The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
Veins which drain the liver.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.

Aetiologies and prognosis of Chinese patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. (1/725)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities is not frequently encountered in Oriental patients. We investigated its aetiology and prognosis in 143 patients (65 males, 78 females), presenting to the National Taiwan University Hospital over 4.3 years, diagnosed by colour Doppler ultrasonography. Swelling and pain of the lower extremities were the most frequent presenting symptoms. The left femoropopliteal veins were more frequently involved than other parts of the lower extremities. In these patients, malignancy with or without intravenous catheterization was the most frequent cause (39 patients, 27%). Other common aetiologies included coagulopathy (29 patients, 20%), immobilization (24 patients, 17%) and catheter-related (13 patients, 9%). No definite aetiology could be determined in 37 patients (26%). During follow-up, 27 patients (19%) died, mostly with malignancy. Pulmonary embolism was noted in 16 patients and was not significantly directly related to death. Compared to similar studies in Caucasian patients, there were significant differences in the aetiology of DVT, with malignancy and coagulopathy more common in these Chinese patients.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (2/725)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

Signal-enhanced color Doppler sonography of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and pelvis. (3/725)

Detection of Doppler signal tends to be more difficult in peripheral veins owing to low flow velocity. This can be caused by nonoccluding thrombosis, post-thrombotic wall changes, or a deep anatomic location of pelvic veins. The last-mentioned frequently is accompanied by interference by bowel gas. In addition, inappropriate insonation angles adversely affect the outcome of color-coded Doppler interrogation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of signal-enhanced color Doppler sonography on peripheral veins in 31 patients clinically suspected of having deep vein thrombosis. As a result of diagnostic uncertainty, additional enhanced studies were performed on 43 venous segments. The enhancement led to a decrease in false-positive results (from four patients to one patient) and false-negative results (from four patients to two patients) compared to unenhanced studies. Evaluation of the deeply located pelvic veins profited the most through signal enhanced Doppler sonography.  (+info)

Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection. (4/725)

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression improves venous hemodynamics in healthy volunteers and patients who are post-thrombotic. (5/725)

PURPOSE: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are hospitalized. An important part of the mechanism of DVT prophylaxis with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is reduced venous stasis with increased velocity of venous return. The conventional methods of IPC use low pressure and slow inflation of the air bladder on the leg to augment venous return. Recently, compression devices have been designed that produce high pressure and rapid inflation of air cuffs on the plantar plexus of the foot and the calf. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the venous velocity response to high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression devices versus standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation compression devices in healthy volunteers and patients with severe post-thrombotic venous disease. METHOD: Twenty-two lower extremities from healthy volunteers and 11 lower extremities from patients with class 4 to class 6 post-thrombotic chronic venous insufficiency were studied. With duplex ultrasound scanning (ATL-Ultramark 9, Advanced Tech Laboratory, Bothell, Wash), acute DVT was excluded before subject evaluation. Venous velocities were monitored after the application of each of five IPC devices, with all the patients in the supine position. Three high-pressure, rapid-compression devices and two standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation compression devices were applied in a random sequence. Maximal venous velocities were obtained at the common femoral vein and the popliteal vein for all the devices and were recorded as the mean peak velocity of three compression cycles and compared with baseline velocities. RESULTS: The baseline venous velocities were higher in the femoral veins than in the popliteal veins in both the volunteers and the post-thrombotic subjects. Standard and high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression significantly increased the popliteal and femoral vein velocities in healthy and post-thrombotic subjects. High-pressure, rapid-inflation compression produced significantly higher maximal venous velocities in the popliteal and femoral veins in both healthy volunteers and patients who were post-thrombotic as compared with standard compression. Compared with the healthy volunteers, the patients who were post-thrombotic had a significantly attenuated velocity response at both the popliteal and the femoral vein levels. CONCLUSION: High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression increases popliteal and femoral vein velocity as compared with standard, low-pressure, slow-inflation pneumatic compression. Patients with post-thrombotic venous disease have a compromised hemodynamic response to all IPC devices. However, an increased velocity response to the high-pressure, rapid-inflation compression device is preserved. High-pressure, rapid-inflation pneumatic compression may offer additional protection from thrombotic complications on the basis of an improved hemodynamic response, both in healthy volunteers and in patients who were post-thrombotic.  (+info)

Regional glycerol and free fatty acid metabolism before and after meal ingestion. (6/725)

We measured splanchnic and leg glycerol [and free fatty acid (FFA)] uptake and release in 11 healthy volunteers before and after meal ingestion to assess whether regional FFA-to-glycerol release ratios mirror systemic release ratios. Basal splanchnic triglyceride release was also assessed. Although basal splanchnic glycerol uptake (111 +/- 18 micromol/min) accounted for most of systemic glycerol rate of appearance (156 +/- 20 micromol/min), leg glycerol uptake was also noted. The basal, systemic FFA-to-glycerol release ratio was less (2.6 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) than the splanchnic ratio of 6.1 +/- 1.3, and the leg FFA-to-glycerol release ratio under fed conditions was less than the systemic ratio (0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively, P < 0.05). Basal splanchnic triglyceride production rates were 74 +/- 20 micromol/min, which could produce equimolar amounts of glycerol in the peripheral circulation via lipoprotein lipase action. In summary, 1) regional FFA-to-glycerol release ratios do not mirror systemic ratios, 2) leg glycerol uptake occurs in humans, and 3) splanchnic triglyceride production rates are substantial relative to systemic glycerol appearance. Glycerol appearance rates may not be a quantitative index of whole body lipolysis.  (+info)

Splanchnic and leg substrate exchange after ingestion of a natural mixed meal in humans. (7/725)

