An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sexual activities of humans.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Differential cell tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus molecular clones in vivo. (1/233)

Independent studies have demonstrated different cell tropisms for molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In this report, we examined three clones, FIV-pF34, FIV-14, and FIV-pPPR, for replication in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells, feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and feline macrophage cultures. Importantly, cell tropism for these three clones was also examined in vivo. FIV-pF34 replication was efficient in CrFK cells but severely restricted in PBMC, whereas replication of FIV-pPPR was vigorous in PBMC but severely restricted in CrFK cells. FIV-14 replication was productive in both CrFK cells and PBMC. Interestingly, all three molecular clones replicated with similar efficiencies in primary feline monocyte-derived macrophages. In vivo, FIV-pF34 proved least efficient for establishing persistent infection, and proviral DNA when detectable, was localized predominately to nonlymphoid cell populations (macrophages). FIV-pPPR proved most efficient for induction of a persistent viremia in vivo, and proviral DNA was localized predominately in CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets. FIV-14 inoculation of cats resulted in an infection characterized by seroconversion and localization of proviral DNA in CD4(+) lymphocytes only. Results of this study on diverse FIV molecular clones revealed that in vitro replication efficiency of an FIV isolate in PBMC directly correlated with replication efficiency in vivo, whereas proficiency for replication in macrophages in vitro was not predictive for replication potential in vivo. Also, infection of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets was associated with higher virus load in vivo. Results of the studies on these three FIV clones, which exhibited differential cell tropism, indicated a correlation between in vitro and in vivo cell tropism and virus replication.  (+info)

Feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan. (2/233)

The seroepidemiological survey of cats conducted in northern part of Taiwan in 1998 revealed that the positive rate of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infection was 21.9% (7/32) and the rate was much higher than those of previous reports. We succeeded in isolation of three strains of FIV from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the blood samples. Nucleotide sequences of the env variable V3 to V5 region of the strains revealed that the isolates from distinct areas belong to subtype C. These data together with our previous report (Inada et al. 1997. Arch. Virol., 142: 1459-1467) indicate that FIV subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan.  (+info)

Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro by a soluble factor secreted by CD8+ T lymphocytes. (3/233)

Mitogen-activated lymphoblasts isolated from the blood and lymph nodes, but not the spleen, of domestic cats acutely infected with the Petaluma or Glasgow8 isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), suppressed the replication of FIV in the MYA-1 T-cell line in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was not limited to the homologous isolate of FIV. The suppressor activity declined with progression to chronic infection, with lower levels of activity detectable only in the lymph nodes. Immunization of domestic cats with whole inactivated FIV vaccine elicited profound suppressor activity in both the blood and lymph nodes. The suppressor activity was associated with the CD8+ T-cell subpopulation, the effect did not appear to be major histocompatibility complex-restricted, and was mediated by a soluble factor(s). This activity may be associated with the control of virus replication during both the asymptomatic stages of FIV infection, and in the protective immunity observed in cats immunized with whole inactivated virus vaccines.  (+info)

Progressive expansion of an L-selectin-negative CD8 cell with anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) suppressor function in the circulation of FIV-infected cats. (4/233)

The acute stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by the appearance of a major CD8 subpopulation with reduced expression of the CD8 beta chain (CD8alpha+betalo). CD8 antiviral activity was subsequently shown to be mediated by the CD8alpha+betalo phenotype, which is the dominant CD8 phenotype in long-term infected cats. Two- and three-color flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the CD8alpha+betalo subset is L-selectin negative (CD62L-) and has increased expression of CD44, CD49d, and CD18, consistent with an activation phenotype. The CD8alpha+betaloCD62L- cells but not the CD8alpha+betahiCD62L+ cells demonstrated strong antiviral activity in the FIV acute-infection assay. The progressive expansion of the CD8alpha+betaloCD62L- effector subset cells in FIV-infected cats parallels that seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, suggesting that failure in homeostatic mechanisms regulating lymphocyte activation or trafficking (or both) may be a consequence of both HIV and FIV infections.  (+info)

T cells overexpressing interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 are found in both the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats. (5/233)

Similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replicates in the thymus of infected animals, causing marked alteration in thymic lymphocyte subpopulations. The immune phenotype and cytokine patterns in the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of FIV-infected cats were investigated. FIV infection caused an acute-stage transient reduction in CD4CD8 double-positive thymocytes, a marked increase in CD8 single-positive thymocytes, and formation of thymic B cell lymphoid follicles. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA were up-regulated in both the thymus and lymph nodes of FIV-infected cats. Analysis of purified CD4 and CD8 cells revealed that CD4 cells produced most of the IL-10, whereas IFN-gamma was produced by both subsets. Quantitative-competitive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that thymocytes, especially CD4CD8 thymocytes, had much greater levels of gag mRNA than did lymph node T cells. Thus, overexpression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 is a feature of the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of FIV-infected cats.  (+info)

In vivo infection of ramified microglia from adult cat central nervous system by feline immunodeficiency virus. (6/233)

Infection of microglial cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) complications. So far, however, experimental data about interactions between HIV and ramified microglia from the adult CNS were only occasionally reported, making it difficult to understand the exact nature of pathogenic events contributing to HIV-encephalopathy. Therefore, we used the animal model of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of domestic cats to establish an experimental system which is suitable for studying the relationships between an immunodeficiency virus and the mature ramified microglia of the central nervous system. By means of density gradient centrifugation approximately 95% pure microglial cells could be isolated from adult feline brain that were characterized by their CD45(low) phenotype. Resident microglia extracted from the CNS of experimentally infected cats harbored FIV-specific DNA and cocultivation with mitogen-activated, but uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in recovery of high-titered infectious virus. Double labeling of brain cell monocultures explanted from persistently infected animals for both microglia and FIV markers disclosed less than 1% of viral antigen expressing microglial cells. This suggests that during the subclinical phase of the infection only a small number of brain-resident macrophages are productively infected. However, interaction of FIV-infected microglia and inflammatory lymphocytes may promote viral replication, thus supporting viral spread in brain tissue.  (+info)

8-Difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives as anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) agents: important structural features for inhibitory activity of FIV replication. (7/233)

The inhibitory activities of various 8-difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication in the chronically infected cell line P-CrFK were investigated. Certain derivatives were found to inhibit FIV production from P-CrFK cells in a dose-dependent manner without exhibiting cytotoxic effects at inhibitory concentrations. Based on this study, the structures important for anti-FIV activity are suggested to be (i) a carboxyl group at position C-3, and (ii) an aromatic modification at position 4 of the C-7 piperazinyl moiety.  (+info)

Effects of multiple acute morphine exposures on feline immunodeficiency virus disease progression. (8/233)

