 patients with radiologic evidence of RCC. Tumor volume and the largest tumor dimension were calculated from ...
Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days) increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d) = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d) = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66 ...
Previous studies have shown that lenticular levels of Fe and Cu are elevated in age-related cataract. However, it is not known if these metals are present in a state that is permissive for redox reactions that may lead to the formation of free radicals. In addition, there is little data available concerning the concentration and lenticular distribution of ferritin, the major intracellular Fe-sequestering protein, in the lens. The aim of the present work was therefore to determine the distribution of ferritin and the redox-availability of Fe and Cu in healthy and cataractous lenses. Lens ferritin distribution was assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. A modified ELISA detected ferritin in an insoluble lens protein fraction. Ferritin levels were not significantly different in the cortex vs nucleus of healthy lenses. In contrast, ferritin levels in the cataractous lens nuclei appeared to be 70 % lower compared to the cortex. This was at least partially due to the presence of ferritin within ...
The utility of plasma or serum ferritin in screening for iron deficiency in relatively healthy patients is well established (2)(3)(4) and is further supported by our results in the medical student population. However, directed evaluation of the cause of anemia in ill patients, particularly those with inflammatory diseases, can be difficult because of the acute-phase reactant properties of ferritin. In such patients, the diagnostic sensitivity of ferritin for iron deficiency can be compromised, and either bone marrow biopsy or determination of the response to iron therapy is required to completely assess iron status. sTfR concentration increases with iron deficiency and other causes of increased erythropoiesis but is not affected by acute or chronic inflammatory illnesses (8)(9)(10)(11). Accordingly, sTfR has been suggested as a highly sensitive laboratory test for iron deficiency (12)(13)(21). However, just as acute or chronic illnesses may yield falsely negative results for ferritin, other ...
Ferritins are recognized as key players in the iron storage and detoxification processes. Iron acquisition in the case of pathogenic bacteria has long been established as an important virulence mechanism. Here, we report a 3.0 Å crystal structure of a ferritin, annotated as Bacterioferritin B (BfrB), from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis that continues to be one of the worlds deadliest diseases. Similar to the other members of ferritin family, the Mtb BfrB subunit exhibits the characteristic fold of a four-helical bundle that possesses the ferroxidase catalytic centre. We compare the structure of Mtb BfrB with representatives of the ferritin family belonging to the archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Unlike most other ferritins, Mtb BfrB has an extended C-terminus. To dissect the role of this extended C-terminus, truncated Mtb BfrB was purified and biochemical studies implicate this region in ferroxidase activity and iron release in addition to providing stability to
Iron sequestration by host iron-binding proteins is an important mechanism of resistance to microbial infections. Inside oral epithelial cells, iron is stored within ferritin, and is therefore not usually accessible to pathogenic microbes. We observed that the ferritin concentration within oral epithelial cells was directly related to their susceptibility to damage by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. Thus, we hypothesized that host ferritin is used as an iron source by this organism. We found that C. albicans was able to grow on agar at physiological pH with ferritin as the sole source of iron, while the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could not. A screen of C. albicans mutants lacking components of each of the three known iron acquisition systems revealed that only the reductive pathway is involved in iron utilization from ferritin by this fungus. Additionally, C. albicans hyphae, but not yeast cells, bound ferritin, and this binding was crucial for iron acquisition from ...
Iron is an essential component of life. However, iron is also a potent biological toxin. Thus the bioavailability of iron must be stringently regulated. At the cellular level, if there is too little iron, a cell will lack the ability to meet its metabolic and biosynthetic requirements. If there is too much iron the cell become vulnerable to oxidative stress. Iron requiring metabolic reactions are found in both nuclei and cytoplasm and molecules in both compartments are vulnerable to oxidative stress. Indeed, iron-binding sites have been reported on DNA and iron induced DNA damage is well established. In the cytoplasm, ferritin regulates iron bioavailability. Recently, we and two other groups have provided evidence that ferritin is present in the nuclei of some cells. By virtue of its ability to take up and release iron, ferritin may be uniquely suited to both deliver iron to the nucleus as well as provide protection from iron induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary data show that nuclear ...
The study was conducted in the Osborn Family Health Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, in Camden, New Jersey. Data were collected as part of the Camden Study, a prospective cohort study of maternal nutrition and pregnancy outcome in young, generally healthy women residing in one of the poorest cities in the continental U.S. (23). The institutional review board at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-SOM approved the study protocol. Informed written consent was obtained from each participant after explanation of the nature and purpose of the study.. Study participants were enrolled between October 1996 and June 2003 for prenatal care. Less than 5% of the women screened for eligibility were excluded from participation because of serious nonobstetric problem (e.g., lupus, type 1 or 2 diabetes, seizure disorders, malignancies, acute or chronic liver disease, drug or alcohol abuse, and psychiatric problems). Eighty percent of the patients who were eligible agreed to participate ...
Cellular uptake of ferritin amounting to 0-5 mug/mg cell protein or more can be measured colorimetrically on the basis of ferritin-iron content. 131I-serum albumin, soluble ferritin and aggregated ferritin used in equimolar concentrations are taken up differently by Sarcoma SI80 cells in culture. The net uptakes in 2 h at 37 degrees C are 0-065, 4-3 and 24-7 mug/mg cell protein or 0-93, 8-0 and 45-7 mumol, respectively. Albumin uptake is not inhibited by a 26-fold molar ferritin excess but is significantly inhibited by a 43-fold excess. The transport mechanism of the ferritins differs from that of albumin in that it is significantly inhibitable by 2 times 10(−4) M monoiodoacetate. Soluble ferritin contains small aggregates which are removed by filtration through Millipore membranes of 0-05, 0-1 and 0-22 mum. When the 0-1-mum filtrate is re-examined, uptake is no longer inhibited by iodoacetate. Since it can be inferred from other work that albumin is taken up by pinocytosis and ferritin ...
I was wondering if this has happened to anyone else...My husband has had over the past 18 months, more than 20 units of blood due to Chemo induced ANAEMIA...He is on his last cycle of gemzar/carbo platin treatment.... This week his blood reading came back with extremely high ferritin level of 3080.0 and our haemologist has recommended DEFERIPRONE (FERRITROX 270) in tablet form. The reason for the tablet form is because hubby has an ideal conduit and a colostomy ...so infusion in the belly
Plasma ferritin is an important extracellular iron storage molecule, whose concentration increases drastically in cancer and infection. During infection, the pathogen usurps host iron for its survival and pathogenicity; hence, maintenance of the plasma ferritin level during infection is a crucial host defence mechanism. In this study, the horseshoe crab plasma ferritin complex was purified, characterized, and its involvement in innate immune defence was investigated. The plasma ferritin appears as a 21-kDa subunit on SDS-PAGE. Full-length ferritin-H cDNAs (CrFer-H1 and CrFer-H2) were cloned. Analysis of the 5′ UTR indicates the existence of a functional iron-response element, suggesting that both the CrFer-H genes may be post-transcriptionally regulated. Northern analysis shows that the CrFer-H is ubiquitously expressed. Within 3 h of lipopolysaccharide challenge, the gene is up-regulated by > 12-fold. In contrast, iron-loading did not result in any significant change. When challenged with ...
Potential causes of high ferritin levels include liver disease, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, some forms of cancer, diabetes, multiple blood transfusions,...
I have high ferritin levels (over 800) but its not haemochromotosis. I recently had a bad fall (torn shoulder tendon) and had to get my shoulder operated on. I was prescribed strong pain killers (palexia). its called tapentadol. Ive stopped taking them as I worry theyre making me worse- but the pain persists. I am always so exhausted. I lie in bed all day. My joints hurt everywhere. My kids say ive become moody and irritable. im not sure what to do- my GP is struggling to assist. People tell me to go to emergency room but im not sure. Thank
Ferritin levels are important for everyone-whether youre male or female, an avid exerciser or a couch potato. If your ferritin levels are too low, you may feel fatigued and run down, which can be a problem for anyone, no matter their level of physical activity. To find out exactly what your ferritin levels are, sign up for an InsideTracker plan. If your levels are out-of-range, InsideTracker will give you suggestions for diet, exercise, supplement and lifestyle changes to help you optimize them.
Several novel findings on Drosophila ferritin are described in this work. We show that the absence of either Fer1HCH or Fer2LCH results in embryonic lethality and that modified Fer1HCH subunits (mutant in the ferroxidase center or GFP tagged) cannot substitute for lack of Fer1HCH. However, if the same modified subunits are expressed in the presence of wild-type subunits, they can be integrated into ferritin holomers without inducing dominant-negative effects. Analysis of heterozygous loss-of-function ferritin fly mutants or flies overexpressing ferritin subunits revealed that a constant ratio of Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH is maintained, independent of their internal transcriptional expression levels. The structural cooperation of the two subunits that is secured via disulfide bonds (Hamburger et al. 2005) likely explains these observations. A post-transcriptional mechanism, possibly involving the degradation of subunits that are present in excess, ensures the presence of equal amounts of the two ...
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ...
Ferritin concentration was measured in cytosol extracts of 44 mammary carcinomas and 14 benign breast tissues. A six-fold difference was observed (mean, 364.6 +/- 223.3 ng/mcp in malignant tissue versus mean, 60.2 +/- 42.1 ng/mcp in benign tissue P less than 0.001). Thirty-five malignant tissue spec …
1. Measurements of T-lymphocyte surface ferritin using flow cytometry show that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation causes a marked increase in the number of cells bearing spleen-type (S) and heart-type (H) ferritin on their membrane, whereas no such change occurs in non-stimulated cells. This coincides with increases in interleukin-2 receptors, transferrin receptors and HLA-DR antigen.. 2. There is an increase in the intracellular concentration of both S- and H-ferritin in lymphocytes after PHA stimulation: H-ferritin increases five- to seven-fold, but S-ferritin only two- to three-fold. The maximum H/S ratio is about 15/1. However, these increases also occur in cells cultured in the absence of PHA.. 3. Small amounts of both S- and H-ferritin are released into the medium, especially from stimulated cells, but the H/S ratios are lower than intracellular ratios.. 4. The present findings suggest that lymphocyte stimulation followed by ferritin synthesis is accompanied by an increase in the ...
None of the methods for assessing total body iron burden in patients with hemochromatosis is satisfactory. Although it is commonly believed that a relationship exists between serum ferritin levels and
Results: Apart from some minor gastrointestinal complaints reported in 3 BMT patients that did not require discontinuation of therapy, other side effects were not registered during the treatment. Subjectively, patients reported an improvement in the palatability of Jadenu® compared to Exjade® therapy in 8 out of 12 BMT patients. A non-significant decrease in LIC measured by Ferriscan® and serum ferritin levels was observed after one year of treatment with Jadenu®. A significant positive correlation was found between serum ferritin level and LIC measured by the FerriScan® method. LIC and serum ferritin level correlated significantly with ALT level (r = 0.31 and 0.45 respectively, p , 0.05). No significant correlation was detected between LIC and other biochemical or hormonal parameters.. Conclusion: Our study shows that short-term treatment with Jadenu® is safe but is associated with a non-significant decrease in LIC and serum ferritin levels. Therefore, there is an urgent need for ...
Ferritin is a protein that transports iron in your bodys tissues. Research has shown that ferritin is a very reliable indicator of the status of your bodys iron stores. People who have very low or very high ferritin levels may have conditions that produce fatigue as a symptom.
Goat anti human ferritin antibody recognizes Human Ferritin, a large globular protein found in the liver, intestines and spleen that funct
Ferritin, a major iron storage protein, is essential to iron homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of physiologic and pathologic processes. In clinical medicine, ferritin is predominantly utilized as a serum marker of total body iron stores. In cases of iron deficiency and overload, serum ferr …
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Ferritin heavy chain is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTH1 gene. This gene encodes the heavy subunit of ferritin, the major intracellular iron storage protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is composed of 24 subunits of the heavy and light ferritin chains. Variation in ferritin subunit composition may affect the rates of iron uptake and release in different tissues. A major function of ferritin is the storage of iron in a soluble and nontoxic state. Defects in ferritin proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed, but their biological validity has not been determined. FTH1 has been shown to interact with Ferritin light chain. Ferritin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167996 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024661 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Hentze MW, Keim S, ...