The disposal of a mixed meal was examined in 11 male subjects by multiple (splanchnic and femoral) catheterization combined with double-isotope technique (intravenous [2-3H]glucose plus oral U-[14C]starch). Glucose kinetics and organ substrate balance were measured basally and for 5 h after eating pizza (600 kcal) containing carbohydrates 75 g as starch, proteins 37 g, and lipids 17 g. The portal appearance of ingested carbohydrate was maximal (1.0 mmol/min) between 30 and 60 min after the meal and gradually declined thereafter, but was still incomplete at 300 min (0.46+/-0.08 mmol/min). The total amount of glucose absorbed by the gut over the 5 h of the study was 247+/-26 mmol (45+/-6 g), corresponding to 60+/-6% of the ingested starch. Net splanchnic glucose balance (-6.7+/-0.5 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), basal) rose by 250-300% between 30 and 60 min and then returned to baseline. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was suppressed slightly and only tardily in response to meal ingestion (approximately 30% between 120 and 300 min). Splanchnic glucose uptake (3.7+/-0.6 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), basal) peaked to 9.8+/-2.0 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P<0.001) at 120 min and then returned slowly to baseline. Leg glucose uptake (34+/-5 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1), basal) rose to 151+/-29 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1) at 30 min (P<0.001) and remained above baseline until the end of the study, despite no increase in leg blood flow. The total amount of glucose taken up by the splanchnic area and total muscle mass was 161+/-16 mmol (29+/-3 g) and 128 mmol (23 g), respectively, which represent 39 and 30% of the ingested starch. Arterial blood lactate increased by 30% after meal ingestion. Net splanchnic lactate balance switched from a basal net uptake (3.2+/-0.6 micromol kg(-1) x min(-1) to a net output between 60 and 120 min and tended to zero thereafter. Leg lactate release (25+/-11 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1), basal) drastically decreased postprandially. Arterial concentration of both branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and non-branched-chain amino acids (N-BCAA) increased significantly after meal ingestion (P<0.001). The splanchnic area switched from a basal net amino acid uptake (31+/-16 and 92+/-48 micromol/min for BCAA and N-BCAA, respectively) to a net amino acid release postprandially. The net splanchnic amino acid release over 5 h was 11.3+/-4.2 mmol for BCAA and 37.8+/-9.7 mmol for N-BCAA. Basally, the net leg balance of BCAA was neutral (-3+/-5 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)), whereas that of N-BCAA indicated a net release (54+/-14 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)). After meal ingestion, there was a net leg uptake of BCAA (20+/-6 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)), whereas leg release of N-BCAA decreased by 50%. It is concluded that in human subjects, 1) the absorption of a natural mixed meal is still incomplete at 5 h after ingestion; 2) HGP is only marginally and tardily inhibited; 3) splanchnic and peripheral tissues contribute to the disposal of meal carbohydrate to approximately the same extent; 4) the splanchnic area transfers >30% of the ingested proteins to the systemic circulation; and 5) after meal ingestion, skeletal muscle takes up BCAA to replenish muscle protein stores.  (+info)

Elevated plasma levels of adrenomedullin in congenital cyanotic heart disease. (8/725)

Adrenomedullin is a novel hypotensive peptide originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma. Accumulating evidence suggests the possible involvement of adrenomedullin in the physiology of the pulmonary circulation and the pathophysiology of hypoxaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological significance of adrenomedullin in hypoxaemia caused by congenital cyanotic heart disease. Subjects were 16 patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease aged 0.8-10 years (Group C) and 12 age-matched control subjects (patients with coronary artery dilatation after Kawasaki disease; Group N). Plasma adrenomedullin concentrations were measured, using radioimmunoassay, in femoral venous, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous blood obtained during cardiac catheterization. Plasma adrenomedullin concentrations in Group C were significantly (3-fold) higher than those in Group N at all sampling sites. In Group C, plasma adrenomedullin concentrations in pulmonary venous blood were significantly lower than those in pulmonary arterial blood. Pulmonary uptake of adrenomedullin in Group C was significantly greater than that in Group N. Patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease showed elevated plasma adrenomedullin concentrations and an increased uptake of adrenomedullin in the pulmonary circulation, which may act to dilate pulmonary vessels and increase pulmonary blood flow to alleviate hypoxaemia. Intrinsically increased adrenomedullin levels may function as a compensatory mechanism for hypoxaemia in congenital cyanotic heart disease.  (+info)

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Varicose veins are defined as enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins often appearing blue or dark purple, which usually occur in the legs. They are caused by weakened valves and vein walls that can't effectively push blood back toward the heart. This results in a buildup of blood, causing the veins to bulge and become varicose.

The condition is generally harmless but may cause symptoms like aching, burning, muscle cramp, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious problems, such as skin ulcers, blood clots, or chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and medical procedures like sclerotherapy, laser surgery, or endovenous ablation.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Venous insufficiency is a medical condition that occurs when the veins, particularly in the legs, have difficulty returning blood back to the heart due to impaired valve function or obstruction in the vein. This results in blood pooling in the veins, leading to symptoms such as varicose veins, swelling, skin changes, and ulcers. Prolonged venous insufficiency can cause chronic pain and affect the quality of life if left untreated.

Venous valves are one-way flaps made of thin, flexible tissue that lie inside your veins. They allow blood to flow towards the heart but prevent it from flowing backward. These valves are especially important in the veins of the legs, where they help to counteract the force of gravity and ensure that blood flows back up to the heart. When venous valves become damaged or weakened, blood can pool in the veins, leading to conditions such as varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

The mesenteric veins are a set of blood vessels that are responsible for draining deoxygenated blood from the small and large intestines. There are two main mesenteric veins: the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior mesenteric vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains blood from the majority of the small intestine, as well as the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon. The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. These veins ultimately drain into the portal vein, which carries the blood to the liver for further processing.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and clotting of blood in a vein, usually in the legs. The term thrombophlebitis comes from two words: "thrombo" which means blood clot, and "phlebitis" which refers to inflammation of the vein.

The condition can occur in superficial or deep veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis affects the veins just below the skin's surface, while deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) occurs in the deeper veins. DVT is a more serious condition as it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism if the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.

Symptoms of thrombophlebitis may include redness, warmth, pain, swelling, or discomfort in the affected area. In some cases, there may be visible surface veins that are hard, tender, or ropy to touch. If left untreated, thrombophlebitis can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and other long-term complications. Treatment typically involves medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, or thrombolytics, along with compression stockings and other supportive measures.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

The subclavian vein is a large venous structure that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb and part of the thorax back to the heart. It forms when the axillary vein passes through the narrow space between the first rib and the clavicle (collarbone), becoming the subclavian vein.

On the left side, the subclavian vein joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein, while on the right side, the subclavian vein directly merges with the internal jugular vein to create the brachiocephalic vein. These brachiocephalic veins then unite to form the superior vena cava, which drains blood into the right atrium of the heart.

The subclavian vein is an essential structure for venous access in various medical procedures and interventions, such as placing central venous catheters or performing blood tests.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Venous pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of a vein, which varies depending on several factors such as the volume and flow of blood within the vein, the contractile state of the surrounding muscles, and the position of the body. In clinical settings, venous pressure is often measured in the extremities (e.g., arms or legs) to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

Central venous pressure (CVP) is a specific type of venous pressure that refers to the pressure within the large veins that enter the right atrium of the heart. CVP is an important indicator of right heart function and fluid status, as it reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump it forward. Normal CVP ranges from 0 to 8 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) in adults.

Elevated venous pressure can be caused by various conditions such as heart failure, obstruction of blood flow, or fluid overload, while low venous pressure may indicate dehydration or blood loss. Accurate measurement and interpretation of venous pressure require specialized equipment and knowledge, and are typically performed by healthcare professionals in a clinical setting.