Drug abuse is a common method of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission, but the role of opiates on lentivirus disease progression is not well understood. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)/cat system was used to model the weekend opiate abuser: the nondependent, nonaddicted, and nontolerant person. Sixteen cats were placed into 4 groups: FIV only, morphine only, morphine/FIV, and controls. Multiple acute morphine exposure did not increase the severity of early lentivirus infection. On the contrary, it delayed or moderated the FIV-induced disease progression. Although the animals were exposed to only 1 injection of morphine per day for 2 consecutive days per week, the morphine-treated FIV-infected animals had a delayed onset of the FIV-induced lymphadenopathy, did not develop or had a significant delay in the FIV-induced effects on brain stem auditory evoked potentials, and demonstrated a trend toward decreased virus load.  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody, MAb vpg15, inhibits feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in tissue culture. The antibody is directed to a determinant of the feline cell surface marker, CD9, implying that CD9 may serve as a viral receptor or coreceptor in this system. In cells expressing CD9, MAb vpg15 markedly delayed acute virus infection in terms of reverse transcriptase activity detected in cell culture supernatants. This effect was evident if the antibody was added before, immediately after, or 24 h after virus infection. Binding experiments showed that MAb vpg15 did not block virus binding to the cells. PCR analyses at various intervals postinfection also indicated that MAb vpg15 did not block virus uptake, reverse transcription of viral RNA, or integration into host cell DNA. Multiply spliced mRNAs were detected up to 24 h postinfection in both control and MAb vpg15-treated cells. However, viral mRNAs were markedly diminished in MAb vpg15-treated cells after this time, consistent with a failure of
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) interacts with dendritic cells (DC) during initiation of infection, but whether DC support or transfer FIV infection remains unclear. To address this issue, we studied the susceptibility of feline myeloid DC to FIV infection and assessed potential transfer of infection from DC to CD4+ T cells. FIV was detected in membrane-bound vesicles of DC within 2 h of inoculation, although only low concentrations of FIV DNA were found in virus-exposed isolated DC. Addition of resting CD4+ T cells increased viral DNA levels; however, addition of activated CD4+ T cells resulted in a burst of viral replication manifested by FIV p27 capsid antigen generation. To determine whether transfer of FIV infection required productively infected DC (vs virus bound to DC but not internalized), virus-exposed DC were cultured for 2 days to allow for degradation of uninternalized virus and initiation of infection in the DC, then CD4+ T blasts were added. Infection of T cells remained robust,
Mouse anti Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope antibody, clone CE4-13B1 recognizes the FIV gp95 envelope protein. Mouse anti Feline Imm
FIV gag polypeptides and a method and device for determining a feline immunodeficiency virus infection in an animal. The method includes contacting a biological sample from a felid with the FIV polypeptides and determining the binding of antibodies in the sample to the polypeptides. A device for detecting FIV antibodies is provided.
The first stage of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus infection is called the acute stage and is characterized by fevers, susceptibilities to skin & intestinal infections, and swollen lymph nodes. These symptoms usually occur 4-6 weeks after infection. At this time there may be elevated levels of your cats antibodies present.. * The second stage is called the latent, more formally the subclinical stage, and therere no signs of the disease. This stage may last for years, but during this period the immune system is slowly being destroyed.. * The third stage is the final, AIDS-like stage when the immunodeficiency becomes severe. It occurs most commonly in cats 5-12 years of age. In this clinical stage the cats immune system isnt operating properly and she is prone to infections that under normal circumstances her body would easily ward off. But since her immune system cannot keep these infections under control, they multiply rapidly causing disease. Infections such as these are called ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High genetic stability of TM1 and TM2 strains of subtype B feline immunodeficiency virus in long-term infection. AU - Ikeda, Yasuhiro H. AU - Miyazawa, Takayuki. AU - Nishimura, Yorihiro. AU - Nakamura, Kazuya. AU - Tohya, Yukinobu. AU - Mikami, Takeshi. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - To know the genetic changes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in long-term infection in cats, we inoculated three specific pathogen-free cats with FIV isolates and determined a partial env sequence covering the V3-V5 region. In 2 cats infected with subtype B strains TM1 and TM2, only one amino acid change in region V3 was observed at 9 years post infection (y.p.i.), and no nucleotide substitutions were observed between 9 and 10 y.p.i., indicating that these strains are genetically stable. On the other hand, in a cat infected with subtype A strain Petaluma at 8.7 y.p.i., 3 nucleotide insertions (one amino acid insertion) in region V5, and 1 synonymous nucleotide substitution and 2 non-synonymous ...
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p24 gag Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p24 gag Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Definition of Feline immunodeficiency virus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) like to HIV in human. In Argentina FIV infection is greater than feline leukemia virus what result in an excellent model to study HIV infection as well as to improve pet cats health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AZT-response in cats with FIV.. Material and Methods. A longitudinal analysis, on 7 cats were performed during 12 months under Zidovudine (AZT) 5mg/kg (bid) every other month as only treatment. CD4/CD8 ratio, AGP, Albumin/Globulin ratio and viral load were studied. These variables were analysed at basal time, 6 and 12 months of treatment. FIV was confirmed by serology and PCR. In addition to the evaluation of the clinical signs blood chemistry, hematology and other complementary diagnostic methods. CD4/CD8 ratio was performed with: 8100-01 Sowthern Biotechnology, anti CD4 Vpg 34, Willett, Glasgow University, anti CD8, VPG9, Willett, Glasgow University and ...
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important pathogen causing lifelong infection in cats and for which a vaccine is available. A concern exists regarding the vaccine in that vaccinated cats will test positive by most routine testing. Distinguishing vaccinated from infected cats is a particular concern in cats with unknown histories, such as in shelters. In this study, investigators examined the usefulness of several point of care kits for detecting infection with FIV using saliva as a test sample. Two point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Antigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) could accurately identify natural FIV infection in client-owned Australian cats using saliva as the diagnostic specimen, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. In areas where FIV vaccination is practiced, and when venipuncture is not possible without skilled physical restraint or heavy sedation, collecting and testing saliva for the presence of FIV antibodies using either of these two kits is an accurate ...
During type 1 human immunodeficiency virus infection, not only can dendritic cells (DCs) prime T cells against the virus, but they can also infect them in trans. Feline AIDS is caused by feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and is considered a model for the human illness because the two diseases have many features in common. Little is known about the interaction of feline DCs with FIV; therefore, this study attempts to tackle such an issue. Infection of feline monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) was attempted by spinoculation with FIV strains Petaluma (FIV-Pet) and M2. FIV-Pet was released rapidly in the supernatants of both infected MDDCs and activated T cells after spinoculation. It is shown that FIV-Pet was produced by MDDCs by monitoring viral content in the supernatants of infected MDDCs, by intracellular staining for p25 and by showing its cytopathic effect. Although activated T cells were better substrates for FIV replication, leading to prolonged viral shedding, both immature MDDCs and MDDCs matured
Welcome to our Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) page. Contact Christopher A. Ainsworth, DVM today at (251) 943-5152 or visit our office servicing Foley, AL
Below are two beautiful kittens who recently presented for their FIV vaccination course. At just $36 per injection (if given alongside the F3 vaccination), its a small price to pay to provide the best possible protection against this incurable disease.. If you have an adult cat and wish to start the FIV vaccination course, please contact the clinic today to book an appointment for an FIV blood test. Provided they havent been in a fight with another cat for at least 60 days (the incubation period for FIV) AND their FIV test result is negative, they can be vaccinated against the virus. Once again, they require the initial course of 3 injections 2 weeks apart followed by yearly boosters.. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus is very prevalent in the domestic cat population in the City of Casey, we regularly diagnose cats with FIV who present to the clinic with underlying illnesses, most notably mouth infections, together with a history of being in fights in the past (sometimes very distant past).. Given ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade
Bürgisser, P; Vernazza, P; Flepp, M; Böni, J; Tomasik, Z; Hummel, U; Pantaleo, G; Schüpbach, J (2000). Performance of five different assays for the quantification of viral load in persons infected with various subtypes of HIV-1. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 23(2):138-144.. Leutenegger, Christian M; Klein, D; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Mislin, Caroline N; Hummel, U; Böni, J; Boretti, Felicitas S; Guenzburg, W H; Lutz, Hans (1999). Rapid feline immunodeficiency virus provirus quantitation by polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan fluorogenic real-time detection system. Journal of Virological Methods, 78(40575):105-116.. Holznagel, E; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Leutenegger, C M; Allenspach, K; Huettner, S; Forster, U; Niederer, E; Joller, H; Willett, B J; Hummel, U; Rossi, G L; Schüpbach, J; Lutz, H (1998). The role of in vitro-induced lymphocyte apoptosis in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: correlation with different markers of disease ...
Just a few weeks ago, CATS Cradle Shelter rescued a kitten from a hay feeder; a kitten they named Hal and placed in foster care. He is estimated to be about eight weeks old. Unfortunately, he has recently tested positive for Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), though CATS Cradle is holding out hope that it was a false positive, and plan to retest him when hes a bit older.. Though it may be an unpleasant subject to think about, FIV is something all cat owners need to be aware of. Here are just a few basic facts to consider when it comes to looking after your cat and reducing their risk of infection.. 1. FIV is not transferred through casual contact.. FIV cannot be transmitted when cats share the same food or water bowl, or when they groom each other. Most often its transmitted through bite wounds, when an infected cat bites another. Cats are safest when theyre indoors, where theyre less likely to be exposed to infected cats that might attack them. Similarly, if your cat has FIV, they should ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the lentivirus of domestic cats responsible for feline AIDS, establishes a latent infection in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells approximately eight months after experimental inoculation. In this study, cats experimentally infected with the FIV-C strain in the asymptomatic phase demonstrated an estimated viral load of 1 infected cell per approximately 103 CD4+ T-cells, with about 1 copy of viral DNA per cell. Approximately 1 in 10 proviral copies was capable of transcription in the asymptomatic phase. The latent FIV proviral promoter was associated with deacetylated, methylated histones, which is consistent with a condensed chromatin structure. In contrast, the transcriptionally active FIV promoter was associated with histone acetylation and demethylation. In addition, RNA polymerase II appeared to be paused on the latent viral promoter, and short promoter-proximal transcripts were detected. Our findings for the FIV promoter in infected cats are similar to results
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in the domestic cat provides a good animal model for dissecting the immunopathology associated with HIV infected individuals, as the immune dysfunction in the cat replicates the immune deterioration in humans. Lentiviruses characteristically cause a gradual loss in T-helper cells numbers and functions. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to account for lentivirus-induced T cell depletion although none of these mechanisms alone account for all the T cell changes. The B7/cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen four (CTLA4) signaling pathway is a major signaling pathway in the initiation and termination of T cell immune responses. The B7 receptors are normally expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC), while CD28 and CTLA4 are differentially expressed on the surface of T cells. Recent studies show that chronic stimulation in vitro or in vivo results in an unusual increase in the percent of T cells that express the B7 and CTLA4 molecules. These ...
We used feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease (PR) as a mutational framework to define determinants for the observed substrate and inhibitor specificity distinctions between FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PRs. Multiple-substitution mutants were constructed by replacing the residues in and around the active site of FIV PR with the structurally equivalent residues of HIV-1 PR. Mutants included combinations of three critical regions (FIV numbering, with equivalent HIV numbering in superscript): I37(32)V in the active core region; N55(46)M, M56(47)I, and V59(50)I in the flap region; and L97(80)T, I98(81)P, Q99(82)V, P100(83)N, and L101(84)I in the 90s loop region. Significant alterations in specificity were observed, consistent with the involvement of these residues in determining the substrate-inhibitor specificity distinctions between FIV and HIV PRs. Two previously identified residues, I35 and I57 of FIV PR, were intolerant to substitution and yielded inactive PRs. Therefore, ...
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus just as HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. FIV is a virus that causes AIDS in cats; however, there is a long asymptomatic period before AIDS occurs and our job is to prolong this asymptomatic period. Some lifestyle changes will probably be needed now that you know you have an FIV+ cat.
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57 ...
Approximately 1.5 to 3 percent of healthy cats in the U.S. are infected with FIV, or feline immunodeficiency virus. What is this virus and how does it impact a cats health?
Species, Publications, Research Grants, Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Research Topics about feline immunodeficiency virus
Introduction. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illness in cats. Five subtypes (A to E) have been isolated based on sequence diversity in various regions. The primary routes of FIV transmission are through deep bite wounds and scratches, where the infected cats saliva enters the other cats bloodstream. FIV could also be transmitted from pregnant females to the fetus in their utero. FIV infections are not necessarily fatal. Cats could live relatively healthy life and act as FIV carriers for years. In initial phase or acute phase of FIV infection is often accompanied by mild symptoms such as fever, lethargy, anorexia, pyrexia and lymphadenopathy ...
The FIV regulatory protein Rev and accessory proteins Vif and ORF-A are essential for efficient viral replication and full-blown pathogenesis. Expressed at very low level during viral replication, they are nevertheless processed for recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and trigger cellular immune responses in FIV-infected cats. The observation that the accessory ORF-A protein of FIV is continuously expressed during viral replication and targeted by cellular immune responses in natural FIV infection, prompted us to investigate the protective potential of this protein. To this aim cats were immunized with three different strategies (protein alone in alum adjuvant, DNA alone, or DNA prime-protein boost) and generated clearly detectable immune responses. Upon challenge with ex vivo homologous FIV, ORF-A immunized cats showed distinct enhancement of acute-phase infection possibly due to an increased expression of the FIV receptor CD134. However, at subsequent sampling points plasma viremia ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus FIV From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Feline immunodeficiency virusVirus classificationGroup:Group VI (ssRNA-RT)Family:RetroviridaeSubfamily:OrthoretrovirinaeGenus:LentivirusSpecies:Feline immunodeficiency virus Feline
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Learn more about the symptoms, causes and treatment of the disease, below.