Although a partial ferritin subunit sequence of the seal Phoca vitulina (AF246195, unpublished data) has been determined, the entire coding sequences of ferritin subunits in marine mammals were previously unknown. The present study shows the ferritin coding sequences coding for the H and L subunits of six different dolphin species (P. crassidens, L. obliquidens, G. griseus, G. macrorhyncus, T. truncatus, and D. leucas). The predicted secondary structures using the GENETYX-MAC computer program (Robson method) of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits show A, B, C, D, and short E-helices and the L loop connecting B and C helices (data not shown) as in other mammalian species [1-3, 18]. Sequence comparisons between dolphin ferritin and that of other mammalian species strongly suggest similar functions for the H subunit unique ferroxidase [2, 3, 18], the L subunit salt bridge [2, 8, 23] and iron nucleation site [2, 8], subunit dimer formation [8, 18], and the iron channel [8, 18]. A putative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum ferritin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin are valid indicators of iron status of school children in a malaria-holoendemic population. AU - Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.. AU - Chwaya, Hababu M.. AU - Albonico, Marco. AU - Schulze, Kerry J.. AU - Savioli, Lorenzo. AU - Tielsch, James M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - In many African populations, the prevalences of both iron deficiency and malarial infection exceed 50%. The control of iron deficiency anemia is of urgent public health importance, but assessment of iron status in these contexts has been controversial because of the effects of malarial disease on common iron status indicators. We assessed iron status in 3605 school children in Zanzibar by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and serum ferritin concentrations. Malaria parasitemia was quantified by counting against leukocytes. Iron deficiency was highly prevalent: 62.4% of ...
Hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS) is an autosomal and dominant disease caused by heterogeneous mutations in the iron responsive element (IRE) of the 5 untranslated flanking region of ferritin L-chain mRNA, which reduce the binding to the trans iron regulatory proteins and make L-chain synthesis constitutively upregulated. In the several families identified so far, the serum and tissue L-ferritin levels are fivefold to 20- fold higher than in nonaffected control subjects, iron metabolism is apparently normal, and the only relevant clinical symptom is early onset, bilateral cataract. Some pathogenetic aspects of HHCS remain obscure, with particular reference to the isoferritins produced by HHCS cells, as well as the mechanism of cataract formation. We analyzed lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained from two nonaffected control subjects and from HHCS patients carrying the substitution A40G (Paris-1), G41C (Verona-1), and the deletion of the residues 10-38 (Verona-2) in the IRE ...
Mouse Ferritin light chain 1, Ftl1 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Mouse Ftl1 concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
Recombinant ferritin is an excellent template for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. This paper describes carefully performed experiments both to identify ironoxides within nanoparticles and to measure the number of iron atoms in the cores of recombinant human H-chain ferritin (HFn), based on spectroscopy techniques. Using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, magnetite (Fe3O4) has been unequivocally identified as the ironoxide formed within HFn cores under special preparation conditions. Atom counting analysis by EELS and high-angle annular dark-field imaging further allowed the correlation of the particle sizes to the real Fe atom numbers in a quantitative manner. These results help clarify some structural confusion between magnetite and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and also provide standard data for the number of Fe atoms within Fe3O4 particles of a given size, whose use is not limited to cases of magnetite synthesized in the cores of recombinant human ferritin.
Reactions and interactions of iron and oxygen can be both beneficial and detrimental to cells and tissues. Iron is mainly found in our blood where it functions as a mediator in the transport of oxygen to the cells and is further vital for the cellular respiration reducing the oxygen to water. The flexible redox state of iron makes it ideal to contribute in single electron transfers, but may also catalyze reactions with oxygen resulting in cell damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Normally the cells are protected against iron toxicity by controlling iron uptake and storage. When the intracellular demand for iron increases; the iron uptake is promoted by increasing the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) and by decreasing the expression of the iron storage protein ferritin. Ferritin has a central role in the cellular iron detoxification by keeping it in a non reactive but still bioavailable form. However, in neurodegenerative diseases like in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease the iron ...
Background: Alopecia Areate (AA) is a recurrent non-scarring patchy hair loss of autoimmune origin in a genetically susceptible individual although environmental factors may be contributory. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum iron and ferritin levels in patients with AA. Methods: Fifty patients of AA and 50 age and sex matched control subjects without any hair loss were studied. Results: No significant difference was found in mean hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron levels in two groups. Serum iron ferritin and hemoglobin levels did not show any significant variations with respect to the extent or duration of the disease, family history, history of atopy, and nail involvement. Conclusion: In our study, the levels of serum iron and ferritin showed no significant changes in AA patients and seems not to play a role in the etiology of AA.
Background: High body iron store has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D); it remains unknown whether the genetic variants related to body iron status affect T2D risk. We aimed at comprehensively investigating the associations between the genetic variants related to body iron status and the T2D risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Six common SNPs related to body iron status from recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies were determined in the Nurses Health Study (NHS; 1,467 diabetic cases and 1,754 controls) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1,124, diabetic cases and 1,298 controls). Plasma levels of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and transferrin were measured in NHS. Significant associations were observed for loci in TPMRSS6 with sTfR (P = 3.47×10−6), TF with transferrin (P = 0.0002 to 1.72×10−10); and HFE with ferritin (P = 0.017 to 1.6×10−8), sTfR (P = 0.007 to 7.9×10−6), and transferrin (P = 0.006 to 0.0007). The ...
Methods currently used to determine iron bioavailability have disadvantages for both the subjects and researchers involved. One safe and simple method that needs further evaluation, the serum iron absorption method, involves an initial blood drawing, dosage s of iron, and blood drawings taken at intervals thereafter. Generally, the rise in serum iron or area under the curve is used to determine iron uptake. Two experiments were conducted using the serum iron absorption method in an effort to improve the utility of this method for the measurement of iron bioavailability. With this effort in mind, an equation adjusting for dose of iron (0.5-8 mg) and blood volume was used to estimate serum iron absorption and allow for adequate comparisons of other iron absorption data obtained with this method and others. One very significant result was that low serum ferritin was found to be a predictor of high serum estimated iron absorption (SEIA). Similarly, low serum ferritin levels were also highly correlated to
Results: Sixteen of the subjects (0.5 percent) were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, and 424 (14.1 percent) were heterozygous. The serum transferrin saturation was 45 percent or higher in 15 of the 16 who were homozygous; in 1 subject it was 43 percent. Four of the homozygous subjects had previously been given a diagnosis of hemochromatosis, and 12 had not. Seven of these 12 patients had elevated serum ferritin levels in 1994; 6 of the 7 had further increases in 1998, and 1 had a decrease, although the value remained elevated. The serum ferritin levels in the four other homozygous patients remained in the normal range. Eleven of the 16 homozygous subjects underwent liver biopsy; 3 had hepatic fibrosis, and 1, who had a history of excessive alcohol consumption, had cirrhosis and mild microvesicular steatosis. Eight of the 16 homozygous subjects had clinical findings that were consistent with the presence of hereditary hemochromatosis, such as hepatomegaly, skin pigmentation, and arthritis ...
Dr Lal PathLabs SOLUBLE TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR (STFR), SERUM in Bangalore is health checkup package includes 1 Tests. ₹100 Cashback and Free Doctor Consultation, Home sample collection and Online reports available. SOLUBLE TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR (STFR), SERUM in Bangalore covers 1 parameters- SOLUBLE TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR (STFR), SERUM in Bangalore
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do oligodendrocytes mediate iron regulation in the human brain?. AU - Gerber, Megan R.. AU - Connor, James R.. PY - 1989/7. Y1 - 1989/7. N2 - We used immunohistochemical studies to demonstrate that transferrin (the iron mobilization protein) and ferritin (the iron storage protein) are specifically localized in oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the human central nervous system. In addition, iron is also localized predominantly in oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes have been well established as the cells responsible for myelin production in the central nervous system. The results of this study suggest that oligodendrocytes (or a subpopulation of oligodendrocytes) might have the additional function of mediating iron mobilization and storage in the central nervous system.. AB - We used immunohistochemical studies to demonstrate that transferrin (the iron mobilization protein) and ferritin (the iron storage protein) are specifically localized in oligodendrocytes in gray and ...
Read on Correlation of Serum Ferritin Levels with Liver Function Tests and Anthropometric Measurements in Transfusion Dependent Beta-Thalassemia Major Children: A Cross Sectional Study.
Diazymes Ferritin Assay provides an effective test method for laboratories of virtually all sizes, said Dr. Chong Yuan, Managing Director of Diazyme Laboratories. The sensitivity of the assay allows ferritin levels to be measured very efficiently and effectively. This high-throughput liquid stable assay provides precise test results, is user friendly, cost effective and has excellent correlation to the existing commercial methods. Diazyme Laboratories is a division of General Atomics headquartered in La Jolla, California. Diazyme uses its enzyme platform technologies to develop innovative assays for clinical and research uses with reduced costs and improved performance. Products include diagnostic blood tests for cardiac markers, diabetes, nutritional assessment, liver disease, renal disease and electrolytes. Information regarding Diazymes enzyme technology and related products can be found on its website at www.diazyme.com. ...
Hi everyone, I have had my blood test results. Please could anyone tell me if these results are ok for someone with rls - Serum ferritin level (XE24r) 56ug/L [30.0 - 400.0] Gobblededook! Receptionist...
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Parahita Diagnostic Centre, Berpangalaman belasan tahun dengan ratusan tenaga ahli berpengalaman, siap menghasilkan pelayanan terbaik untuk kamu yang membutuhkan pemeriksaan Ferritin di kota surabaya,sidoarjo,gresik,jember,banyuwangi,solo,yogyakarta,bandung,bekasi,jakarta,tangerang,makassar,malang , apa itu Ferritin?, Kita ikuti penjelasannya dibawah. FERRITIN ADALAH Ferritin adalah sebuah protein yang terdapat di dalam sel pada hampir seluruh makhluk hidup. Ferritin merupakan protein penyimpan zat…. ...
Parahita Diagnostic Centre, Berpangalaman belasan tahun dengan ratusan tenaga ahli berpengalaman, siap memberikan pelayanan terbaik untuk kamu yang membutuhkan pemeriksaan Ferritin di kota surabaya,sidoarjo,gresik,jember,banyuwangi,solo,yogyakarta,bandung,bekasi,jakarta,tangerang,makassar,malang , apa itu Ferritin?, Kita ikuti penjelasannya dibawah. FERRITIN ADALAH Ferritin adalah sebuah protein yang terbisa di dalam sel pada hampir seluruh makhluk hidup. Ferritin merupakan protein penyimpan zat…. ...
Moderate lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an important inducer of apoptosis. Macrophages are professional scavengers and are rich in hydrolytic enzymes and iron. In the present study, we found that LMP by lysosomotropic detergent MSDH resulted in early up-regulation of lysosomal cathepsins, oxidative stress and ferritin up-regulation, and cell death. Lysosomotropic base NH(4)Cl reduced the ferritin induction and oxidative stress in apoptotic cells induced by MSDH. Cysteine cathepsin inhibitors significantly protected cell death and oxidative stress, but had less effect on ferritin induction. We conclude that oxidative stress induced by lysosomal rupture causes ferritin induction with concomitant mitochondrial damage, which are the potential target for prevention of cellular oxidative stress and cell death induced by typical lysosomotropic substances in different disorders.. ...
Of the mothers, we classified 10 [5%] as having iron deficiency anaemia. The haemoglobin concentration and MCV were higher in the neonates than in their mothers but the MCHC was no different. Serum iron was much higher and total iron binding capacity much lower in the babies whose transferrin saturation was 72% compared with 14% for their mothers. There was a weak relationship between maternal and neonatal haemoglobin concentration and a direct relationship between fetal and maternal serum iron, but no relationship between maternal and fetal serum ferritin concentrations. It is suggested that it is the fetus which largely controls the movement of iron across the placenta with only a little control exerted by maternal serum iron level, and that cord ferritin is not a good indicator of fetal iron stores ...
