Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Housing, AnimalVagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.DairyingAnimals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Flurogestone Acetate: A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Luteolytic Agents: Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven W (2008). "Women's Estrus". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: ... "Women's Estrus, Pair Bonding and Extra-Pair Sex". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: Oxford ... men have been found to use olfactory cues in order to know if a woman is ovulating. Using a rating of women's odours, women who ... However, when women are in the luteal (non-fertile) phase, they prefer men (and females) with more feminine faces. A preference ...
Males fight violently with each other for females. Females enter estrus in spring. Mating can last as long as eight hours. ... Males assist females by defending their territories and providing food. Sables are born with eyes closed and skin covered in a ... Kiduses are typically sterile, although there has been one recorded instance of a female kidus successfully breeding with a ... After insemination, the blastocyst does not implant into the uterine wall of the female. Instead, implantation occurs eight ...
A female's estrus lasts 33 days. During courting, the female first licks the male's neck. The male will then rub his cheek ... A female bears one offspring at a time; young stay in the pouch for about 280 days, after which females and their offspring ... However, females may stay in the home range of their mothers for life while males leave at the age of two. Also, red-necked ... Two females and one male from this stock were later released about Te Waimate, the property of Waimate's first European settler ...
Males and females in this species are aggressive to each other. Paternal care is rarely remarkable. When females go into estrus ... Maturation of the two sexes takes differently long: female G. spixii have an open vagina when they are approximately eighty ... On the other hand, when male approaches females in order to mate, it competes aggressively with other males. Catzeflis, F.; ...
The estrus cycle is nearly 28 days long. The time when breeding takes place varies geographically - it takes place during the ... Males have been observed pursuing the female before copulation occurs. The litter size ranges from one to six. The lifespan is ...
The estrus cycle is 27-29 days long; females will develop a pouch prior to carrying young. The litter size ranges from one to ...
Pregnant females leave the herd for a week, give birth to the calf and conceive again during their postpartum estrus; thus they ... Soon after, the female has a postpartum estrus. The scimitar oryx was once widespread across northern Africa. Its decline began ... At Smithsonian National Zoo, a female oryx died at 21, an exceptional age since females generally have a lifespan of about 15 ... on both the males and the females. The horns are so thin that they can break easily. The female has four nipples. The large, ...
When in estrus, the female points her posterior towards a male and raises it, moving her tail to one side. The male then ... However, when in estrus, the female's patch will brighten, and a "necklace" of fluid-filled blisters forms on the patch. This ... In addition, females have calls signaling their estrus. Geladas communicate through gestures, as well. They display threats by ... While females have strong social bonds in the group, a female will only interact with at most three other members of her unit. ...
Females may have up to six litters a year. Newborns weigh 3 to 4 g (about 0.10 to 0.15 oz) and are blind and almost naked. ... Estrus occurs again after a litter is born. Copulatory behavior in the marsh rice rat is similar to that in laboratory brown ... About as many males as females are born. The external ears (pinnae) soon unfold and on the first day, claws are visible and the ... As in most other oryzomyines, females have eight mammae. The fore feet have four and the hind feet five digits. On the fore ...
Age of first estrus averages about 48 days; the earliest recorded was 23 days. The youngest wild female to produce a litter was ... Females lactate for 27 to 34 days after giving birth; most young are weaned at about 18 to 24 days. The young reach adult size ... Most female deer mice have more than one litter per year. Three or four litters per year is probably typical; captive deer mice ... The male deer mice are allowed by the female to help nest the litter and keep them together and warm for survival. In a study, ...
Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven W (2008). "Women's Estrus". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: ... "Women's Estrus, Pair Bonding and Extra-Pair Sex". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: Oxford ... A woman's fertility is also affected by her age.[42] As a woman's total egg supply is formed in fetal life,[43] to be ovulated ... 10.4 days in women aged 40-44).[23] Health effects[edit]. Some women with neurological conditions experience increased activity ...
Oestrus lasts around 18 days. The male establishes a territory from which he attracts nearby females, but he does not establish ... Females move widely among breeding territories seeking males to court. When mounting, males do not clasp females. The front ... for females in India. Sambar are nocturnal or crepuscular. The males live alone for much of the year, and the females live in ... Females also fight on their hind legs and use their fore legs to hit each other in the head. Courtship is based more on tending ...
