The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Sexual activities of humans.
Sexual activities of animals.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The interactions between parent and child.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Interaction between a mother and child.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The selection of one food over another.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Female parents, human or animal.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Educational institutions.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
The consumption of edible substances.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The act of killing oneself.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (1/7142)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (2/7142)

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (3/7142)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/7142)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (5/7142)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons.  (+info)

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (6/7142)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (7/7142)

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (8/7142)

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness.. AU - McKinley, Christopher J.. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - This study examined the relationship between perceived obesity threats, social support, and college students eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that perceived vulnerability to obesity negatively predicted healthy eating behavior. In addition, the perceived severity of obesity-related health problems positively predicted womens drive for thinness. Social support played a significant role in explaining health behaviors. Specifically, appraisal by others indirectly predicted college students healthy eating behavior through increased self-efficacy. Among women, informational support moderated the relationships between both vulnerability and severity on healthy eating behavior. At low levels of support, vulnerability and severity negatively predicted students healthy eating behavior. ...
The Mindful Eating Questionnaire is a reliable tool for the assessment of mindful eating behavior among the general population. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of The Malay Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M) in a sample of overweight and obese adults. This is a cross-sec …
The consequences of hysterectomy for a woman - one of the most discussed problems of modern gynecology. The aim of our study was to identify differences in the general health and feeding behavior of patients with severe manifestation or progression of obesity without such after undergoing a hysterectomy with preservation of ovaries. The study included 34 women 5 years after a hysterectomy without appendages or fallopian tubes. At the time of the study age was 46,4 ± 3,2 years. The study group included 22 women who reported an increase in the period of time after the surgery the body weight of 10-25 kg (14 ± 3,2). The control group consisted of 12 women whose weight for the period was stable or increased by no more than 3 kg. The study included a survey, the general clinical examination, testing the questionnaire assessment of eating behavior (Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) 1986). Also perform electroencephalography. Symptoms that are highly likely to indicate a hypothalamic ...
Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susceptibility to overeating. In a crossover design, 30 women (BMI = 22.7 ± 2.3; age = 21.9 ± 2.6 y) consumed a fixed energy preload (360 kJ/g) with a savory, sweet, or bland taste before selecting and consuming items from a test meal ad libitum. Sensations of hunger were used to calculate the satiating efficiency of the preloads. A computerized task was used to examine effects on food reward (explicit liking and implicit wanting). The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to compare individual differences in eating behavior traits. Satiation and total food intake did not differ according to preload taste, but there was an effect on explicit liking and food selection. The savory preload reduced ...
The target article addresses increased food-seeking behaviors in times of instability, particularly in passerines. We note that food instability might have intergenerational effects on birds: Nutritional stress during development affects song-learning abilities, associating parental foraging with offspring sexual selection. We explore the implications of these compounding selection pressures on food-seeking motivation during breeding, as well as the hormonal underpinnings of these behaviors ...
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The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg)/height (m)2) in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A) at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21,
The purpose of the program was to determine if a 4-week group nutrition education series held at the worksite, focusing on eating behaviors can positively affect dietary behaviors that are associated with risk of chronic disease(s) related blood lipid parameters. Thirty-five employees (21 female, 14 male) participated. Before and after the program all participants completed fasting bloodwork (total cholesterol, TC; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C; high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides, TG) and diet records.. ...
Illness-induced anorexia is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of infection in host-parasite systems [13-17, 31]. Why such behavior should occur is unclear. Dietary restriction is generally thought to extend lifespan [48-50], and in Drosophila, anorexia induced by infection has been shown to increase tolerance to pathogens [17]. In other insects, temporary down regulation of feeding has also been demonstrated to increase the ability of hosts to resist and survive infection [16, 31, 33]. Modulating behavior in the face of infection may be adaptive if these benefits to survival result in overall enhanced fitness. Here we tested whether known restricted blood-feeding behaviors observed in malaria-infected mosquitoes [1-5, 9, 51] provide fitness benefits, suggestive of adaptation. To do this, we presented the first quantification of the impact restricted feeding behaviors have on a composite measure of mosquito fitness and determined that restricted feeding increased survival and decreased ...
Question - Increased cholesterol, LDL, Vit D3. Is this due to overweight, smoking and unhealthy eating habits ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Iron deficiency anemia, Ask a Cardiologist
Continuing the vampire theme, I here want to discuss another of those really, really interesting things about vampire bats: namely, how did their blood-feeding behaviour evolve in the first place?
Are you a mindful eater? Take the following quiz to find out. This quiz will deepen your understanding of how mindful eating can begin to liberate your
NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László. [Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part III. - Development of self-feeding skills in the large-sample of the For Healthy Offspring project INTRODUCTION - After introducing adequate complementary food to the diet of breastfed/formula-fed babies, the frequency and amount of semisolid/solid food is increasing, the breastmilk/formula intake is decreasing and finally the weaning process is completed. During this process the developing feeding skills of the infant enables them to self-feed. The self-feeding infant and toddler should participate in family meals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - In the Healthy Offspring project self reported questionnaires were received from 1133 parents of 0-3 year old children. Issues concerning the development of self-feeding skills were analyzed. RESULTS - With advancing age the proportion of infants/toddlers, reported to be able to (partially) self-feed, has increased. The ...
Young people may have most of their nutrition needs met while they are in school, but with childhood obesity growing rampantly; its time to take a look at what they eat when theyre not in school. Youth programs have a unique opportunity to influence kids eating habits. Children and teens lead quite busy and stressed lives with their school workload, after-school activities and family responsibilities. They consequently may skip breakfast, eat from vending machines and consume more fast food. By providing them with healthy eating behaviors, youth programs can help kids learn how to fuel their boding some cases, the daily intake recommendations for some nutrients are higher for teens than adults. Youth programs can take great strides toward meeting their needs by ensuring the food they serve is rich with these nutrients. Youll also help them develop an appreciation for properly fueling their bodies. For example, the Institute of Medicine says teens ages 14 to 18 need more calcium than adults, ...
Imagine people living in impoverished countries and have lived in poverty all their lives, as a baby, child and adult. Those countries will experience greatness in a way that many may take for granted. Running water; a home to live in with A/C and Heating; energy; daily meals; clean clothes; shoes, showers with soap and shampoo; a bed with pillow to sleep on; a book to read; the very basic necessities will change their lives forever. TRUMPSARA is a plan where these countries and those that have lived in poverty, can begin the LIVE. They no longer have to worry about having one bite of bread for the day or a sip of water for their daily meal. While their bodies get so thin and malnourished, they still seem to smile for they dont know what they dont know. The young children can get an education without starving. The simple things that are so most important. The countries that may have had draughts, may now have a full water supply to keep their communities lush and full of life! The children ...
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717 Rule: 7 Day Rapid Fat Loss Diet The following 7 days were designed to make you lose fat rapidly. No matter your body type, if you are currently consuming a lot of sauces, vegetables, fruits, carbs, or any other form of .... Read More » ...
Fundamental theories and educational contents of diet and nutrition education adapted to human development and behavior changing : proposes regarding four areas of diet and nutrition education corresponding to learning stages founded on theory by Piaget, J. and behavior changing theory by prochaska, J. concerning level-Based instruction on healthy eating behavior and instruction of practice(Modified by Maruya, N.) (2009 ...
May 7, 2013 - So how are these cheesy but dairy free you may be wondering? No I did not use fake or imitation cheese (yucky). I used nutritional yea...
FOR PUPPIES WEIGHING 9 TO 25 KGS AT MATURITY By nature, all puppies are carnivores which means theyre biologically adapted for a diet rich and varied in fresh whole meats with smaller amounts of fruits and vegetables. Thats why ACANA Puppy & Junior is brimming with free-run chicken and nest-laid eggs from local p
Addicts have common behavioral issues. In this video, HealthMaker and addiction specialist Michael Stein, MD, discusses four addiction behavior traits that interest him as a physician.
For the 12 rats, the average time from the blood sampling to the onset of the first meal was 3.6 ± 1.0 min so that the second samples were taken ∼6.4 min into the meal. A similar time period applies to the VMH samples. Defined in this way, beginning at ∼3.6 min before the first meal, statistically significant changes in blood glucose levels occurred in blood and VMH but in opposite directions. Blood levels fell in 8 of 12 rats by 7.5%, whereas VMH levels rose significantly in 9 of 12 rats by 8.5% (Table 2, Fig. 2). When the time period of observation was extended to include the 10 min before the 3.6 min time point before the first meal, there were no significant increases or decreases in blood or VMH glucose levels beginning ∼13.6 min before and continuing ∼6.4 min into the first meal.. Blood sampling and VMH glucose determinations occurred 4.7 ± 0.9 min preceding the second spontaneous meal. Data for the second spontaneous meals are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. When the data for the ...
Today, I walked all the way across campus to eat the first meal Ive had all day. After waiting for my food in a congested line for 30 minutes, I got to the register to pay. Turns out my wallet was a twenty minute walk away, back in my apartment. FML
Eating smaller meals Increasing the number of daily meals and decreasing the size of each one can help alleviate bloating. The stomach may also be able to empty more quickly. Eating smaller amounts of food at each meal means the number of meals should be 4 to 6 per day to meet nutritional needs. ...
Even if you do have a strategy, very often that strategy feels a bit alien to you because you were not born with it and your parents never educated you to use it ...
Find great deals on eBay for nutrisystem meal measure and nutrisystem measure.Nutrisystem For Diabetics Reviews Type. on diabetic meal plans are out-of-date they dont.. Find great deals on eBay for portion plate meal measure and divided plate.Nutrisystem Daily Meal Planner Pdf This Is The Best Weight Loss Product, Cancel Nutrisystem Auto.For not to forget these foods for you to create a listing of preventive measure of type 1 diabetes ...
Trying new things - and new foods - is part of the travel experience. And though a few of these foods might look a little familiar, youll generally only find these flavors and varieties of foods in very specific parts of the world.
A new study brings whole new meaning to the phrase you are what you eat. A typical American diet may alter your brain in ways that lead to obesity.
Of course we all desire to have intelligent children who almost always top their class. While intelligence is a function of genetic makeup, good nutrition from pregnancy onwards plays an important role in brain health. Through extensive research, I discovered 10 superb brain foods that any mum should keep top of mind to boost health and intelligence. Despite not being an expert on brain matter, most of these foods are safe and readily available in the market or supermarkets. You can also prepare them in interesting ways as part of your childrens daily meal routine. If in doubt, please speak to a nutritionist or medical doctor concerning nutritional needs that suit your childs health and condition. ...