Ferritin is the principal iron storage molecule found in animal cells. It is a globular protein complex about 10 nm in diameter composed of 24 subunits arranged as a hollow shell (apoferritin) in which iron atoms can be packed. A typical ferritin molecule contains about 2000 iron atoms at its core, but potentially may hold up to 4500. Pores are present on the surface of the complex allowing iron atoms to enter and be released from the core. In this manner ferritin is able to regulate levels of intracellular iron ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validity of plasma collection cards for ferritin assessment-A proof-of-concept study. AU - Koehler, Karsten. AU - Marks-Nelson, Eileen. AU - Braga, Camila P.. AU - Beckford, Safiya. AU - Adamec, Jiri. PY - 2020/6/1. Y1 - 2020/6/1. N2 - Objectives: Iron depletion is common around the world and among certain risk groups in developed countries. The overall purpose was to test the suitability of a novel plasma collection card for minimally invasive iron status assessment. Methods: Twenty participants (10 f/10 m) participated in this cross-sectional study. Ferritin and hemoglobin were measured from blood collected from a forearm vein, serving as reference method. Blood was also collected from the fingertip using the NoviplexTM Plasma Prep Card as well as capillary collection tubes. Results: There was substantial concordance between ferritin measured from samples collected via NoviplexTM and venous ferritin (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.96) with a mean bias of −0.8 ...
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To diagnose a medical condition. Your doctor may suggest a ferritin test if other blood tests have shown that the level of oxygen-carrying protein in your red blood cells (hemoglobin) is low, or if the proportion of red blood cells to the fluid component in your blood (hematocrit) is low. These may indicate that you have iron deficiency anemia. A ferritin test can help confirm that diagnosis. Ferritin may also be measured in someone with restless legs syndrome.. A ferritin test may also be used to help diagnose conditions such as hemochromatosis, liver disease and adult Stills disease, among others.. When used to diagnose a medical condition, a ferritin test may be done in conjunction with an iron test and a total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin test. These tests provide additional information about how much iron is in your body.. ...
Background and Aim: Women who are homozygous for the p.C282Y mutation in the HFE gene are at much lower risk of iron overload-related disease than p.C282Y homozygous men, presumably because of the iron-depleting effects of menstruation and pregnancy. We used data from a population cohort study to model the impact of menstruation cessation at menopause on serum ferritin (SF) levels in female p.C282Y homozygotes, with p.C282Y/p.H63D simple or compound heterozygotes and those with neither p.C282Y nor p.H63D mutations (HFE wild types) as comparison groups. Methods: A sample of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study was selected for the HealthIron study (n = 1438) including all HFE p.C282Y homozygotes plus a random sample stratified by HFE-genotype (p.C282Y and p.H63D). The relationship between the natural logarithm of SF and time since menopause was examined using linear mixed models incorporating spline smoothing. Results: For p.C282Y homozygotes, SF increased by a factor of 3.6 (95% CI (1.8, ...
Iron deficiency is a common problem among frequent blood donors. The Canadian Blood Services recently sought to identify donors at highest risk of iron deficiency and the feasibility of large-scale ferritin testing. Over 1.5 years, ferritin testing was performed on 12,595 blood donors (2.6% of all donors) who had passed the hemoglobin screen. Donors with low ferritin levels (,25 µg/L) were informed of their low iron stores and advised to see their health care providers to ensure iron levels returned to normal. They were also advised not to donate blood for at least 6 months. Iron deficiency (,25 µg/L ferritin) was identified in 54% of female donors and 33% of male donors. Furthermore, over 41% of repeat male donors and 65% of repeat female donors had low iron levels. Almost 60% of donors deferred for low iron returned to donate within a year, but they donated less often and had a lower return rate compared to donors with normal iron levels. Since female donors are more prone to have low iron ...
Iron, together with thyroid, is probably one of the things most improperly tested for. With thyroid, doctors only measure TSH, which gives you almost no clue of actual thyroid function. Similarly with iron, doctors mainly test ferritin and then prescribe iron supplementation or phlebotomy based on just one marker. Pretty dangerous if you ask me.. A quick story. There was a man with significantly elevated ferritin, yet he was anemic. The doctor prescribed phlebotomy for years and the patient just got worse and his ferritin barely dropped. After a couple of years he had to quit his job and was administrated to a psychiatric hospital. After more than a decade they did some more tests and concluded that he was very low in copper and ceruloplasmin, which is needed to mobilize iron (ferritin) from the tissue for utilization in the body. For many years the doctors mainly tested ferritin and prescribed phlebotomy, whereas his problem was not mobilizing the iron and thus he got severe iron buildup ...
1. Mumbauer S, Pascual J, Kolotuev I, Hamaratoglu F (2019) Ferritin heavy chain protects the developing wing from reactive oxygen species and ferroptosis. PLoS Genet 15(9): e1008396. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008396 31568497. ...
The functional roles of ferritin H and L subunits in ferrous iron oxidation and ferric iron hydrolytic polymerization were studied by combination of electrode oximetry and pH stat utilizing horse spleen and recombinant human H and L ferritins. Previous work has investigated ferrous ion oxidation kinetics, but no information on ferric core formation and its relationship to ferrous ion oxidation had been obtained. The kinetic pattern of iron oxidation/hydrolysis in H-chain homopolymer ferritin showed that the rate of iron hydrolysis is regulated by the rate of iron oxidation, and that both follow the iron ferroxidation pathway. In the early stage of the reaction with less than 10 Fe(II)/protein, it was observed that the stoichiometric ratio of proton release to ferrous iron consumption approaches zero, the ferrous iron to dioxygen ratio equals two and the kinetic ratio of proton release to dioxygen consumption approaches one. These results enable one to write a detailed mechanism for iron ferroxidation
Ferritin is a protein that cells make in order to sequester and store iron.. Free iron, that is, iron that is unattached to any other chemical moiety, can catalyze dangerous chemical reactions that damage cell structures. The body therefore strives to keep free iron under control by attaching it to ferritin. While the correlation between excess body stores of iron and ferritin levels is not perfect, in most cases the result is close.. The major storage site of iron in the human body is not ferritin, however, it is hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-transporting molecule of red blood cells. Around 80% or so of total body iron is found in hemoglobin.. The difference between hemoglobin and ferritin when it comes to iron storage is that hemoglobin levels are, in most cases, kept within a narrow range. Exceptions: in anemia, not enough hemoglobin is made, iron deficiency anemia being the most common form. In polycythemia, too many red cells are made and thus theres too much hemoglobin. Therefore, for ...
Iron status, as measured by blood counts and indices, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin values, was studied longitudinally in 56 infants on prolonged breast feeding, and compared to that of 29 infants receiving cow milk formula prepared at home and of 47 infants receiving a proprietary infant formula. The first two groups received no iron supplementation, whereas the proprietary formula was supplemented with iron. Although breast feeding was found to be sufficient to meet iron needs during the first 6 months of life, supplemental iron would be necessary during the second half of infancy in order to guarantee the optimal iron status. ...
There is evidence from the clinical literature of iron accumulation in the CNS of patients with ALS (Oba et al., 1993; Imon et al., 1995; Kasarskis et al., 1995). Although this has been known for some time, direct evidence of a role for iron in ALS has not been demonstrated thus far. Our data provide clear evidence that iron accumulation occurs in both neurons and glia but that different molecular mechanisms may contribute to iron accumulation in these two cell types. In glia, the increase in TfR1 that is likely to be mediated by the increase in IRP1 binding activity may underlie the influx of iron into these cells. Normally, IRP1 would be expected to concomitantly reduce the expression of ferritin (Pantopoulos, 2004). However, cytosolic ferritin expression goes up mainly in microglia, which could acquire iron from phagocytosis of dead and dying cells. Cytosolic ferritin mRNA expression is also known to be increased by proinflammatory cytokines or nitric oxide (Torti et al., 1988; Wei et al., ...
Anemia in older adults is a risk factor for numerous negative outcomes. There is no standard definition, but in most studies, anemia is defined as a hemoglobin value ,12 g/dL for women and ,13 g/dL for men. Absolute iron deficiency anemia is defined as the combination of anemia and the absence of total body iron. Serum ferritin is the most frequently used diagnostic parameter, but its concentration increases with age and in the presence of inflammatory diseases. Other laboratory tests, such as transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor and the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index might provide useful information, but there is a wide variety in the cut-off values and interpretation of the results ...
Participants whose serum ferritin level was greater than 62 ng/ml had significantly higher odds of a glaucoma diagnosis when compared to those with a level less than 30 ng/ml, after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.806-1.758 for levels 31-61 ng/ml; OR 1.608, 95% CI 1.115-2.319 for levels 62-112 ng/ml; OR 1.892, 95% CI 1.279-2.800 for levels 113-3018 ng/ml).. ...
Islets of Langerhans were isolated from mouse pancreases and fixed in periodatelysine-paraformaldehyde. The fixed islets were then dissociated with trypsin and EDTA to yield cell suspensions that contained mainly four cell types; beta-cells, capillary endothelial cells, acinar cells, and pancreatic duct epithelial cells. The nonislet cells were probably associated wtih the surface of the isolated islets. The H-2 antigens of the dissociated pancreatic cells were labeled with an immunoferritin technique. Pancreatic duct epithelial cells showed specific ferritin labeling on their lateral cell membranes but not on apical microvillus membranes. Acinar cells were also labeled on lateral membranes, and the capillary endothelial cells were labeled on both the luminal and albuminal aspects of their surface membranes. In contrast, pancreatic beta-cells were unlabeled. The number of ferritin molecules per unit length of beta-cell membrane was essentially the same on cells from the antigenic strain and the ...
Medicine Journal in MJB authors are : Mahdi Yakoob Kzar,Ali Mihsen Hussein Salivary Iron And Ferritin Levels, Orofacial Complications of Patients With Thalassemia Major In Babylon Teaching Hospital For Maternity and Children university of babylon journals in the repository for farther content please log to http://repository.uobabylon.edu.iq
LIVER IRON CONTENT (LIC) IN ADULTS WITH NON-TRANSFUSION DEPENDENT SICKLE CELL DISEASE (NT-SCD). CORRELATION WITH SERUM FERRITIN AND LIVER ENZYMES CONCENTRATIONS
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Langerhans cell granule is an adsorptive endocytic organelle. AU - Takigawa, M.. AU - Iwatsuki, K.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Okamoto, H.. AU - Imamura, S.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The role of Langerhans cell granules (LCG) in adsorptive endocytosis was studied by using concanavalin A (Con A) and heterologous anti-epidermal cell serum (AES) as ligands. Isolated epidermal cells were obtained by trypsinization of guinea pig skin fragments and exposed to ferritin-conjugated Con A or AES followed by ferritin-conjugated second antibody at 37°C for various times up to 30 min. Langerhans cells among the treated epidermal cells were observed by electron microscopy. Shortly after the incubation, a few LCG in the cell periphery were filled with ferritin particles in the bulb portion. After prolonged incubation, ferritin-containing LCG increased in number and seemed to move to the juxtanuclear area. The granules were derived from plasma membrane invaginations that collected ferritin ...
The concentration of Soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR) is an indicator of iron status. Iron deficiency causes overexpression of transferrin receptor and sTfR levels, while iron repletion results in decreased sTfR levels. sTfR levels should be used to evaluate suspected iron deficiency in patients who may have inflammation, infection or chronic disease and other conditions in which ferritin concentration does not correlate with iron status. ...
Haemochromatosis treatment is straightforward. It involves taking blood a pint at a time to deplete the bodys iron stores in a procedure called venesection. A typical schedule could involve taking a pint of blood each week until serum ferritin levels are at the lower end of the normal range.
Order a Soluble Transferrin Receptor Blood Test to measure sTfR to diagnose iron deficiency in individuals with chronic disease, many of whom are Anemic.