This causes the mother to go into estrus sooner. However, most infanticide is done by close relatives. Lactating females will ... two to three adult females and one to two male offspring and one to two female offspring. Females remain in their natal groups ... Behaviors that signal that a female is in estrus include underground consorting, self-licking of genitals, dust-bathing, and ... Two to three groups of females may be controlled by one male. However, among these female groups, there are no friendly ...
... and a whistling sound produced during estrus. The female is mildly aggressive to her suitors during estrus, and will often ... coinciding with female estrus. Other vocalizations recorded during estrus include chittering and growling. The testosterone ... As a result, opportunities for mating are rare, and females rely heavily on scent to assess mate quality. Females show a strong ... Females prefer to mate with males whose scent is familiar. Males will also countermark-mark over or adjacent to another ...
Captive females and males both scent-mark their home range by spraying urine. Oestrus lasts five days, and mating is unusually ... The female prepares a den in a secluded location, and gives birth to one or two kittens after a gestation of 65-70 days. At ... Since the female is likely to be vulnerable during this period, its brevity may be an adaptation to help it avoid larger ...
A female's estrus cycle is about 19 days long. Males mate with the female for two days of the cycle, but she allows it for only ... Females often remain near their mothers when they have their offspring, so the relationships in female herds may be considered ... Females and young males have ten or more white stripes on their sides. Only males have horns, 60-83 cm (24-33 in) long and ... Both males and females have a white chevron between their eyes, and a 40-55 cm (16-22 in) long bushy tail white underside. Both ...
Females undergo their first estrus at around 69 days. The relationships between Hooper's mouse and other species of deer mouse ... Females give birth to litters with an average of three young after a 33-day gestation. The young are born blind, hairless, and ... Females have six teats. Hooper's mouse is endemic to Mexico, where it is found only in Coahuila and in neighboring regions of ...
... indicating that women do possess an estrus phase and that their ovulation is not completely concealed. During estrus, many ... describe other women as less attractive, and use more dehumanizing terms when talking about women, but not men. Women's choices ... This phase of sexual receptivity and proceptivity, estrus, is often referred to as being "in heat". Human females, however, ... Some researchers have suggested that these changes in activity and food consumption may indicate that during estrus, women are ...
Each estrus bout lasts for one or two days. In a study, the blood serum of female addax was analyzed through immunoassay to ... Addax form herds of five to 20 members, consisting of both males and females. They are led by the oldest female. Due to its ... Males are territorial, and guard females, while the females establish their own dominance hierarchies. Due to its slow ... in females and 70 to 85 cm (28 to 33 in) in males. Males stand from 105 to 115 cm (41 to 45 in) at the shoulder, with females ...
Rarely, Eastern gray females can enter estrus as early as five and a half months old, but females are not normally fertile ... she re-enters estrus and has a later litter. 5 days before a female enters estrus, she may attract up to 34 males from up to ... Their mean age of first estrus is 1.25 years. The presence of a fertile male will induce ovulation in a female going through ... In any given breeding season, an average of 61 - 66% of females bear young. If a female fails to conceive or loses her young to ...
Dogs do not experience menopause; the canine estrus cycle simply becomes irregular and infrequent. Although older female dogs ... It seems that Japanese women experience menopause effects, or konenki, in a different way from American women. Japanese women ... Women with early diagnosis and treatment of coeliac disease present a normal duration of fertile life span. Women who have ... The paradigm within which a woman considers menopause influences the way she views it: Women who understand menopause as a ...
Oestrus lasts for just eighteen hours. The rutting male pursues a female in oestrus continuously. The male might be humming and ... Home ranges of females are around 0.2-0.4 square kilometres (0.077-0.154 sq mi) large, and those of males are twice the size of ... If receptive, the female will allow the male to mount by shifting her tail to a side. Gestation lasts for about 240 days, ... Females may conceive by the age of eighteen months. Breeding occurs throughout the year, and no clear peaks are known. A study ...
The male is allowed to sniff a female in estrus. Experienced studs cooperate readily in the process. New studs often require ... encouragement in the form of manual stimulation, also known as "manual ejaculation". Generally the male will mount the female[ ...