The umbilical veins are blood vessels in the umbilical cord that carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus during pregnancy. There are typically two umbilical veins, one of which usually degenerates and becomes obliterated, leaving a single functional vein. This remaining vein is known as the larger umbilical vein or the venous duct. It enters the fetal abdomen through the umbilicus and passes through the liver, where it branches off to form the portal sinus. Ultimately, the blood from the umbilical vein mixes with the blood from the inferior vena cava and is pumped to the heart through the right atrium.

It's important to note that after birth, the umbilical veins are no longer needed and undergo involution, becoming the ligamentum teres in the adult.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

A varicose ulcer is a type of chronic wound that typically occurs on the lower leg, often as a result of poor circulation and venous insufficiency. These ulcers form when there is increased pressure in the veins, leading to damage and leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissues. Over time, this can cause the skin to break down and form an open sore or ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are often associated with varicose veins, which are swollen and twisted veins that are visible just beneath the surface of the skin. These veins have weakened walls and valves, which can lead to the pooling of blood and fluid in the lower legs. This increased pressure can cause damage to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of an ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are typically slow to heal and may require extensive treatment, including compression therapy, wound care, and sometimes surgery. Risk factors for developing varicose ulcers include obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and a history of deep vein thrombosis or other circulatory problems.

Vena cava filters are medical devices that are implanted into the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood from the lower half of the body to the heart. These filters are designed to trap blood clots that form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) and prevent them from traveling to the lungs (pulmonary embolism or PE), which can be a life-threatening condition.

The filter is typically implanted using a catheter-based procedure, and it has legs or arms that extend out to trap the blood clots as they flow through the vein. Over time, the trapped clots may dissolve on their own or become organized and incorporated into the wall of the vein.

Vena cava filters are typically used in patients who are at high risk for PE but cannot take anticoagulation medication or have failed anticoagulation therapy. However, there is some controversy surrounding the use of these devices due to concerns about their long-term safety and effectiveness.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Vascular neoplasms are a type of tumor that develops from cells that line the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign vascular neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are usually harmless and may not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications. Malignant vascular neoplasms, on the other hand, are known as angiosarcomas and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body and potentially causing serious health problems.

Angiosarcomas can develop in any part of the body but are most commonly found in the skin, particularly in areas exposed to radiation or chronic lymph edema. They can also occur in the breast, liver, spleen, and heart. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Phlebotomy is a medical term that refers to the process of making an incision in a vein, usually in the arm, in order to draw blood. It is also commonly known as venipuncture. This procedure is performed by healthcare professionals for various purposes such as diagnostic testing, blood donation, or therapeutic treatments like phlebotomy for patients with hemochromatosis (a condition where the body absorbs too much iron from food).

The person who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist. They must be trained in the proper techniques to ensure that the process is safe and relatively pain-free for the patient, and that the blood sample is suitable for laboratory testing.

The splenic vein is a large, thin-walled vein that carries oxygenated blood from the spleen and pancreas to the liver. It is formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain the upper part of the stomach, the pancreas, and the left side of the colon (splenic flexure). The splenic vein runs along the top border of the pancreas and merges with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein. This venous system allows for the filtration and detoxification of blood by the liver before it is distributed to the rest of the body.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

A bandage is a medical dressing or covering applied to a wound, injury, or sore with the intention of promoting healing or preventing infection. Bandages can be made of a variety of materials such as gauze, cotton, elastic, or adhesive tape and come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate various body parts. They can also have additional features like fasteners, non-slip surfaces, or transparent windows for monitoring the condition of the wound.

Bandages serve several purposes, including:

1. Absorbing drainage or exudate from the wound
2. Protecting the wound from external contaminants and bacteria
3. Securing other medical devices such as catheters or splints in place
4. Reducing swelling or promoting immobilization of the affected area
5. Providing compression to control bleeding or prevent fluid accumulation
6. Relieving pain by reducing pressure on sensitive nerves or structures.

Proper application and care of bandages are essential for effective wound healing and prevention of complications such as infection or delayed recovery.

Central venous pressure (CVP) is the blood pressure measured in the large veins that enter the right atrium of the heart. It reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump it effectively. CVP is used as an indicator of a person's intravascular volume status, cardiac function, and overall hemodynamic performance. The measurement is taken using a central venous catheter placed in a large vein such as the internal jugular or subclavian vein. Normal CVP values range from 0 to 8 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) in adults when measured at the level of the right atrium.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS), also known as postphlebitic syndrome, is a chronic complication that can occur after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It's characterized by a combination of symptoms including pain, swelling, cramping, itching, and skin changes in the affected limb. PTS happens when the damaged valves in the veins are unable to properly move blood back to the heart, leading to venous hypertension and fluid accumulation in the lower extremities.

The symptoms of PTS can vary in severity, but they often worsen with prolonged standing or sitting. In some cases, patients may develop open sores (ulcers) on the skin, particularly around the ankles. The risk of developing PTS is higher in individuals who have experienced a recurrent DVT, those with more extensive clotting, and those who do not receive appropriate anticoagulation therapy after their initial DVT diagnosis.

Preventive measures such as early mobilization, use of compression stockings, and maintaining adequate anticoagulation can help reduce the risk of developing PTS following a DVT.

A Retinal Vein is a vessel that carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the retina, a light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. The retinal veins originate from a network of smaller vessels called venules and ultimately merge to form the central retinal vein, which exits the eye through the optic nerve.

Retinal veins are crucial for maintaining the health and function of the retina, as they facilitate the removal of waste products and help regulate the ocular environment. However, they can also be susceptible to various pathological conditions such as retinal vein occlusions, which can lead to vision loss or damage to the eye.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

The azygos vein is a large, unpaired venous structure in the thoracic cavity of the human body. It begins as the ascending lumbar vein, which receives blood from the lower extremities and abdominal organs. As it enters the thorax through the diaphragm, it becomes the azygos vein and continues to ascend along the vertebral column.

The azygos vein receives blood from various tributaries, including the intercostal veins, esophageal veins, mediastinal veins, and bronchial veins. It then arches over the right mainstem bronchus and empties into the superior vena cava, which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

The azygos vein provides an important collateral pathway for venous return in cases where the inferior vena cava is obstructed or occluded. It also plays a role in the spread of certain thoracic diseases, such as tuberculosis and cancer.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

"Gravity suits" is not a recognized medical term. However, in the context of space medicine and space travel, gravity suits, also known as g-suits or anti-G suits, are specialized garments worn by pilots and astronauts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of high gravitational forces (G-forces) on their bodies during high-speed maneuvers or while re-entering the Earth's atmosphere.