Aalto University. Scientists from Aalto University, Finland, have succeeded in organizing virus particles, protein cages and nanoparticles into crystalline materials. These nanomaterials studied by the Finnish research group are important for applications in sensing, optics, electronics and drug delivery.. Layer structures, or superlattices, of crystalline nanoparticles have been extensively studied in recent years. The research develops hierarchically structured nanomaterials with tuneable optical, magnetic, electronic and catalytic properties.. Such biohybrid superlattices of nanoparticles and proteins would allow the best features of both particle types to be combined. They would comprise the versatility of synthetic nanoparticles and the highly controlled assembly properties of biomolecules.. The research group also discovered magnetic self-assemblies of ferritin protein cages and gold nanoparticles. These magnetic assemblies can modulate efficiently spin-spin relaxation times of surrounding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body iron status and gastric cancer risk in the EURGAST study. AU - Fonseca-Nunes, A.. AU - Agudo, A.. AU - Aranda, N.. AU - Arija, V.. AU - Cross, A. J.. AU - Molina, E.. AU - Sanchez, M. J.. AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.. AU - Siersema, P.. AU - Weiderpass, E.. AU - Krogh, V.. AU - Mattiello, A.. AU - Tumino, R.. AU - Saieva, C.. AU - Naccarati, A.. AU - Ohlsson, B.. AU - Sjoberg, K.. AU - Boutron-Ruault, M. C.. AU - Cadeau, C.. AU - Fagherazzi, G.. AU - Boeing, H.. AU - Steffen, A.. AU - Kuhn, T.. AU - Katzke, V.. AU - Tjonneland, A.. AU - Olsen, A.. AU - Khaw, K. T.. AU - Wareham, N.. AU - Key, T.. AU - Riboli, E.. AU - Peeters, P. H.. AU - Gavrila, D.. AU - Dorronsoro, M.. AU - Quiros, J. R.. AU - Barricarte, A.. AU - Jenab, M.. AU - Zamora-Ros, R.. AU - Freisling, H.. AU - Trichopoulou, A.. AU - Lagiou, P.. AU - Bamia, C.. AU - Jakszyn, P.. PY - 2015/10/9. Y1 - 2015/10/9. N2 - Although it appears biologically plausible for iron to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, ...
The absorptive cell of the suckling rat ileum is specialized for the uptake and digestion of milk macromolecules from the intestinal lumen. The apical cytoplasm contains an extensive tubulocisternal system, a variety of vesicles and multivesicular bodies (MVB), and a giant phagolysosomal vacuole where digestion is completed. To determine if sorting of membrane-bound and fluid-phase macromolecules occurs in this elaborate endocytic system, we infused adsorptive and soluble tracers into ligated intestinal loops in vivo and examined their fates. Lysosomal compartments were identified by acid phosphatase histochemistry. Native ferritin and two ferritin-lectin conjugates that do not bind to ileal membranes (Con A, UEAI) served as soluble tracers. Horseradish peroxidase binds to ileal membranes and thus was not useful as a fluid-phase tracer in this system. Cationized ferritin and a lectin that binds to terminal B-D-galactosyl sites on ileal membranes (Ricinus communis agglutinin [RCAI]-ferritin) were ...
Nanoparticles have been widely used in biological and biomedical fields. To achieve certain purpose, nanoparticles should be functionalized with diverse molecules through genetic or chemical modification. Therefore, we developed genetically functionalized nanoparticles for improved systems by simple construction. In chapter 1, we developed genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles for immunoassay and imaging. Ferritins are known as self-assembled protein nanoparticles, and we fused human IgG-specific repebody to N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin subunit to construct repebody-ferritin nanoparticles. The repebody-ferritin nanoparticles were shown to have a three-order of magnitude higher binding affinity toward human IgG than free repebody due to multivalency. Also, the dye-labeled repebody-ferritin nanoparticles were applied for immunoassay such as western blot, cell imaging and flow cytometry. As a result, the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles generated much stronger fluorescent signals than ...
Ferritin level above 200 ng/mL (449 pmol/L) in women or 300 ng/mL (674 pmol/L) in men who have no signs of inflammatory disease ... Serum ferritin concentration is likely to be high in persons with Q248H (mostly heterozygotes) than in wild-type SLC40A1. In ... Measurement of serum ferritin indicates for total body iron overload. Liver biopsy measures the iron concentration of liver. It ... "Ferritin". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 9 April 2014. "Iron (Fe)". Web MD. Retrieved 9 April 2014. McLaren, CE; Barton, JC; Adams, PC ...
Bernard, George W.; Carranza, Ferritin A.; Jovanovic, Sascha A. (1996). "Biologic Aspects of Dental Implants". In Carranza, ...
More ferritin is produced to suppress oxidative cell damage, although the amount of ferritin that cells can accumulate is ... Blood tests may show high levels of ferritin and low, normal, or high levels of transferrin saturation, depending on the form ... Iron accumulates preferentially in Kupffer cells, which are located in the liver, and serum ferritin increases; less iron is ... Iron is stored in cells and blood serum in a protein called ferritin. Reticuloendothelial macrophages, which can phagocytose ...
In IVF and ICSI, a risk factor is the decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism; Ferritin light chain and ATP5A1. ...
H2O in the protein ferritin). In terms of taxonomic distribution, the most common biominerals are the phosphate and carbonate ...
The metal micronutrients are taken up into organisms by specific transporters and bound to storage proteins such as ferritin or ... the protein ferritin plays an important role in controlling the distribution of iron. The abundant inorganic elements act as ... ferritin), and small molecules (e.g. siderophores) are employed to control metal ions concentration and bio-availability in ... H2O in the protein ferritin). Because extracellular iron is strongly involved in inducing calcification, its control is ...
If the serum ferritin is greater than 1000 ug/L at diagnosis there is a risk of liver damage and cirrhosis which may eventually ... Once the serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are within the normal range, treatments may be scheduled every two to three ... Serum ferritin testing is a low-cost, readily available, and minimally invasive method for assessing body iron stores. However ... Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network Andrea ...
Ferritin is an iron reservoir for an individual cell. It is found in all cells types and localized in the cytosol. Ferritin is ... Ferritin is used to diagnose low iron levels in humans. It can be used to indicate the level of bioavailable iron, which is ... Ferritin is a highly conserved protein through all domains of life. It is so conserved that subunits from horses and humans can ... "What Is a Ferritin Blood Test? What Do the Results Mean?". WebMD. Retrieved 2018-11-11.. ...
Dysfunctional ferritin may accumulate as hemosiderin, which can be problematic in cases of iron overload. The ferritin storage ... Iron can be stored in ferritin as ferric iron due to the ferroxidase activity of the ferritin heavy chain. ... Both ferritin and ferroportin contain an IRE in their 5' UTRs, so that under iron deficiency their translation is repressed by ... The liver stores of ferritin are the primary physiologic source of reserve iron in the body. The reserves of iron in ...
The ideal would be to increase the deposits of body iron, measured as levels of ferritin in serum, trying to achieve a ferritin ... Serum ferritin levels reflect the iron stores available in the body. The normal range is 20 to 200 ng/mL for men and 15 to 150 ... With ferritin levels higher than 100 ng/mL an increase in infections, etc. has been reported. Another way to treat LID is with ... Serum ferritin falls to less than 20 ng/mL. Increased iron absorption, a compensatory change, results in an increased amount ...
CBC, ESR, serum ferritin, bone marrow aspiration. The test is used to help determine the cause of lymph node enlargement ( ...
Quantum tunneling of the magnetization was reported in ferritin present in horse spleen proteins A direct measurement of the ... "Macroscopic Resonant Tunneling of Magnetization in Ferritin". Physical Review Letters. 79 (9): 1754-1757. Bibcode:1997PhRvL.. ...
... ferritin is normal or high, reflecting the fact that iron is sequestered within cells, and ferritin is being produced as an ... In iron deficiency anemia ferritin is low. Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is high in iron deficiency, reflecting production ...
Serum ferritin (the storage form of iron) is routinely measured in those with beta thalassemia to determine the degree of iron ... These tests include complete blood count; hemoglobin electrophoresis; serum transferrin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity ... in adults with transfusion dependent beta thalassemia as compared to placebo and was also associated with decreased ferritin ... overload; with increased ferritin levels directing the use of iron chelation therapy. The three iron chelators; subcutaneous ...
This is true for ferritin levels and iron levels in the organs as well, it is important for patients to go regularly for ... "Ferritin: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". 2018-07-05. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) " ... than to simply get regular blood tests to check ferritin levels, which only show a trend, and do not reflect actual organ iron ... hematologists generally do not begin chelation therapy until ferritin levels reach at least 1000 ng/ml. It is more important to ...
The ferritin is composed of 24 subunits of protein complex and a small iron oxide core. The core of the ferritin is in the form ... There has been attempts to overcome these intrinsic physical limits of the ferritin. One approach is the use of magnetic ... Jutz G, van Rijn P, Santos Miranda B, Böker A (February 2015). "Ferritin: a versatile building block for bionanotechnology". ... One approach involves synthesizing the fusion protein of ion channels with iron containing proteins such as ferritins to ...
Balla G, Jacob HS, Balla J, Rosenberg M, Nath K, Apple F, Eaton JW, Vercellotti GM (Sep 1992). "Ferritin: a cytoprotective ... Furthermore, part of antioxidants properties of NO is attributable to up-regulation of heme-oxygenase-I and ferritin expression ...
It is also bound to ferritin for storage. Maltol reaches its highest plasma concentrations after 1 to 1.5 hours. It is quickly ...
Serum ferritin can be elevated in inflammatory conditions; so a normal serum ferritin may not always exclude iron deficiency, ... Low serum ferritin (see below) Low serum iron High TIBC (total iron binding capacity), although this can be elevated in cases ... and the utility is improved by taking a concurrent C-reactive protein (CRP). The level of serum ferritin that is viewed as " ...
The protein ferritin functions to sequester and release iron, acting as an iron buffering system in cells. Iron is essential to ... Wild type ferritin functions as a buffer for iron, sequestering it and controlling its release. Thus, mutations in the light ... The insertion of bases into the L-chain ferritin gene causes the chain to lengthen and alter the sequence of the amino acids ... Ferritin aggregates found in the skin, liver, kidney, and muscle tissues may help in diagnosing neuroferritinopathy. More ...
Serum iron, percentage saturation and ferritin are increased. The total iron-binding capacity of the cells is normal to ... Serum Iron: high increased ferritin levels decreased total iron-binding capacity high transferrin saturation Hematocrit of ...
Iron is stored as iron(III) in ferritin. The exact nature of the binding site has not yet been determined. The iron appears to ...
"Dysregulated heme oxygenase-ferritin system in pterygium pathogenesis". Cornea. 32 (9): 1276-82. doi:10.1097/ICO. ...
Ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 pseudogene 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FTH1P5 gene. "Entrez Gene: Ferritin, ... "Identification of two human ferritin H genes on the short arm of chromosome 6". Genomics. 6 (2): 204-11. doi:10.1016/0888-7543( ...
A similar hetero-assembly is seen in the ferritins of higher eukaryotes. Bfr from Escherichia coli (EcBfr) which naturally ... The tertiary and quaternary structure of Bfr is very similar to that of ferritin. The physiological functions of BFR, which may ...
At the bone marrow, transferrin is reduced from Fe3+ and Fe2+ and stored as ferritin to be incorporated into hemoglobin. The ... Milman, N. (1996). "Serum ferritin in Danes: studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and ... Some examples of iron metalloproteins are ferritin and rubredoxin. Many enzymes vital to life contain iron, such as catalase, ... "Iron regulatory protein prevents binding of the 43S translation pre-initiation complex to ferritin and eALAS mRNAs". EMBO J. 13 ...
Bottke W (1977). Ferritin-Dotter bei der Schnecke Planorbarius corneus L. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges.. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer ...
Ferritin is present in the cytoplasm of cells and limits the intracellular iron level to approximately 1 μM. Ferritin is a much ... Siderophores are unable to directly mobilise iron from ferritin. In addition to these two classes of iron-binding proteins, a ... In mammalian hosts, iron is tightly bound to proteins such as hemoglobin, transferrin, lactoferrin and ferritin. The strict ... extracellular protection is achieved by the transferrin family of proteins and intracellular protection is achieved by ferritin ...
Ferritin, a routine investigation for anemia, is an acute-phase reactant, and may be elevated in states of inflammation, ... Ferritin Transferrin Total iron binding capacity Cook, J. D.; Skikne, B. S.; Baynes, R. D. (1 February 1993). "Serum ...
It is only found within cells (as opposed to circulating in blood) and appears to be a complex of ferritin, denatured ferritin ... Hemosiderin or haemosiderin is an iron-storage complex that is composed of partially digested ferritin and lysosomes. The ... Hemosiderin is also generated from the abnormal metabolic pathway of ferritin. ... Cellular iron is found as either ferritin or hemosiderin. It is identified in cells by the Perls or Prussian blue reaction, in ...