Experts always claim that the breakfast is the most important daily meal, as it provides the needed nutrients for the following day. Yet, you should always choose the proper ingredients carefully, in order to give you the right kick off the day. The following list reveals 15 foods which should or shouldnt be
Amount of recommended meals per day DAILY MEALS FOR CHILDREN How many meals we should do every day? Man is a very curious animal: hardworking, creative, artist, musician, athlete, cheerful, intellectual... Inside the Man many more features are being developed: how to think, to digest or grow.
Well, I am glad you are at a low body fat now, I had assumed you were just a regular young person who has never had a weight problem, based on your inability to relate to the fact that some people do grow obese based on the type of foods they eat... perhaps it is all a language barrier as I assume your primary language is spanish. There are a lot of ways to get your metabolism in order, and one daily meal of crap, is certainly much better than multiple meals of crap, because you have 23 hours to use glycogen and body fat and keep insulin low. But, meh, we are all different. Arguging for intermittent fasting is basically arguing for low carb anyway. Its a different approach to handle the same problem (do not use glucose normally - do not make insulin normally ... solution: eat glucose once per day, deal with one insulin surge, do not eat again until the next day ...
Some claim that you should always count calories of what you eat while the others cant stop talking about the carbs/fats/protein ratio. We would say that both strategies are beneficial. For starters, in order to lose weight, you should burn more calories than you consume. 10% deficit per day is enough for safe weight loss - about 1 kilo per week.. At the same time, counting calories only, you may consume more carbs or fats than you actually need. That is why it is important to take carbs/fats/protein ratio into account when planning your meal for the next day. The proper ratio of these nutrients for bodybuilders is 40-60% / 15-25% / 25-35% respectively. If you maintain muscles, it will be 30-50% / 25-35% / 25-35%. Finally, the daily meal of those who are losing fat should contain only 10-30% of carbs, 30-40% of fats, and 40-50% of protein.. Carbs should never go below 10% since their presence in our diet is crucial, as well as fats, by the way. Their amount shouldnt fall below 15%. It is ...
The debate isnt new. What we put into our daily meals is what we will become in the long term. The better we eat the better our health will be in the future. Eating better is mostly a question of education and information, of asking questions and reading labels to make healthy choices. And the…
You may eat to live or live to eat, it depends on you. However, for many of us food is the joy of our lives. From the variety of food available to its use in...
I am now past that age and need help called assisted living. I cant clean my house, I cant cook for myself, and now I cant drive to the market. I have heard that there are Gay Retirement Complexes in LA and SF and NYC, but there is nothing anywhere near Sacramento, and I couldnt afford such a move in any case.. Such care and services remain a vital, unfilled, unrecognized need for a growing demographic. More and more of us older Gay men and women will be needing the help traditionally supplied by family. Im very lucky, so far. I have three close younger friends who are my adopted family, and will help me if something happens, but they cant take me in if I need that kind of care. Im able to stay in my home because my best friend comes over weekly and cleans and fixes things-he would do it for free, but I insist on paying him. Id have to pay a straight handy-man even more. My straight female friends come by with food from time to time-but I need daily Meals on Wheels and cant afford ...
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Although staying home is the best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19, the sudden disruption to daily routines may lead to unhealthy eating habits.
This is actually reminiscent of The China Study, where they fed the animals a huge quantity of casein (an isolated protein in milk). A large proportion of the animals developed cancer. The authors concluded that animal products cause cancer. This is a problem in so many ways - casein is an isolated nutrient that no one would ever consume on its own. It would be part of a whole food (milk) and so the milk-cancer link cannot be drawn from such a study. Many studies have similar flaws in that they feed animals ridiculous isolated nutrients, or extremely processed foods (e.g. the studies that show saturated fat is bad for you often use hydrogenated fats) and therefore are not representative of a human eating a whole-food diet ...
Blood Spatter Analysis is an impact strain because it is created upon exertion of a force on a liquid blood source or a projection spatter.
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With so many diet plans out there, its hard to know what works and what doesnt. However, a new study may have found what is the key to permanently healthy metabolic function and weight loss.
The investigation of ingestive conduct is that zone of science gave to investigation of the exercises that achieve nourishment and liquid admission; i...
Never feed animals! Feeding animals can alter their feeding behaviors, making them prone to loss of food and predators. Animals can become dependent on humans for food ...
What is Intermittent Fasting? Contrary to popular belief, intermittent fasting (IF) is actually an eating pattern. Believe it or not, you can have a healthy
The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating Attitudes Test. The aim of the study was to investigate the stability of these eating problem symptoms both as separate components (as opposed to total symptom load) as well as from a syndrome perspective. Over 7 years, dieting behavior showed the highest correlational stability (0.32). Regarding stable eating problem syndromes, at all 3 time points, 1 group of girls with generalized eating problems was found, characterized by simultaneously pronounced bulimic tendencies and dieting. However, we did not establish individual stability across 7 years for this syndrome group. Through development, eating problem symptoms were associated with characteristic risk ...
Eating self-regulatory capacity can help individuals to cope with the obesogenic environment and achieve, as well as maintain, a healthy weight and diet. At present, there is no comprehensive, reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing this capacity and measuring change in response to self-regulation interventions in adults. This paper reports the development of the Self-regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (SREBQ) for use in UK adults, and presents evidence for its reliability and construct validity. The development of the SREBQ involved generation of an item pool, followed by two pilot studies (Samples 1 and 2) and a test of the questionnaires underlying factor structure (Sample 3). The final version of the SREBQ was then assessed for reliability and construct validity (Sample 4). Development of the SREBQ resulted in a 5-item questionnaire. The face validity was satisfactory, as assessed by the pilot studies. The factor structure analysis (Sample 3) suggested that it has a single
Researchers from University Bochum in Germany studied 41 patients with an eating disorder who participated in a body image group therapy program, to
This study used a focus group methodology to examine the perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors among African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White American children from families with low household incomes. The present study also examined if there were differences in perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors in association with gender and race/ethnicity. Specifically, the healthy eating behaviors assessed in this study include (a) eating foods and snacks that are lower in fat and calories; and (b) eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Participants were 37 children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old who were from families with an annual household income of 40,000 dollars or less. These children participated in one of six gender- and race/ethnicity- concordant focus groups that were conducted at various community sites and led by trained focus group leaders of the same gender and race/ethnicity as the focus group?s participants. ...
Available research has shown a relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health behaviors. However, the link between EI and eating behaviors has not been well explained. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations among EI, eating behaviors, as measured by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and body mass index (BMI) in college students. One hundred and eighty four students (118 (64%) female, 66 (36%) male, average BMI = 23.8kg/m2) were recruited to complete an online survey. The survey consisted of basic demographic questions, academic information with grade point average (GPA), ACT and SAT scores, a 19-item Self-Rated EI Scale, and 18-item Consumer EI Scale (CEIS) and the 33-item DEBQ. BMI was computed using self-report data. Results showed that the overall SREIS and the understanding emotions subscale were positively correlated with BMI. Both the SREIS and CEIS managing emotions subscales were correlated with eating behavior. GPA was correlated with BMI
Abstract: Effective diet-based interventions targeting youth at risk for developing hypertension (HTN) require understanding adolescent meal patterns and their relation to HTN. The purpose of this research was to determine usual meal patterns of African American adolescents and how these vary by gender and HTN risk status. Specific aims were: develop a method to visually represent meal patterns; describe differences in meal patterns between participants of differing genders and HTN risk categories; and explore relationships between meal patterns and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-eight African Americans (ages 17-20, 30F) at either high- (n=29) or low-risk (n=29) of developing HTN were interviewed about their week-day eating and activities. The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) was used to estimate intake of select foods and nutrients associated with blood pressure (BP). Height, weight, and BP were measured. A daily timeline for each ...
Question - Had stomach infection. Red rashes appeared after eating food. Undergone allergy food panel test. Worrisone . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Skin allergy, Ask an Allergist and Immunologist
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity.Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity ...
The IgG Food Panel is a food sensitivity test which helps identify those with true IgE-mediated allergies as well as IgG-mediated food intolerances.
By taking hunger off the table, we enable families to focus on other priorities such as rent and mortgage payments that will help reduce homelessness, medical care to keep them healthy, and lower stress to help individuals perform better at work and school. We empower communities to face their challenges with confidence. Today and in the long term, providing nutritious food is an investment in health, which is why we always deliver a combination of 40-50% fresh produce to support the physical and mental well-being of our neighbors and our greater Desert communities.. FIND Food Bank is a member of Feeding America, the national network of food banks, and the California Association of Food Banks. The state and county recognize FIND as the emergency disaster response regional food bank, distributing equitably and acting as the federal and state food deployment hub for all food pantries and people in our service area. FIND Food Bank is at the forefront of advocating for folks facing food insecurity ...
About half of the females reported dieting in the past year compared to about a fourth of the males. The prevalence of dieting remained fairly constant from adolescence through young adulthood for females in both age groups. Among males, the prevalence of dieting stayed constant over time in the younger age cohort, but significantly increased in the older cohort as they progressed from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood (21.9% to 27.9%). In the younger females, unhealthy weight control behaviors remained constant from early adolescence to early young adulthood. Among older females, unhealthy weight control behaviors showed a statistically significant decrease from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood, but still remained very high (60.7% to 54.4%). Approximately one-third of males reported unhealthy weight control behaviors, and the prevalence remained fairly constant over the study period in both age cohorts ...
The demand for nutrition professionals to develop creative programs to improve childrens eating behavior is being driven by growing numbers of overweight children and lack of food and nutrition knowledge. This study evaluated the effect on childrens eating behaviors from participation in a week-long Fun with Food camp. A survey was administered on the first day of camp and a post-survey was mailed to participants. Thirty-three participants (56%) returned a completed survey. Significant (p
Weight control practices were prevalent among the study population. Although the use of healthy weight control behaviors was most commonly reported, significant percentages of females (37%) and males (15%) reported the use of unhealthy or very unhealthy behaviors. Of particular concern was the misuse of insulin for weight regulation, reported by 7-10% of the females. While prevalences of unhealthy weight control behaviors reported in this study are of concern, they were lower than those found in a recent large population-based survey of adolescents in the greater St. Paul/Minneapolis area, using similar questions (with the exception of insulin misuse) (24). Prevalences were also considerably lower than those found in an earlier population-based study of Minnesota youth who reported having diabetes (25), thus raising questions and concerns about the validity of making comparisons across studies, self-reported data on diabetes and on weight-control behaviors, and the representative nature of the ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of macronutrient intake (PRO, 15% vs. 35%) and meal frequency (3 vs. 6 meals/day) on body composition, postprandial thermogenesis and plasma adipokines before and after 28days each of EB (28days) and ED (25%; 28days) in overweight individuals. We hypothesize that HP will elicit more favorable body composition, thermogenic, and cardiometabolic changes than HC intakes and the magnitude of change will be greatest in those consuming HP meals more frequently ...