These suits work by applying pressure to specific areas of the body, typically around the lower abdomen and legs, to prevent the pooling of blood in those areas due to the increased G-forces. This helps maintain adequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs, reducing the risk of loss of consciousness (G-induced Loss of Consciousness or G-LOC) and other symptoms associated with high G-forces such as blackouts, vision impairment, and disorientation.

It's important to note that gravity suits are not used as a medical treatment for any specific condition but rather as a protective measure during space travel and high-performance aviation.

"Saccharum" is not a medical term, but a genus name in botany. It refers to the sugarcane plant (*Saccharum officinarum*), which is a tall perennial grass native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant contains high amounts of sucrose and has been used as a sweetener for thousands of years.

In a medical context, "saccharum" might be encountered in the form of sugar-based ingredients, such as dextrose (glucose) or sucrose, which are derived from sugarcane or other sugar-rich plants. These substances can be used in various medical applications, including intravenous fluids and nutritional supplements.

The axillary vein is a large vein that runs through the axilla or armpit region. It is formed by the union of the brachial vein and the basilic vein at the lower border of the teres major muscle. The axillary vein carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb, chest wall, and breast towards the heart. As it moves proximally, it becomes continuous with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. It is accompanied by the axillary artery and forms part of the important neurovascular bundle in the axilla.