Estrus occurs for only one day during the breeding season. In Wind Cave National Park, the mean percentage of adult females ... Females may live longer than males. According to Hoogland and others, lifespan is about 5 years for males and 7 years for ... Lactating females were the most common killers. Mortality of young was highest due to heavy predation during the winter and ... Adults can weigh from 1.5 to 3.0 lb (0.68 to 1.36 kg), males are typically heavier than females. Body length is normally from ...
Infants weigh about 4.5 to 5.5 kg (9.9-12.1 lb). Females experience estrus again about a month after producing young. After its ... Females are quite loud, making a toad-like croaking when moving. When fighting, males duck their heads and use their horns to ... Females are golden-brown with white underbellies and no horns. Juveniles also have a golden-brown coat, but the color changes ... They gather in herds of up to 50 females and one male or in smaller all-male herds. They divide themselves into three social ...
Females show aggression towards each other immediately before and after the birth of their young and will chase other females ... giving soft squeaking contact calls and checking for signs of estrus by lowering his neck and rotating his head with ears ... Females do not seem to be territorial outside the breeding season and can be seen in small groups, although individual deer do ... Mating among water deer is polygynous, with most females being mated inside the buck's own territory. After repeated mountings ...
Males, however, spent more time investigating the mark of the PPE female to that of a female not in PPE, independent of the ... However, males spent more time investigating the novel REF females mark compared to that of a bottom-scent PPE female. The ... or bottom-scent female. In addition, males spent similar amounts of time investigating the mark of a novel female not in PPE ... REF females). PPE and REF females of several species may use over-marks to maintain territories and attract and indicate ...
My 11-month-old unaltered female cat shows no signs of estrus. Advice please.. PoC Posted on February 8, 2015. by Michael Broad ... My 11-month-old unaltered female cat shows no signs of estrus. Advice please. - 2 Comments. *. Jo Singer on February 9, 2015 at ... Home→Cat Behavior→heat→My 11-month-old unaltered female cat shows no signs of estrus. Advice please. ... Spayed females are far less likely to want to roam, and of course are not frustrated since the instinct to breed is very strong ...
Females rarely exhibit behavioral estrus without direct contact with a male or male chemosignals (Fadem, 1985, 1989; Baggott et ... Induction of Estrus and Ovulation in Female Grey Short-Tailed Opossums, Monodelphis Domestica, Involves the Main Olfactory ... Females rarely exhibit behavioral estrus without direct contact with a male or male chemosignals (Fadem, 1985, 1989; Baggott et ... Pelengaris S.A., Abbott D.H., Barrett J., Mocre H.D.M. (1992) Induction of Estrus and Ovulation in Female Grey Short-Tailed ...
A transmitter is fastened to the female animal to generate a signal which is received at a distant point and recorded for ... 6. A method for monitoring the oestrus cycle in female animals comprising: activating a switch means worn by the female animal ... 1. Apparatus for monitoring the oestrus cycle in female animals comprising: a switch means positioned on the female signal, a ... Monitoring oestrus cycle in female animals FR8316707A FR2553656A1 (en) 1981-05-20. 1983-10-20. Device and process for ...
Sportsmans Guide has your Wildlife Research Center Synthetic Doe Estrus Scent Reflex available at a great price in our Scent ... Womens Sizes. Small Medium Large X-Large Size 4-6 8-10 12-14 16-18 ... Code Blue Screamin Heat Enhanced Whitetail Doe Estrus Key Features *100% pure Estrus ... Code Blue Screamin Heat Enhanced Whitetail Doe Estrus Key Features *100% pure Estrus ...
estrus. The time period in which a female is receptive to male attention ... Mismothering in Female Dogs. Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either excessive maternal behavior in the absence ... excessive maternal behavior is due to the increased progesterone levels resulting from estrus in un-bred bitches, followed by ...
estrus. The time period in which a female is receptive to male attention ... Mismothering in Female Cats. Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either the lack of maternal behavior when dealing ... excessive maternal behavior is due to the increased progesterone levels resulting from estrus in un-bred queens, followed by an ...
... estrus in postlactational females despite their isolation from the male st ... Previous studies of the gray short-tailed opossum have shown that ovarian activity and estrus are induced by male pheromones, ... Estrus / physiology*. Female. Genitalia, Female. Lactation*. Male. Opossums / physiology*. Pheromones / physiology. Pregnancy. ... Plasma estradiol was elevated at estrus in all groups, and females that were paired with males at postlactational estrus mated ...