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Lets face it: What you pack your kid for lunch can completely change the outcome of his or her day. Foods that undergo high amounts of processing or that contain added sugar can make your kid distracted and hyper. Others, like vegetables and whole grains, will keep your children satisfied and focused on schoolwork. I spoke with registered dietitian, nutritionist, and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Kristi King about ways to choose healthy and energizing foods for your kids lunch. ...
The topic of meal frequency for the fitness enthusiast is one in high debate. There are many schools of thought out there regarding how frequently one
You know there is a problem when the first ingredient listed is sugar, meaning that this cereal contains more sugar than any other ingredient listed on...
To examine the effect of pregnancy on food consumption, we surveyed the recall of past experience of two groups of women, those who had been pregnant (PY, n=188) and those who never had (PN, n=111), regarding their food consumption and related dietary behaviors. The questionnaire, answered with rega …
Eating Problems in Young Children - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Body weight depends on equality between food intake and expenditures of nutrients and energy. This balance is largely achieved by controlling the intake of nutrients based on the size and frequency of meals. Intake is assessed by a pattern of signals eminating from the digestive tract as a meal is in progress. The characteristics of the food and the products of its digestion are used to inform the CNS continuously as to the amounts of nutrient ingested. This information is in the form of satiety signals that may be chemical signals or nerve impulses. As the meal proceeds, these satiety signals become progressively stronger, until they cause the meal to end at an appropriate size. In the subsequent intermeal interval, these satiety signals weaken as nutrients are consumed within the body again until the tonic influences driving eating behavior initiate eating.. ...
Test Details Test Company: US BioTekTest Type: Dried Blood Spot OR Serum. Make sure you know which one youre supposed to do, as each kit...
Net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education by under-age entrants (-1 year), gender parity index (GPI) in Guinea was reported at 0.90772 GPI in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Guinea - Net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education by under-age entrants (-1 year), gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href= target=blank>World Bank|/a> on December of 2020.
A List of Starch-Based Foods That You Should Eat. Although eating too much starch -- a type of carbohydrate that fuels your body -- can lead to excessive weight gain and obesity, you should include healthy starches in your daily meal plan. Eating nutritious starchy foods provides your body with long-lasting energy, ...
4evry1: Steam is ALMOST a subscription service, except you dont have to pay to use, only to buy software. Not only does it distribute the software to any computer you want it to, you can completely format/reinstall Windows and steam will still have your games ready for download. Games are updated automatically, and the content is usually ready for you to acquire. If you dont want to update, you can run in offline mode. All you need to do that is to have connected with it once. / ...
Blood, released by Monolith in 1998 was one of the most popular games of all time, retaining a cult following even today. Many consider it the finest first person shooter, following the protagonist Calebs attempts to seek retribution against the God...
Omega XL is definitely an improvement based only on omega-3 fat given that they are among the most crucial choice nourishment of the regular human eating plan. You will discover no bad side results, only a lot of results provided to an individual human body, different from mind to foot. They are very healthy and effective. Joint pain is definitely an incredibly common sickness in people because they get old because of general destruction of tissues. Pain can worsen it. As fibrous will get damaged, the bone get used against other tissue which become infected. This will cause agonizing pain. Joint pain drugs usually pay attention to decreasing the swelling, rather working with the real cause. You will discover several significant negative side results from anti-inflammation drugs like Pain killers and Advil. Omega XL is definitely an improvement based only on omega-3 fat given that they are among the most crucial choice nourishment of the regular human eating plan. You will discover no bad side results,
The AC-108 is an 8-channel lickometer capable of recording the licking behavior of rats for up to 24 hours. The 8 lickometers can be installed in single cages allowing testing of a single solution for 8 rats at a time or the lickometers can be installed 2 per cage to allow 2-bottle data collection for 4 rats at a time. The time of each lick made by a rat is recorded with a 1 microsecond resolution. Custom software allows microanalysis of the licking behavior. The microanalysis can be used to identify licking behaviors associated with taste-mediated cues such as lick rate and number of licks within a burst or licking behaviors typically associated with post-ingestive cues such as licks per meal and meal durations ...
Keeping fat intake in a healthy range and from healthier sources requires label reading and portion control. When it comes to portion control a good guide is where you can see which foods are part of the Oils group and how much is healthful. Label reading requires not only searching for the healthier fats but also noting how much fat is in one serving. If the grams of fat dont mean much to you look at the % of Daily Value which makes it easier to put into perspective how a serving will fit into a daily meal pattern ...
I know there have been a lot of threads started on foods suggestions, so Im sorry in advance if this is a duplicate. Just catching up after a week...
Millennials- In 2015 the Millennial generation is projected to surpass the Baby Boom generation as the nations largest living generation, according to the U.S. Census Bureau population projections. Based on its sheer size, as Millennials go so goes the food and foodservice industries. Millennials are driving changes in this countrys eating behaviors with their approach to food choice and preparation. They like fresh, less processed food, which has played out in their preference for fast casual restaurants that offer freshly prepared foods and shopping the perimeter of grocery stores where fresh and non-packaged foods can be found. This generation is in a life stage when they would, historically, visit restaurants more often than other age groups, but in recent years they have cut back to the point where 50+ year-olds go out more often than Millennials do. In addition, 65 percent of U.S. Hispanics, a growing population base, are Millennials or younger ...
The inhibition of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection increased food intake in GLUT2-SDD mice (line TgG) by enlarging meal sizes without changes in meal frequency. The decision to stop eating is delayed in conjunction with defects in arcuate c-Fos activation in response to glucose and changes in orexin and TRH neuropeptide mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of fed mice. Thus, GLUT2 receptor function, independent of sugar transport and metabolism, is involved in controlling feeding behavior.. GLUT2 plays a key role in glucodetection, which controls the feeding behavior in mice. Indeed, daily food intake is similarly increased in GLUT2-SDD (line TgG) and in GLUT2-null rescued (ripglut1;glut2−/−) mice (5), and in both mouse models, provision of glucose failed to reduce food intake. GLUT2-dependent sugar transport (except in pancreatic β-cells) and sugar detection were invalidated in GLUT2-null mice; by contrast, GLUT2-SDD mice lack only the receptor function, and thus sugar transport was still able to ...
Is time spent looking at food related to eating behavior? Researcher Lundquist and her colleagues studied the relationship between delayed gratification and consumption of food.
Eating Behaviors is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing human research on the etiology, prevention, and treatment of obesity...
Here Are The Factors That Affects Your Health And Fitness. The food that you eat is not only the things that affect your health and fitness. Aside from food and exercise, there are other elements that can create a healthy and fit body.. In order for these factors to be effective, you need to really know and understand them.. Below are the elements that has a big impact to your overall wellbeing:. A. The things that we eat and drink. Your weight can be affected by your diet. You really need to consider the food that you eat. You do not need to stop eating food that you love, even if you are on a diet. You may not have good results if you will avoid eating the food that you love. Your diet should be balanced. You can actually search the internet to find a list of the nutrients that you body will need everyday. There are some websites that provide a healthy daily meal plan. Nowadays there are businesses that prepare and deliver healthy meals.. When you have a healthy diet then you really be healthy ...
Late-night eating may be linked to several conditions that negatively affect heart health, according to new research presented at the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions.
Marine organisms live in metapopulations because of connectivity in the ocean. A very common demersal fish, the sand goby, of the Belgian Continental shelf will be studied with high-resolution genetic markers to quantify spatio-temporal variation in population structure. We expect that geographical and oceano- graphic characteristics influence the structure on a large scale while behaviour traits influence small-scale patterns.. ...
Hi Matt Harrison, I was watching BBC Ambulance program tonight 07/09/17 I have to personally say to you that I and was really emotionally upset by the way you (more so than your colleague) handled and spoke to the elderly gentleman who kept on calling 999 for an ambulance to take him home. My grandfather suffers from Alzheimers, (dementia) and has very similar behaviour traits as this gentleman did. These traits include repeating themselves over and over, being forgetful, not fully understanding their actions or the consequences when explained by others. Being quite stubborn to listen and understand others. Thoses are just to name a few. I do understand that you may not of known this gentlemans diagnosis and nor do I as the program never did say. I just dont think it really helped the situation when you were frustrated because the gentleman kept on repeating himself and not really understanding his actions when you explained them to him.. Personally for me it was upsetting to watch as my ...
3 powerful lessons on how to stop emotional eating or binge eating from author and blogger Andie Mitchell who has lost 135 pounds.
3 powerful lessons on how to stop emotional eating or binge eating from author and blogger Andie Mitchell who has lost 135 pounds.
So, what about fruit? Where does fruit fit in a healthy diet? Even though fruit does contain carbohydrates, almost all fruits are filled with vitamins and They are low in calories and are virtually fat free. Fruit also has fiber, which has been shown to help lower blood sugar levels as well as contribute to overall health. If you are keeping track of your carbs, testking 220-602 its good to know that some fruits are lower in carbs than others, while still packing a great nutritional punch. What are the healthiest choices? Using an online nutrition an make things easier. I researched a variety of fruit and found the calories and carbs for each, on Calorie Count. Use Calorie Count to check out the carb count on your favorite fruits, testking JN0-311 or use the handy chart below to help you make good fruit choices in your daily meal plans ...
Whole Earth Farms™ canned food formulas were created as a truly holistic food at a value price, without compromising the quality of your beloved pets food. We take the best, healthy ingredients from the earth and mix them into a delicious daily meal. With multiple protein sources, vitamins and minerals, Whole Earth Fa
Both species of the oxpecker bird differ slightly by their feeding habits, but mainly differing on what types of animals they choose to land upon and to be a host for their daily meals (Stutterheim et al. , 2000). The oxpecker bird has caused much conflict when it comes to its true relationships with animal hosts. It has been noticed to have both a mutualistic and parasitic relationships with the host they land upon (Stutterheim et al. , 2000).. With further exploration for information on this bird, we are able to determine what type of relationship is truly present in the oxpeckers daily interactions. The oxpecker bird spends most of its typical, normal day flying around and looking for a decently sized ungulate host to land upon or rest upon to begin its normal, everyday feeding process (Stutterheim et al. , 2000). Once the host animal has been located and the bird has landed, the oxpecker bird begins to remove and feast upon the invading ticks that are lingering on or are attached to the ...