The great saphenous vein (a superficial vein), and the deep femoral vein drain into the femoral vein in the femoral triangle ... The common femoral vein is the segment of the femoral vein between the branching point of the deep femoral vein and the ... In the human body, the femoral vein is the vein that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath. It is a deep vein ... Its major tributaries are the deep femoral vein, and the great saphenous vein. The femoral vein contains valves. The femoral ...
The deep femoral vein, deep vein of the thigh or profunda femoris vein, is a large deep vein in the thigh. It collects blood ... passing superiorly and medially alongside the deep femoral artery before emptying into the femoral vein. The deep femoral vein ... The deep femoral vein drains the inner thigh. It contributes the largest volume of blood entering the femoral vein. The deep ... femoral vein is commonly affected by phlebitis which can be a dangerous condition in the case of a thrombus, or blood clot, ...
Femoral vein; Femoral artery; and Femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve "lacuna vasorum retroinguinalis". TheFreeDictionary ... It gives passage to the femoral vessels, lymph vessels and lymph nodes. The lacunar ligament can be a site of entrapment for ... femoral hernias. Its boundaries are the iliopectineal arch, the inguinal ligament, the lacunar ligament, and the superior ...
... at least for the femoral vein that courses next to the femoral artery. In particular, the adjacent femoral vein is clinically a ... The femoral vein intervenes between the artery and the adductor longus. Medially: It is related to the femoral vein in the ... in the femoral sheath.[citation needed] In 65% of people, the common femoral artery lies anterior to the femoral vein in the ... The femoral artery proximal to the origin of the deep femoral artery is referred to as the common femoral artery, whereas the ...
... avoidance of the femoral vein; use of chlorhexidine soap; use of sterile PPE and barrier drapes; and daily inspection for ...
The great saphenous vein and its tributaries at the fossa ovalis. The great saphenous vein and its tributaries. The femoral ... the smallest of the cutaneous branches of the femoral artery, arises close to the superficial epigastric artery, and, piercing ... the superior gluteal and lateral femoral circumflex arteries. In 45% to 50% of persons the superficial circumflex iliac artery ... vein and its tributaries. Anterior abdominal wall.Superficial dissection.Anterior view. This article incorporates text in the ...
The great saphenous vein and its tributaries. The femoral vein and its tributaries. Superficial veins oflower limbSuperficial ... The superficial epigastric vein is a vein which travels with the superficial epigastric artery. It joins the accessory ... Veins of the lower limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... saphenous vein near the fossa ovalis. The subcutaneous inguinal ring. ...
The femoral vein and its tributaries. Schema of the arteries arising from the external iliac and femoral arteries. Anterior ... After piercing the femoral sheath and fascia cribrosa, it courses medialward, across the spermatic cord (or round ligament in ... It arises from the medial side of the femoral artery, close to the superficial epigastric artery and superficial iliac ... Deep external pudendal artery Internal pudendal artery The great saphenous vein and its tributaries at the fossa ovalis. ...
... medial to it lies the femoral vein. Thus the femoral vein, once located, allows for femoral venipuncture.[citation needed]. ... Femoral vein and its tributaries - The vein lies medial to the femoral artery at the base of the triangle but as it approaches ... It receives drainage from great saphenous vein, circumflex veins, and veins corresponding to the branches of the femoral artery ... medial to the upper part of the femoral vein, inside the femoral canal (medial compartment of the femoral sheath). Cloquet's ...
The lateral compartment contains the femoral artery. The femoral sheath allows for the femoral artery and the femoral vein to ... Topographically, the femoral sheath is contained within the femoral triangle. The femoral sheath is funnel-shaped fascial ... is a funnel-shaped downward extension of abdominal fascia within which the femoral artery and femoral vein pass between the ... whereas the intermediate canal and the lateral canal accommodate the femoral vein and the femoral artery (respectively). Some ...
... namely the femoral artery and femoral vein. Those vessels become the popliteal vessels (popliteal artery and popliteal vein) ... Schema of the arteries arising from the external iliac and femoral arteries. Adductor hiatus is seen as hole in the adductor ... between the adductor magnus muscle and the femur that allows the passage of the femoral vessels from the anterior thigh to the ... will most likely cause damage to the femoral artery and may cause impairment of the blood supply to the lower leg. Popliteal ...
Deep vein thrombosis can be characterized as a medical event whereby a blood clot forms in a deep vein, usually the femoral ... Another potential problem with cooling catheters is the potential to block access to the femoral vein, which is a site normally ... Cooling catheters are inserted into a femoral vein. Cooled saline solution is circulated through either a metal coated tube or ... Adverse events associated with this invasive technique include bleeding, infection, vascular puncture, and deep vein thrombosis ...
The deep veins of the lower limb include the common femoral vein, femoral vein, and the deep femoral vein; the popliteal vein, ... the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein, the smallest cardiac veins, and the anterior cardiac veins. Cardiac veins ... Small, medium, and large veins The small veins merge to feed as tributaries into medium-sized veins. The medium veins feed into ... The inflow tract is formed of six paired veins, the vitelline veins, umbilical veins, and the cardinal veins. In the systemic ...
Donaldson MC, Mannick JA, Whittemore AD., "Femoral-distal bypass with in situ greater saphenous vein. Long-term results using ... Since the leg veins usually contain a number of valves that direct flow towards the heart, they cannot directly be used as ... The blade is designed to prevent exposure of the vein intima to the sharp cutting surface to avoid damage to the vessel wall. ... The valvulotome is inserted at the distal end of the vein, guided to the proximal end, then withdrawn. It is during withdrawal ...
... is an indication of femoral deep vein thrombosis. It is seen as the presence of dilated pretibial veins in the ... This is not the same as the Pratt Test, which checks for a DVT by compressing a vein with the hands.[citation needed] PRATT GH ... June 1949). "An early sign of femoral thrombosis". J Am Med Assoc. 140 (5): 476. PMID 18129854. PRATT GH (May 1950). " ...
The femoral vein may also be cannulated in select patients. If the heart must be stopped for the operation, cardioplegia ... The surgeon places a cannula in the right atrium, vena cava, or femoral vein to withdraw blood from the body. Venous blood is ... Other sites for arterial cannulation include the axillary artery, brachiocephalic artery, or femoral artery. Aside from the ... through the heart's veins), or both types may be used depending on the operation and surgeon preference. For antegrade ...
An ultrasound with a blood clot visible in the left common femoral vein. (The common femoral vein is distal to the external ... DVT most frequently affects veins in the leg or pelvis including the popliteal vein (behind the knee), femoral vein (of the ... or common femoral vein; elsewhere, it has been defined as involving at a minimum the common iliac vein, which is near the top ... cause vein fibrosis, and result in non-compliant veins. Organization of a thrombus into the vein can occur at the third stage ...
"Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for subclavian or femoral vein catheterization". Cochrane Database of ...
Bernadine gives the medical officer permission to use the femoral vein. The execution goes awry and Victor writhes on the table ... The attending medical officer fails to find an adequate arm vein and begins to panic. ...
The medial compartment contains vasculature including the femoral artery and vein. The lateral compartment allows for passage ... of the iliopsoas (primary hip flexor), allowing attachment to the femur, along with the femoral nerve. Inguinal Hernia from the ...
They lie medial to the femoral vein deep to the cribriform fascia. The mean size of an inguinal lymph node, as measured over ... They lie deep to the fascia of Camper that overlies the femoral vessels at the medial aspect of the thigh. They are bounded ... They are situated in the femoral triangle of the inguinal region. They are subdivided into two groups: the superficial inguinal ... A view of the different inguinal lymph nodes Murine inguinal lymph node beneath the bifurcation of superior epigastric vein. ...
The paramedic tried two veins in the left foot but failed. Zellmer then inserted the needle into the femoral vein in the groin ... The report also challenged the official claim that Lockett's veins failed, saying that his veins were perfectly healthy. Ángel ... the execution team made several attempts to insert IVs into Lockett's arms and groin before inserting an IV in his femoral vein ... She then tried to insert the needle into his brachial vein in his biceps but also failed. She asked for help from a doctor in ...
laterally by the fibrous septum on the medial side of the femoral vein. Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for arteries ... Part of the intestine can sometimes pass through the femoral ring into the femoral canal causing a femoral hernia. The femoral ... The femoral ring is the opening at the proximal, abdominal end of the femoral canal, and represents the (superiorly directed/ ... Femoral canal Femoral hernia Inguinal canal Moore, Keith L. (2018). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. A. M. R. Agur, Arthur F., II ...