... oestrus and pregnancy by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods. Ciliated cells and non-ciliated (secre ... Estrus*. Fallopian Tubes / chemistry*. Female. Glycoconjugates / analysis*, metabolism. Horses / metabolism*. Lectins / ... during oestrus and pregnancy and a moderate presence of oligosaccharides terminating in alphafucose (Fuc) during oestrus; cilia ... 4GlcNAc and internal Man during oestrus and pregnancy as well as terminal alphaGal and Fuc in oestrus and Neu5Ac-Galbeta1, ...
The females genital area may be swollen during estrus, and… ... Males can recognize a female in heat by smell; certain ... estrus cycle. * In estrus. , ground squirrels) are polyestrous: if not impregnated, they will come into heat repeatedly during ... In mammal: Estrus and other cycles. …once a year are termed polyestrous. In many polyestrous species the estrous cycle ceases ... Males can recognize a female in heat by smell; certain substances (pheromones) are secreted only at this portion of her cycle. ...
Estrus, , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat-i.e., ... One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. Prior to ovulation the endometrium (uterine ... Alternative Titles: heat, oestrus. Estrus, also spelled Oestrus, the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the ... mammal: Estrus and other cycles. Estrus, or "heat," typically coincides with ovulation, and during this time the female is ...
Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven W (2008). "Womens Estrus". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: ... "Womens Estrus, Pair Bonding and Extra-Pair Sex". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: Oxford ... men have been found to use olfactory cues in order to know if a woman is ovulating. Using a rating of womens odours, women who ... However, when women are in the luteal (non-fertile) phase, they prefer men (and females) with more feminine faces. A preference ...
Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven W (2008). "Womens Estrus". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: ... "Womens Estrus, Pair Bonding and Extra-Pair Sex". The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York: Oxford ... A womans fertility is also affected by her age.[42] As a womans total egg supply is formed in fetal life,[43] to be ovulated ... 10.4 days in women aged 40-44).[23] Health effects[edit]. Some women with neurological conditions experience increased activity ...
Estrus is the phase when the female of a species is sexually receptive. Estrus may also refer to: Estrus Records, an ... independent record label from Bellingham, Washington Estrus EP, an EP by John Frusciante. ...
Oestrus occurred in 72% of females from group A, 60% from group B, 100% from group C and 20 % of females from group G. Oestrus ... Comparison of methods of fertile oestrus induction in female goats outside the physiologic breeding season ... Induction of estrus in non-lactating dairy goats with different estrus synchrony protocols. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 85, 117-124. ... Female to female stimulation of ovarian activity in the ewe. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 39, 251-258. ...
Unit 43: Heat (oestrus), mating and pregnancy. Heat (oestrus) is the period when the female show a desire for the male. After a ... The teeth are large in the male but in the female are very small or absent. How to age horses Teeth on the upper and lower jaws ... The female donkey (jenny) comes into heat for the first time when she is 1 year old. The mare is in heat for 7 days while the ... Unit 43: Heat (oestrus), mating and pregnancy. Unit 44: Foaling and caring for the young. Unit 45: Stabling and grazing. Unit ...
estrus, oestrus the condition of being in rut or sexual arousal, applied particularly to the female. Also called est rum, ... oestrus estrus. onanism 1. the practice of preejaculatory withdrawal during intercourse. 2. masturbation. - onanist, n. - ... WOMEN . algolagnia the finding of sexual pleasure in suffering or inflicting physical pain; sadomasochism. -algolagnist, n. - ... the condition of having both male and female sex organs in an individual. -monoecious, adj. necrophilia a sexual attraction to ...
... of a female mammal) in the receptive period of the sexual cycle; in estrus. ...
An elevated prevalence of a slightly prolonged estrus phase was also observed. The morphological changes to the ovarian surface ... Ovarian-related endpoints were investigated during adulthood in female offspring. The mean cell height of the ovarian surface ... and estrus phase length in adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring.. [Chris Talsness, Konstanze Grote, Sergio Kuriyama, Kenia ...