After the passing of an FIV cat, the home needs to be cleaned up before a new kitty can join the family. Its not the FIV you will be cleaning up. Its the various germs that your HIV left behind during its final months of poor health. Disinfect all kitty supplies by washing thoroughly with hot soapy water and drip drying. Give these items a second wiping down with bleach water and air drying. Throw away soft toys and get new ones. Spray cat towers and beds with a disinfectant spray. Give all floors a very thorough vacuuming or mopping ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p24 gag Antibody (PAK3-2C1). Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Virus. 100% Guaranteed.
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Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Bauer-Pham, K; Holznagel, Edgar; Tozzini, F; Bendinelli, M; Reubel, G; Aubert, Andre; Davis, D; Cox, D (1995). FIV vaccine studies. I. Immune response to recombinant FIV env gene products and outcome after challenge infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 46(1-2):103-113.. Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Holznagel, Edgar; Aubert, Andre; Bauer-Pham, K; Lutz, Hans (1995). FIV vaccine studies. II. Clinical findings, hematological changes and kinetics of blood lymphocyte subsets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 46(1-2):115-125.. Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Holznagel, Edgar; Aubert, Andre; Ossent, Pete; Reinacher, Manfred; Lutz, Hans (1995). Recombinant FeLV vaccine: long-term protection and effect on course and outcome of FIV infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 46(1-2):127-137. ...
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FIV? What is it, how can my cat get it, is there a treatment? There are almost 38 million people around the world that are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, did you know that there is an equivalent virus that affects cats? It is called the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Like HIV, FIV co
Protect cats against feline leukemia and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus with Fel-O-Vax LvK + FIV 50 ds Tray. Order it from VetDepot and save.
Feline immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) has similar building blocks and is related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), but very importantly, it cannot be passed between cats and humans. The virus can also not be transmitted from cats to dogs. Both FIV and HIV viruses share a similar pattern of disease progression. Both viruses are classified as Lentivirus, which means they have a long period of showing very few clinical signs during which time the immune system deteriorates. Eventually Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) develops and this is accompanied by opportunistic infections, systemic disease and cancer. Read more ...
Scrima, M.; DErrico, G.; Esposito, C.; Giannecchini, S.; Bendinelli, M.; Rovero, P.; Marsh, D.; DUrsi, A. M.: Spin-label aided investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus Gp36 derived peptide in presence of membrane models. Journal of Peptide Science 14 (8), S. 178 - 179 (2008 ...
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This year, Adopt-A-Less-Adoptable-Pet Week runs from September 17 through 25. Shelters across the country will be hosting events designed to bring their special cats into the spotlight.. My own love affair with special-needs cats began when I was about 14, when I had to bottle-feed a kitten whose young mother didnt have enough milk to feed him properly. My next special cat was a psychologically scarred lady who was having a miserable time in her previous home. Im grateful that I was able to rehabilitate and give a year of loving, trusting life before she died from widespread cancer. Then it was Castor, whom I adopted on my 13th birthday and who was later discovered to be FIV-positive. He was the first cat I took to the vet for his final visit - his body had become overwhelmed by infections he could no longer fight off, and it was the kindest (and most heartbreaking) thing I could do to help him.. ...
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Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIV Ple subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIV Ple subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5 LTR, gag, pol,
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a virus found around the world that is passed by cat-to-cat contact through blood and nursing. Fortunately, FIV is not terribly contagious and is rarely spread through casual (not aggressive) contact. Cats that go outdoors are at the highest risk of contracting FIV because cats tend to scuffle and the disease is commonly passed by a bite from an infected cat. If a cat does get FIV it does not usually show symptoms for many years. As the disease progresses it suppresses the immune system and cats easily contract secondary infections. Symptoms include lusterless coat condition, enlarged lymph nodes, persistent infections and gradual weight loss. Your vet can test for FIV using a simple in-house blood test. It is good practice to test all new cats before introducing them to your household if you already have other cats. FIV positive cats can live happily for many years when provided with a good diet and they are protected from secondary infections.. Talk to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety and immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD vaccine in domestic cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. AU - Zimmerman, Dawn M.. AU - Waters, W. Ray. AU - Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.. AU - Nonnecke, Brian J.. AU - Armstrong, Douglas L.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Larsen, Michelle H.. AU - Egan, Erin. AU - Dean, Gregg A.. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive and FIV-negative cats (n = 4/group) received 2 × 106 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses, albeit at lower levels in FIV-positive cats than in FIV-negative cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses were minimal in both groups. No adverse reactions were found.. AB - Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive and FIV-negative cats (n = 4/group) received 2 × 106 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔlysA ΔpanCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses, albeit ...
The World Health Organization marks December 1st as World AIDS Day. For 2012, the chosen theme is ?Getting to Zero.? World AIDS Day remembers those who have died from this terrible disease and educates those at risk of contracting it. This year?s theme focuses attention on the hope that someday there will be no human patients with AIDS.. Cats too suffer from a virus similar to HIV/AIDS in humans. Like our hope for zero AIDS patients, cat lovers everywhere hope to someday get to zero feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infections. This connection between AIDS and cats gives us a good opportunity to think about the thousands of cats infected with FIV and then talk about how to prevent your cat from this serious viral infection.. I started thinking about FIV recently when a feline patient, Yuki, came to The Animal Medical Center for an internal medicine consultation with a fever and an FIV infection.. Location, location, location. American cats are lucky: FIV infection is uncommon here, occurring ...
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To minimize the chances of infection, it is important to know that cat AIDS is spread by saliva and blood. If you are concerned about infected cats in your area, keep your cat separated to ensure that he doesnt come in contact with an FIV-positive cat. Although there is a vaccine that decreases the chance of your pet contracting FIV, cats that are kept from interacting with infected cats have a minimal risk of becoming ill. If you know that your cat is infected with FIV, help to decrease the chances of his spreading the disease to other cats by keeping him inside and isolated from any other pets. Feline immunodeficiency virus is not transmittable to humans. With the knowledge of how FIV is spread, you can successfully guard your cat against infection. ...
Dr. Barchas,. Appreciate your site greatly. Took in a stray kitten a couple months ago and found out he is FIV positive. Your information on FIV is immensely helpful and I am trying to spread the word that one does not have to euthanize or isolate an FIV positive cat. Thank you for the great information on this.. One question, though…should an FIV positive cat be given any vaccinations, considering the nature of his condition is a compromised immune system? It seems counter-intuitive to inject a virus into a cat who will have trouble fighting it…?. Again, many thanks for your great website and info. on FIV.. Jenny. Feline immunodeficiency virus, or FIV, is very similar to the virus that causes human AIDS. There is no evidence that FIV poses a health risk to humans.. Cats with FIV suffer from immune system compromise. A weakened immune system predisposes cats to opportunistic viral and bacterial infections.. Jenny, you make a good point about injecting viruses into a cat with a weak immune ...
For decades, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) positive cats basically faced two fates: euthanasia, or a lifetime without a forever home. Due in part to a lack of conclusive studies on the virus, and made all the worse by the stigma associated with other immunodeficiency viruses, the public had long been convinced that FIV+ cats could only live with other FIV+ cats, which made placing these cats into homes nearly impossible.. Fortunately, recent veterinary studies, a growing appreciation of special needs cats, and a new interest in addressing behavioral issues in felines have revealed that these cats can in fact live long, healthy lives in the company of FIV negative cats with no issue.. So heres everything you need to know if youre thinking about opening up your heart and home to one of these felines! (spoiler alert: they are awesome.). What is FIV?. FIV is a viral disease in the same class as HIV. It suppresses the immune system of the infected cats, causing an increased risk of ...
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Learn how SNAP Feline Triple makes it easy for veterinarians to screen for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and heartworm.
Interestingly, recent observations show that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats were developing cancers similar to those observed in humans with Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposis sarcoma--associated herpesvirus. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening identified 3 novel GHVs in domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas. PCR testing of nearly 1500 cats from the United States, Australia, Europe, Singapore, Japan, and Brazil has since estimated a 10% to 25% prevalence of the domestic cat GHV (known as Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 [FcaGHV1]). However, serologic studies suggest that infection rates are even higher than PCR results indicate. ...
The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. In this study, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy using a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which causes a severe acute phase immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality rates. Twenty cats were infected with uncloned FIV-C and half were treated with TL-3 while the other half were left untreated. Two uninfected cats were used as controls. The general health and the immunological and virological status of the animals was monitored for eight weeks following infection. All infected animals became viremic independent of TL-3 treatment and seven of 20 FIV-C infected animals developed severe immunodepletive disease in conjunction with significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher viral RNA loads as compared to asymptomatic animals. A marked and progressive increase in CD8+ T lymphocytes
1. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 May;46(1-2):159-68.. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits replication of feline immunodeficiency virus ...
Remington, Kathryn Martin, Selection and characterization of AZT-resistant mutants of feline immunodeficiency virus (1993). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 10394 ...
A negative test result indicates that antibodies directed against FIV have not been detected, and, in most cases, this implies that the cat is not infected. Nevertheless, it takes eight to 12 weeks after infection (and sometimes even longer) before detectable levels of antibody appear, so if the test is performed during this interval, inaccurate results might be obtained. Therefore, antibody-negative cats with either an unknown or a known exposure to FIV-infected cats-such as through the bite of an unknown cat-should be retested a minimum of 60 days after their most recent exposure in order to allow adequate time for development of antibodies ...
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Can I give my FIV cat vaccines? What about the other cats in the household? Is it safe? What about the FIV vaccine? Read hear to see the answers
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Problems with current tests for FIV by Brittany Roth, Calvins Paws Medical Care Coordinator and FIV/Felv Advisor We hear it all the time.
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Тест-набор Feline VacciCheck предназначен для определения титра антител в сыворотке крови кошек к панлейкопении, вирусный ринотрахеиту (герпес-вирус), кальцивирозу кошек. Основной целью данного набора является предоставление полезного инструмента для оценки иммунного статуса кошек касательного этих трех патогенов. Он поможет определить титр IgG как до, так и после вакцинации, а так же продолжительность иммунитета. Рассчитана от 1 до 12/120 определений (в зависимости от набора).. ...
... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.180.440 - feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C22.180.460 - feline ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.836.120 - bluetongue MeSH C22.836.160 - border disease MeSH C22.836.259 - ... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH C22.795.239 - ectromelia, infectious MeSH C22.795. ... poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 - sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131.921 - tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 - ...
... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 - hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 - acquired ... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.900 - visna MeSH C02.782.815.622 - leukemia, feline MeSH C02.782 ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 - aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.725 - pulmonary adenomatosis, ovine MeSH C02.782.815.800 - sarcoma, ...
... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... Bicolor cat. Black cat. Calico cat. Tabby cat. Tortoiseshell ... Feline hepatic lipidosis also known as Feline Fatty Liver Syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats.[5 ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV.[2]. *Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer.. *Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a ...
The human immunodeficiency virus can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Untreated HIV infected expectant ... or contact with the feces of infected cats. If the exposure occurs during the first trimester, eye and brain damage may result ... By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next ... There is a risk of Down syndrome for infants born to those aged over 40 years. Young teenaged mothers (younger than 16) and ...
... the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). "Lymphadenopathy syndrome" has been used to describe the first ... Infectious causes of lymphadenopathy may include bacterial infections such as cat scratch disease, tularemia, brucellosis, or ... Klotz, SA; Ianas, V; Elliott, SP (2011). "Cat-scratch Disease". American Family Physician. 83 (2): 152-155. PMID 21243990. ... Generalized lymphadenopathy is an early sign of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ...
Finally, the cat progresses into the final stage (known as the feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome (FAIDS) stage), ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a Lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.5% to 4.4% of felines being infected. ... American Association of Feline Practitioners (2002), "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus", Cornell Feline Health Center, Cornell ... Feline vaccination Winn Feline Foundation Johnson (2005), Proceedings Might, Jennifer Lynne (2004), Feline Immunodeficiency ...
Cats usually become immune to the infection, while dogs may be very symptomatic. Humans may also acquire it through flea or ... March 1993). "Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease". Ann. Intern. Med. 118 (5): 331-6. doi: ... yields Bartonella henselae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient and unique Bartonella strain from his cat". J ... Cats are the main reservoir of Bartonella henselae, and the bacterium is transmitted to cats by the cat flea Ctenocephalides ...
AIDS stands for acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome which is not a proper name, while Aids is in the style of one. Some style ... TICA for The International Cat Association, DoJ for Department of Justice). Acronyms formed from a string of initials and ... such as AIDS from acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, and scuba from self-contained underwater breathing apparatus). However, ... Rebranding can lead to redundant acronym syndrome, as when Trustee Savings Bank became TSB Bank, or when Railway Express Agency ...