Béclard's hernia: A femoral hernia through the opening of the saphenous vein. Béclard's triangle: An area whose boundaries are ...
Commonly, this includes the radial artery, internal jugular vein, and femoral artery/vein. Each blood vessel has its advantages ... The heart is most often accessed via the internal jugular or femoral vein; arteries are not used. Values are commonly obtained ... A thin, flexible wire is inserted into either the femoral artery or the radial artery and threaded toward the heart until it is ... Radial access is not associated with an increased risk of stroke over femoral access. At this point, a catheter is guided over ...
Femoral vein - In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath ... External iliac vein - The external iliac veins are large veins that connect the femoral veins to the common iliac veins. Their ... Cephalic vein - is a superficial vein in the arm. It communicates with the basilic vein via the median cubital vein at the ... Common iliac vein - The common iliac veins are formed by the external iliac veins and internal iliac veins. The left and right ...
The great saphenous vein is exposed and the common femoral and subsartorial veins are identified before dividing. The vein is ... It is the juxtafemoral flush ligation of the great saphenous vein to the femoral vein. An oblique incision is made in the groin ... ligated close to the junction with of the femoral vein. If the ligation is distal from the saphenofemoral junction, it will ... Varicose Veins and their Treatment by Trendelenburg's Operation". Annals of Surgery. 27 (5): 626-639. ISSN 0003-4932. PMC ...
ICE is often inserted through the femoral vein and into the right atrium. From the right atrium, visualization of the ...
he withdrew 5 ounces of blood from a femoral vein in a dog. It was then heated into a dry powder, and tested with a magnet to ...
... is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It most commonly affects leg veins, such as the femoral vein. Three ... is the obstruction of an arm vein (such as the axillary vein or subclavian vein) by a thrombus. The condition usually comes to ... Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by a thrombus. This tends to lead to reduced drainage from the ... The facial veins in this area anastomose with the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins of the orbit, which drain directly ...
The great saphenous vein (a superficial vein), and the deep femoral vein drain into the femoral vein in the femoral triangle ... The common femoral vein is the segment of the femoral vein between the branching point of the deep femoral vein and the ... In the human body, the femoral vein is the vein that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath. It is a deep vein ... Its major tributaries are the deep femoral vein, and the great saphenous vein. The femoral vein contains valves. The femoral ...
The lateral circumflex femoral vein is located in the thigh and follows the path of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, one ... Femoral vein. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic ... This vein is a branch of the superficial iliac circumflex vein, which branches off from the deep femoral vein. The lateral ... Angular vein. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The angular vein is a vein located between the top of the ...
The lateral circumflex femoral vein is located in the thigh and follows the path of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, one ... Femoral vein. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic ... This vein is a branch of the superficial iliac circumflex vein, which branches off from the deep femoral vein. The lateral ... Angular vein. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The angular vein is a vein located between the top of the ...
Isolated preparations of femoral veins taken from resting-sedentary, exercised-sedentary, resting-trained and exercised-trained ... In conclusion, either acute or repeated exercise adapts the rat femoral veins, thereby reducing the Ang II responses. This ... Exercise reduces angiotensin II responses in rat femoral veins. Author(s): *Chies, Agnaldo Bruno ... in endothelin-1 production may also be involved in these exercise-induced modifications of Ang II responses in the femoral vein ...
These insatiable investigators propose to use doppler waveforms from the common femoral vein as a marker of right heart ... Another cutting edge topic! These insatiable investigators propose to use doppler waveforms from the common femoral vein as a ...
Repeated femoral vein cannulation for administration of chemotherapeutic agents. B. D. Nidus, J. L. Speyer, J. Bottino, M. ... Repeated femoral vein cannulation for administration of chemotherapeutic agents. / Nidus, B. D.; Speyer, J. L.; Bottino, J. et ... Repeated femoral vein cannulation for administration of chemotherapeutic agents. In: Cancer Treatment Reports. 1983 ; Vol. 67, ... Repeated femoral vein cannulation for administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Treatment Reports. 1983 May 26;67(2): ...
How To Do Femoral Vein Cannulation - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Relevant Anatomy for Femoral Vein Cannulation *. The femoral vein and artery are accessible within the femoral triangle, which ... and How To Do Femoral Vein Cannulation, Ultrasound-Guided How To Do Femoral Vein Cannulation, Ultrasound-Guided Ultrasound- ... The femoral vein lies medially adjacent to the femoral artery. With increasing distance from the inguinal ligament, the vein ...
Heart, femoral veins and saphenous veins are delicate tissues that require precise recovery process. The team has dedicated ... This is a big jump from 2019, when South Texas Blood & Tissue Center was ranked 32 out of 41 programs recovering femoral veins. ... Femoral veins are often used in heart surgeries for both adults and children. ... Center for Life, femoral vascular tissue, Homepage, image-center, South Texas Blood & Tissue Center, Tissue Recovery Services ...
French anatomy art print poster between 1830 and 1850. These beautyfull illustration come from a series of hand colored lithographs from J.M Bourgery. They make elegant Medical Student Gift or Gift for Doctor to decorate office, Waiting room, etc...
Bled from femoral vein Collection Date. 7/30/1968 Place Collected (Minimum of City, State, Country). Tanjong Rabok, Selangor, ...
... symptomatic leiyomyosarcoma arising from the proximal femoral vein necessitating removal of the femoral venous and arterial ... symptomatic leiyomyosarcoma arising from the proximal femoral vein necessitating removal of the femoral venous and arterial ... symptomatic leiyomyosarcoma arising from the proximal femoral vein necessitating removal of the femoral venous and arterial ... symptomatic leiyomyosarcoma arising from the proximal femoral vein necessitating removal of the femoral venous and arterial ...
If a patient develops a blood clot in the femoral vein of the left lower limb and a portion of the clot breaks loose, where is ... If a patient develops a blood clot in the femoral vein of the left lower limb and a portion of the clot breaks loose, where is ... What Happens If a Patient Develops a Blood Clot in the Femoral Vein. Categories: Medicine ... What Happens If a Patient Develops a Blood Clot in the Femoral Vein " ...
We supply all kinds of Child Femoral Vein and Femoral Artery Puncture Training Model . We are the best supplier of Child ... Femoral Vein and Femoral Artery Puncture Training Model in Bangladesh ... Child Femoral Vein and Femoral Artery Puncture Training Model Supplier in Bangladesh. ... Child Femoral Vein and Femoral Artery Puncture Training Model. Chin Kolida KTS-442R8LCN Total Station BD Supplier ...
Predictors of femoral artery/vein anatomy in patients undergoing electrophysiological procedures: insights into a safer ...
Right carotid artery, left brachial vein, right femoral vein. B. 50-59. 11. Left leg swelling,. bruising. Bilateral lower ... Left lower extremity deep vein, right femoral artery, left and right iliac arteries. ... Portal vein, superior mesenteric and splenic arteries, pulmonary artery. Abbreviations: PF4 = platelet factor 4; TTS = ... the risk for thrombosis in large arteries or veins (10). On April 23, 2021, after a review of the benefits and risks, ACIP ...
drug abuser, femoral vein rupture, groin hit Abstract. Recreational drug use is becoming an imminent social and health problem ... Groin hit death due to femoral vein rupture in a drug abuser Authors. * Dr Kaschev Shrestha ... This paper presents an accidental death due to massive blood loss, which resulted from rupture to the right femoral vessel ...
... arterial cannula femoral artery cannula femoral vein cannula) disposable suction tube and other product specifications are ... left internal jugular vein, right femoral vein, left femoral vein and subclavian vein. ... arterial cannula femoral artery cannula femoral vein cannula) disposable suction tube and other product specifications are ... arterial cannula femoral artery cannula femoral vein cannula) disposable suction tube and other product specifications are ...
Measurement of Common Femoral Vein Wall Thickness is a useful diagnos- tic tool to differentiate Ocular Behçets Disease from ... Measurement of Common Femoral Vein Wall Thickness is a useful diagnos- tic tool to differentiate Ocular Behçets Disease from ...
... slow pathway modification using the femoral approach in a patient with interrupted Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos vein ... slow pathway modification using the femoral approach in a patient with interrupted Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos vein ...
The superficial femoral vein (lateral vein) has the appearance of two parallel veins, when in fact it is one lumen containing a ... Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). Popliteal vein thrombosis with normal compression of the common femoral vein is demonstrated. ... Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). Bilateral popliteal vein thrombosis with normal compression of the superficial femoral vein is ... Femoral vein thrombosis and total hip replacement. Br Med J. 1977 Jul 23. 2(6081):223-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