Check out our latest post on the differences in male and female pit bull terriers before you decide. ... This time of Estrus is necessary as it is when a female pit bull can procreate with another male. If you do not want to breed ... As is common with many females of a species, female pit bulls are the smaller of the male and female pit bull terrier. This is ... Estrus and Marking Behavior. Like all breeds of dog, one of the main differences between male and female pit bull terriers is ...
Estrus is defined as the period where a female (in this case, a cow or heifer) is receptive to a male (or, the bull). Estrous, ... How to Tell when a Cow or Heifer is in Estrus. ... Estrus is defined as the period where a female (in this case, a ... Look for behavioral signs if estrus: (Note that the herd is highly sensitive to when even one female is in heat!)[6] X Research ... Below are the steps that describe the physiological steps of how estrus occurs in female bovines, and how to detect a cow or ...
... females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles). JTEHD6 21,265,1987. ... Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # ...
... females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles). Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight ... Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females ... Reproductive: Other effects on female. Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain. FCTXAV 16,547, ... Reproductive: Other effects on female. Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system. Reproductive ...
... Maker: Serebu No Tomo Label: ... CESD-856 This Married Woman Is A Perverted De M That Leaks With An Untidy Face When Estrus, Naoko. Maker: Serebu No Tomo. Label ... CESD-856 This Married Woman Is A Perverted De M That Leaks With An Untidy Face When Estrus, Naoko. January 17, 2020. ... Home Jav Censored CESD-856 This Married Woman Is A Perverted De M That Leaks With... ...
  • Women experience subtle changes to their facial appearance, vocal quality and gait when they are within their fertile window. (wikipedia.org)
  • When woman are most fertile, they avoid situations that may result in sexual coercion. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the fertile phase, women experience more attraction, fantasies and sexual interest for extra pair men but not for primary partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • When seeking a short term mating partner, women prefer a male with a low voice pitch, particularly during the fertile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men demonstrate preferences for the scent of fertile women. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when women are in the luteal (non-fertile) phase, they prefer men (and females) with more feminine faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, during the fertile phase, women show a preference for men with darker skin pigmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In short term mates, during the fertile phase, woman show more attraction to dominant men who displayed social presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September this year, Randy Thornhill challenged the belief that women do not experience bouts of hormone-induced oestrus, or "heat" during their most fertile period. (thaindian.com)
  • Lap dancers menstruating naturally earned more in tips during their fertile period than co-workers on the pill" This is the first evidence that oestrus, and its influence on attractiveness, has a real effect on women's earnings," New Scientist quoted Miller, as saying. (thaindian.com)
  • For example, earlier this year, Martie Haselton at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that women were judged to dress more attractively during their fertile periods, although the correlation was slight. (thaindian.com)
  • There is a strict hierarchy amongst the group: a dominant male, huge and vividly coloured, heads each group, mating with fertile females and fathering almost all of the infants (6). (eol.org)
  • Pregnancy is prevented by not having sexual intercourse during the unsafe fertile time, or by using a barrier method such as male or female condom, cervical cap, diaphragm or withdrawal during the fertile time. (amazonaws.com)
  • Angel had intended to mate Skipper with other females to determine whether the cat was fertile, but an epidemic of cat flu claimed Skipper as one of its victims. (messybeast.com)
  • We found that LTP was absent in male αNOS1 knock-out mice but not in females and that the residual LTP in females was not NO dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • Full blockade of IGF-1R affected female and male mice similarly. (pnas.org)
  • Both actions increase the pleasurable effects of cocaine, and each was significantly bolstered as estrogen levels increased in the female mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Both male and female mice linked pleasure/reward to where it occurred in their cages, spending more time on the side of their cage that was previously paired with cocaine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Female mice did so to a greater extent, indicating enhanced reward to cocaine use. (eurekalert.org)
  • By identifying a new population of neurons activated by oxytocin, we have uncovered one way this chemical signal influences interactions between male and female mice," says Nathaniel Heintz , James and Marilyn Simons Professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology . (healthcanal.com)
  • The interesting part is that when exposed to oxytocin these neurons fire more frequently in female mice than they do in male mice, possibly reflecting the differences that showed up in the behavioral tests. (healthcanal.com)
  • We don't yet understand how, but we think oxytocin prompts mice in estrus to become interested in investigating their potential mates," Nakajima says. (healthcanal.com)