... of which 16,528 progressed to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); 9,554 have died. The actual number of HIV-positive ... In September 2018, the Hanoi People's Committee urged the citizens of the country to stop eating dog and cat meat as it can ... By the following year, Vietnam had diagnosed 101,291 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases, ... Cat Bi International Airport, Can Tho International Airport, and Long Thanh International Airport. The planned Long Thanh ...
... a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex". Lancet. 2 (8560 ... Cats may be bacteremic for weeks to years, but infection is more common in young cats. Transmission to humans is thought to ... Therefore, elimination and control of fleas in the cat's environment are key to prevention of infection in both cats and humans ... "An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome". Am J Clin Pathol. 80 (5): 714-8. doi: ...
H. cinaedi has been isolated from cats, dogs, hamsters, rats, foxes, and rhesus monkeys; the bacterium is part of the normal ... These community-acquired infections occur principally in immunocompetent individuals. While many H. cinaedi infections in ... or the myelodysplastic syndrome), chemotherapy treatments, or splenectomy. H. cinaedi infection has also occurred in persons ... common variable immunodeficiency, various malignancies (e.g. lung cancer, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma, ...
Clinical Syndromes: Health Care-Associated Infections Chapter 137: Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities Chapter 138: ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: AIDS and Related Disorders Section 15: Infections Due to RNA Viruses Chapter 198: Viral ... Including Cat-Scratch Disease Chapter 168: Donovanosis Section 7: Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections Chapter 169: Nocardiosis ... Sjögren's Syndrome Chapter 355: The Spondyloarthritides Chapter 356: The Vasculitis Syndromes Chapter 357: Behçet's Syndrome ...
... as can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or when being treated with immunosuppressive drugs, as in cancer treatment ... Opportunistic infections caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... Immunodeficiency or immunosuppression are characterized by the absence of or disruption in components of the immune system, ... It is frequently associated with cystic fibrosis and hospital-acquired infections. Salmonella is a genus of bacteria, known to ...
... a precursor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. There are several distinct strains of HIV, indicating ... Cat meat Dog meat Game - animals hunted for food Indigenous cuisine of the Americas Malnutrition Roadkill cuisine Wildlife ... Simian immunodeficiency virus present in chimpanzees is reportedly derived from older strains of the virus present in the ... and syphilis acquired by early agrarians. The emergence of HIV-1, AIDS, Ebola virus disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are ...
May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... Related viruses in other groups in the genus infect other mammals like sheep and goats, horses, cattle, cats and a few others. ... King NW, Hunt RD, Letvin NL (December 1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... While human immunodeficiency virus has a limited number of subtypes, SIV is now known to infect a few dozen species of non- ...
"Expression of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma ... "Four independent mutations in the feline fibroblast growth factor 5 gene determine the long-haired phenotype in domestic cats ... This has been demonstrated in many species, including cats, dogs, mice, rabbits, donkeys, sheep and goats, where it is often ... "Mutations within the FGF5 gene are associated with hair length in cats". Animal Genetics. 38 (3): 218-21. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
Duesberg P (1989). "Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation". Proc ... feline leukemia virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus. Duesberg claims that the supposedly innocuous nature of all retroviruses ... Update on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), United States. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and ... Revision of the CDC Surveillance Case Definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for National Reporting, United States. [ ...
1985) The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. A six-year follow-up study. Ann Intern Med. 103, ... with murine and feline leukemia viruses as helpers. Int J Cancer 9, 383-392 PMID 4339414 ... 1986) Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an ... AIDS huwa l-akronimu ta' Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome jew, aħjar bil-Malti, Sindrome ta' immunodefiċjenza akkwiżita u ...
May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... King NW, Hunt RD, Letvin NL (December 1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both ...
... that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[1][2] AIDS is a condition in humans in which ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus. *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Equine infectious anemia virus. *Feline immunodeficiency ... "Infection by the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine. 103 (5): 694- ... Centers for Disease Control (1982). "Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-United States". Morbidity and ...
Journal of Acquired Deficiency Syndromes. 2: 311. Haseltine, WA (1992). "Molecular Biology of the AIDS Virus: Ten Years of ... The first product, developed for the French company Virbac, was a vaccine to protect domestic cats from infection by the feline ... "Cis-Acting Sequences Responsive to the rev Gene Product of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus". Journal of Acquired Immune ... LeukoSite, also initially funded by Healthcare Ventures, acquired ProScript which in turn was acquired by Millenium ...
In 1977 the WHO recorded the last case of smallpox infection acquired outside a laboratory in Somalia. In 1980 the WHO ... Nipah virus infection Rift Valley fever Severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Zika They ... but also in those who cannot be vaccinated due to age or immunodeficiency, who could contract infections from unvaccinated ... Medicine portal Viruses portal Vaccination policy Antitoxin DNA vaccination Feline vaccination H5N1 clinical trials ...
Malnutrition and immunodeficiency tend to exacerbate the condition, leading to more severe cases or secondary conditions that ... These symptoms are usually mild but in cases of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS), which has dehydration, immune ... Feline astrovirus 1, Porcine astrovirus 1, Mink astrovirus 1 and Ovine astrovirus 1. Astroviruses have a star-like appearance ... Lee and Kurtz discover two serotypes of astrovirus that are used to type 13 strains of community-acquired astrovirus 1987: Gray ...
Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings. Sheep ... Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a syndrome caused by a malformation of the digestive system, characterized by a severe ... Influence on innate and acquired immunity". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 22 (4): 1433-1448. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1433. ... "Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: ...
... a precursor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in humans. The body parts of many animals, such as tigers and ... Banks, D.; Lawson, S. & Wright, B. (2006). Skinning the Cat: Crime and Politics of the Big Cat Skin Trade (PDF) (Report). ...
Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome» (en anglès). Autops Case Rep, 2018 ... Hartmann K, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al «Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and ... Must K, Hytönen MK, Orro T, Lohi H, Jokelainen P «Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed» (en anglès). PLoS One, ... Herwaldt, BL «Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures» (en anglès). Clin Microbiol Rev, 2001 Oct; 14 ...
... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Most virologists believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century ... Pigs, cattle, goats, sheep, horses, camels, cats and dogs were all kept and bred in captivity. These animals would have brought ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a new type of coronavirus. Other coronaviruses were known to cause mild ... This acquired immunity is only passed down to offspring temporarily, by antibodies in breast milk and other antibodies that ...
Lastly, a community-acquired infection is one in which the infection is acquired from a whole community. One manner of proving ... Other techniques (such as X-rays, CAT scans, PET scans or NMR) are used to produce images of internal abnormalities resulting ... In contrast, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) kills its victims very slowly by attacking their immune system. As a result ... Ebolavirus and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Fungi, further subclassified into: Ascomycota, including yeasts ...
... the terms human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are abbreviated to HIV and AIDS, respectively. ... Bubonic plague Bullous impetigo Cat scratch disease (cat scratch fever, English-Wear infection, inoculation lymphoreticulosis, ... Turner syndrome Ulnar-mammary syndrome Van Der Woude syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome Watson syndrome Werner syndrome (adult ... Job syndrome) Immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF syndrome ...
AACTG - acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - ... cat scan - CCR5 - CD4 (T4) or CD4 + cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
Siberian cats, British Shorthair, and Maine Coon,[21] however any domestic cat including mixed breeds can acquire HCM.[22] ... "Congenital Myasthatic Syndrome". Sphynx Cat Association (SCA). Retrieved 2019-10-31.. ... The Cat Fanciers' Association. 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-10-26.. *^ "Sphynx Cat Wear - clothes for Sphynx cats". sphynxcatwear ... The Sphynx cat is a breed of cat known for its lack of coat (fur). Hairlessness in cats is a naturally occurring genetic ...
Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; ... Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[209] Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and ... Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... Is human herpesvirus-6 a trigger for chronic fatigue syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2006;37 Suppl 1:S39-46. doi: ...
Pseudomonal pyoderma / Pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome / Hot tub folliculitis / Ecthyma gangrenosum / Green nail syndrome ... Primary syphilis is typically acquired by direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of another person.[17] ... Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in a person with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus[59] ... Cat-scratch disease. *Oroya fever. *Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection. *β: Gonococcemia/Gonorrhea/Primary gonococcal dermatitis ...
AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Anaplasmosis ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae Cellulitis usually Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus ... Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Melioidosis (Whitmore's disease) ... Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111 and O104:H4 ...
Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings.[43] ... Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a syndrome caused by a malformation of the digestive system, characterized by a severe ... Influence on innate and acquired immunity". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 22 (4): 1433-1448. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1433. ... "Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: ...
... with severe immunodeficiency or to those who are using salicylate treatments because of the risk of developing Reye syndrome. ... For example, in late 2016 to early 2017, an avian H7N2 strain was found to be infecting cats in New York. Equine IAVs include ... In H7N9's case, some circulating strains were originally LPAI but became HPAI by acquiring the HA multibasic cleavage site. ... and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Additionally, febrile seizures and Reye syndrome can occur, most commonly in children. Influenza- ...
"France outlaws lewd cat-calls to women in public amid attack uproar". 2 August 2018 - via "Adultery no longer ... Tennessee, United States: Tennessee banned abortions because of a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome or because of the gender ... United States: The Supreme Court reinstated federal rules mandating anyone having a medication abortion to acquire the pills ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and counseling; FDA-approved contraceptive methods and contraceptive counseling; ...
May 1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". ... Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and horses, if not vaccinated, are susceptible to serious viral infections. Canine ... "Reducing the risk of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission: past successes, current progress and challenges ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are caused by new types of coronaviruses. ...
Feline; FAIDS; Feline AIDS. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... "Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome"Drugs, active principles and "Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome"Medicinal ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, Feline; FAIDS; Feline AIDS). Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs ... in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). ...
Feline Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome , Feline Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome , Feline AIDS Definition Acquired ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 3.. Diseases ← Animal Diseases ← Cat Diseases ← Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Synonyms AIDS, Feline , FAIDS , Feline Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome , ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 2.. Diseases ← Virus Diseases ← Slow Virus Diseases ← ...
Antonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 2 words related to acquired: nonheritable, noninheritable. What are ... Synonyms for Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Free Thesaurus. ... Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome synonyms, Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome antonyms - ... Related to Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Feline immunodeficiency virus #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor:pointer} .vt- ...
... henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats ... may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications* * Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis * Feline ... henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats ...
Feigenbaum Bergeron Richardson Syndrome Feingold syndrome + Feingold Trainer Syndrome Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ... Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Myelodysplasia, Immunodeficiency, Facial Dysmorphism, Short Stature, and Psychomotor ... severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Microcephaly, Growth Retardation, and Sensitivity to ... complex regional pain syndrome + CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT SYNDROME WITH OR WITHOUT HEARING LOSS, ...
Feigenbaum Bergeron Richardson Syndrome Feingold syndrome + Feingold Trainer Syndrome Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ... CACP ; CACP syndrome ; CAP syndrome ; Jacobs syndrome ; PAC syndrome ; arthropathy camptodactyly syndrome ; camptodactyly ... severe combined immunodeficiency with sensitivity to ionizing radiation severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, ... camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome A syndrome that is characterized by congenital or early-onset ...
Cutaneous Vascular Lesions and Disseminated Cat-Scratch Disease in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) ... Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae Adenitis Suggesting Cat Scratch Disease Matthew J. Dolan, MD; Michael T. Wong, MD; Russell L. ... Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae Adenitis Suggesting Cat Scratch Disease. Ann Intern Med. ;118:331-336. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819- ... To describe a clinical syndrome of cat scratch disease caused by Rochalimaea henselae, including methods for isolation of the ...
... and related syndromes has a long and often circuitous history. Recognition of the etiologic agents and a new understanding of ... The search for the infectious agents responsible for cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, ... Cutaneous vascular lesions and disseminated cat scratch disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... Dolan MJ, Wong MT, Regnery RL, Jorgensen JH, Garcia M, Peters J, Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat ...
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) like to ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Evaluation of Viral Load With Quantitative Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (QC-PCR) ... Feline α-1 glycoprotein (AGP) was performed with radial immunodiffusion test provided by Ecos Institute, Japan. Viral load was ... In Argentina FIV infection is greater than feline leukemia virus what result in an excellent model to study HIV infection as ...
... acquired objects: barn interiors, archives 2017 09 30 cream wood dining chairs french, find and save ideas about barn homes ... Designers choice cabinetry business acquired by gridiron. Feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; aids, feline. Flooring for ... Acquired objects: fortuny: a master at work, part 1. Kenra acquired by imperial capital corporation. Patio pond ideas, small ... Obsidian entertainment might be acquired by microsoft. Kid bunk bed ideas: images and photos objects hit interiors. Acquired ...