Birgitte and I discussed the health benefits of cacao and natural chocolate, suggest fun ways to integrate chocolate into your daily meals and snacks, and talk
What can be more satisfying than New Zealand lamb flavored with fragrant rosemary and thyme? Topped off with spinach, potatoes and carrots, this grain-free recipe is a wholesome daily meal for your dog.Available in 2 lb and 8 lbThis super satisf...
Tomatoes and broccoli as tow important sources for healthy nutrition, prevention of heart attacks and other disorders, use of tomatoes and broccoli in various daily meals.
A diet is when you choose to include & exclude certain food from your daily meals for a period of time. Heres a list if the best diets
Unique to SuperNature, incorporate a rainbow of carrots - red, yellow, purple and white - into your daily meals and enjoy a wider range of healthful benefits.
Feeding behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Social behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... As stated above, the P. t. ilioneus strain, found in Florida, mostly feeds on redbay, while P. t. troilus feeds on either ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. Behavior is partly nocturnal and diurnal so it is active during the day and at night. It is ...
Feeding behavior[edit]. Foraging, flying or crawling insects such as flies are attracted to a cavity formed by the cupped leaf ... Mature plants of Nepenthes lowii attract tree shrews (Tupaia montana), which feed on nectar that the plant produces but also ... Furthermore, some pitcher plants contain mutualistic insect larvae, which feed on trapped prey, and whose excreta the plant ... shape of the pitcher rim and the position of the nectar ensure that the animal's hindquarters are over the rim while it feeds.[ ...
Feeding behavior and diet[edit]. Stingrays employ a wide range of feeding strategies. Some have specialized jaws that allow ... Most stingrays feed primarily on mollusks, crustaceans, and occasionally on small fish. Freshwater stingrays in the amazon feed ... Behavior[edit]. Reproduction[edit]. During the breeding season, males of various stingray species such as Urolophus halleri, ... Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding, often leaving only their eyes and tails visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. The royal tern typically feeds in small secluded bodies of water such as estuaries, mangroves, ... When feeding they fly long distances from the colony to forage.[10] The royal tern feeds by diving into the water from heights ... Fish are their main source of food but they also eat insects, shrimp, and crabs.[10][12] The royal tern feeds on small crabs, ... They tend to feed near the shore, close to the beach or in backwater bays. The royal tern's conservation status is listed as ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. White catfish feed mostly on the bottom, where they eat other fish and aquatic insects. They ... feed most actively at dusk and through the night[3] mostly on bottom-dwelling insects, worms, amphipods, and other small ...
Ecology and behavior. Non-predatory feeding. A jumping spider seen in Chennai. ... "Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 7 (3): 261-279. doi:10.3920/JIFF2020.0046. ISSN 2352-4588. S2CID 229391382.. ... "In Shear, W.A. (ed.). Spiders - webs, behavior, and evolution. Stanford University Press. pp. 272-73. ISBN 978-0-8047-1203-3. . ... Feeding on nectar avoids the risks of struggles with prey, and the costs of producing venom and digestive enzymes.[52] ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. The Chinese giant salamander has been recorded feeding on insects, millipedes, horsehair worms, ... Most Chinese giant salamanders stop feeding at water temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) and feeding ceases almost entirely at 28 ... Most individuals stop feeding at water temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) and feeding ceases almost entirely at 28 °C (82 °F). ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. A vampire bat drinking at the Buffalo Zoo ... the common vampire bat feeds on mammalian blood more than the other two species, which primarily feed on that of birds.[8][9] ... They are protective of their host and will fend off other bats while feeding.[19][23] It is uncommon for two or more bats to ... Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies, the common vampire bat is considered a pest. Its conservation status ...
Behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. Feeding at Zoo Miami, USA. Adults are near the top of a food chain and are rarely preyed on.[25] ... The chick fledges at the age of 6 months, but the parents continue to feed it for another 6 to 10 months. The male captures ... where many mammals go to feed for nutrients).[9] The more common hunting technique of the species is perch-hunting, which ... large size and nearly fearless behavior around humans reportedly make it an "irresistible target" for hunters.[34] Such threats ...
Such feeding behavior lasts for 23 to 27 days and the caterpillar feeds on an average of one to two fruits during this time.[1] ... Adult moths feed little if at all. Though feeding may prolong life a little longer, abstaining from feeding does not ... and embryonic development in eggs is not affected by lack of feeding behavior of the parent moths. If they choose to feed, the ... Feeding behavior[edit]. The codling moth caterpillars bore into a fruit within 24 hours of hatching from their eggs, usually ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. Feeding[edit]. Marine halfbeaks are omnivores feeding on algae; marine plants such as seagrasses; ... Behavior[edit]. Marine halfbeaks are typically pelagic schooling forage fish.[12][13] The southern sea garfish Hyporhamphus ... They are also fed upon by other commercially important predatory fishes, such as billfishes, mackerels, and sharks. ... Some tropical species feed on animals during the day and plants at night, while other species alternate between carnivory in ...
Behavior[edit]. Diet, feeding and call[edit]. Rock kestrels feed on a wide variety of organisms.[5] They eat primarily ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Feeding and diet[edit]. Ratite chicks tend to be more omnivorous or insectivorous; similarities in ... Rhea feathers are popular for dusters, and eggs and meat are used for chicken and pet feed in South America. Ratite hides are ... adults end with feeding, as they all vary in diet and length of digestive tract, which is indicative of diet. Ostriches, with ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Hunting and feeding[edit]. Feeding of a juvenile ... The female takes over when the demand is higher.[10] Chicks feed off the regurgitated fish in the adult's mouth. If the parent ... Thus, they respond to the brood hierarchy and not to the level of begging when deciding which chick to feed, as both chicks beg ... The parental behavior described above may be masking parent-offspring conflict. Blue-footed booby parents make steep-sided ...
Hobson, E.S. (1963). "Feeding Behavior in Three Species of Sharks". Pacific Science. 17: 171-194.. ... Feeding strategies[edit]. Many reef fish species have evolved different feeding strategies accompanied by specialized mouths, ... Herbivores feed on plants. The four largest groups of coral reef fishes that feed on plants are the parrotfishes, damselfishes ... Some bottom feeding rays and sharks with crushing teeth feed on them, as does the Stokes' seasnake[42] ...
Kahl, M. P. (January 1971). "Food and feeding behavior of Openbill Storks". Journal of Ornithology. 112 (1): 21-35. doi:10.1007 ... This can also include regular commutes from nesting sites to feeding areas. Wood storks have been observed feeding 130 km (81 ... They feed in small groups, sometimes African openbills ride on the backs of hippos while foraging. Having caught a snail it ... Larger still are the massive daggers of the two adjutants and marabou (Leptoptilos), which are used to feed on carrion and in ...
"Prey Capture Behavior and Feeding Mechanisms of Elasmobranchs". In Carrier, J. C.; Musick, J. A.; Heithaus, M. R. (eds.). ... those that feed on fish have needle-like teeth for gripping, and those that feed on larger prey such as mammals have pointed ... For suction feeding a system of linked four-bar linkages is responsible for the coordinated opening of the mouth and the three- ... Video of a red bay snook catching prey by suction feeding. *. "Moray Eels Are Uniquely Equipped to Pack Big Prey Into Their ...
Such feeding behavior is considered ram suspension-feeding. Further research has indicated that their electroreceptors may also ... The feeding behavior of fingerlings is quite different from that of older juveniles and adults. They capture individual ... Feeding ecology and physiology[edit]. Scientists began to debate the function of the American paddlefish's rostrum when the ... Veligers are poor swimmers, making them susceptible to predation by any animal that feeds on zooplankton.[41] However, natural ...
Matthews, Robert W. & Matthews, Janice R. Insect Behavior; Foraging and Feeding. Springer Netherlands, 2010. ISBN 978-90-481- ... In species that feed on mammalian or avian blood, hosts whose blood pressure is high, the mosquito feeds selectively from ... The pupa is less active than the larva because it does not feed, whereas the larva feeds constantly.[25] ... many adult mosquitoes must excrete unwanted aqueous fractions even as they feed. (See the photograph of a feeding Anopheles ...
Makwana, S. (1979). "Field Ecology and Behavior of the rhesus macaque. Food, Feeding and Drinking in Dehra Dun Forests". Indian ... a b c d e Southwick, C., Beg, M., and R. Siddiqi (1965) "Rhesus Monkeys in North India." Primate Behavior: Field Studies of ... Ecology and behavior[edit]. Rhesus macaques are diurnal animals, and both arboreal and terrestrial. They are quadrupedal and, ... Aggressive Behavior. 12 (6): 433-439. doi:10.1002/1098-2337(1986)12:6,433::AID-AB2480120606,3.0.CO;2-C. Retrieved 5 January ...
Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR. Handbook of Behavior ... "Physiology & Behavior. 94 (1): 121-35. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.037. PMC 2601682 . PMID 18164737.. ... "Physiology & Behavior. 94 (1): 121-35. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.037. PMC 2601682 . PMID 18164737.. ... "Feeding and eating disorders" (PDF). American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2015. ...
One hypothesized feeding behavior strategy considers them to be low-level browsers, eating low-growing fruit of various ... A detailed computer analysis of the biomechanics of Stegosaurus's feeding behavior was performed in 2010, using two different ... Bakker RT (1978). "Dinosaur feeding behavior and the origin of flowering plants". Nature. 274 (5672): 661-63. Bibcode:1978Natur ... Barrett, P.M. (2001). Tooth wear and possible jaw action of Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen and a review of feeding mechanisms in ...
Astheimer, L; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Buttemer, W (1989). "Corticosterone Feeding Behavior and Food Deprivation in ... Prescott, DRC (1985). "Feeding at Night by Wintering Pine Siskins Carduelis-Pinus". Journal of Field Ornithology. 56: 4.. ... In summer, they will eat many insects, especially aphids, as well as a few spiders and grubs, which they then feed to the young ... While they favor feeding in open forest canopies where cone seeds are abundant, they'll forage in habitats as diverse as ...
Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR (eds.). Handbook of ... a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior". Cell. 92 (4): 573-85. ... Additionally, when either orexin peptide was administered to rats it stimulated feeding, giving rise to the name 'orexin'.[6] ... feeding, and other behaviours.[1] There are two types of orexin peptide and two types of orexin receptor.[5][4] ...
Zhang, X.; Song, J.; Fan, C.; Guo, H.; Wang, X. & Bleckmann, H. (2012). "Use of electrosense in the feeding behavior of ... Exceptionally, both Huso species, the white sturgeon, and the pallid sturgeon feed primarily on other fish as adults. They feed ... The electroreceptors are thought to be used in various behaviors such as feeding, mating and migration.[31] ... Sturgeon feeding on the remains of a fish at Eccleston Delph, Lancashire England - Set of images on Flickr ...