Ferritin also provides a site for the detoxification of excess iron which enters an organism or cell when the normal barriers ... Macara, I. G., Hoy, T. G., and Harrison, P. M., 1973, The formation of ferritin from apoferritin, Biochem. J., 135: 343.Google ... Theil E.C., Sayers D.E. (1989) Iron Core Formation in Ferritins. In: Sweet R.M., Woodhead A.D. (eds) Synchrotron Radiation in ... Theil, E. C., 1983, Ferritin structure, function and regulation, Adv. In Inorg. Biochem., 5:1-38.Google Scholar ...
The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ... Ferritin is a protein inside your cells that stores iron. It allows your body to use the iron when it needs it. A ferritin test ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron ... The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. ...
This entry represents ferritin and structurally related proteins. Ferritin is a major non-haem iron storage protein in animal, ... which is counteracted by sequestering it into ferritin. Ferritin consists of a 4-helical bundle core, and contains a bimetal- ...
A ferritin blood test can tell whether you are getting too much or too little iron. Learn more. ... Ferritin is a protein that stores iron in your cells. ... Other names: serum ferritin, serum ferritin level, ferritin ... What is a ferritin blood test?. A ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in your blood. Ferritin is a protein that ... A ferritin blood test is used to check your iron levels. It can help your health care provider find out if your body has the ...
Doctors may order a ferritin test when they suspect kids have too little or too much iron in their bodies. ... What Is a Ferritin Test?. Ferritin is the protein inside of red blood cells that stores iron. A ferritin (FAIR-eh-tin) test ... This can affect the ferritin test.. Why Are Ferritin Tests Done?. Doctors may order a ferritin test to check for too little or ... Iron is needed to make red blood cells, so when ferritin levels are low, the body makes fewer red blood cells. Ferritin levels ...
This entry represents the ferritin-like superfamily. Proteins with this structure include ferritin and other ferritin-like ... Ferritin-like superfamily (IPR009078). Short name: Ferritin-like_SF Overlapping entries *Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit ... Ferritin is one of the major non-haem iron storage proteins in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It is a multisubunit ... DPS-like protein, ferritin-like diiron-binding domain (IPR033921). *Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, Herpesvirus ( ...
Ferritin is an intracellular iron storage protein and a marker of iron stores. Normal serum ferritin levels vary between ... Interpreting raised serum ferritin levels BMJ 2015; 351 :h3692 doi:10.1136/bmj.h3692 ... Elevated ferritin levels are usually due to causes such as acute or chronic inflammation, chronic alcohol consumption, liver ... Unexplained serum ferritin values ,1000 μg/L warrant referral for further investigation ...
take2healthcare.com/ferritin-might-high-february-2018. You have elevated Liver enzymes ... Because Ferritin is stored in liver ... www.eisencheck.at/ferritin-transferrin. Eisenmangel richtig diagnostizieren: Die wichtigsten Blut- & Laborwerte: ✓ Ferritin ✓ ... Jun 15, 2017 ... •Iron overload typically results in a high ferritin and transferrin saturation ... • Ferritin levels can be ... medicalvs.com/ferritin-vs-transferrin. Oct 14, 2016 ... Ingesting iron can cause corrosion of the GI tract, bleeding, and ...
www.restartmed.com/low-ferritin. Jan 16, 2017 ... Low ferritin levels should be treated with liquid or iron capsules until ... www.healthline.com/health/ferritin-and-hair-loss. What are the symptoms of low ferritin? · dizziness · extreme fatigue · ... labs.selfdecode.com/blog/ferritin. Jan 21, 2021 ... Symptoms of Low Ferritin (Serum) · Anemia · Unexplained fatigue · Hair loss ... Oral iron is the first-line treatment for managing IDWA; however, ... The WHO defines low ferritin as levels ,15 μg/L for ...
... Gerald D. Watt,1 Jae-Woo Kim,2 Bo Zhang,3 Timothy Miller,4 John N. Harb,4 Robert C. ... Gerald D. Watt, Jae-Woo Kim, Bo Zhang, et al., "A Protein-Based Ferritin Bio-Nanobattery," Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 2012 ...
My ferritin level was at 2! And he still wanted me to continue taking oral iron even though I kept explaining to him that it ... I need to make sure I drink Gatorade every day and he is researching things to see what the best way is to get my ferritin up ... I need to make sure I drink Gatorade every day and he is researching things to see what the best way is to get my ferritin up ... Some things I read this is ok and some it is pretty low? Also my ferritin is 22? Seems low but I am definitely not the expert! ...
004598 - Serum Ferritin is a measure of iron status within the body. The body will store away reserves of iron in the body, and ... this storage form of iron in the body is called Ferritin. ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Serum Ferritin , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Serum Ferritin via the Trip Database. ... Expanded feasibility of ferritin testing: stability of ferritin stored as whole blood and validation of plastic tubes. Ferritin ... Causes of raised serum ferritin Increased ferritin synthesis due to iron accumulation Increase in ferritin synthesis not ...
Rosato N., Agro A.F., Gratton E., Stefanini S., Chiancone E. (1989) Time-Resolved Fluorescence Studies on Horse Spleen Ferritin ...
LBXFER - Ferritin (ng/mL). Variable Name: LBXFER SAS Label: Ferritin (ng/mL). English Text: Ferritin (ng/mL). Target: Both ... LBDFERSI - Ferritin (ug/L). Variable Name: LBDFERSI. SAS Label: Ferritin (ug/L). English Text: Ferritin (ug/L). Target: Both ... The 1st incubation uses 10 uL of sample, a ferritin-specific antibody and a labeled ferritin-specific antibody to form a ... A crossover study was performed to compare the 2009-2010 Ferritin data to the 2007-2008 Ferritin data. The Roche Hitachi 912 ...
LBXFER - Ferritin(ng/mL). Variable Name: LBXFER. SAS Label: Ferritin(ng/mL). English Text: Ferritin(ng/mL). Target: Both males ... LBDFERSI - Ferritin(ug/L). Variable Name: LBDFERSI. SAS Label: Ferritin(ug/L). English Text: Ferritin(ug/L). Target: Both males ... Ferritin (FERTIN_D) Data File: FERTIN_D.xpt First Published: April 2008. Last Revised: NA ... Latex bound Ferritin antibodies react with the antigen in the sample to form an antigen/antibody complex. Following ...
Treatments and Tools for ferritin. Find ferritin information, treatments for ferritin and ferritin symptoms. ... ferritin - MedHelps ferritin Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Ferritin: 33 (lab range 15-150) Free T3: 2.0 (lab value 2.0-4.4) So, yeah. WAY low i... ... Those of you who are on iron supplements, what kind do you take? My ferritin is low . I str... ...
MO www.leebio.com Lee Biosolutions announces that they have had to increase thier capacity for the production of ferritin to ... human spleen ferritin , human heart ferritin, human placental ferritin, mouse liver ferritin and rat liver ferritin. Customer ... Ferritin is normally found inside of cells, with only a small amount in the blood. If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ... When there is damage to organs that contain ferritin (especially the liver, spleen, and bone marrow), ferritin levels can often ...
Re: anemia and low ferritin levels. [QUOTE=Stefarina;3160830] [B]I have a ferritin level of 5.[/B] I know that ferritin is the ... anemia and low ferritin levels. I have read the posts on here concerning ferritin levels. I have been anemic for over a year. A ... B]I have a ferritin level of 5.[/B] I know that ferritin is the level of iron stored in your body. Should I be alarmed that ... B]I have a ferritin level of 5.[/B] I know that ferritin is the level of iron stored in your body. Should I be alarmed that ...
The Hematolgoist told me he did not know if my pain was from the ferritin but that taking the vitamin prob would not raise my ... The only other problem my GP could find in my bloodwork was low ferritin. It started at a 10, dropped to an 8 within 6 months. ... I have been taking them for about 1.5 weeks and my blood test already improved to a 10 ferritin and my hemoglobin was normal at ...
... I have been under treatment for several years for IDA and now just iron deficiency, ferritin keeps ... How can my hgb levels rise and my ferritin drop? I did ask the nurse why the infusion when my hgb is on the rise, she said ... Re: Rising MCV and low ferritin. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your RBCs. The MCV is ... I continue to get iron infusion whenever my ferritin goes below 50. My question is, can I also have Folate and Vitamin B12- ...
Can anyone tell me how high ferritin levels (900+) will effect treatment and our livers? Is this level high enough to require ... Effects of high ferritin levels? newb Can anyone tell me how high ferritin levels (900+) will effect treatment and our livers? ... Effects of high ferritin levels?. Can anyone tell me how high ferritin levels (900+) will effect treatment and our livers? Is ... People with chronic liver inflammation tend to have a higher level of ferritin in the blood. Ferritin is termed an acute phase ...
Is there a connection with low ferritin? Please let me know. I end up in bed for several hours and I do not have time for that ... Could this be caused by low ferritin level? I sometimes would get the migranes when I get my menstrual cycle, but it seems to ...
Conserved Protein Domain Family Ferritin_like_AB, Ferritin-like domain found in archaea and bacteria (Ferritin_like_AB) ... Ferritin-like domain found in archaea and bacteria (Ferritin_like_AB). This uncharacterized domain is a member of a broad ... Comment:The conserved residues of a diiron center are present in the Ferritin-like AB domain. ... Uncharacterized family of ferritin-like proteins found in archaea and bacteria. ...
Conserved Protein Domain Family Ferritin_CCC1_N, Ferritin-like N-terminal domain present in an uncharacterized family of ... Ferritin-CCC1, N-terminal ferritin-like diiron-binding domain. Ferritin-like N-terminal domain present in an uncharacterized ... Comment:The conserved residues of a diiron center are present in the Ferritin-like CCC1 domain. ... This domain has the conserved residues of a diiron center found in other ferritin-like proteins. ...
... is a protein in the body that binds to iron; most of the iron stored in the body is bound to ferritin. Ferritin is ... A ferritin blood test checks the amount of ferritin in the blood. Ferritin is a protein in the body that binds to iron; most of ... Only a small amount of ferritin is found in the blood. The amount of ferritin in the blood shows how much iron is stored in ... A ferritin blood test checks the amount of ferritin in the blood. ...
A blood test is used to measure the amount of ferritin in the body,... ... Ferritin is a protein found inside the body that aids in storing iron in the body. ... Ferritin is a protein found inside the body that aids in storing iron in the body. A blood test is used to measure the amount ... If you have low ferritin and thus lower iron stores in the body, a supplement may also help you improve your blood levels. A ...
The amount of ferritin in your body reflects the amount of iron stored as well, so the more ferritin you have, the more iron ... Ferritin is a naturally produced protein molecule that is needed by your bodys cells to store and control iron content ... The amount of ferritin in your body reflects the amount of iron stored as well, so the more ferritin you have, the more iron ... Elevated Ferritin. According to National Institutes of Health online medical encyclopedia Medline Plus, a blood test for ...
Most people chose this as the best definition of ferritin: An iron-containing protei... See the dictionary meaning, ... In normal ferritin, a rigid protein shell surrounds an 8 nm diameter cavity, part-filled with non-magnetic ferrihydrite. ... A common method of iron storage in the body is via a protein called ferritin. ... Also, certain conditions can raise serum ferritin for reasons unrelated to clinical iron status. ...
In clinical medicine, ferritin is predominantly utilized as a serum marker of total body iron stores. In cases of iron ... Ferritin, a major iron storage protein, is essential to iron homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of physiologic and ... Ferritin for the clinician Blood Rev. 2009 May;23(3):95-104. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2008.08.001. Epub 2008 Oct 2. ... Ferritin, a major iron storage protein, is essential to iron homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of physiologic and ...