... induces a disease similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, yet in contrast to human immunodeficiency virus ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, yet in ... Use of CD134 as a primary receptor by the feline immunodeficiency virus Science. 2004 Feb 20;303(5661):1192-5. doi: 10.1126/ ... Thus, despite the evolutionary divergence of the feline and human lentiviruses, both viruses use receptors that target the ...
OR htlv antibodies OR htlv antigens OR htlv infections OR human herpesvirus 6 OR feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR ... "simian immunodeficiency virus" OR simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR saids [tw] OR mason-pfizer monkey virus OR saids ... OR murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR murine aids [tw] OR (maids [tw] AND immunologic deficiency syndromes) OR bovine ... OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [mh] OR aids-related OR aids-related opportunistic infections[mh] OR htlv OR htlv-blv ...
Gardner, M.B., and P. Marx (1985) Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Adv. Viral Onc. 5:57-81.Google Scholar ... in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). Experience with ... Jarrett, O. (1974) Feline leukemia virus subgroups. In Feline Leukemia Virus, W.D. Hardy and A.J. McClelland, eds. Elsevier/ ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syn-drome (AIDS). Science 220: ...
... is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non- ... infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs ... domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar ... similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and ...
... and the infection is associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes, including feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... Chapter 3 - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (pp. 69-90). Sheila de Oliveira Medeiros and Julia Pierucci (Universidade ... the oral cavity are common feline medical conditions and are associated with infectious agents such as Feline Immunodeficiency ... Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) was the first retrovirus isolated in domestic cats, ...
cats*feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome*cat diseases*viral antibodies*feline leukemia virus*viral vaccines*virus ... b>Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, yet in ... b>Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that induces an acquired immunodeficiency in domestic cats... ... cat*Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88*human*Human immunodeficiency virus 1*Feline immunodeficiency virus*mouse*Rhesus monkey*Feline ...
Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline ... Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse ... Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an advanced stage of a human immunodeficiency virus infection. The antiretroviral therapy ...
JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes is the trusted, interdisciplinary resource for HIV- and AIDS-related ... Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes​ seeks to end the HIV epidemic by presenting important new science across all ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus and Feline Leukemia Virus Infections and Their Relationships to Lymphoid Malignancies in Cats: A ... Comparative Demographic and Autopsy Findings in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Two Mexican Populations. Jessurun, Jose ...
... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). ... Bicolor cat. Black cat. Calico cat. Tabby cat. Tortoiseshell ... Feline hepatic lipidosis also known as Feline Fatty Liver Syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats.[5 ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV.[2]. *Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer.. *Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a ...
Cutaneous vascular lesions and disseminated cat-scratch disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... Epithelioid angiomatosis: a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related ... Cats are the main reservoir of B. henselae, and the bacterium is transmitted to cats by the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) ( ... Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 118:331-336. ...
It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA) ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases ... recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency- ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human ...
... and not included among CON listed in clinical CAT C. CAT C: the clinical CON listed in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... to CAT B event (EV), CAT A at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT B at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT C at BS to a new CAT C EV; or CAT A, B, or C at ... Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections. Immune System Diseases. Lentivirus ... CAT C: the clinical CON listed in the AIDS surveillance case definition. Indicators of CDP were defined as: CAT A at Baseline ( ...
... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.180.440 - feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C22.180.460 - feline ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.836.120 - bluetongue MeSH C22.836.160 - border disease MeSH C22.836.259 - ... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH C22.795.239 - ectromelia, infectious MeSH C22.795. ... poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 - sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131.921 - tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 - ...
FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases ... and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses ... FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. ... This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV- ...
Dietary micronutrient intake and risk progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus ... cats claw (Uncaria tomentosa), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), grape fruit seeds (Vitis vinifera), zarzaparrilla or smilax (Smilax ... Body composition studies in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42: 1255-1265. ... Dworkin BM, Rosenthal W, Wormser G, Weiss L. Selenium deficiency in the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. J Parenteral ...
Immune Booster for Adulets! Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( Aids ) to Boost Cat Immune System Immune Definition... Have ... HIV infects human immune system and it causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). १९५५ साली जोनास साक याने पोलिओवर ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( Aids ) cuddling and caressing little. पर्यवेक्षकदेखील पडू शकतात information in Marathi ... Just what causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( Aids ) you agree to use. Computer Science Bachelor, Homes For Sale In ...
Cutaneous vascular lesions and disseminated cat-scratch disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... encoded search term (Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever)) and Cat Scratch Disease (Cat Scratch Fever) What to Read Next on ... Cat Scratch Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin Is a Unique Clinical Syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 31. 71 (11): ... Syndrome of Rochalimaea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Mar 1. 118(5):331-6. [Medline]. ...
... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 - hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 - acquired ... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.900 - visna MeSH C02.782.815.622 - leukemia, feline MeSH C02.782 ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 - aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.725 - pulmonary adenomatosis, ovine MeSH C02.782.815.800 - sarcoma, ...
... infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Learn more about the symptoms, causes ... the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people." (1) ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FIV) in Cats. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ... Feed your cat wrong, and it can lead to obesity or behavioral problems. Here are six cat food mistakes you might be making.. ...
Cat scratch. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Metabolic. Diabetes mellitus. Hyperthyroidism. Pregnancy. Hypertension ... Opercular syndrome (cortical lesion in facial motor area). Millard-Gubler syndrome (abducens palsy with contralateral ... Opercular syndrome (cortical lesion in facial motor area). Millard-Gubler syndrome (abducens palsy with contralateral ... Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Ramsay Hunt described a syndromic occurrence of facial paralysis, herpetiform vesicular eruptions, and ...
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) like to HIV in human. (
  • In Argentina FIV infection is greater than feline leukemia virus what result in an excellent model to study HIV infection as well as to improve pet cats health. (
  • Lutz, H., N.C. Petersen, and G.H. Theilen (1983) Course of feline leukemia virus infection and its detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. (
  • In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. (
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an advanced stage of a human immunodeficiency virus infection. (
  • Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). (
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV), the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. (
  • The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. (
  • This study's objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between infection or seropositivity to Bartonella species and clinical illness in cats. (
  • Cat-scratch disease is an uncommon infection that typically results from a cat's scratch or bite. (
  • Some parts of North America have much higher rates of cat infection than others, however. (
  • The bacterium, which remains in a cat's bloodstream for several months after infection, seems to be harmless to most cats, and normally an infected cat will not display any symptoms. (
  • Kittens (cats younger than one year old) are more likely than adult cats to be carrying the infection. (
  • Although cats are popular pets found in about 30 percent of American households, human infection appears to be rare. (
  • Early therapy of feline leukemia virus infection (FeLV-FAIDS) with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA). (
  • Cats infected with molecularly cloned FeLV-FAIDS develop an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by persistent antigenemia, decline in circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes, and impaired T-cell-dependent immune responses and opportunistic infection. (
  • PMEA administered to cats at dosages of greater than or equal to 6.25 mg/kg/day from 0 to 49 days after FeLV-FAIDS infection prevented the development of persistent antigenemia and the induction of immunodeficiency disease. (
  • In contrast to placebo treated controls, cats successfully treated with PMEA contained viral infection, developed neutralizing antibody, and resisted a second virulent virus challenge without further therapy. (
  • Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is compromised by the obvious limitation in having for study only virus-infected individuals or those exposed to the virus. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infection by feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in cats from the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo. (
  • There was a prevalence of FIV infection in males (p = 0.0316) and cats aged between one and three years (p = 0.0324). (
  • Abstract Background: The major complications of "treated" Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal disease, liver disease, bone disease, and perhaps neurological complications, which are phenomena of the normal aging process occurring at an earlier age in the HIV-infected population. (
  • The feline immunodeficiency virus was isolated in 1986 from a cat with clinical symptoms that were strikingly similar to those seen in humans with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Cats acquire the infection by being bitten by another cat that is infected with the virus. (
  • Cats in the first (acute) stage of infection experience mild disease (fever, lymph node enlargement, intermittent lethargy and decreased appetite). (
  • With proper care, FIV infected cats can live many years, and in fact may die from disorders common to elderly cats and not from illnesses related to their FIV infection. (
  • The most common source of Salmonella infection in humans is consumption of food, especially raw or undercooked, that are contaminated with infected cat feces. (
  • Aside from when infected with H5N1, the term 'Feline Flu' does not actually refer to infection by influencing, but instead generally refers to the symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. (
  • Because cats have little exposure to influenza viruses, any case of flu which was able to transmit between humans or dogs and cats would probably lead to a widespread infection, since cats have no natural immunity to any influenza virus. (
  • Considering that bites are the primary mode of transmission, it is not surprising that cats at greatest risk of FIV infection are outdoor, adult males who are most likely to engage in aggressive fights over territory. (
  • Cats diagnosed with FIV infection may remain free of symptoms for years. (
  • It is the onset of these illnesses that may be the first indication a cat is immunosuppressed, thus raising suspicions of an underlying retroviral infection. (
  • Cat-scratch disease is an infection you can get after a cat scratches, bites, or licks you. (
  • This is the first known example of naturally-occurring recombination in a cat with infection of the parent strains. (
  • Although widespread, it is not a common infection in cats. (
  • The FIV test (see below) detects antibodies that have been formed in the cat's blood because of infection with the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. (
  • The viruses are very specific for the species and there is no risk of cross infection between the immunodeficiency viruses of cats and people. (
  • Naturally occurring transmission of an infection occurs when an infected cat that is actively shedding virus into the saliva bites another cat, directly inoculating its saliva through the bite wound. (
  • It carries significant mortality in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and is considered a principal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- (AIDS-) defining illness. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important viral infection of cats that occurs worldwide. (
  • The virus was first discovered during the investigation of a disease outbreak in a previously healthy colony of rescue cats in the USA, that had been showing similar signs to people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Thus there is no risk of infection for people in contact with FIV-positive cats. (
  • Once a cat has been infected with FIV, the infection is virtually always permanent (cats cannot eliminate the virus), and the virus will be present in the saliva of an infected cat. (
  • The prevalence (frequency) of FIV infection varies in different cat populations. (
  • Infection is much more common in outdoor cats, and is about twice as common in male cats compared with female cats. (
  • Although cats of all ages can be infected, it is most commonly middle-aged cats (5-10 years of age) where infection is diagnosed. (
  • In the course of FIV infection animals may develop clinical signs similar to that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • However, little is known about how FIV evolves during infection and why some cats develop immunodeficiency while others remain free of symptoms. (
  • In this study we analysed the in vivo evolution of FIV following experimental infection of cats with a molecular clone of the FIV strain GL8 (FIV-GL8) for a period of either 12 weeks or 322 weeks. (
  • Infection in a pregnant cat can cause severe signs of illness in the offspring such as foetal death, abortion, stillbirths and death of young kittens, but this is unusual. (
  • In cats, infection with T gondii is much more common in outdoor cats that are active hunters, and in cats that are fed undercooked or raw meat. (
  • There is no approved treatment for adult heartworm infection in cats other than surgical removal, which is very risky and costly. (
  • FIV-infected cats are found worldwide, but the prevalence of infection varies greatly. (
  • Rates rise significantly -15 percent or more - in cats that are sick or at high risk of infection. (
  • On rare occasions infection is transmitted from an infected mother cat to her kittens, usually during passage through the birth canal or when the newborn kittens ingest infected milk. (
  • Sometimes not appearing for years after infection, signs of immunodeficiency can appear anywhere throughout the body. (
  • Because few, if any, cats ever eliminate infection, the presence of antibody indicates that a cat is infected with FIV. (
  • Some healthy cats are continuously or intermittently infected with cat-scratch disease bacteria, but antibiotics do not reliably cure infection in these cats and are not currently recommended. (
  • Feline infection can be prevented by keeping cats indoors and feeding them cooked or commercially processed food. (
  • Human infection can be prevented by wearing gloves and washing hands thoroughly after cleaning litter boxes (especially if used by a cat with diarrhea). (
  • Proper hygiene, including washing hands before meals, cleaning soil from vegetables, and reducing exposure to cat feces (e.g., by covering children's sandboxes when not in use) can prevent infection. (