Macrochelys temminckii (Alligator Snapping Turtle). Feeding Behavior. Herpetological Review 37(2):217. Demography, genetic ... and behavior of amphibians and reptiles. Trauth's work with his student Benjamin A. Wheeler and University of Florida professor ...
Feeding behaviorEdit. Haws and crab-apples are the original food source of the flies, but they have moved to feeding on mainly ... The apple-feeding race does not normally feed on hawthorns, and the hawthorn-feeding race does not normally feed on apples. ... However, these organisms generally feed in the apple's core while apple maggots feed on the fruit flesh. The apple maggot ... the race that feeds on apples spontaneously evolved from the hawthorn-feeding race in 1800 to 1850 CE after apples were ...
Microbivory, an eating behavior of some animals feeding on living microbes. *Nanobacterium ... "Myxobacteria: Moving, Killing, Feeding, and Surviving Together". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 781. doi:10.3389/fmicb. ...
... has evolved the capability to manipulate mosquito feeding behavior. Mosquitoes harboring Plasmodium have a higher ... In all cases, only female mosquitoes can be infected with Plasmodium species, since only the females feed on the blood of ... These gametocytes circulate in the blood until they are taken up when a mosquito feeds on the infected vertebrate host, taking ... or produce gametocytes which are taken up by insects which feed on the vertebrate host. In the insect host, gametocytes merge ...
The prefrontal cortex is thought essential for all goal-directed and socially-mediated behavior. The PFC is an ideal target for ... cardiovascular exercise results in increased cerebral blood flow due to increased vascularization of the capillaries feeding ... difficulties with attention and some mode of obsessive behavior. Many patients with ASD have normal to above normal ...
"Pediatric Feeding Tube". Feeding Clinic of Santa Monica. Retrieved 8 July 2013.. ... McKenna, R. J. (1972). "Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A ... They survive solely on breast milk or formula.[12] Small amounts of pureed food are sometimes fed to young infants as young as ... In mice, MCH stimulates feeding and a mutation causing the overproduction of MCH led to overeating and obesity.[25] Orexin ...
The linkages in a food web illustrate the feeding pathways, such as where heterotrophs obtain organic matter by feeding on ... Links in food webs map the feeding connections (who eats whom) in an ecological community. Food cycle is an obsolete term that ... The base of the food chain (primary producers or detritivores) is set at zero.[3][13] Ecologists identify feeding relations and ... The food web is a simplified illustration of the various methods of feeding that links an ecosystem into a unified system of ...
FeedingEdit. The magpie is omnivorous, eating young birds and eggs, small mammals,[41] insects, scraps and carrion, acorns, ... 2012). "Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic ... The eggs are incubated for 21-22 days by the female, who is fed on the nest by the male.[32] The chicks are altricial, hatching ... They are brooded by the female for the first 5-10 days and fed by both parents.[33] Initially the parents eat the faecal sacs ...
"Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with ... "Cold Storage Behavior of Avocados". California Avocado Association Annual Report (San Diego, CA: California Avocado ...
"Recommendations for Breastfeeding/Infant Feeding in the Context of Ebola". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 19 ... animal behavior and other factors may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[82] ...
The complex also contributes to integrating modulatory and sensory inputs which feed its larger network with the capacity to ... Plasticity of the mechanisms involved in respiratory behavior is modulated in part by the pre-Bötzinger complex. Disruption ... and ion currents that are controlled by changes in the behavior or environment of the organism. Under low levels of oxygen, the ...
Frog, toad and newt tadpoles eat plants such as algae and pondweed or filter feed. When they get older, they may start to feed ... The ecology & behavior of amphibians. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226893340 *↑ "American Bullfrog". ... Feeding in captivity[change , change source]. In captivity, pet frogs will be given crickets, worms, small fish, rodents and ... Wells, Kentwood (2007), The ecology and behavior of amphibians, Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-226-89334-1. CS1 maint: ref= ...
FeedingEdit. The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors ... The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ...
In a study of the feeding activities of a number of female black wildebeest living in a shadeless habitat, they fed mostly at ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... It is fed by its lactating mother for 6-8 months, begins nibbling on grass blades at 4 weeks, and remains with the mother until ...
It is not a feeding stage; its role is to find a suitable place to settle, since the adults are sessile.[8] The cyprid stage ... Their physiology and role in the control of behavior". Progress in Neurobiology. 4: 211-239. doi:10.1016/0301-0082(75)90002-7. ... Such barnacles feed by extending thread-like rhizomes of living cells into their hosts' bodies from their points of attachment. ... They are able to grind through the calcareous exoskeletons of barnacles and feed on the softer inside parts. Mussels also prey ...
However, even with complementary feeding, the child should continue to be breastfed for two years or more. Gender inequality in ... Karki, Yagya B.; Agrawal, Gajanand (May 2008). "Effects of Communication Campaigns on the Health Behavior of Women of ... Lack of appropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and frequent illnesses, which in turn may lead to death. ... feeding behaviour and poor care and practices leading to an intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. An analysis of the causes ...
The most widely accepted theory about what foods P. boisei ate suggests that it fed on hard objects as its primary source of ... feeding mechanics, diet, and dietary adaptations in early hominins". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 151 (3): 356-71 ... which is thought to have fed on hard foods as a fallback resource.[12] This work suggests that hard foods were an infrequent ... "Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): 84942. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...984942M ...
Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be ... Agriculture fed larger populations, and the transition to sedentism allowed simultaneously raising more children, as infants no ... Brief report:predictors of heavy internet use and associations with health promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong ... Brief report:predictorsofheavyinternetuseandassociationswithhealthpromoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong ...
"What behavior can we expect of octopuses?". The Cephalopod Page.. *^ Lee, Henry (1875). "V: The octopus out of water". Aquarium ... "Octopuses and Relatives: Feeding, diets and growth". A Snail's Odyssey. Retrieved 13 April 2017.. ... Some species have other modes of feeding. Grimpoteuthis has a reduced or non-existent radula and swallows prey whole.[31] In ... They feed on copepods, arthropod larvae and other zooplankton, eventually settling on the ocean floor and developing directly ...
Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR (May 2015). "Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures". Epilepsy & Behavior. 46: 60-5. doi ... Behavior. 6 (1): 9-14. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.10.009. PMID 15652726. S2CID 5178510.. ...
They consist of multiple parts that each partially process an instruction, feed their results to the next stage in the pipeline ... that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of ...
Adherents of catch and release dispute this charge, pointing out that fish commonly feed on hard and spiky prey items, and as ... Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh performing research on rainbow trout concluded that fish exhibit behaviors ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... Panic attacks and anxiety can occur; also, delusional behavior may be seen, including somatoform delusions, sometimes ... When the tick feeds, the Borrelia downregulates OspA and upregulates OspC, another surface protein. After the bacteria migrate ... Canine Recombinant Lyme, formulated by Merial, generates antibodies against the OspA protein so a tick feeding on a vaccinated ...
Marine gastropods, bivalves and other invertebrates are also affected, as are the organisms that feed on them.[citation needed] ... some of which had adapted flightlessness and ground nesting habits and others had no defensive behavior as a result of having ... Since the 1970s food production has soared in order to feed a growing human population and bolster economic growth, but at a ... of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation required to rear tens of billions of farm ...
Snappy, vicious behavior is considered a serious fault in the breed.[60] Though not suitable for being a guard dog because it ... GDV risk is increased with faster eating and a raised feeding bowl.[87] ... that they do not owe anyone good behavior and they become very spoiled and uncontrollable.[82][83][84] ...
Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the ... Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are ...
In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and ... relevance to carbonization behavior". Carbon. 40 (11): 1937-1947. doi:10.1016/s0008-6223(02)00029-5.. ...
Drenner, Ray (1978). "Capture probability: the role of zooplankter escape in the selective feeding of planktivorous fish". ... If the chosen identifier harms the organism, then its behavior might become irregular. ...
Swartz, 232 F.3d 862, 56 USPQ2d 1703, (Fed. Cir. 2000). decision. Sources: *. "2164.07 Relationship of Enablement Requirement ... nor does it seem possible to conclude unequivocally that all the apparently anomalous behavior can be attributed to error.. ... "Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition" (PDF), Thermochimica Acta, 410: 101, doi:10.1016/ ... "Comments on "Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition"" (PDF), Thermochimica Acta, 428 (1-2): ...
IRC recent changes feeds have been moved to a new server. Make sure all tools automatically reconnect to and ... wherever necessary to keep filters' behavior unchanged. You can use the search function on Special:AbuseFilter to locate its ... Newcomer tasks: a feed of task suggestions that help newcomers learn to edit. Newcomers have been making productive edits ... through this feed! Know more about this tool.. *Mentorship module [optional]: each newcomers has a direct link to an ...
... and the grey whale which feed on bottom-dwelling invertebrates.[12][74][75] The elaborate baleen "teeth" of filter-feeding ... Miller, P. J. O.; Aoki, K.; Rendell, L. E.; Amano, M. (2008). "Stereotypical resting behavior of the sperm whale". Current ... The whale faeces are liquid and instead of sinking, they stay at the surface where phytoplankton feed off it.[83][84][85] ... To feed the new-born, whales, being aquatic, must squirt the milk into the mouth of the calf. Being mammals, they have mammary ...
Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some ... Larger lizards, like the monitors, are known to exhibit complex behavior, including cooperation.[110] Crocodiles have ... McHenry, C.R. (7 October 2005). "Bottom-Feeding Plesiosaurs". Science. 310 (5745): 75. doi:10.1126/science.1117241. PMID ... They acquired new feeding strategies including herbivory and carnivory, previously only having been insectivores and piscivores ...
Quoting Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(3) (emphasis added)). *^ See Cohelan on California Class Actions and California Class Actions: ... Third, class-action cases may be brought to purposely change behavior of a class of which the defendant is a member. Landeros v ... See Fed. R. Civ. P. 23(b)(1)(A). For example, a court might certify a case for class treatment where a number of individual ... Flood (1976) was a landmark case decided by the California Supreme Court that aimed at purposefully changing the behavior of ...
Lefebvre G, Poulin B & McNeil R. (1992). Abundance, Feeding Behavior, and Body Condition of Nearctic Warblers Wintering in ... 1988). CONTINUOUS FEEDING FROM A SPIDERS WEB BY A PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 59, no 3. p. 278-279. ... 1995). Roosting behavior of Prothonotary Warblers in the non-breeding season. The Wilson Bulletin. vol 107, no 2. p. 374. ... 2000). Flocking and foraging behavior of wintering Prothonotary Warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 112, no 1. p. 88-98. ...