  • Animals, plants and microorganisms use ferritin, an iron protein complex, to accumulate reserves of iron sufficently high for the synthesis of proteins that have iron at the active center. (springer.com)
  • Ferritin is a protein inside your cells that stores iron. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ferritin is a major non-haem iron storage protein in animal, plants and microorganisms [ PMID: 15222465 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is found in most tissues as a cytosolic protein, but small amounts are secreted into the serum where it functions as an iron carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a globular protein complex consisting of 24 protein subunits forming a nanocage with multiple metal-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a hollow globular protein of mass 474 kDa and comprising 24 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human mitochondrial ferritin, MtF, was found to express as a pro-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a mitochondrion takes it up, it processes it into a mature protein similar to the ferritins found in the cytoplasm, which it assembles to form functional ferritin shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function and structure of the expressed ferritin protein varies in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within cells, iron is stored in a protein complex as ferritin or the related complex hemosiderin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As ferritin accumulates within cells of the reticuloendothelial system, protein aggregates are formed as hemosiderin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is the protein inside of red blood cells that stores iron. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ferritin is an intracellular iron storage protein and a marker of iron stores. (bmj.com)
  • After the protein is taken up by the mitochondria it can be processed into a mature protein and assemble functional ferritin shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • What makes Ferritin such an important protein. (webwire.com)
  • Ferritin is a protein found inside the body that aids in storing iron in the body. (livestrong.com)
  • Ferritin is a naturally produced protein molecule that is needed by your body's cells to store and control iron content throughout your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Ferritin is a globular protein complex, meaning it has the ability to store molecules inside it and shuttle them inside your body's cells, where it can release those molecules into the cell itself. (livestrong.com)
  • According to National Institutes of Health online medical encyclopedia Medline Plus, a blood test for ferritin can be performed to assess whether you have elevated levels of this protein. (livestrong.com)
  • Ferritin is also a reactive protein that is elevated in the acute phase of disease and malnourishment. (livestrong.com)
  • In normal ferritin , a rigid protein shell surrounds an 8 nm diameter cavity, part-filled with non-magnetic ferrihydrite. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Ferritin, a major iron storage protein, is essential to iron homeostasis and is involved in a wide range of physiologic and pathologic processes. (nih.gov)
  • Full length native protein (purified) corresponding to Human Ferritin. (abcam.com)
  • Ferritin is a type of protein in your blood. (healthline.com)
  • Which representation described in the tutorial would you use to get the most accurate picture of the overall shape and approximate volume of the ferritin protein? (wustl.edu)
  • Which representation described in the tutorial would you use to see what atoms are connected together in a particular region of the ferritin protein? (wustl.edu)
  • However, by using ferritin -- a globular protein complex that stores iron inside its hollow spherical structure, and which is commonly found in the bodies of mammals -- the research group developed a way to arrange metal memory cells on substrates without heat, allowing for the use of thinner substrate materials. (pinktentacle.com)
  • The ferritin is then irradiated with UV light, which completely destroys the protein and leaves behind tiny metal deposits on the substrate. (pinktentacle.com)
  • Clinical management of iron-related disorders may require the ferritin blood test to detect the protein that binds with iron. (brighthub.com)
  • Ferritin is a water soluble, iron storage protein which binds to iron. (brighthub.com)
  • Ferritin originates in the reticuloendothelial system and consists of a protein shell, apoferritin, with varying amounts of iron in its core. (randox.com)
  • Ferritin is a protein found inside cells that stores iron for the body's future use. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • The iron-protein ferritin has been purified from mycelium, sporangiophores, and spores of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Ferritin is a naturally protein-coated form of iron found in legumes that allows for controlled release and efficient absorption, which helps to minimize digestive upset. (florahealth.com)
  • Systemic iron overload and the elevated level of ferritin, a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores and releases iron to maintain the iron homeostasis in cells, has long been epidemiologically associated with obesity and obesity-related diseases. (genetics.org)
  • This new chimeric protein was shown to maintain the unique, cation linked, association-dissociation properties of Archaeoglobus fulgidus ferritin occurring at neutral pH values, while exhibiting the typical human H-homopolymer recognition by the transferrin receptor TfR1. (rsc.org)
  • There are no publications for Ferritin mitochondrial Partial Recombinant Protein (H00094033-Q01). (novusbio.com)
  • Ferritin is a 24 subunit protein composed of two subunit types, termed H and L. The ferritin H subunit has a potent ferroxidase activity that catalyses the oxidation of ferrous iron, whereas ferritin L plays a role in iron nucleation and protein stability. (biochemj.org)
  • However, this activation was transient, allowing ferritin protein induction to subsequently proceed. (biochemj.org)
  • A protein, ferritin, protects kidneys against a damaging after-effect of injury, heart failure or hardened arteries by controlling levels of iron, according to a study published today by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham in the Journal of Clinical Investigation . (uab.edu)
  • The current study results confirm a protein called ferritin is among the most important of proteins charged with mopping up free iron. (uab.edu)
  • This protein defense degrades heme to release iron, but it also sends signals to turn up ferritin production. (uab.edu)
  • The ferritin shell is made of 24 subunits of heavy and light protein chains, heavy just meaning that one chain is usually large in the pairs in which such chains typically occur. (uab.edu)
  • Past attempts to universally remove ferritin caused the mice to die, and so the role of this protein has remained elusive. (uab.edu)
  • Measuring a protein in the blood called ferritin is currently the easiest way to determine a patient's iron status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This gene encodes the light subunit of the ferritin protein. (genetex.com)
  • Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (genetex.com)
  • Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is an iron-storage protein that is located in the mitochondria, which has a significant role in modulating cellular iron metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • In plants, the iron storage protein ferritin can be targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Approximately 75% of the body's 3-4 g total iron is found within haemoglobin in red blood cells, 10-20% is stored in the protein ferritin and the remainder is found in the iron transport protein transferrin, as well as in myoglobin, cytochromes and as unbound serum iron. (racgp.org.au)
  • Ferritin is an iron-storage protein made in the liver. (lifeextension.com)
  • Ferritin is a protein produced in the liver for the storage of iron. (lifeextension.com)
  • Ferritin light chain is the main intracellular iron storage protein. (bio-rad.com)
  • Ferritin is a major iron storage protein and essential for iron homeostasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Treatment with doxorubicin alone significantly induced the cell cycle‑dependent kinase inhibitor protein p21, whereas ferritin reduced p21 expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ferritin is a protein that binds to and stores iron. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Further, three-dimensional maps of the ferritin protein shell and iron core were obtained from single particle transmission electron microscopy imaging and confirmed the similarity between Drosophila and Trichoplusia ferritin structures. (rsc.org)
  • This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a scaffold to express a heterologous protein, such as influenza HA, so it mimics a physiologically relevant trimeric viral spike. (federallabs.org)
  • Forms an octahedron consisting of 24 subunits, allowing for greatly increased presentation of heterologous protein on the ferritin nanoparticles surface compared to other vaccine platforms. (federallabs.org)
  • Using cultured cells, the present study investigates the effect of aspirin on the expression of ferritin, a cytoprotective protein that sequesters free cytosolic iron, the main catalyst of oxygen radical formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, aspirin at low antithrombotic concentrations (0.03 to 0.3 mmol/L) induced the synthesis of ferritin protein in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion up to 5-fold over basal levels, whereas ferritin H (heavy chain) mRNA remained unaltered. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ferritin induction by aspirin was specific in that other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as salicylic acid, indomethacin, or diclofenac failed to alter ferritin protein levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 8 Thus, ferritin, which until then was thought to function merely as a "housekeeper" iron storage protein, has emerged as a critical and fast-acting endogenous cytoprotectant that plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ferritin has also been shown by electrophoretic and antigenic analysis to be present in protein fractions solubilized from isolated human syncytiotrophoblast microvillus plasma-membrane preparations, suggesting that ferritin may play an active role in the transfer of iron from maternal transferrin across the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane. (biochemj.org)
  • In the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, an additional subunit resembling Lymnaea soma ferritin is associated with shell formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a symmetric, 24-subunit iron-storage complex assembled of H and L chains. (genetics.org)
  • Variation in ferritin subunit composition may affect the rates of iron uptake and release in different tissues. (genetex.com)
  • It is composed of two subunits, the ferritin light chain (FTL, L-subunit, 19 kDa) and the ferritin heavy chain (FTH, H-subunit 21 kDa) ( 3 , 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The H-subunit has ferroxidase activity, it is essential and sufficient for rapid iron uptake ( 9 ), while the L-subunit facilitates stable iron storage in the ferritin core ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Placental ferritin is composed predominantly of a single subunit type, co-migrating with a liver ferritin standard on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. (biochemj.org)
  • This entry represents ferritin and structurally related proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ferritin is one of the major non-haem iron storage proteins in animals, plants, and microorganisms. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Proteins with this structure include ferritin and other ferritin-like proteins such as bacterioferritin (cytochrome b1) that binds haem between two subunits, non-haem ferritin, dodecameric ferritin homologue (DPS) that binds to and protects DNA, and the N-terminal domain of rubrerythrin that is found in many air-sensitive bacteria and archaea [ PMID: 12175244 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This uncharacterized domain is a member of a broad superfamily of ferritin-like diiron-carboxylate proteins whose function is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Ferritin-like N-terminal domain present in an uncharacterized family of proteins found in bacteria and archaea. (nih.gov)
  • This domain has the conserved residues of a diiron center found in other ferritin-like proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Ferritins (MW: ~ 450 kD) are polymeric proteins composed of 2 subunits a heavy chain and a light chain polypeptide, that reversibly bind and store iron in liver, spleen and bone marrow. (bio-rad.com)
  • Here, heterozygous mutant and overexpression ferritin strains of Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to dietary iron manipulations to study the dynamics of iron partition between ferritin and other proteins . (rsc.org)
  • Finally, this ferritin nanoparticle vaccine platform has significant advantages in the ability to utilize specific multimerized spikes and it may be applicable to other viral proteins. (federallabs.org)
  • Encapsulated ferritins (EncFtn) are a sub-family of ferritin-like proteins, widely distributed in all bacterial and archaeal phyla. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ferritins are a large family of intracellular proteins that protect the cell from oxidative stress by catalytically converting Fe(II) into less toxic Fe(III) and storing iron minerals within their core. (portlandpress.com)
  • Mitochondrial ferritin is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ramachandran plot shows that the structure of mitochondrial ferritin is mainly alpha helical with a low prevalence of beta sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). "The effects of frataxin silencing in HeLa cells are rescued by the expression of human mitochondrial ferritin" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the role of Arabidopsis ATFER4 ferritin in mitochondrial iron trafficking, atfer4-1 and atfer4-2 mutant knock-outs for the AtFer4 gene were grown in heterotrophic suspension cultures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although no reduction in total ferritin or in mitochondrial ferritin was observed in atfer4 mutants, total iron content increased in atfer4 cells and in atfer4 mitochondria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We conclude that oxidative stress induced by lysosomal rupture causes ferritin induction with concomitant mitochondrial damage, which are the potential target for prevention of cellular oxidative stress and cell death induced by typical lysosomotropic substances in different disorders. (diva-portal.org)
  • Localized unfolding at the junction of three ferritin subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are three types of ferritin subunits in amphibia: L, M and H chains. (uniprot.org)
  • We showed that ferritin H and L transcripts are coexpressed during embryogenesis and that both subunits are essential for embryonic development. (genetics.org)
  • A constant ratio of ferritin H and L subunits, secured via tight post-transcriptional regulation, is characteristic of the secreted ferritin in flies. (genetics.org)
  • Differential cellular expression, conserved post-transcriptional regulation via the iron regulatory element, and distinct subcellular localization of the ferritin subunits prior to the assembly of holoferritin are all important steps mediating iron homeostasis. (genetics.org)
  • Ferritin, a heteropolymer composed of H and L subunits, acts as the primary iron-storage molecule ( H arrison and A rosio 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • In the present study we report that increased synthesis of both subunits of ferritin occurs in HeLa cells exposed to oxidative stress. (biochemj.org)