  • Anti-parasite medications for kittens and annual fecal exams for adult cats can reduce environmental contamination and the risk of human infection. (
  • The Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection status of all cats should be known. (
  • Early detection of infection will help you not only maintain the health of your own cat, but will allow you to prevent spreading infection to other cats. (
  • Please speak with your ICVS veterinarian about having your cat tested to help determine the risk for FeLV and/or FIV infection. (
  • As the name implies, this bacterial infection is usually transmitted from cat to human via scratches, although it can also be transmitted via bite wounds and when a cat licks the open wounds of a person. (
  • Among cats, this bacterium is most commonly transmitted by the bites of infected cat fleas, and it may also be found in the feces of these fleas, which can serve as sources of infection if exposed to an open wound in either a cat or a human. (
  • Antibiotics do not reliably cure infection in these cats and are not currently recommended. (
  • Pasteurella- infected cat bite wounds are successfully treated with antibiotic therapy in the vast majority of cases, but more serious complications, such as the spread of bacteria through the blood stream and infection of heart valves, may occur in rare cases. (
  • The tissue damage caused by cat bites is usually limited, but they carry a high risk of infection. (
  • Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). (
  • Feline AIDS is often an outcome of an FIV infection, however some cats may never develop feline AIDS. (
  • A screening blood test run in the clinic can tell us if your cat has been exposed to the virus from 60 days after the initial infection. (
  • After infection, there is a period of variable length during which the virus lives in the cat's body but may not cause the cat to become unwell. (
  • Elder, J.H., and J.I. Mullins (1983) Nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus B reveals unique sequence homologies with a murine mink cell focus-forming virus. (
  • Jarrett, O. (1974) Feline leukemia virus subgroups. (
  • In Feline Leukemia Virus , W.D. Hardy and A.J. McClelland, eds. (
  • Jarrett, W., L. Mackey, O. Jarrett, H. Laird, and C. Hood (1974) Antibody response and virus survival in cats vaccinated against leukemia. (
  • Mathes, L.E., M.G. Lewis, and R.G. Olsen (1980) Immunoprevention of feline leukemia: Efficacy testing and antigenic analysis of soluble tumor-cell antigen vaccine. (
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. (
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. (
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV). (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia represent important infectious diseases caused by retroviruses. (
  • Blood samples from 302 cats were collected and tested for the presence of antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus and antigen of feline leukemia virus by ELISA ® Snap- Combo FIV-FeLV (IDEXX Laboratories). (
  • FIV is a retrovirus related to but distant from the Feline Leukemia Virus. (
  • Some cats develop cancer, although cancer is much more common in cats with Feline Leukemia. (
  • The IWV approach is currently being used for commercial veterinary vaccines against retroviruses such as, feline leukemia virus, equine infectious anemia virus, and FIV [7C11]. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belong to a family of viruses know as retroviruses. (
  • In addition, we recommend testing all kittens for Feline Leukemia Virus (more on that later). (
  • Both Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus are similar to HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in people. (
  • We recommend all kittens be tested for Feline Leukemia Virus within the first few months of life. (
  • We also encourage testing new adult cats introduced to a home for both Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. (
  • All kittens who may spend even a small amount of time outdoors should be vaccinated for Feline Leukemia. (
  • FIV is in the same retrovirus family as feline leukemia virus (FeLV), but the viruses differ in many ways including their shape. (
  • AZT) inhibited replication of an immunodeficiency-inducing strain of feline leukemia virus (FeLV- FAIDS ) in vitro at concentrations of 0.5-0.005 micrograms/ml. (
  • Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) are both caused by retroviruses that are similar to, but not the same as, the virus that causes human AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). (
  • The occurrence of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was investigated in domestic cats from two shelters of Belo Horizonte. (
  • Thus, despite the evolutionary divergence of the feline and human lentiviruses, both viruses use receptors that target the virus to a subset of cells that are pivotal to the acquired immune response. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. (
  • To explore latent resistance mechanisms potentially accessible to therapeutically challenged HIV-1 viruses, we examined RT from the related feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). (
  • It is in the same class of viruses as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people. (
  • In cats, parvovirus is more commonly referred to as panleukopaenia (because it can cause a low white blood cell count which is what panleukopaenia means).However it is not caused by the same viruses that cause distemper or parvovirus in dogs. (
  • The viruses cannot be transferred between animals and humans, and dogs cannot get parvovirus from cats, however a strain of canine parvovirus can infect cats. (
  • This is the first large-scale (228 laboratory cats) study characterizing short- and long-duration efficacies of dual-subtype FIV vaccines against heterologous subtype and recombinant viruses, as well as FIV tiers based on NAb analysis and passive-transfer studies. (
  • Although HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS in people) belongs to the same family of viruses as FIV, the two viruses infect different species - HIV infects only humans and FIV infects only cats. (
  • Although HIV and FIV are very similar, the viruses are species specific, which means that FIV only infects cats and HIV only infects humans. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus belongs to the retrovirus family of viruses in a group called lentiviruses. (
  • Like HIV, both viruses can be transmitted from mother cats to kittens. (
  • These viruses are however, transmissible among cats. (
  • Viruses also produce such illnesses as foot-and-mouth disease in livestock, distemper in dogs, panleukopenia in cats, and hog cholera. (
  • Viruses - of all infectious agents, feline calicivirus (FCV) is the most commonly associated with gingivitis and lymphocytic plasmacytic stomatitis [17] . (
  • Domestic cats are affected by over 250 naturally occurring hereditary disorders , many of which are similar to those in humans, such as diabetes , hemophilia and Tay-Sachs disease . (
  • [2] [4] For example, Abyssinian cat 's pedigree contains a genetic mutation that causes retinitis pigmentosa , which also affects humans. (
  • The most important fact to bear in mind is that cats with FIV can live a healthy and full life, and pose no danger to humans. (
  • It is completely odorless, does not affect humans, but may improve cat owners lives by making stressed cats more relaxed and happy. (
  • Commonly known as feline distemper, this is a highly contagious viral disease that can be transmitted through contact with humans, infected cats, clothing, hair, paws, food bowls, and even cat carriers. (
  • Feline HIV cannot be transmitted to humans, and human HIV cannot be transmitted to cats. (
  • This places them in close contact with people which increases the risk of cats transmitting diseases to humans. (
  • A cat with fleas could be a danger hazard for humans. (
  • In humans, this bacteria is transmitted through cat bites and licking of scratches or other open wounds. (
  • In average healthy humans, Cat Scratch Disease symptoms are mild flu-like but they might be severe for those who are immunocompromised. (
  • Indeed, since FIV doesn't lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as often as HIV does with humans, the biggest risk for FIV positive cats are infections of the bladder, skin, and respiratory system. (
  • The FIV Virus is very specific to cats, and currently, there is no evidence that FIV can be spread to humans. (
  • Humans and dogs cannot catch FIV or FeLV or develop AIDS through exposure to FIV-positive or FeLV-positive cats. (
  • Out of all the zoonotic diseases which humans can get from cats, Toxoplasmosis is the most well known and publicised one. (
  • Occasionally, if an immune response does not prevent widespread replication of the organism, T gondii may cause clinical disease in humans, cats, or other animals. (
  • Neither FeLV nor FIV can infect humans and HIV cannot infect cats. (
  • While most feline infectious diseases affect only cats, and most human infectious diseases affect only humans, it is important to be aware that some of these diseases-called zoonotic diseases-can be transmitted between cats and people. (
  • You are much more likely to contract ailments from other humans than you are from your cat. (
  • Pasteurella multocida is a bacterium found in the mouths of between 70 and 90 percent of cats, and it has been found in between 50 and 80 percent of cat bites in humans that become serious enough to seek medical attention. (
  • Whilst FIV cannot be transferred to humans, it acts in the same way as the human form of HIV, destroying the immune system and leaving a cat susceptible to infections and disease. (
  • 1930 due to hunting by humans and animals, such as dogs, cats, and stoats, which are small weasels. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes a slow progressive degeneration of the immune system which eventually leads to a disease comparable to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. (
  • Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 26(1):8-20. (
  • Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr) Vol. 3 Issue 8 Pg. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, yet in contrast to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), CD4 is not the viral receptor. (
  • FIV is an enveloped virus and, similar to other lentiviruses, has a virion diameter of 105-125 nm and includes a host cell-acquired membrane with viral glycoproteins protruding as spike-like projections [ 1 , 3 ]. (
  • Viral diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels . (
  • Influence of preassay and sequence variations on viral load determination by a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for feline immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Parvovirus is a highly contagious viral disease in dogs and cats, that can produce a life-threatening illness. (
  • After a period of time, in some infected cats viral replication increases again, and it is typically these cats that go on to develop signs of disease. (
  • We identified viral variants within the viral population of long-term infected cats that displayed amino acid mutations throughout the whole Env protein including mutations at residues previously described as determinants of receptor usage and resistance to neutralisation. (
  • Because biting is the most efficient means of viral transmission, free-roaming, aggressive male cats are the most frequently infected, while cats housed exclusively indoors are much less likely to be infected. (
  • Millions of people throughout the world suffer each year from viral diseases such as polio, measles, chicken pox, mumps, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the common cold. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a viral disease which affects the immune system of domestic cats. (
  • Most of these diseases can spread from cat to cat via airborne pathogens or through direct or indirect contact, while others require a vector such as a tick or mosquito. (
  • Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are a Feline zoonosis and transmittable to human. (
  • Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. (
  • FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. (
  • FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. (
  • Many diseases common to cats can be prevented in two ways: by keeping your cat indoors, and by having your cat vaccinated according to your veterinarian's advice. (
  • This disease suppresses the immune system, making the cat susceptible to different infections and diseases. (
  • The most common diseases in cats with FIV include upper respiratory infections or colds. (
  • Indoor cats are not exposed to a lot of diseases and cat fights, and will have a higher life expectancy. (
  • How Can People Get Zoonotic Diseases From Cats? (
  • There are a number of ways by which people can get zoonotic diseases from cats. (
  • Some cat diseases are feco-orally transmitted. (
  • What Are The Diseases I May Catch From My Cat? (
  • To cure the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of cortiol due to diseases of circulatory system particularly due to parental behavior or environmental factors. (
  • Up to 15 percent of cats sick with signs of other diseases are also FIV positive. (
  • There are three core diseases with vaccines that are recommended for every cat. (
  • Only cats are susceptible to these diseases. (
  • FIV usually causes disease through immunosuppression - the normal immune responses of the cat are compromised, leading to an increased susceptibility to other infections and diseases. (
  • There are no specific signs associated with FIV, but typically infected cats will develop recurrent bouts of infections or diseases that gradually get worse over time, and infections may not respond to treatment as well as would normally be expected. (
  • Cats that spend time outdoors are most at risk for these diseases. (
  • Various kinds of cancer and blood diseases are much more common in cats infected with FIV, too. (
  • Many zoonotic diseases can be transmitted from fleas or ticks (called vectors) to a person or a cat from another animal. (
  • Fleas may also serve as vectors for cat-scratch and other zoonotic diseases. (
  • Although most feline infectious diseases only affect cats, some of these diseases can be transmitted from cats to people. (
  • While not comprehensive, this article highlights the most common zoonotic diseases that may be carried by cats and simple precautions you can take to reduce your risk of contracting these diseases. (
  • The likelihood of an average person contracting a zoonotic disease from a cat is low, but individuals with immature or weakened immune systems are more susceptible to these diseases. (
  • Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is the state resulting from immunocompromise in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious diseases and tumours is compromised or completely absent. (
  • Life expectancy in cats has been increasing in the last decades, especially in those privately owned receiving good preventive, medical, and nutritional care, and with older age, prevalence of chronic diseases raises. (
  • As a general recommendation, cats with acute diseases or short-term immunosuppressive treatment should not be vaccinated, and vaccination should be postponed until recovery or after termination of the treatment course. (
  • 2013). In acutely ill cats when immediate protection (against other infectious diseases) is required, passive immunisation with serum containing antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), and feline calicivirus (FCV), as a commercial compound or self-produced by the veterinarian, should be used instead of active immunisation. (
  • Preventative health care is essential with a yearly vaccination to protect your cat from the most common cat diseases (cat flu and panleucopaenia) and regular parasite control to protect against fleas, intestinal worms and heartworm. (
  • This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. (
  • To describe a clinical syndrome of cat scratch disease caused by Rochalimaea henselae , including methods for isolation of the organism from tissue and for identification. (
  • The organism was characterized as oxidase negative and X-factor dependent and had a characteristic pattern in analysis of whole-cell fatty acids differing from Afipia felis , a bacterium that has been associated with cat scratch disease. (
  • Rochalimaea henselae can be a cause of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patients. (
  • Cat Scratch Disease: The Mystery Finally Solved? (
  • The search for the infectious agents responsible for cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and related syndromes has a long and often circuitous history. (
  • The quest for the etiologic agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) has frequently been described as a mystery ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Unusual manifestations of CSD, which occur in up to 14% of patients, include Perinaud's oculoglandular syndrome (6%), encephalopathy (2%), hepatic granulomas (0.3%), osteomyelitis (0.3%), and pulmonary disease (0.2%) ( 4 , 5 , 8 ). (
  • Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. (
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal, incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). (
  • Feline hepatic lipidosis also known as Feline Fatty Liver Syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats. (
  • [5] The disease begins when the cat stops eating from a loss of appetite, forcing the liver to convert body fat into usable energy. (
  • Feline lower urinary tract disease is a term that is used to cover many problems of the feline urinary tract , including stones and cystitis . (