At the single-cell level, the activity of feeding-max neurons was significantly decreased during postsilencing feeding behavior ... feeding and sleeping behaviors and tested the role of REM sleep in the encoding of neuronal representation of feeding behavior. ... across feeding behavior and sleep in freely behaving mice. We found that feeding is reliably encoded by specific patterns of ... REM sleep stabilizes hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior. Lukas T. Oesch, Mary Gazea, Thomas C. Gent, Mojtaba ...
... several specific guidelines for feeding. The feeding guidelines consisted of feeding the child at regular times with 3 to 4 ... Altering Parents Behavior Often the Key to Correcting Infant Feeding Disorders - Medscape - Nov 01, 2006. ... "When the infants behavior is not affecting his or her health and growth, the priority is to work with the parents and child to ... "Letting the child do more self-feeding can help. She added, "Sometimes parents are so conscientious regarding dietary fat and ...
Snakes are divided into five major groups that differ in their biology and especially in how they feed. There are pythons and ... Some large snakes, such reticulated pythons, can survive up to a year without food after feeding. Snakes have two unique ...
By mounting cameras on the animals, researchers saw for the first time that these whales were bottom-feeding. ... 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding behavior-called bubble-netting-at the waters surface. But researchers ... Video Reveals Surprising Humpback Feeding Behavior. October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding ... Video Reveals Surprising Humpback Feeding Behavior. October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding ...
... Published Friday 26 February 2016 Published Fri 26 Feb ... "Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 26 Feb. 2016 ... 2016, February 26). "Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain ." Medical News Today. Retrieved ... "We also looked directly at how amylin and leptin affect feeding behavior," says lead author Zhiying Li, a research associate in ...
Duckling feeding behavior Discussion in Ducks started by lindsaymarshall, Nov 22, 2011. ... My water buckets are not right next to the feeding troughs, That way they can still have the water close by but they dont get ... I think at the end of the day I would toss any feed that was wet. Thats what i do. ...
Sinigrin as a feeding deterrent in two crucifer-feeding polyphagous lepidopterous species and the effects of feeding stimulant ... Behavior furanocoumarins insect parsnip webworm Depressaria pastinacella wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa This is a preview of ... Feeding deterrents and sensitivity suppressors for Pieris rapaelarvae in wheat germ diet. J. Chem. Ecol.232:51-70.Google ... They also feed preferentially on parthenocarpic fruits, which are lower in furanocoumarin content than are normal fruits. ...
J. A. Davis and E. B. Radcliffe "Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals," Journal of Economic ... J. A. Davis, E. B. Radcliffe "Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals," Journal of Economic ... In investigating aphid feeding behavior on barrier crops, we observed winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., colonized by green ...
In an essay for Dummy, Adam Harper (AKA Rouges Foam) examines the role of irony in the way we process art and music, using the London Philharmonic Orchestras recent adaptation of William Basinskis Disintegration Loops as an example.. ...
Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice.. Krashes MJ1, Koda S, Ye C, Rogan SC, Adams AC, ... Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... A) Ad lib-fed animals injected with saline were first trained to associate a successful nose poke with a reward pellet using an ...
A squid fossil offers a rare record of pterosaur feeding behavior. A tooth embedded in a squid fossil tells a story of a battle ... and tells us about its hunting behavior." ...
A new study of blue whale feeding strategies reveals surprising preferences with respect to how much and which direction they ... The lunge feeding of blue whales is an extraordinary biomechanical event in which the largest animal on Earth accelerates and ... roll during lunge feeding in order to maximize efficiency. ... feeding behavior.. The study, published November 20 in Current ... show a right-side bias in their most common feeding behavior, rolling about 90 degrees to the right side during most feeding ...
"Orexin-mediated feeding behavior involves both leptin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways," Physiology and Behavior, vol. 77, ... The hypothalamus has long been known to play an important role in feeding behavior. As far back as 1951, Anand and Brobeck [1] ... R. D. Palmiter, "Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior?" Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 30, no. 8 ... Complementary Roles of Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Feeding Behavior. Jessica R. Barson, Irene Morganstern, and ...
A method of inducing feeding behavior and accelerating the feeding activity of fish contained within an impoundment of known ... A method of inducing feeding behavior and accelerating the feeding activity of fish contained within an impoundment of known ... an object of the present invention to provide a method of inducing feeding behavior in fish and maintaining that behavior over ... It will also be readily understood and expected that the method of inducing feeding behavior in fish through elevation of the ...
Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior.. Title. Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior.. ... Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical ... The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made ... during naturally evoked proboscis extension show that orchestration of serial motoneuron activation does not rely on feed- ...
Feeding Behavior of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera Aphididae) Biotype... Feeding Behavior Analysis of the Soybean Aphid ( ... In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on ... to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and ... A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h ...
Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... Among these, agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons are thought to promote feeding and weight gain; however, the evidence ... Together, these findings demonstrate that AgRP neuron activity is both necessary and sufficient for feeding. ...
Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... Ad lib-fed animals injected with saline were first trained to associate a successful nose poke with a reward pellet using an ... Acute stimulation of AgRP neurons in mice fed ad lib led to a significant increase in the break point, similar to the break ...
Complementary feeding : report of the global consultation, and summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the ... Complementary feeding counselling : a training course  World Health Organization (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health ... Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding  World Health Organization; United Nations Childrens Fund (‎‎UNICEF)‎‎ (‎ ... Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age  ...
Behavior, Animal. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Eating / drug effects*. Feeding Behavior / drug effects*. ... it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight ... and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the ... Title: Physiology & behavior Volume: 89 ISSN: 0031-9384 ISO Abbreviation: Physiol. Behav. Publication Date: 2006 Aug ...
You are here: Horses , Horse nutrition / feed , Feeding for behavior I. The Connection Between Diet and Mood Swings. You have ... feeds or dietary components have on the behavior of certain horses. As a result the horse feed industry has developed a niche ... When managing the behavior of a horse through their diet the most important thing to remember is to match the feeding program ... However, this doesn t mean the feeding program isn t the cause for any behavior problem in horses. Rather humans are too quick ...
Baystate Parent Education Department presents Postnatal Newborn Behavior and Feeding Class - Tuesday, July 10, 2018 at Wesson ... Postnatal Newborn Behavior and Feeding Class at Wesson Women & Infants Unit Lundy Boardroom 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, ... The class includes feeding cues for breast and bottle feeding, infant sleep patterns, comforting a crying infant, information ... this class with your new baby provides postpartum support for new parents and provides information on newborn behavior in the ...
A shift in the feeding behavior of mosquitoes from birds to mammals in late summer amplifies the number of human infections of ... A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the ... Shift in feeding behavior of mosquitoes sheds light on West Nile virus outbreaks. PLOS ... Shift in feeding behavior of mosquitoes sheds light on West Nile virus outbreaks ...
Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher ... Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior by connecting AgRP neurons to both ... Extrahypothalamic GABAergic nociceptin-expressing neurons regulate AgRP neuron activity to control feeding behavior. ... Extrahypothalamic GABAergic nociceptin-expressing neurons regulate AgRP neuron activity to control feeding behavior. ...
... direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen neurons linked to social interaction was enough to suppress a mouses drive to feed ... Feeding behavior and social stimulation activate intermingled but distinct brain circuits, and activating one circuit can ... When activated, social brain circuits inhibit feeding behavior in mice. Researchers at Stanford demonstrated that direct ... several neurons at once to identify different clusters of neurons responsible for feeding behavior and social behavior.. Steve ...
Complementary feeding and the control of iron deficiency anaemia in the Newly Independent States : presenation by WHO at a WHO/ ... Complementary feeding and the control of iron deficiency anaemia in the Newly Independent States : presentation by WHO at a WHO ... The WHO Working Group on Complementary Feeding and the Control of Iron Deficiency was invited to present an overview of current ... The WHO Working Group on Complementary Feeding and the Control of Iron Deficiency was invited to present an overview of current ...
... in the southern Gulf of Maine are spending more feeding time on the ocean floor than in any of these other feeding behaviors. ... Humpback whales are known for the complexity of their feeding techniques, which include trapping krill and other prey within ... Tag data showed that the bottom-feeding humpbacks were moving at too low a speed to characterize this behavior as lunge feeding ... primary feeding behavior.. In lunge feeding, whales accelerates to propel water full of prey into their enlarged mouths; they ...
Food Fight: The NPY-Serotonin Link Between Aggression and Feeding Behavior Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Experiments on the Feeding Behavior of the Hematophagous Candiru, Vandellia cf. Plazaii. ... The taste system of the channel catfish: from biophysics to behavior. Trends Neurosci. 16: 192-197.Google Scholar ... Feeding of reportedly parasitic catfishes (Trichomycteridae and Cetopsidae) in the Rio Portuguesa Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica ... Visual, chemical and sound stimuli as cues in the sex discriminatory behavior of the gobiid fish Bathygobius soporator. ...
"We concluded that increased levels of Hap1 correlated with increased feeding behavior in the mice, and our research helps ... "GABA is known to have a stimulating effect on feeding behavior. Because insulin decreases Hap1 levels, and reducing Hap1 ... Hap1 protein links circulating insulin to feeding behavior regulating brain circuits. By Emory University Health Sciences ... are known to be an important part of the pathway that regulates feeding behavior.. Scientists at Emory University School of ...