  • This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Emilia coccinea ( EM ) on parameters that affect reproduction as well as the acute toxic effects of the plant using nonpregnant female mice models. (physiology.org)
  • However, P 4 derivatives, among them medroxyprogesterone acetate or megestrol acetate, which are commonly given to female cats for silencing sexual behavior, cause hypertrophy of the endometrium, dilatation and hypertrophy of the endometrial glands, or stimulation of the endometrial glands to produce excessive mucus secretion [ 6 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphorus deficiency, for example, leads to delayed oestrus due to the low secretion of oestrogen, and may also lead to dystocia, which sometimes results in the death of the dam or the foetus. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The study concluded that women with a low normal FT4 -- in the lowest 10th percentile at 12 weeks' gestation -- are at risk for children with developmental delay. (amazonaws.com)
  • Evidence of seasonality in oestrus in bitches within specialist breeding programmes, such as those for assistance dogs, may support colony management through tailoring the distribution of resources required for breeding throughout the year. (bmj.com)
  • The authors analysed the annual distribution of 3624 observations of oestrus collected from 568 brood bitches from January 2005 to June 2014. (bmj.com)
  • The lack of seasonality in oestrus may be a function of dogs in the UK, particularly valuable breeding bitches, being exposed to fairly constant environmental conditions throughout the year as a consequence of artificial light and heating during the winter months. (bmj.com)
  • Knowledge of seasonality in oestrus and litter size of bitches in assistance dog breeding colonies may support colony management through the efficient allocation throughout the year of resources required for the breeding programme. (bmj.com)
  • Studies from less developed communities include one from Jaipur, in the temperate region of northern India, where oestrus was more commonly observed in free-roaming bitches during late autumn and winter. (bmj.com)
  • Studies of seasonal variations of oestrus in bitches in developed communities, generally living under more regulated environmental conditions, have also generated contradictory results. (bmj.com)
  • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is often experienced by women approaching menopause due to the hormonal changes that accompany the menopause transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution of sialoglycoconjugates in the oviductal isthmus of the horse during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy: a lectin histochemistry study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The distribution of sialic acid residues as well as other glycosidic sugars has been investigated in the horse oviductal isthmus during anoestrus, oestrus and pregnancy by means of lectin and pre-lectin methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different estrus induction protocols in anoestrus goat. (edu.pl)
  • Oestrus occurred in 72% of females from group A, 60% from group B, 100% from group C and 20 % of females from group G. Oestrus was not observed in any female of group D, E and F. We concluded that the duration of the progestagen treatment significantly influenced the efficiency of the oestrus induction protocol in anoestrus goats. (edu.pl)
  • However, at present there are conflicting data regarding seasonality in oestrus (and litter size) in domestic dogs. (bmj.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to investigate seasonal variations in oestrus and litter size in a large assistance dog breeding colony in the UK in order to optimise colony management. (bmj.com)
  • There was no evidence of regular seasonal variations in oestrus or litter size by meteorological season or month. (bmj.com)
  • The authors' findings suggest that special consideration of the annual distribution of oestrus and litter size is unnecessary for the management of assistance dog breeding colonies similar to those in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • The effects of discrete lesions of the suprachiasmatic and medial preoptic nucleus on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons of the female rat were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that persistent estrus is caused by destruction of neurons which directly or indirectly control LHRH neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • 1987). Thus, while the presence of a male or male chemosignals is important for the induction of estrus in female opossums, it has not been established whether (i) male chemosignals are the only stimuli involved, or (ii) which olfactory epithelium mediates the chemosensory information. (springer.com)
  • Studies of women living in dormitory housing provide evidence in humans, but the results have not been replicated in other animals. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Some feral domestic dog populations have reverted to ancestral habits where a single male and female pair (the alpha animals) dominate mating in a small, family group, or pack. (archive.org)
  • With this spectacular appearance, the male mandrill declares its identity to other animals, as well as announcing his sex and virility to females (5). (eol.org)
  • Likewise, male vocalizations are attractive to females and enhance reproductive function in many animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, genetic IGF-1R dosage was effective only in females, where it also induced transient and estrus-specific hypothermia in animals fed ad libitum. (pnas.org)
  • If mule deer do it, I would say other animals also child rape females. (envirolink.org)