  • Intraerythrocytic localization of B. henselae has been demonstrated in cat erythrocytes ( 88 ), and B. bacilliformis bacilli have been observed within erythrocytes during the acute phase of Carrion's disease (Oroya fever) ( 88 ). (
  • To assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in a referral population of cats in the UK, to identify disease processes associated with thrombocytopenia and to assess the proportion of thrombocytopenic cats that tested positive for feline leukaemia virus or feline immunodeficiency virus. (
  • In general, treatment beyond analgesia and recommendation for warm compresses is unnecessary for patients with cat scratch disease (CSD) because the condition spontaneously resolves without sequelae in most cases. (
  • Dental disease is a problem for cats of all ages, especially older ones, and ven lead to much greater health problems than a cavity to fill here and there. (
  • Cat-scratch disease (also called cat-scratch fever) is caused by the Bartonella henselae bacterium, which is found in cats around the world and is transmitted from cat to cat by fleas. (
  • Researchers have discovered that large numbers of North American cats carry antibodies for the disease (meaning that the cats have been infected at some point in their lives). (
  • One study estimated that for every 100,000 Americans there are only 2.5 cases of cat-scratch disease each year. (
  • Children and teenagers appear to be the most likely victims of cat-scratch disease, although the possibility exists that the disease may be more common among adults than previously thought. (
  • The first sign of cat-scratch disease may be a small blister at the site of a scratch or bite three to ten days after injury. (
  • Hepatitis, pneumonia , and other dangerous complications can arise, but the likelihood of cat-scratch disease posing a serious threat to health is very small. (
  • Occasionally, the symptoms of cat-scratch disease take the form of what is called Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. (
  • When cat-scratch disease is suspected, the doctor will ask about a history of exposure to cats and look for evidence of a cat scratch or bite and swollen lymph nodes. (
  • Most people recover completely from a bout of cat-scratch disease. (
  • Your cat will, however, carry the disease with her for life. (
  • Some cats can have the disease for many years before it is diagnosed, or before any symptoms are present. (
  • Of the seven subgenera of lentiviruses now recognized, two share the characteristics with HIV of a T cell tropism and the associated loss of CD4+ cells in the host associated with disease: the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (Table 1). (
  • As their CD4+ cells reach very low levels, the third stage of disease develops, and cats may show signs of their illness. (
  • Owners of FIV-positive cats should keep their cats strictly indoors, not only to prevent their cat from spreading the disease to others, but to prevent their immunosuppressed cat from being exposed to infectious agents carried by other animals. (
  • They are those people suffering from chronic disease, undergoing cancer chemotherapy, have conditions that affect the immune system like Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), or taking immunosuppressive drugs like after organ or bone marrow transplant. (
  • For diagnosis of the disease in cats. (
  • Cats that are diagnosed with FIV need to receive special care because the disease is ultimately fatal. (
  • Over half of FIV cats have severe gum disease (gingivitis) and recurrent mouth infections. (
  • FIV is similar to the Human Immune Deficiency Virus and the disease in cats is similar to that in people. (
  • Immunodeficiency is a medical term that refers to the body's inability to develop a normal immune response, therefore feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) refers to a complex retrovirus that causes an immunodeficiency disease in cats. (
  • Cats spread the disease to one another by transmission of bodily fluids - most commonly through fighting and biting. (
  • This is a serious disease causing life threatening gastroenteritis and immune system depression in all cats - most commonly kitten and older cats or cats that are unwell with other disease. (
  • FIV is not spread by casual contact between cats (by sharing food and water bowls or litter pans, by airborne germs or by mutual grooming) it is unusual for cats in the same household to spread the disease to each other unless they fight. (
  • All kittens and cats should be tested to determine if they are infected, even if they show no physical signs of disease. (
  • Cats can carry FeLV disease without showing any physical signs. (
  • All cats and kittens should be tested, even if they show no physical signs of disease. (
  • Your veterinarian can provide supportive care for your cat and can treat some of the secondary illnesses that develop as a result of the disease. (
  • Cat-scratch disease is also called cat-scratch fever. (
  • Cat-scratch disease is caused by bacteria that cats carry in their saliva. (
  • You can get cat-scratch disease from a cat biting, scratching, or licking you. (
  • Many people who get cat-scratch disease do not remember being scratched or bitten by a cat. (
  • How is cat-scratch disease diagnosed? (
  • Can cat-scratch disease be prevented or avoided? (
  • In most people, cat-scratch disease clears up without treatment. (
  • Is there any way to know whether my cat carries the bacteria that causes cat-scratch disease? (
  • Is there any way I can keep from developing cat-scratch disease? (
  • False positive results may occur if a cat has been vaccinated against FIV, since the antibody test does not differentiate between antibodies produced by the disease and vaccine-induced antibodies. (
  • The disease is caused by a contagious virus that can be passed from one cat to another. (
  • FIV is similar to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus), causing a disease in cats that's similar to human AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). (
  • A positive FIV test does not mean that your cat is dying from the disease. (
  • Remember that your cat is a potential carrier of the disease and could pass the disease to other cats. (
  • Once infected, a cat will remain infected with the virus for life, and after a period that may last several years, the virus may damage the cat's immune response and lead to signs of disease. (
  • Lentiviruses typically only cause disease slowly and thus infected cats may remain healthy for many years. (
  • Other disease may also develop such as neoplasia (eg, lymphoma) and other infectious agents may be more problematic in FIV infected cats (such as toxoplasmosis, haemoplasma infections, feline infectious peritonitis, etc). (
  • However, there is a huge amount of misunderstanding about this disease and about the role in which the cat plays in causing human disease. (
  • Heartworm disease is a serious, life-threatening condition commonly seen in dogs and cats. (
  • All dogs and cats are at risk for heartworm disease, no matter where they live or if they go outside or not. (
  • Infected cats exhibit similar disease patterns as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients by developing multiple immuno-depletive symptoms collectively referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • However, simple precautions, common sense, and good hygiene, including careful handling of litter boxes and treating cats with fleas and other parasites, can further reduce the risk of zoonotic disease. (
  • Transmission of a zoonotic disease can potentially occur when a person comes into direct contact with secretions or excretions-such as saliva or feces-from an infected cat. (
  • Additionally, a disease may be contracted through contact with water or food that has been contaminated by an infected cat. (
  • Cat-scratch disease , also called bartonellosis , is by far the most common zoonotic disease associated with cats. (
  • Cat-scratch disease can occur when a person is bitten or scratched by an infected cat. (
  • People with cat-scratch disease usually have swollen lymph nodes, especially around the head, neck, and upper limbs. (
  • However, avoiding scratches and bites (for example, by not allowing children to play roughly with cats), controlling fleas, and keeping cats indoors all reduce the risk of cat-scratch disease. (
  • Because most cases of cat-scratch disease result from contact with kittens, immunosuppressed people should avoid such contact. (
  • Some feline intestinal parasites, including roundworms and hookworms, can also cause disease in people. (
  • There is no indication that cats can spread this disease to people or be infected by the human version. (
  • If you ever have any question about what might the risks of disease are for you and your cats, we are happy to answer questions. (
  • Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae , which may be carried in the saliva of infected cats and in the bodies of cat fleas. (
  • Approximately 40 percent of cats are infected with Bartonella henselae , but most show no signs of disease. (
  • People usually contract salmonellosis by eating contaminated food, such as undercooked chicken or eggs, but it is possible to contract the disease from infected cats, which can carry Salmonella bacteria and pass them in their stool. (
  • Emergence of resistance to fluconazole as a cause of failure during treatment of histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome . (
  • Gingivitis, as opposed to normal dental decay associated with age, is an inflammatory disease of the gums leading to premature tooth loss and gum disease that is both painful and detrimental to cat health. (
  • This disease appears to have a genetic predisposition as it commonly ocurs in certain purebred cats including British, Siamese, Burmese, Bengal and Abyssinian cats. (
  • First line therapy involves teeth cleaning above and below the gingiva as well as strict home care and treatment (extraction) for those teeth affected with grades 3 and 4 periodontal disease and/or feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions. (
  • Feline hyperthyroidism was first described as a spontaneous disease in 1979. (103.15.67)
  • Most cats with hyperthyroidism develop a reversible form of heart disease with congestive heart failure developing in 10 to 15% of these cats. (103.15.67)
  • It is also used to prevent Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • It is not easily spread from casual or familial contact, so an infected cat grooming a non-infected cat is very unlikely to spread the disease. (
  • Once a cat has been diagnosed with FIV, they should be kept indoors to prevent further spread of the disease and limit exposure to injuries and infections. (
  • If you have other cats in the household, it is recommended they are also tested for FIV and if negative, vaccinated against the disease. (
  • Given FIV positive cats can live for years with the disease, it's worth protecting the rest of the cats in the household with the FIV vaccination. (
  • Cats are frequently wounded in fights with other cats, and if punctures and tears caused by bites are left untreated, the wounds can lead to serious infections , including abscesses . (
  • As a result of immunodeficiency, most infected cats do not show symptoms and have normal life expectancy, however they are prone to developing other infections and certain types of cancer. (
  • In the case of Feline AIDS or FIV, that means doing all you can to support the immune system of your cat, and treating the secondary infections and conditions that may arise in due course. (
  • If your cat is infected with the virus, you should focus your attention on curing the secondary infections. (
  • Don't allow your cat outdoors, to prevent infections and to prevent other cats from contracting the virus. (
  • These "secondary" infections cause the majority of symptoms and are the major cause of death in FIV infected cats. (
  • Most cats infected with FIV are asymptomatic, but have an increased susceptibility to developing other infections and some types of cancer. (
  • Though there are no drugs or therapeutic agents licensed for treatment of feline retroviral infections at this time, cats may benefit from certain prescription medication. (
  • A cat that tests positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus may have a weakened immune system and may be susceptible to other infections as a result. (
  • Protect your cat from these secondary infections by following these five suggestions. (
  • Although cats are important in the life cycle and epidemiology of T gondii infections, human infections are often nothing to do with the cat itself and often result from ingestion of undercooked meat containing the parasite. (
  • The promising development of the protease inhibitor TL-3, which inhibits FIV, HIV-1 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) infections in vitro with similar effectiveness [ 12 ] led us to analyze its efficacy in the cat model. (
  • as a result, cats in households with stable social structures where housemates do not fight are at little risk for acquiring FIV infections. (
  • Those with immature or weakened immune systems, such as infants, individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the elderly, and people undergoing cancer therapy, are more susceptible to zoonotic infections than others. (
  • Feline panleukopenia (FPV) more commonly known as feline distemper. (
  • Feline panleukopenia. (
  • A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus , and also not a cancer. (
  • Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a non-primate lentivirus, also forms RNA-granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide and is the causative agent of feline AIDS. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that infects domestic and feral cat populations worldwide. (
  • The term feline urologic syndrome is an older term which is still sometimes used for this condition. (
  • HIV infects human immune system and it causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • In some cats exposure to the virus leads to clinical signs and symptoms that result in deficiency in the immune system. (
  • Separate any new cat from your other cats for at least three weeks until you are sure your newcomer doesn't have any symptoms of a URI. (
  • But if your cat does come down with cold-like symptoms, contact your veterinarian right away. (
  • Once the cat is infected with HIV, there will be no immediate symptoms. (
  • And when you label a condition incorrectly it can also place pressure on the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a chromosome 21 from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also at risk of giving birth to a random event during the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but sometimes an extra copy is also something that teenagers with Down Syndrome can develop for many years with no noticeable symptoms. (
  • If your cat has been infected with FIV, you'll need to visit a veterinarian and work out a program to control the symptoms of the illness. (
  • If you are worried that your cat may be experiencing symptoms from the bacteria, contact your vet. (
  • FIV-positive" means that your cat has been infected by the virus, but if it is not showing symptoms it may be years, if ever, before the cat develops the clinical signs referred to as Feline AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome of cats). (
  • Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your cat, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition. (
  • azithromycin upset stomach Prednisone is used alone or with other medications to treat the symptoms of low corticosteroid cortisol levels lack of certain substances thatPrednisone is also sometimes used with antibiotics to treat a certain type of pneumonia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS. (
  • An FIV infected cat may not show any symptoms for years. (
  • Once symptoms do develop, however, they may continually progress or a cat may show signs of sickness interspersed with normal health for years. (
  • If your cat is demonstrating any of the following symptoms, please bring them to the clinic for an examination and further investigation which may include an FIV blood test. (
  • Cultures of the involved lymph nodes from both patients grew R. henselae , a recently described organism associated with bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and with bacteremia in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. (
  • Retrovirus vaccines are in the limelight now more than ever before due to the etiologic involvement of retroviruses, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). (
  • Human malnutrition is usually a composite syndrome of multiple nutrient deficiencies. (
  • they can be transmitted to cats through human handling and through contact with other cats and with inanimate objects such as litter boxes, food bowls, and grooming tools. (
  • AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and is generally well known to people with respect to HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome. (
  • The value of primate models for studying human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. (
  • In 2015, there were approximately 36.7 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [ 1 ]. (
  • F eline HIV, or the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), is similar to the human HIV, which is a virus that can cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (
  • Approximately 2% of cats in the United States are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) which is a retrovirus that is very similar to the human AIDS virus. (
  • FIV causes a fatal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic cats and is an animal model for human AIDS [5,9]. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus exists in two types HIV-1 and HIV-2 . (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (
  • Bites from mammals other than dogs and cats are uncommon, with one exception - human bites. (