  • To assess whether ferritin induction reduced the accumulation of ROS, and to test the relative contribution of ferritin H and L subunits in this process, we prepared stable transfectants that overexpressed either ferritin H or ferritin L cDNA under control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter. (biochemj.org)
  • It is composed of 24 subunits of the heavy and light ferritin chains. (genetex.com)
  • The ferritin molecule consists of 24 self-assembling polypeptide subunits composed of the heavy and light chains. (bio-rad.com)
  • Ferritin serves as a critical component of iron homeostasis and requires the participation of the two subunits ( 5 - 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A ferritin blood test checks the amount of ferritin in the blood. (healthwise.net)
  • Only a small amount of ferritin is found in the blood. (healthwise.net)
  • The amount of ferritin in the blood shows how much iron is stored in your body. (healthwise.net)
  • The amount of ferritin found in the blood is the same amount that is in the body. (healthwise.net)
  • A blood test is used to measure the amount of ferritin in the body, which indirectly tests the amount of iron in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • The amount of ferritin in your body reflects the amount of iron stored as well, so the more ferritin you have, the more iron you have. (livestrong.com)
  • The intensity of signal is directly proportional to the amount of Ferritin in the sample and the intensity is measured at 450 nm. (abcam.com)
  • Your search returned 1 ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Recombinant Human Ferritin Light Chain is produced in E.coli as a single non-glycosylated polypeptide having a molecular weight of 19 kDa. (bio-rad.com)
  • Rosato N., Agro A.F., Gratton E., Stefanini S., Chiancone E. (1989) Time-Resolved Fluorescence Studies on Horse Spleen Ferritin. (springer.com)
  • When there is damage to organs that contain ferritin (especially the liver, spleen, and bone marrow), ferritin levels can often become elevated even though the total amount of iron in the body is normal. (webwire.com)
  • Over the years, the ferritin product line has increased to include human liver ferritin, human spleen ferritin , human heart ferritin, human placental ferritin, mouse liver ferritin and rat liver ferritin. (webwire.com)
  • Ferritin is found in the liver , spleen , skeletal muscles, and bone marrow. (healthwise.net)
  • Ferritin makes up approximately 20% of spleen dry weight and may have a protective effect against iron-induced cell damage. (randox.com)
  • This was supported by immunofluorescence studies on cryostat sections of human placentae by using antibodies to placental and spleen ferritin. (biochemj.org)
  • The American College of Physicians found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin levels to help identify the early stages of hereditary hemochromatosis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 71 ] These abnormalities comprise an increased ferritin level, which is sometimes accompanied with elevated transferrin saturation. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, an elevation in ferritin is nonspecific in the absence of an elevated transferrin saturation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Genetic testing in patients with isolated ferritin elevation above the upper limit of normal, without elevation of transferrin saturation, is recommended by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines.1 Isolated elevated ferritin concentration should be interpreted in the context of the clinical setting and biochemical testing for additional causes (ie. (cmaj.ca)
  • Different from iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation methods as chemistry spectrophotometric assays, ferritin measurement is a much less standardized immunoassay. (cmaj.ca)
  • Elevated ferritin in the context of elevated transferrin saturation suggests iron accumulation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Phlebotomy should be performed in patients with elevated transferrin saturation and ferritin who have a positive result on genetic testing. (cmaj.ca)
  • What are the benefits of serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin screening in the workup of fibromyalgia? (medscape.com)
  • Serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin screening can be useful for detecting the unusual cases of hemochromatosis in which patients present with diffuse arthralgias and myalgias. (medscape.com)
  • Consider screening with a serum transferrin saturation and a serum ferritin concentration in patients aged 40-60 years, especially those with small-joint arthropathy in the hands and/or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). (medscape.com)
  • Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a biochemical parameter used for the detection of iron deficiency in situations where ferritin has limited diagnostic value owing to the present chronic disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Soluble transferrin receptor is an additional parameter to ferritin for the diagnosis of IDA and differential diagnosis of ID+ACD, but calculation of the sTfR/F index did not improve the diagnostic value of determining sTfR alone. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Marković M, Majkić-Singh N, Subota V. Usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin in iron deficiency and chronic disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This study explores the safety and efficacy of intravenous iron therapy in anemic hemodialysis patients treated with epoetin alfa, who have higher serum ferritin levels, but low to normal transferrin saturation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • with no family history of hemochromatosis, but elevted serum ferritin levels found. (reference.com)
  • Very high ferritin levels (greater than 1,000 ng/mL) can mean a large buildup of iron in the body ( hemochromatosis ). (healthwise.net)
  • Higher than normal ferritin levels may indicate that you have an inflammatory disorder, such as arthritis or acute injury, alcoholic-related liver disease, frequent red blood cell transfusions or hemochromatosis, which is abnormally high iron levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Hemochromatosis is one of the more serious conditions that indicate higher than normal ferritin levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Talk with your doctor about getting your ferritin levels tested, especially if you suffer from alcoholism, anorexia, arthritis or hemochromatosis. (livestrong.com)
  • Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are the most likely causes for the patient's elevated ferritin, but hereditary hemochromatosis is also possible. (cmaj.ca)
  • Because of its ubiquitous presence and involvement in iron balance, ferritin plays a key role in a multitude of human iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis, anemia and a number of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. (suny.edu)
  • Higher levels of ferritin, greater than 400 ng/mL, are consistent with iron overload which is called hemochromatosis. (lifeextension.com)
  • A lower-than-normal level of ferritin occurs if you have anemia caused by low iron levels in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A ferritin blood test is used to check your iron levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lower than normal ferritin levels may mean you have iron deficiency anemia or another condition related to low iron levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Higher than normal ferritin levels can mean you have too much iron in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Certain medicines can decrease or increase your ferritin levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Iron is needed to make red blood cells, so when ferritin levels are low, the body makes fewer red blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ferritin levels can be high with some medical conditions. (kidshealth.org)
  • 3 4 Raised ferritin levels therefore require further investigation in primary care to determine if they truly represent iron overload. (bmj.com)
  • Do any of you have experience with getting your ferritin levels back up and if so how did you do it? (celiac.com)
  • Later, few studies supported the association of high ferritin and acute myocardial infarction, including: (1) Elevated ferritin concentration as a marker of high levels of stored iron, which is a strong risk factor related to acute myocardial infarction. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Serum ferritin levels is associated with acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis Serum ferritin levels is associated with acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis Services on Demand Journal Article Indicators Cited by SciELO Related links Similars in SciELO Share Print version ISSN 0104-4230 On-line version ISSN 1806-9282 Rev. Assoc. Med. (tripdatabase.com)
  • If a ferritin test shows higher than normal levels, it could indicate that you have a condition that s characterized by iron overload. (webwire.com)
  • I have read the posts on here concerning ferritin levels. (healthboards.com)
  • The Hematolgoist told me he did not know if my pain was from the ferritin but that taking the vitamin prob would not raise my levels. (dailystrength.org)
  • How can my hgb levels rise and my ferritin drop? (healthboards.com)
  • Or is my MCV levels high because of my low ferritin? (healthboards.com)
  • Effects of high ferritin levels? (medhelp.org)
  • Can anyone tell me how high ferritin levels (900+) will effect treatment and our livers? (medhelp.org)
  • High ferritin levels may also be caused by Hodgkin disease , leukemia , infection, inflammatory conditions (such as arthritis or lupus ), or a diet that is too high in iron. (healthwise.net)
  • Low ferritin levels often mean an iron deficiency is present. (healthwise.net)
  • A ferritin test is often done with other tests to check the amount of iron in the blood, especially the iron and iron-binding capacity levels. (healthwise.net)
  • Choosing the right kind of iron from foods is important if you want to increase your ferritin levels. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have low ferritin and thus lower iron stores in the body, a supplement may also help you improve your blood levels. (livestrong.com)
  • There can be complications resulting from excess ferritin, primarily due to high levels of iron in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • In men, ferritin levels should range between 12 and 300 ng/ml, and women should range between 12 and 150 ng/ml. (livestrong.com)
  • To lower iron levels back to normal levels, you may have to get blood drawn to remove excess ferritin, a process called a phlebotomy, as well as reducing your dietary intake of iron. (livestrong.com)
  • Having elevated levels of ferritin is not harmful by itself, rather it is an indicator of other symptoms that are damaging your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Getting your blood tested on a regular basis to assess ferritin levels can help determine if you have internal damage or a disease that needs to be treated medically. (livestrong.com)
  • High ferritin levels and post shoulder tendon operation pain/Exhausted? (yahoo.com)
  • I have high ferritin levels (over 800) but its not haemochromotosis. (yahoo.com)
  • Do Low Ferritin Levels Cause Hair Loss? (healthline.com)
  • If this happens to you, ask your doctor about checking out your ferritin levels. (healthline.com)
  • The best way to treat hair loss with ferritin is to increase your iron levels. (healthline.com)
  • It is linked with decreased serum ferritin levels. (abcam.com)
  • The blood test indirectly tests the amount of iron in your body by measuring your serum ferritin levels. (brighthub.com)
  • High levels of ferritin are associated with tissue damage and malignant disease. (brighthub.com)
  • Ferritin has adaptive and reactive properties to contribute to normal homeostasis or balance in the body, therefore people with autoimmune disorders, some types of cancer, chronic infection and inflammation may have higher than normal ferritin levels. (brighthub.com)
  • Ferritin levels may be increased in anaemia associated with chronic disease and elevated levels are reported in patients with chronic liver disease, lymphoid malignancy leukaemia and Hodgkin Lymphoma. (randox.com)
  • High ferritin levels are also associated with elevated risks of Myocardial Infarction in men. (randox.com)
  • The relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic control (as measured by HbA 1c levels) was also studied in 76 consecutive NIDDM patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ferritin levels can become elevated if the patient has an inflammatory disorder. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Our clinical studies have shown that plant-based ferritin iron capsules can effectively increase and maintain healthy iron levels. (florahealth.com)
  • Are you familiar with any relationship between low serrum ferritin levels and hair loss? (hormonehelpny.com)
  • The differences in ferritin levels between the two methods will be studied using a mixed model to account for the between-subject variation and the within-subject variation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients with iron deficiency had elevated sTfR levels, but ferritin concentrations were normal or increased in patients with inflammatory characteristics. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • while a high level of ferritin is associated with iron overload, low ferritin levels can indicate that one may be at risk of being iron-deficient. (lifeextension.com)
  • Clinically, the monitoring of serum ferritin levels aides in the diagnosis and management of iron metabolic disorders. (bio-rad.com)
  • Ferritin levels are also indicative of the erosion of iron stores during pregnancy. (bio-rad.com)
  • Ferritin is detected in the serum of cancer patients, with higher levels correlating with more aggressive disease and poorer clinical outcomes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In breast tumor tissues, L-ferritin levels are ~6-fold higher than surrounding benign breast tissue ( 10 , 16 , 17 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The high levels of ferritin in TAMs may protect them from iron-induced damage, stimulate survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ferritin is also an 'acute phase reactant,' meaning that its levels may be elevated in states of inflammation from any number of causes. (zocdoc.com)
  • Latex bound Ferritin antibodies react with the antigen in the sample to form an antigen/antibody complex. (cdc.gov)
  • A 96-well plate has been precoated with anti-Ferritin IgG antibodies. (abcam.com)
  • The SPE surface was modified with amine-functionalized graphene oxide to facilitate the binding of ferritin antibodies on the electrode surface. (nih.gov)
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. (federallabs.org)
  • A major function of ferritin is the storage of iron in a soluble and nontoxic state. (genetex.com)
  • The primary function of ferritin is to store bioavailable iron in the form of ferrihydrite. (rsc.org)
  • These findings advance our understanding of the function of 4-fold channels of plant ferritin and the relationship of the structure and function of ferritin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • hence, serum ferritin is used as a diagnostic test for iron-deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ferritin test can help doctors see if low iron is causing the anemia. (kidshealth.org)
  • According to company President Burton Lee, the company began manufacturing human ferritin for researchers studying metabolic disorders, chemotherapy, anemia, restless leg syndrome and autoimmune diseases. (webwire.com)
  • Ferritin is a clinically important biomarker which reflects the state of iron in the body and is directly involved with anemia. (nih.gov)
  • What is the role of serum ferritin testing in the workup of anemia after a significant hemorrhage? (medscape.com)
  • A low serum ferritin level provides confirmation of the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. (medscape.com)
  • I had anemia recently and was told to never draw blood for ferritin when sick - any imflammation or simple cold makes it falsely elevated. (cancer.org)