Valvuloplasty Of Femoral Vein. *Varicose Vein Treatment. *Varicose Veins. *Vascular Access Surgery ...
Access to the IVC is typically achieved via a left or right femoral vein or via the right internal jugular vein. The right ... This imaging modality is used more commonly in the evaluation of the common femoral veins or the internal jugular veins to ... The right gonadal vein and suprarenal veins empty directly into the IVC below and above the right renal vein, respectively. The ... PE originated in the 1930s-1940s with the performance of ligation of the common femoral vein and superficial femoral vein. ...
Leg Femoral and Saphenous Vein Venous Access Ultrasound Training Model Blue Phantom ... Reticular and Telangiectasia Veins. This model can also be used as a teaching tool and practice leg for clinicians learning ... This CAE Blue Phantom femoral vascular access single leg model is ideal for learning image acquisition and interpretation, and ...
Problem with the artery or vein in the groin (femoral artery or vein) ...
Well put large bore cannulas in the femoral vein and femoral arteries. We also put in distal profusion cannula via the ... And then it goes through an oxygenating lung and then back up into the femoral artery. And the side here just shows that ... posterior tibial artery because weve had problems with leg ischemia given the large bore cannulas in the femoral artery. And ...
right femoral vein. RG. relative growth. rabies glycoprotein radical gastrectomy reactive gastritis ...
It may be inserted into the jugular, subclavian, or femoral veins. Code Information. Material number: CDA-21242-1A, CDA-29803- ...
  • as per the norm of naming veins to match their artery the femoral vein was called the superficial femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the widespread misunderstanding, and possible harmful results from the use of superficial femoral vein, a consensus was arrived at in 2001 during the World Congress of the International Union of Phlebology to change the name from superficial femoral vein simply to femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been widely recognised and adopted though the use of superficial femoral vein still persists in some sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • A previous usage of subsartorial artery was published to avoid the name superficial femoral vein from being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • I will continue to call this the Superficial Femoral Vein. (uvm.edu)
  • D) Definitive vascular reconstruction of the left carotid artery with superficial femoral vein graft. (enttoday.org)
  • The practice of delivering recreational drugs intravenously using the femoral vein in the groin, is relatively common amongst injecting drug users. (wikipedia.org)
  • be retained on, substance abuse treat- inject into the femoral vein, that is, No national data exist for the ment, particularly methadone mainte- "groin injecting," may cause arterial prevalence of injection drug use in nance ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The assessment of reflux by means of direct contrast venography requires the passage of a catheter from the ankle to the groin with the selective introduction of contrast material into each segment of the vein. (medscape.com)
  • Traditionally, the primary route for cardiac catheterization has been the femoral vein in the groin (transfemoral). (medicinenet.com)
  • One way is through an incision in your groin through your femoral vein. (medtronic.com)
  • Percutaneous cannulation of the femoral vein uses anatomic landmarks to guide venipuncture and a Seldinger technique to thread a central venous catheter through the femoral vein and into the inferior vena cava. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Successful slow pathway modification using the femoral approach in a patient with interrupted Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos vein continuation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • If the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava is too short for a filter placement, the filter should be placed above the renal veins. (medscape.com)
  • Using fluoroscopic guidance, a balloon catheter is advanced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and inserted into a large hepatic vein. (jove.com)
  • It ends at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligament where it becomes the external iliac vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the common femoral vein leaves the inguinal ligament region it becomes the external iliac vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common femoral vein is the segment of the femoral vein between the branching point of the deep femoral vein and the inferior margin of the inguinal ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • 32.5% of patients had stent extension below the inguinal ligament into the common femoral and/or femoral vein. (cookmedical.com)
  • [ 5 ] When femoral central vascular access is desired, the inguinal ligament may serve as an important landmark in adequately perfused nonobese patients. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] However, failure to stay below the inguinal ligament during attempted percutaneous cannulation of the femoral vessels can lead to serious and even lethal consequences in both adult and pediatric patients (see the image below and Observance of the inguinal ligament in percutaneous femoral vessel cannulation). (medscape.com)
  • These circumflex veins follow the lateral circumflex femoral artery, and the medial circumflex femoral artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral circumflex femoral vein is located in the thigh and follows the path of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, one of the arteries of the leg. (healthline.com)
  • A cannulation set has been designed for repeated short-term infusion of vesicant chemotherapeutic agents via the femoral vein. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Femoral venous cannulation has the procedural advantages of a relatively superficial and easily accessed vein. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How To Do Femoral Vein Cannulation, Ultrasound-Guided Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the femoral vein uses real-time (dynamic) ultrasound to guide venipuncture and a guidewire (Seldinger) technique to thread a central venous catheter through. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The femoral vein is often used to place a central venous catheter, or line for venous access. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound imaging for locating the vein and catheter placement is advocated over the use of anatomical landmarks due to the possible presence of anatomical variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company mainly produces disposable extracorporeal circulation catheter cannula (venous cannula, arterial cannula femoral artery cannula femoral vein cannula) disposable suction tube and other product specifications are complete. (longlaifu.com.cn)
  • An intravenous (IV) catheter is placed in a dorsal vein of the foot, and radiographic contrast material is infused into the vein. (medscape.com)
  • 3D animation demonstrating an ultrasound guided insertion of a Femoral Artery Catheter. (sonosite.com)
  • Under local anesthesia and ultrasound guidance, a catheter introducer sheath is placed in the right internal jugular vein. (jove.com)
  • Correct and sufficient wedge position of the catheter is ensured by injecting contrast media while the balloon is blocking the outflow of the cannulated hepatic vein. (jove.com)
  • Proximal to the confluence with the deep femoral vein, and the joining of the great saphenous vein, the femoral vein is widely known as the common femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be a proximal DVT in the femoral vein, or more proximal as an iliofemoral DVT usually associated with the common femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report describes the removal of a large, symptomatic leiyomyosarcoma arising from the proximal femoral vein necessitating removal of the femoral venous and arterial circulations. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Femoral vein leiyomyosarcoma is a rare vascular tumor, which is especially challenging to manage in the proximal location. (elsevierpure.com)
  • [ 6 ] During surgical cases requiring more proximal exposure of the femoral vessels, this ligament can be divided to facilitate adequate vascular exposure. (medscape.com)
  • When filter design allows placement through the jugular or femoral veins, the filter is specially packaged to ensure that it is deployed in the correct orientation. (medscape.com)
  • Heart, femoral veins and saphenous veins are delicate tissues that require precise recovery process. (biobridgeglobal.org)
  • Incompetence of the perforator and short saphenous veins can result in posterior calf varicosities. (medscape.com)
  • It is a deep vein that begins at the adductor hiatus (an opening in the adductor magnus muscle) as the continuation of the popliteal vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The femoral vein continues into the thigh as the continuation from the popliteal vein at the back of the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The popliteal artery branches off from the femoral artery. (healthline.com)
  • Venous doppler ultrasonography showed extensive DVT involving the entire length of the common femoral, popliteal and calf veins extending into the left external iliac and common iliac veins. (who.int)
  • 4 ]. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the involving the entire length of the common highest frequency of factor V Leiden was femoral, popliteal and calf veins extend- reported in Lebanon (14%) [ 5,6 ]. (who.int)
  • Thromboembolieprophylaxe bei Wirbelsäulenfrakturen mit Rückenmarkverletzungen Prevention of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after spinal fracture with acute spinal cord injury. (thieme-connect.com)