  • Chimeric feline × human CD134 receptors were used to investigate the receptor utilization of 17 clones from Brazilian isolates of FIV. (
  • Analyses of the sequence present of molecular clones showed that all clones grouped within subtype B. In contrast to the virulent primary isolate FIV-GL8, expression of the first cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) of feline CD134 in the context of human CD134 was sufficient for optimal receptor function for all Brazilian FIV isolates tested. (
  • Cats that receive the FIV vaccine may show a false positive when tested for FIV. (
  • There is a vaccine available for FIV in cats. (
  • We consider it to be a 'non-core' vaccine which means we don't recommend it for every cat, but for those with lifestyle factors which put them at heightened risk such as outdoor cats who are known fighters, or cats that are living with other FIV infected cats. (
  • Unfortunately, there is no vaccination currently available for Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, although there is currently a great deal of research into transmission, prevention, treatment, and development of a vaccine for the virus. (
  • My cat had kittens four days ago. (
  • While unlikely, cats can contract FIV by sharing food or water with previously infected cats and the mother cat can pass FIV to her kittens during gestation, birth, or nursing. (
  • Also, an infected mother cat can pass the virus to her kittens before they are born or through her milk while nursing. (
  • Kittens born to an infected queen or female cat may receive "maternal antibodies" or antibodies to the virus that pass through the milk, giving a false positive test result. (
  • Revolution and Frontline are two excellent products used to kill fleas on kittens and adult cats. (
  • In unspayed female cats, abortion of kittens or other reproductive failures have been noted. (
  • Infected mother cats transfer FIV antibodies to nursing kittens, so kittens born to infected mothers may receive positive test results for several months after birth. (
  • Gardner, M.B., and P. Marx (1985) Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (
  • The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. (
  • SIV is Simian Immunodeficiency virus protease. (
  • Rapid feline immunodeficiency virus provirus quantitation by polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan fluorogenic real-time detection system. (
  • Samples from 145 cats were collected and tested for FIV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • All cats, even indoor cats, should be vaccinated against rabies, which is now seen more commonly in cats than in any other domestic animal. (
  • Most commonly, cats contract the virus through bite wounds and scratches that occur during cat fights. (
  • Cats are most commonly infected with FIV through bite wounds. (
  • Most cats are infected by eating meat containing T gondii cysts - this can include raw or inadequately cooked meat (eg, beef, lamb, pork) or, more commonly, prey species (eg, rodents such as mice or voles). (
  • Salmonella bacteria are more commonly harbored by cats that feed on raw meat or wild birds and animals. (
  • Salmonella is more commonly found in cats that feed on raw meat or wild birds and animals, so owners can reduce the risk of salmonellosis in themselves and their cats by keeping cats indoors and feeding them cooked or commercially processed food. (
  • If your cat bites anyone, you may need to show proof of rabies vaccination. (
  • Prevent rabies through vaccination and by keeping your cat inside. (
  • Older cats or cats with unknown vaccination history would receive two vaccinations four weeks apart and then annual booster injections. (
  • For older cats, or cats with unknown vaccination status, we give an initial vaccination and then a booster 4 weeks later. (
  • After starting vaccinations with us, your cat just needs a booster for cat flu (called an F2 vaccination) for the next two years. (
  • This newer vaccination allows your kitten to be fully vaccinated earlier and have good immunity to the highly contagious cat flu virus's sooner. (
  • So far, there are not much data available on vaccination of immunocompromised cats, and sometimes studies produce controversial results. (
  • In some situations, postponing of vaccination would imply, however, a significant risk for the cat, such as when entering a shelter environment with high infectious pressure, and in these specific situations vaccination might be necessary despite acute illness or poor general condition. (
  • For sick cats, any decision about vaccination has to be taken for the individual cat, but when entering a shelter, vaccination is recommended whenever and as soon as justifiable (Möstl et al. (
  • Self-care of elderly people after the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (
  • The diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism is routinely made based on the measurement of elevated circulating levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (103.15.67)
  • A diagnosis of FIV is not necessarily a death sentence for cats. (
  • Post-operative complications include hypoparathyroidism, Horner's syndrome, laryngeal paralysis and persistent hypothyroidism. (103.15.67)
  • We found that PMEA inhibited replication of FeLV-FAIDS by greater than or equal to 50% at concentrations of greater than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml (1.63 microM) in feline fibroblasts and prevented T lymphocyte killing at concentrations of 3 micrograms/ml. (
  • Zidovudine in combination with alpha interferon and interleukin-2 as prophylactic therapy for FeLV-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (FeLV-FAIDS). (
  • Administration of AZT alone or in combination with IFN alpha or interleukin-2 (IL-2) throughout a 6-week treatment period enabled cats to resist challenge with FeLV- FAIDS . (
  • In one study of 30 cats with histoplasmosis, treatment with fluconazole (19.3 mg/kg/day) led to similar survival and recrudescence rates as itraconazole (10.0 mg/kg/day), suggesting that fluconazole is an effective therapy for feline histoplasmosis[1]. (
  • Surgical thyroidectomy is a highly effective therapy for feline hyperthyroidism. (103.15.67)
  • However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. (
  • In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. (
  • Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was first discovered in the United States, where workers at a cat rescue centre noticed that some of the cats were showing similar clinical signs to people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • In general, depending on their lifestyle, between 20-60% of cats will be infected with T gondii , but very few of these will ever show clinical signs. (
  • Another major mode of transfer of infectious agents from cat to man is through vectors. (
  • This means that the infectious agents are shed in the feces of infected cats and gain entry into the human's body through the mouth. (
  • The same infectious agents (i.e., bacterial, fungi, virus, etc.) found in the cats everyday environment where they are not harmful to healthy animals now can cause severe illnesses in cats with impaired defense systems. (
  • The identification of animal models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has therefore been helpful for evaluating phases of HIV pathogenesis. (
  • Avoid petting stray or feral cats. (
  • Cats that have been bitten by a stray or feral cat should be tested 3 months after the bite. (
  • Between 4 million and 18 million feral cats (Felis catus) live wild in Australia. (
  • Genetic analysis indicates that Australian feral cats may have more in common with Asian than European cats, supporting the aboriginal view for an earlier arrival of cats on the continent. (
  • But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). (
  • If viewed as an invasive pest, then feral cats need to be hunted down, poisoned, given birth control, or otherwise controlled. (
  • This guideline has the goal to help veterinarians in the decision making in how to vaccinate immunocompromised cats. (
  • Bartonella henselae is uncommon or absent in cold climates, which fleas have difficulty tolerating, but prevalent in warm, humid places such as Memphis, Tennessee, where antibodies were found in 71 percent of the cats tested. (
  • Fleas can carry parasites that can harm your cat, so flea control is important. (
  • Flea control for cats involves keeping rats and mice away as well, as they can carry fleas. (
  • The implication here is that you should keep your cat indoors in order to protect her from getting to the rodents, and the fleas. (
  • This bacteria is also found in the body of cat fleas and may be transmitted between cats through the bite of these infected fleas. (
  • Cats likely get the bacteria from fleas. (
  • Control fleas to decrease the chance that your cat will contract the bacteria. (
  • Ask your veterinarian how to keep your cat free of parasites , such as fleas , ticks, heartworms, and intestinal worms. (
  • Fleas are the most common external parasite of cats. (
  • Flea-infested cats may become infected with tapeworms from fleas ingested while grooming. (
  • This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. (
  • Owners of FIV-negative cats should keep their cats indoors, to avoid encounters with infected cats. (
  • To prevent your cat from getting infected in the first place, you should consider keeping him indoors. (
  • Because the main method of transmission is biting, many veterinarians recommend keeping your cat indoors, especially if your cat is infected with FIV. (
  • Keep your cat indoors and have it spayed or neutered. (
  • It tends to be more common where cats live in more crowded conditions (and thus where cat fights are more common) and tends to be much less common where cat populations are low and where cats are kept mainly indoors. (
  • The best way to prevent a cat from contracting FIV is to keep them indoors. (
  • As FIV is spread through deep bites, a cat kept exclusively indoors will be extremely unlikely to contract FIV. (
  • The virus is present in the blood and saliva of infected cats. (
  • Researchers suspect that the first step in the development of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome occurs when Bartonella henselae bacteria pass from a cat's saliva to its fur during grooming. (
  • Feline HIV can be transmitted through saliva, blood and other bodily secretions. (
  • This is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae found in the saliva of infected cats. (
  • The virus, present in the saliva of infected cats, passes beneath the skin of the victim when he is bitten. (
  • It is caused by bacteria in cat saliva. (
  • Infected cats shed the virus mainly in their saliva. (
  • The most common way for the virus to be transmitted from one cat to another is via a cat bite, where saliva cottoning the virus is inoculated under the skin of another cat. (
  • FIV is primarily found in the saliva of cats, meaning the most common source of FIV exposure for cats is a deep bite from an infected cat. (
  • FIV is species specific, so that means that it only infects cats, and cannot be passed to you or your children. (
  • Blood samples were obtained for Bartonella species isolation and immunofluorescent antibody serology from 298 cats presenting to a tertiary referral hospital. (
  • H5N1 is unusual in being deadly to many species, including domestic cats which were never previously susceptible to any influenza virus. (
  • The life cycle of T gondii is quite complex (see figure 1-3) and involves two types of host: definitive host (the cat, including wild cat species and domestic cats), and intermediate hosts (other animals). (
  • Cats (wild cat species and domestic cats) are the definitive hosts, meaning they are the only animals in which replication of T gondii can result in the production of oocysts (eggs), which are then shed in the faeces. (
  • Some species, such as cats, are "masters of disguise" and can hide outward signs of illness for long periods of time. (
  • The principal continuing threat is predation by introduced carnivores, particularly red foxes and cats, for which species continuing control is essential for the reintroduced populations to survive. (
  • Identifying the signs and which cats test positive for FIV allows cat owners to take precautions to help these cats lead longer, healthier lives. (
  • A cat that tests positive for FIV can still live for a long time if you take some simple precautions. (
  • Radiation safety precautions require that cats remain hospitalized following their 131I therapy until they have eliminated a majority of the radioactive iodine from their bodies. (103.15.67)
  • Other cats have a variety of recurrent illnesses interspersed with periods of relatively normal health. (
  • Some cats appear to remain relatively healthy and symptom free for months to years, but once other illnesses and/or persistent fever and weight loss occur, death is eminent. (
  • Because their immune systems are compromised, FIV-positive cats often develop illnesses that are unrelated to the virus itself. (
  • Prednisone for cats is used for a variety of illnesses and conditions. (
  • Bartonella henselae can infect people who are scratched or (more rarely) bitten or licked by a cat. (
  • If you have a cat with feline HIV, you should keep him isolated from other cats to make sure he won't infect others. (
  • FIV is estimated to infect between 14-29% of the Australian cat population. (
  • Pets Specific pathogen totally free (SPF) cats had been bought from Liberty Study, Inc. (Waverly, NY), Harlan Sprague Dawly, Inc. (Madison, WI), Cedar River Laboratories (Mason Town, IO), or had been bred within the Lab of Comparative Retrovirology & Immunology CLG4B in the University or college of Florida. (
  • Apathetic hyperthyroidism represents an unusual form of hyperthyroidism that occurs in approximately 10% of cats with hyperthyroidism. (103.15.67)
  • Feline hyperthyroidism occurs in middle-aged to old cats with no breed or sex predilection. (103.15.67)
  • FIV can cause an AIDS-like condition, however, like in HIV, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the end stage of the virus which occurs after the long latency period. (
  • One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study. (
  • It was found that Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats. (
  • The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine . (
  • Buster, a sweet-tempered black and white domestic shorthaired cat, has been coming to my cat hospital for regular twice-yearly visits, and at every visit he's looked fit and healthy. (
  • We investigated recombination in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from naturally-infected New Zealand domestic cats ( Felis catus ) by sequencing regions of the gag , pol and env genes. (
  • Evidence of intragenic recombination in the gag , pol and env regions, and complex intergenic recombination, of FIV from naturally-infected domestic cats in New Zealand was found. (
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a wide-spread pathogen of the domestic cat. (
  • A good example of the pest not-pest duality is the domestic cat on the island continent of Australia. (
  • Apart from some anecdotal observations on copulation , which takes place on branches and is reported to be accompanied by loud screeches and calls similar to domestic cats, there is nothing known about Dactylopsila. (
  • In the United States, cats make up 4.6% of reported cases of rabies infected animals. (
  • It increases the risk of hepatic lipidosis during weight loss in obese cats. (
  • Between 25% and 60% of patients report a primary cutaneous inoculation lesion (0.5- to 1-cm papule or pustule) at the site of a cat scratch or bite ( 5 , 7 ). (
  • It is very important to make sure that an infected cat does not bite you or lick any open wounds you may have. (
  • Most FIV-positive cats have a history of cat fights and bite-wound abscesses. (
  • A cat scratch or bite that is not healing. (
  • A red area around a cat scratch or bite that continues to get bigger for more than 2 days after the injury. (
  • Fever that lasts for several days after a cat scratch or bite. (
  • Play gently with your cat so they don't scratch or bite you. (
  • In this case, the infected blood may enter the cat's body through a bite wound, or the cat may become infected by means of a blood transfusion. (
  • It is not surprising that many FIV-positive cats are known fighters, particularly those with a history of cat bite abscesses. (
  • Any cat bitten by a cat with an unknown medical history should be tested for FIV approximately two months after the bite. (
  • The onion is cat asthma prednisolone useful in regards as adjunctive cat asthma prednisolone in severe or pulmonary IBD. (
  • In this study, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy using a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which causes a severe acute phase immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality rates. (
  • Most cats recover with no treatment, and are rarely presented for veterinary care in this stage. (
  • Chagrin Falls Veterinary Center & Pet Clinic is operated by Veterinarian & Pet Celebrity Dr. Carol Osborne, the Integrative Pet Wellness Center offers traditional & natural alternative pet health products & therapies for dogs & cats. (
  • The International Center for Veterinary Services (ICVS), together with the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP), an organization of veterinarians with a special interest in the health of cats, urges you to have your cat tested for FeLV and FIV. (
  • MiraVista partnered with veterinary internist Dr. Andrew Hanzlicek at Oklahoma State University and feline practitioner Dr. Gary Norsworthy from Alamo Feline Hospital in San Antonio, TX to publish a case report of fluconazole resistance in a cat being treated for histoplasmosis[4]. (
  • Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the possibility of fluconazole resistance developing over time, particularly in cats or dogs treated for longer than a year. (