  • I also heard that cancer is more related to anemia (which means low ferritin). (cancer.org)
  • Ferritin is a sensitive and specific test that helps your doctor diagnose iron deficiency anemia. (lifeextension.com)
  • The 1st incubation uses 10 uL of sample, a ferritin-specific antibody and a labeled ferritin-specific antibody to form a sandwich complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Samples, standards and the Ferritin-HRP conjugate are added to the wells, where Ferritin in the sample and standards binds to the precoated antibody and added Ferritin-HRP conjugate binds to this antibody-AFP complex. (abcam.com)
  • The ferritin nanoparticles as a vaccine platform can be used to deliver vaccines, such as influenza vaccines, with enhanced magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody responses. (federallabs.org)
  • A ferritin test could also point to liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory conditions, malnutrition or hyperthyroidism. (webwire.com)
  • People with chronic liver inflammation tend to have a higher level of ferritin in the blood. (medhelp.org)
  • Now, remember having a high ferritin does NOT neccessarily mean you have too much iron deposited in the liver. (medhelp.org)
  • Acute and chronic inflammation resulting from infection, malignant growths, renal failure, liver disease, metabolic syndrome and autoimmune conditions may lead to elevated ferritin. (cmaj.ca)
  • Elevated ferritin is very sensitive, but not specific, for iron-related liver damage. (cmaj.ca)
  • Serum ferritin level changes in children with sickle cell disease on chronic blood transfusion are nonlinear and are associated with iron load and liver injury. (natureasia.com)
  • The effects of ferritin (human liver ferritin) and doxorubicin on the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line were evaluated using the cell viability assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ferritin has been purified from normal full-term human placentae and its antigenic and molecular characteristics compared with adult liver ferritin. (biochemj.org)
  • Complexes formed are proportional to the Ferritin concentration, and were measured at 700nm (primary wavelength). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we developed a natural H-ferritin (HFn) nanocarrier that specifically delivered a high concentration of the therapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) to tumor cells and significantly inhibited tumor growth with a single-dose treatment while also showing excellent biocompatibility and safety profiles in murine cancer models. (pnas.org)
  • According to the results obtained, the best diagnostic efficiency for differential diagnosis of anemic patients with iron deficiency compared to the control group had a sTfR concentration (0.884) that was significantly higher than ferritin (0.638), but not higher than the calculated ratio sTfR/F (0.820). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ferritin treatment activated MCF-7 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The clinical relevance of ferritin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. (bmj.com)
  • Elevated serum and tissue ferritin are linked to coronary artery disease, malignancy, and poor outcomes following stem cell transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated serum and tissue ferritin are associated with cancer ( 14 ) and may contribute to cancer cell survival and drug resistance. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Defects in this light chain ferritin gene are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome. (genetex.com)
  • Genetic defects in the light chain ferritin gene are linked with several neurodegenerative disorders. (bio-rad.com)
  • Some ferritin complexes in vertebrates are hetero-oligomers of two highly related gene products with slightly different physiological properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having an elevated ferritin in the blood in the setting of a normal biopsy or normal gene studies, does not change what we do. (medhelp.org)
  • This article aims to outline the role of the Australian Red Cross Blood Service Therapeutic Venesection program, to clarify the interpretation of the HFE gene test and iron studies, and to describe the steps in evaluating a patient with elevated serum ferritin. (racgp.org.au)
  • Why would you have a higher hemoglobin and lower ferritin and vice versa? (healthboards.com)
  • I have been taking them for about 1.5 weeks and my blood test already improved to a 10 ferritin and my hemoglobin was normal at 13.2 up from 13.1 the month before. (dailystrength.org)
  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum ferritin, and hemoglobin were measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mean hemoglobin and serum ferritin increased across groups with increasing FPG. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In women, after adjusting for known risk factors, the odds ratio (OR) of diabetes was 2.15 (95% CI 1.03-4.51) for subjects in the upper quartile of hemoglobin compared with the rest, and the corresponding OR for the upper quartile of serum ferritin was 3.79 (1.72-8.36). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore set out to examine the association between hemoglobin, serum ferritin level, iron intake, and diabetes in a cross-sectional study in the Jiangsu Province of China. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2017. "Use of Ferritin-Based Metal-Encapsulated Nanocarriers as Anticancer Agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Ferritin that is not combined with iron is called apoferritin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspirin-induced cytoprotection from hydrogen peroxide toxicity was mimicked by exogenous iron-free apoferritin but not iron-loaded ferritin, demonstrating the antioxidant function of newly synthesized ferritin under these conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 Environmental exposures including diet, alcohol and medications, particularly iron administered orally or intravenously, can also elevate ferritin and increase the risk of pathological iron accumulation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans , we show that iron overload induces the expression of sgk-1 , encoding the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, to promote the level of ferritin and fat accumulation. (genetics.org)
  • We observed that overexpression of either ferritin H or ferritin L reduced the accumulation of ROS in response to oxidant challenge. (biochemj.org)
  • However, the effect of ferritin accumulation on cellular iron bioavailability remains poorly understood. (rsc.org)
  • In vivo expression of GFP-tagged holoferritin confirmed that iron-loaded ferritin molecules traffic through the Golgi organelle and are secreted into hemolymph. (genetics.org)
  • This entry represents the ferritin-like superfamily. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Abcam's Ferritin competitive Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of Ferritin in serum and plasma. (abcam.com)
  • What is Ferritin assay used for? (randox.com)
  • Comparison of dose-response curves in an immunoradiometric assay indicated some tissue-specific antigenicity for placental ferritin. (biochemj.org)
  • As raised by Dr. Chen, ferritin measurements may vary between laboratories and average concentrations differ between men and women. (cmaj.ca)
  • The method for measurement of Ferritin on the Roche Elecsys-170 is a sandwich principle with a total duration time of 18 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • The ferritin measurement in ng/mL was converted to µg/L by multiplying by 1.0. (cdc.gov)
  • The method principle for measurement of Ferritin is immuno-turbidimetry using the Roche/Hitachi 912 clinical analyzer. (cdc.gov)
  • For patients undergoing regular transfusion we recommend routine serum ferritin measurement and yearly measurement of LIC. (hindawi.com)
  • This could allow measurement of ferritin immediately in the clinic with only a drop of blood, and enable treatment decisions based on these results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The lower the ferritin level, even within the "normal" range, the more likely it is that the person does not have enough iron. (medlineplus.gov)
  • His general practitioner noted that his full blood count and renal function were normal, and requested hepatitis B and C serology (which were negative) and serum ferritin level, which was 567 µg/L (normal range 24-300 µg/L). (bmj.com)
  • and a low level of ferritin usually indicates a low level of stored iron. (reference.com)
  • If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates you have iron deficiency. (webwire.com)
  • Research shows that some types of cancer may cause your blood ferritin level to be high. (webwire.com)
  • B]I have a ferritin level of 5. (healthboards.com)
  • B] I know that ferritin is the level of iron stored in your body. (healthboards.com)
  • I have been under treatment for several years for IDA and now just iron deficiency, ferritin keeps dropping, last level 21 and month before was 72. (healthboards.com)
  • Could this be caused by low ferritin level? (medhelp.org)
  • To increase the ferritin level in your body, choose iron-rich foods and supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • Affected patients have elevated level of circulating ferritin. (abcam.com)
  • firstly, the doctor may have simply tested the iron and not the ferritin, and secondly, even if the ferritin is within the 'normal' range, the level may still not be adequate for optimum hair growth. (philipkingsley.com)
  • A person can have a low ferritin level without being anaemic. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Once the ferritin level has been ascertained by means of a blood test, the trichologist will be able to recommend the best level of supplementation for that individual, based on their personal history. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Whilst it is helpful to include iron rich foods in the diet, such as red meat, dark green vegetables and dried apricots, if a person has a known deficiency, supplementation will be necessary in order to take in enough iron to raise the ferritin level. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Thus, investigating the iron uptake and release by ferritin is a crucial step to understanding the underlying reasons of these diseases at the molecular level. (suny.edu)
  • Does anyone has experience with elevated ferritin level? (cancer.org)
  • In general, a healthy ferritin level is greater than 20 ng/mL. (lifeextension.com)
  • As a male, is s 464 Ferritin level considered a little high or very high? (zocdoc.com)
  • I've recently gotten a blood test and my ferritin level was 464. (zocdoc.com)
  • Your ferritin level of 464 is moderately elevated above the upper limit of normal and you should talk to your family physician regarding the need for further evaluation. (zocdoc.com)
  • Since ferritin is correlated to the body's iron stores, an elevated level can signal states of excess iron. (zocdoc.com)
  • You and your family physician can have a discussion regarding the elevated ferritin level in the context of your past and current medical problems. (zocdoc.com)
  • By means of a new technique (Particle Counting Immunoassay), we have determined the level of ferritin in 470 samples of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various neurological disorders. (bmj.com)
  • The FMI's study presents a comprehensive analysis of global, regional, and country-level players active in the Ferritin Testing market.Competitive information detailed in the Ferritin Testing market report has been based on innovative product launches, distribution channels, local networks, industrial penetration, production methods, and revenue generation of each market player. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In E. coli, a 20% similarity to human H-ferritin is observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 10 Our aim, therefore, was to investigate whether ferritin is a potential site of action for aspirin and to characterize the effect of aspirin on the expression of ferritin in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Get results in 90 minutes with Human Ferritin ELISA Kit (FLT) ( ab200018 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)
  • Your search returned 121 Ferritin light chain ELISA ELISA Kit across 18 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Men with high serum ferritin , not less than 200ug/compared with lower serum ferritin . (tripdatabase.com)
  • In this new method, ferritin containing metal molecules is applied to a substrate and allowed to self-assemble into a high-density, ordered arrangement. (pinktentacle.com)
  • In recent years, scientists have discovered GGT is highly interactive with iron, and when both your serum ferritin and GGT are high, you are at significantly increased risk of chronic health problems, because then you have a combination of free iron, which is highly toxic, and iron storage to keep that toxicity going. (mercola.com)
  • Here, we show that natural H-ferritin (HFn) nanocages can carry high doses of doxorubicin (Dox) for tumor-specific targeting and killing without any targeting ligand functionalization or property modulation. (pnas.org)
  • I am still having high ferritin which is over 1300, and the GP doesn't seem to be too concern about it. (cancer.org)
  • Does anyone have high ferritin here? (cancer.org)
  • High values of ferritin were found in infectious meningo-encephalitis, in vascular diseases of the central nervous system, and, unexpectedly, in several cases of dementia without obvious vascular pathology. (bmj.com)
  • Normal serum blood ferritin is 24-336 ng/L for men and 11-307 ng/L for women (standard units). (brighthub.com)
  • If a patient has a ferritin more than 1000 ng/ml, they are considered overloaded with iron. (reference.com)
  • Referral to a gastroenterologist, haematologist or physician with an interest in iron overload is appropriate if serum ferritin is >1000 µg/L or if the cause of elevated serum ferritin is still unclear. (racgp.org.au)
  • Ferritin overexpression impaired the survival of iron-deprived flies. (genetics.org)
  • Our results indicate that ferritin may be involved in the homeostasis of other divalent metals, besides iron, and that overexpression of ferritin, sometimes employed to rescue neurodegenerative models of disease, serves to limit divalent metal bio-availability in cells. (rsc.org)
  • In the present study, we found that LMP by lysosomotropic detergent MSDH resulted in early up-regulation of lysosomal cathepsins, oxidative stress and ferritin up-regulation, and cell death. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomotropic base NH(4)Cl reduced the ferritin induction and oxidative stress in apoptotic cells induced by MSDH. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cysteine cathepsin inhibitors significantly protected cell death and oxidative stress, but had less effect on ferritin induction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ferritin also provides a site for the detoxification of excess iron which enters an organism or cell when the normal barriers to controlled iron uptake are breached. (springer.com)
  • If your ferritin results are not normal, it does not necessarily mean you have a medical condition needing treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic , normal ferritin rates are 20 to 200 nanograms per milliliter for women and 20 to 500 for men. (healthline.com)
  • It's also possible to have low ferritin but normal iron readings. (healthline.com)
  • Inside the ferritin shell, iron ions form crystallites together with phosphate and hydroxide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each ferritin complex can store about 4500 iron (Fe3+) ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a giant globe that sequesters 4,500 iron ions in safe form, thus preventing acute kidney injury," said Zarjou, who is part of the American Board of Internal Medicine Research Pathway at UAB. (uab.edu)
  • Moreover, putative in vivo interactions of ferritin with other metal ions have been proposed, but their physiological relevance remains unclear. (rsc.org)