  • This CAE Blue Phantom femoral vascular access single leg model is ideal for learning image acquisition and interpretation, and practicing the psychomotor skills necessary for ultrasound diagnosis and. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • 3D animation demonstrating an ultrasound guided femoral nerve block. (sonosite.com)
  • Ultrasound of the lower limbs revealed an extensive left lower limb deep venous thrombosis involving the left femoral vein. (hindawi.com)
  • The great saphenous vein (a superficial vein), and the deep femoral vein drain into the femoral vein in the femoral triangle when it becomes known as the common femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its major tributaries are the deep femoral vein, and the great saphenous vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great saphenous vein, and the deep femoral vein are two large tributaries that drain into the femoral vein which then becomes known as the common femoral vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although few studies document the natural history of varicose veins (shown) , superficial venous insufficiency is considered to be progressive over time, typically beginning as reticular veins or corona phlebectatica ("corona"), developing into isolated calf varicosities and, eventually, resulting in a tortuous and distended great saphenous vein. (medscape.com)
  • In the human body, the femoral vein is the vein that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Femoral sheath laid open to show its three compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Again, under fluoroscopic guidance a biopsy needle introducer sheath is advanced into an hepatic vein. (jove.com)
  • Medical intensivists, cardiologists, general physicians, and pediatricians also require a working understanding of the femoral sheath and inguinal canal. (medscape.com)
  • For a better understanding of the clinical significance of the inguinal canal and the adjacent femoral sheath, this region may be conceptually broken down into osseous, myotendinous, neurovascular, lymphatic, and genitourinary/spermatic cord components. (medscape.com)
  • In such patients, the femoral pulse may be appreciated just below the inguinal crease. (medscape.com)
  • If a patient develops a blood clot in the femoral vein of the left lower limb and a portion of the clot breaks loose, where is the blood flow likely to carry the embolus? (studymoose.com)
  • L033, from 13 to 74 (469%), and, could be addressed by changing be- ciated with phlebitis or thrombophle- phlebitis or thrombophlebitis of deep havior and improving access to health- bitis, in which the vein may become vessels of the lower limb other than care ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Central venous access above the diaphragm, unless contraindicated, is generally preferred to femoral venous access in patients who require central venous access. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This was a potentially harmful misnomer since the femoral vein is a deep vein and not a superficial vein, and thus a possible site for a deep vein thrombosis, that may be overlooked as a superficial vein for anticoagulant therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The femoral vein is a common site for a deep vein thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, femoral central venous catheters (CVCs) have higher risks of infection and thrombosis and are appropriate only for bedridden patients. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious, † including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Many patients with venous insufficiency have clinically unrecognized chronic recurrent varicose thrombosis due to stasis in areas with abnormal veins. (medscape.com)
  • Bedside ultrasonography for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is performed in 2 principal positions, one for each area of examination. (medscape.com)
  • Other tributaries of the femoral vein are lateral and medial circumflex femoral veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The artery supplies oxygen-rich blood to the front and middle areas of the thigh while the lateral circumflex femoral vein drains the oxygen-depleted blood and then returns it to the lungs and heart for recirculation through the body. (healthline.com)
  • This vein is a branch of the superficial iliac circumflex vein, which branches off from the deep femoral vein. (healthline.com)
  • The lateral circumflex femoral vein has three branches: the ascending, transverse, and descending. (healthline.com)
  • The lateral femoral circumflex artery supplies oxygenated blood to the anterior (front) and middle portions of the thigh muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Peripheral Vein Catheterization A number of procedures are used to gain vascular access. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For traumatologists, intensivists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, and cardiologists, the AIS and the pubic tubercle provide a relatively constant set of landmarks by which to gauge the course of the femoral artery or vein when central vascular access is required. (medscape.com)
  • The femoral artery should lie at the junction of the middle segment and the most medial segment. (medscape.com)
  • The first image below demonstrates an IVC of normal size without a thrombus, but there is a circumaortic left renal vein and an inflow defect at the origin of the right renal vein. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, thrombus in the pelvic veins will not be detected with this technique and, although rare, may be best evaluated with CT or magnetic resonance (MR) venography. (medscape.com)
  • In more than 50% of the general population, superficial venous disease appears in the form of "spider" or reticular veins, but in approximately 20%-25% of the population, the disease can progress to visible varicosities at its extremes, such as ulceration or skin changes. (medscape.com)
  • Reticular veins are typically small (1-3 mm), highly visible, and often pose a cosmetic problem for patients. (medscape.com)
  • These insatiable investigators propose to use doppler waveforms from the common femoral vein as a marker of right heart dysfunction in heart failure patients. (podbean.com)
  • She continued her oral anticoagulation for 9 months, and the follow-up venous doppler ultrasonography showed recanalization of the thrombosed veins. (who.int)
  • [ 3 ] and marks the transition between the external iliac and femoral vessels. (medscape.com)
  • A study from the United Kingdom compared 27 consecutive patients seen at a varicose vein clinic with 23 normal ambulatory volunteers and found evidence to suggest that the presence of pulsatile flow in the GSV might be a marker of severe chronic insufficiency of the superficial veins. (medscape.com)
  • In other words, a proper technique that would allow the proper visualization to assess for obstructive disease, varicose veins, perforating veins, and other venous abnormalities is required. (medscape.com)
  • Image courtesy of Rustempasic N, Cvorak A, Agincic A. Outcome of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins. (medscape.com)
  • Much about the etiology of varicose veins remains unknown. (medscape.com)
  • The femoral vein, in turn, should lie 1-2 cm medial to the artery. (medscape.com)
  • This paper presents an accidental death due to massive blood loss, which resulted from rupture to the right femoral vessel based on autopsy findings. (edu.np)
  • Even when the vessel is camouflaged by tissue in an obese patient or when there is no palpable femoral pulse in an underresuscitated trauma patient, the femoral vein may be successfully located in 90% of cases with this technique. (medscape.com)
  • they are typically found in the calf but may also occur in the thigh, corresponding to the course of the long saphenous vein. (medscape.com)
  • Patients were predominantly admit- femoral vein. (cdc.gov)
  • The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic region of the human body. (healthline.com)
  • Reconstruction was accomplished with autologous vein and initial coverage with ipsilateral rectus abdominus flap. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The femoral vein bears valves which are mostly bicuspid and whose number is variable between individuals and often between left and right leg. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ing into the left external iliac and common there are no studies related to awareness of iliac veins. (who.int)
  • Successful outcome is predicated on revascularization with autologous vein and on a multidisciplinary approach using various soft tissue coverage strategies and wound management adjuncts. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The sequelae of deep vein thromboses (DVTs) range from the more common chronic venous stasis to the most serious pulmonary emboli (PEs). (medscape.com)
  • This is a big jump from 2019, when South Texas Blood & Tissue Center was ranked 32 out of 41 programs recovering femoral veins. (biobridgeglobal.org)
  • Within the veins, a system of valves helps overcome the pull of gravity and maintains a unidirectional flow of blood (shown) . (medscape.com)
  • Cadaver blood was extracted from femoral veins during the first 24 hours after death. (medline.ru)
  • In conclusion, either acute or repeated exercise adapts the rat femoral veins, thereby reducing the Ang II responses. (unesp.br)
  • Position of femoral vein and artery in adductor canal Structures surrounding right hip-joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Femoral lines are usually used only as provisional access because they have a high risk of infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A superficial tourniquet is placed around the leg to occlude the superficial veins and force the contrast material into the deep veins. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the Ang II responses in thefemoral vein taken from sedentary and trained rats at rest or subjected to a single bout of exercise immediately before organ bath experiments. (unesp.br)