  • With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic. (
  • Tissues like adipose, intestine and liver signal to the brain through hormones that regulate feeding behavior. (
  • AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans. (
  • Serotonergic regulation of feeding behavior has been studied intensively, both for an understanding of the basic neurocircuitry of energy balance in various organisms and as a therapeutic target for human obesity. (
  • More recently, neuropeptides have been linked to the regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism and body weight. (
  • Similar to mammals, it seemed that glutamate, GABA and glycine have an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior of chicks. (
  • Crittercams are small, computer-controlled camera system that we use to study animal behavior in their natural environment. (
  • Animal behavior monitoring systems. (
  • Traditionally, animal nutrition has focused almost exclusively on the nutrient aspects of the diet, but has failed to consider how animal behavior may affect the animals' access to food. (
  • Feeding can also alter animal behavior so that animals routinely travel in larger groups, which can make disease transmission between animals more likely. (
  • Abstract Stage IV phyllosoma larvae of the packhorse lobster, Jasus verreauxi (H. Milne Edwards, 1851), were observed while feeding to determine the processing ability and involvement of mouthparts. (
  • After arrival, anholocylic reproduction occurs on numerous herbaceous species, including many common weeds, before movement to potato, Solanum tuberosum L. In investigating aphid feeding behavior on barrier crops, we observed winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., colonized by green peach aphid. (
  • This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. (
  • Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). (
  • These results suggest that rapid eye movement sleep stabilizes the hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior and modulates future food intake. (
  • REM sleep-specific optogenetic silencing of LH vgat cells induced a reorganization of these activity patterns during subsequent feeding behaviors accompanied by decreased food intake. (
  • While these two neuropeptides share this similar positive relationship with food, recent evidence suggests that this occurs through different albeit complementary effects on behavior, with OX promoting food seeking and motivation for palatable food and MCH functioning during ongoing food intake, reinforcing the consumption of calorically dense foods. (
  • Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. (
  • So how exactly do you increase the energy intake of a horse that is hyperactive after being fed high levels of grain? (
  • The two agricultural engineers investigated existing RFID-based systems to monitor feed intake. (
  • While many solutions were available that can monitor feed intake, those products substantially alter the normal feeding process, thereby potentially influencing the animals' behavior. (
  • Variables measured in feeding studies may include average feed intake per minute, number of feeding events per day, or the amount of time spent eating. (
  • Feeding behavior traits were also related to variability in metabolizable energy intake (MEI). (
  • The administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 to 5.0 mg/Kg) dose-dependently inhibited the food intake in normally fed quails. (
  • Reduced food intake response is associated with an increase of serotonin release in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region involved in feeding coordination (Shimizu et al . (
  • The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. (
  • Three rearing tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness and to identify the problems of applying wet/dry feeding to 113 postweaning pigs whose feed was changed, one week after the weaning, from the starter milk A to the starter milk B. The effects of wet/dry feeding for postweaning pigs were observed on growth, feed intake, water consumption and eating behavior. (
  • The feed intake was increased in wet feeder sections from 5 to 8% compared with the control section. (
  • This study is the first to investigate individual differences in feed efficiency, measured as residual feed intake and its relationship with feeding behaviour and stress response in one of the most important farmed fish, the Nile tilapia. (
  • The individual feed intake of twenty-four juvenile of Nile tilapia was followed during 57 days. (
  • Individual growth rates and residual feed intake were determined at the end of the experiment. (
  • Results show pronounced individual differences in residual feed intake as well as a significant correlation with both feeding behavior (feeding latency, total feeding time and number of feeding acts) and stress (cortisol) response. (
  • There was no relationship between cord ghrelin or leptin and milk intake or feed frequency. (
  • Birth weight and milk intake are the major determinants of weight gain in the first week of life in healthy bottle-fed infants. (
  • Total cord ghrelin and leptin are not directly related to milk intake or feed frequency in the first week of life. (
  • GrowSafe Systems Ltd. develops livestock feed intake and behavior monitoring technology. (
  • Currently, more than 55 major Agricultural Research Centers and premium seedstock centers worldwide use GrowSafe Feed Intake and Behavior Monitoring technology to conduct livestock research and to measure feed efficiency. (
  • Feed intake data acquisition systems. (
  • Phenylalanine (Phe)-or tryptophan (Trp)-excess feed induced anorexia and ICV injection of Phe or Trp also decreased food intake in chicks. (
  • Signs such as this are used to emphasize a no-feeding policy This sign discourages feeding coyotes, which can result in aggressive behavior toward humans Sign in Singapore telling people not to feed the pigeons Sign telling citizens to not feed the ducks Prohibited activities and safety instructions at a state park in Oregon Zoos generally discourage visitors from giving any food to the animals. (
  • This study aimed to determine the relationship between damage caused by ECB larval feeding and different irrigation and nitrogen fertilization rates on different maize genotypes. (
  • The maize damage caused by ECB larval feeding was negatively affected by high plant nitrogen concentrations only when plants were under drought stress. (
  • Further studies are needed since we detected the significant impact of drought on intensive ECB larval feeding. (
  • These results indicate that the initial prey-capture behavior remains unchanged throughout larval ontogeny. (
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal volume Aguila, Rayner Núñez, Davis, Don R. (2016): Antillopsyche sessilis, new genus and species, a new Psychidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) from Cuba with an unusual larval feeding behavior. (
  • Feeding behavior in a larval (immature) organism. (
  • As far back as 1951, Anand and Brobeck [ 1 ] reported that bilateral destruction of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in rats resulted in the complete absence of eating, leading them to term this area of the brain the "feeding center. (
  • The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (
  • This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (
  • Such a combination has revealed enhanced drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in OBX rats, but no study has investigated so far potential sex differences in operant responding and motivation for natural reinforcers in OBX rats. (
  • This study investigated for the first time operant self-administration of palatable food pellets in male and female OBX rats under different feeding status, i.e., ad libitum vs. restricted food, and schedules of reinforcement, i.e., a continuous ratio schedule fixed ratio 1 (FR1) vs. a complex (FR5 (x) ) second order schedule of reinforcement. (
  • Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. (
  • Magnetically induced vagus nerve stimulation and feeding behavior in rats. (
  • Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. (
  • We concluded that increased levels of Hap1 correlated with increased feeding behavior in the mice, and our research helps explain how Hap1 is linked to feeding-related molecules such as insulin, and to hypothalamic neuronal function," said Xiao-Jiang Li, PhD, professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine and senior author of the study. (
  • Serotonergic neurons innervate hypothalamic areas involved with feeding and other homeostatic and behavioral functions. (
  • Serotonin mediated changes in corticotropin releasing factor mRNA expression and feeding behavior isolated to the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. (
  • The high proportion of leaf-feeding species with wind-pollinated host-plants may reflect the nutritional advantage of being able to feed additionally on pollen that lands on the leaves. (
  • 1987. Impact of pollen food on the fecundity and feeding time in two species of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) infesting flowers of Solanaceae. (
  • Sinigrin as a feeding deterrent in two crucifer-feeding polyphagous lepidopterous species and the effects of feeding stimulant mixtures on deterrency. (
  • Dr. Kilpatrick says, "To find out which species mosquitoes favored as hosts, we collected thousands of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and selected those that had just fed and still had bloodmeals in them. (
  • We sequenced the DNA in the bloodmeal to identify the species of host they had fed on. (
  • This feeding shift happened, even though the total number of birds at our site increased as other species' offspring joined the population," said Kilpatrick. (
  • You've got this prominent species, and until now nobody knew how they were doing most of their feeding. (
  • In order to envisage the behaviors and lifestyles of now extinct animals, palaeontology often relies on extrapolating from modern species. (
  • Previous work on pterosaurs concluded that some species fed by skimming along the surface of the water with their mouths held open, but this paper overturns that inference, showing that this kind of feeding was highly unlikely to have occurred in pterosaurs after all. (
  • Anopheles species biodiversity and species richness seem to be one of the dominantly evolved blood-feeding insect species race on earth, impacting millions of lives through transmitting deadliest disease malaria around the globe. (
  • Mating elicits a dramatic reprogramming of female behavior in numerous insect species. (
  • The objective of the thesis was to study the functional feeding responses of two commercially important bivalve species (Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis) to the dietary conditions in a natural low seston environment. (
  • The results were novel in that they showed that these species do not stop feeding, but rather maintain intermediate to high feeding rates at all low seston concentrations employed. (
  • In Taiwan, both larvae and adults of some species of Epilachninae feed on the leaves of Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Urticaceae (Richards and Filewood, 1990). (
  • Both species are possibly stimulated to feed by some other substances contained in solanaceous host plants such as potato and tomato (Abe and Matsuda, 2000). (
  • 1989). The feeding preference was influenced by chemical factors as in three Aulocophora leaf beetle species (Abe and Matsuda, 2005). (
  • They dwell in the slow-moving water and prefer areas with minimal lightings such as under dense vegetation and between rocky outcroppings where they can feed on small fishes, insects, plants and spineless species. (
  • Research with two other chickadee species has found a relationship between predator stimuli and calling behavior, including the note composition of chick-a-dee calls. (
  • Such a practice is controversial, however, because it can create a dependency on artificial feeding, habituate animals to feeding locations, increase inter-species and intra-species aggression, and increase the spread of disease. (
  • The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to locomote and then assumes a characteristic feeding posture. (
  • The nucleus accumbens in a brain region considered to be important in the regulation of appetitive behavior and reinforcement. (
  • Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory versus appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat. (
  • One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption) but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. (
  • Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically driven feeding behavior. (
  • This is why you should be skeptical of any blanket statement involving feeds or ingredients when it comes to behavioral effects. (
  • Behavioral intent is said to be determined by one's attitude toward the behavior, perceptions of relevant subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. (
  • Ectopic expression of SP in virgin females mimics the effect of mating on feeding behavior, demonstrating that SP is the main agent controlling this behavioral paradigm. (
  • Studies have shown that vice behavior in pigs, tail biting in particular, can be a behavioral response to the sight, smell and taste of blood," said Dr. Andrew Bents, swine technical veterinarian at Hubbard. (
  • A unit increase in maternal attitude and in perceived behavioral control resulted in a 4.93 units decrease of breast-feeding intention on early initiation of breast-feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0296) and a 36.44 unit's decrease breast-feeding intention on initiation of breast-feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0151), respectively. (
  • However, the mechanisms underlying feeding state‐dependent behavioral changes remain undefined. (
  • As vector control activities continue, it will be imperative to conduct surveillance programs that accurately characterize vector foraging behavior and circulating malaria parasites to determine human risk for infection, anopheline behavioral and insecticide resistances, and emergence of parasite drug resistance and increased virulence in endemic populations. (
  • Here, we recorded and perturbed the activity of inhibitory neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) across feeding behavior and sleep in freely behaving mice. (
  • Using in vivo calcium imaging in freely behaving mice, we found that inhibitory neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH vgat ) show unique activity patterns during feeding that are reactivated during REM, but not non-REM, sleep. (
  • Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice. (
  • Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to provide specific and reversible regulation of neuronal activity in mice, we have demonstrated that acute activation of AgRP neurons rapidly and dramatically induces feeding, reduces energy expenditure, and ultimately increases fat stores. (
  • Acute stimulation of AgRP neurons in mice fed ad lib led to a significant increase in the break point, similar to the break point observed in fasted mice. (
  • The researchers demonstrated in mice that direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen nerve cells, or neurons, linked to social interaction was enough to suppress the animals' drive to feed themselves - a finding with potential clinical significance for understanding and treating eating disorders such as anorexia. (
  • Researchers have discovered how the protein Hap1, which is abundant in the brain's hypothalamus, serves as the link between circulating insulin in the blood and the neural circuitry that controls feeding behavior in mice. (
  • Here, we show that neural serotonin signaling in C. elegans modulates feeding behavior through inhibition of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in interneurons expressing the C. elegans counterpart of human SIM1, a transcription factor associated with obesity. (
  • Feeding state modulates ascr#3 pheromone avoidance behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans via an interplay between DAF ‐2 insulin‐like receptor/ DAF ‐16 FOXO signaling axis in ascr#3 sensing ADL neurons, and regulation of intestinal secretion of the DAF ‐2‐inhibitory insulin‐like peptide INS ‐18. (
  • Specifically, breast feeding will be assessed in children 0-6 months of age (sampled separately) and complementary feeding will be assessed in children 6-23.9 months of age (sampled separately). (
  • We aimed to: 1) examine the extent to which caregiver capabilities are considered in research on complementary feeding BCIs in low- and middle-income countries, 2) describe IYCF trajectories from 0 to 11 months of age and explore caregiver decisions at critical IYCF junctures, and 3) examine the role of caregiver self-efficacy for complementary feeding as part of a program impact pathway to improved behaviors. (
  • and conducted structural equation modeling to test the direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy for two complementary feeding behaviors (objective 3) using survey data from a process evaluation of the Alive & iii Thrive BCI in Bangladesh. (
  • In the scoping study (objective 1), we found that caregiver capabilities are rarely mentioned, intervened on, or measured in BCI research on complementary feeding, revealing considerable gaps in this literature. (
  • The Alive & Thrive BCI improved two complementary feeding behaviors that we analyzed (objective 3). (
  • Feeding mechanism, behaviour and effects of Limothrips spp. (
  • This research furthers understanding of the factors that influence the feeding behaviour of domestic cats and could have important implications for designing feeding regimes for companion animals. (
  • These results supported content and construct validity and the tool was useful in measuring factors influencing breast-feeding behaviour. (
  • The feeding of wild dolphins for tourist purposes is also controversial, and is prohibited in the US because it can alter natural hunting behaviour, disrupt social interaction, encourage the dolphins to approach or ingest dangerous objects, and endanger the person doing the feeding. (
  • Fortunately, Genome Alberta researchers have already collected data on feeding behavior via GrowSafe bins at the Lacombe Research Centre. (
  • In the absence of robust historical data on feeding behavior and prey abundance of southern residents, the northern residents are an important point of comparison. (
  • We examined feeding behaviors of 131 first-time parents, applying the theory of planned behavior to our investigation. (
  • We applied the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988) to identify variables that influence the timing of the introduction of solid foods. (
  • Originally applied to breastfeeding practices, the theory of planned behavior is a well-validated theoretical model that assumes that an individual's actions are based on his or her intent to perform, or not perform, a voluntary behavior. (
  • This study was set up to understand breast-feeding behavior of mothers using a developed culture-specific tool grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in western Kenya. (
  • This disease is endemic throughout Mexico and Central and South America, but only a few autochthonous cases have been reported in the United States, despite the fact that infected insects readily invade houses and feed on humans. (
  • Furthermore, more than half of the immature insects that exhibited multiple feeding bouts (62%) defecated during interruptions of feeding, i.e., while likely on or near the host. (
  • Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. (
  • Blood T influences the number of feeding insects. (
  • Feeding deterrents and sensitivity suppressors for Pieris rapae larvae in wheat germ diet. (
  • A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the rising incidence of West Nile virus in North America. (
  • She will proceed back to the nest to regurgitate this material when feeding the queen or the larvae of her colony, and they will be affected, even though they did not contact the chemical themselves. (
  • We also looked directly at how amylin and leptin affect feeding behavior," says lead author Zhiying Li, a research associate in the lab. (
  • In addition to the influence of social synchronization, stage of lactation and management factors can also affect feeding behavior. (
  • To understand how the design and management of the feeding environment influenced the feeding behavior requires cows that are relatively stable in terms of stage of lactation (i.e., between peak and mid lactation) since changes in physiological status can affect feeding behavior. (
  • This bottom feeding behavior go be sometimes done by a whale by itself and sometimes multiple whales working together. (
  • Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. (
  • The researchers were particularly interested in "lateralized behaviors," seen in humans as a bias toward right-handedness and more generally in all vertebrates as a bias to the right side. (
  • Rather humans are too quick to place blame for a horse s bad behavior on feeding programs when it may be something else entirely. (
  • In a new study published in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Drs. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and colleagues now present evidence that the major vector of West Nile virus in the USA, Culex pipiens mosquitoes, change their feeding behavior in the fall from their preferred host, American robins, to humans, resulting in large scale outbreaks of disease. (
  • As the summer wore on and robins left their breeding grounds, the probability that humans were fed on increased sevenfold. (
  • And because Dpp has comparable proteins in humans, it may be relevant to feeding behavior and metabolic diseases in higher organisms. (
  • Outside zoos, a concern is that the increase in local concentrated wildlife population due to artificial feeding can promote the transfer of disease among animals or between animals and humans. (
  • Feeding behavior of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on so" by E. L.L. Baldin, Mitchell D. Stamm et al. (
  • However, you avoid the spikes in the horses metabolic hormone levels because you are not feeding as much starch and as a result you can avoid the mood swings in the horse s behavior and attitude. (
  • This show that the feeding behavior, subsequent metabolic changes caused by feeding behavior of M. alternatus and pine volatiles were not the triggers for PWN departure. (
  • Animals change sensory responses and their eventual behaviors, depending on their internal metabolic status and external food availability. (
  • These preferences show how the need to maximize efficiency shapes the whales' feeding behavior. (
  • That's one of the questions being addressed as scientists apply genomics to improve key beef industry traits such as carcass quality and feed efficiency. (
  • Determination of correlations between phenotype and performance and efficiency traits and their relationship to the feeding behavior of growing crossbred cattle was a primary goal of this study. (
  • Fourteen feeding behavior traits, including performance and efficiency traits, traditional feeding behavior traits, meal behavior traits and social dominance rank were evaluated. (
  • Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. (
  • Considering that feed represents the largest cost of production and one of the main causes for the ecological footprint of a farm, more knowledge on the extent of individual differences in feed efficiency and underlying physiological processes are needed. (
  • This suggests that individual differences in feeding activity and stress response explain part of the differences in feed efficiency by explaining variance in maintenance energy expenditure. (
  • Some studies have reported short-term changes in behavior of birds sickened by acute exposure to organophosphates (Grue et al. (
  • 1990, Hart 1993), but long-term changes in behavior among birds that have otherwise completely recovered from the effects of acute organophosphate exposure have not been reported. (
  • The lateral hypothalamus encompasses neural circuits that are highly active during feeding behavior and rapid eye movement sleep. (
  • Yet, it remains unclear whether these mutually exclusive behaviors share common neural populations. (
  • Illumination of the neural pathway used by hormones to regulate appetite and eating behavior could eventually provide new drug targets for treating eating disorders and obesity. (
  • This powerful new tool for identifying and characterizing neural circuitry has lead to the identification of a pair of neurons - now called Fdg neurons - in the fruit fly that decide when to eat and initiate the subsequent feeding action. (
  • In a paper published in the journal Current Biology , the researchers identify three neural circuits - inside and outside the pharynx - that cause the worm to stop feeding and spit in the presence of light, which generates deadly hydrogen peroxide. (
  • Two other neural circuits, the researchers found - the I1 circuit and the previously identified I2 circuit - inhibit feeding when exposed to light by disrupting the pharynx's pumping. (
  • The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. (
  • Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. (
  • Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior. (
  • Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. (
  • To isolate the neurons responsible for sensing food and initiating the complex feeding program in Drosophila , UMMS scientists had to develop a method of studying the behavior of freely moving flies while targeting and manipulating individual neurons. (
  • Our observations identify enhanced feeding behavior as a novel component of the Drosophila PMR and suggest that SP represents a molecular link between energy acquisition and reproductive investment. (
  • Hormones such as insulin and leptin, which circulate in the blood plasma, are known to play an important role in regulating the brain's feeding signals, but scientists have not fully understand how these hormones interact with the brain circuitry. (
  • Because insulin decreases Hap1 levels, and reducing Hap1 decreases the GABA receptor activity, we believe Hap1 is the link between circulating insulin and the regulation of GABA receptors in the hypothalamus in controlling eating behavior. (
  • Our aim was to study the feeding behavior of healthy term infants in the first week of life and determine whether this was related to cord blood leptin, ghrelin, and insulin. (
  • Circulating insulin concentrations may have a role in the initiation of feeding behavior. (
  • Here, we show that the ascr#3 avoidance behavior is modulated by feeding state via the insulin signaling pathway. (
  • Starvation increases ascr#3 avoidance behavior, and loss‐of‐function mutations in daf‐2 insulin‐like receptor gene dampen this starvation‐induced ascr#3 avoidance behavior. (
  • Part of my thesis is looking at feeding behavior and seeing if it has predictive value for traits related to cow fertility," said Cameron Olson, PhD student in the Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences at the University of Alberta. (
  • Though it's too early to draw conclusions, preliminary research suggests a low to moderate correlation between feeding behavior and traits like age at first calving, which is a pleasant surprise for those involved. (
  • Overall, the authors of this study reported large variations in feeding behavior traits and a correlation between phenotypic variation and feeding behaviors in crossbred growing cattle. (
  • They found that the most efficient cattle were associated with the following traits: fed for a shorter duration per day, fed less often per day, had slower feeding rate, and fed for a longer period when feeding. (
  • The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. (
  • Additionally, they exhibit interesting personality traits and require little maintenance apart from water parameters and healthy feeding. (
  • Karl Deisseroth and his team have used a method for stimulating and monitoring several neurons at once to identify different clusters of neurons responsible for feeding behavior and social behavior. (
  • We sought to understand, at the level of individual neurons, how these potentially competing drives may negotiate with each other, and how the brain circuits associated with feeding versus social behavior may interact. (
  • due to its importance to their social behavior and success. (
  • Researchers at Stanford demonstrated that direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen neurons linked to social interaction was enough to suppress a mouse's drive to feed itself. (
  • Feeding behavior and social stimulation activate intermingled but distinct brain circuits, and activating one circuit can inhibit the other, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University. (
  • This effect was blocked by co-injection of the alpha-2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine, demonstrating that the alpha-2-receptor is related to stimulation of feeding in layer-type chicks. (
  • In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A stimulation on the feeding behavior of quails ( Coturnix japonica ). (
  • To feed, the worm uses its pharynx, a myogenic muscular pump - which contracts without nervous-system stimulation - that rhythmically sucks bacteria into its intestine. (
  • and were given chemical or tactile stimulation to induce a feeding response. (
  • Friedlaender is lead author of a new study of blue whale feeding strategies that reveals surprising preferences in the massive whales with respect to how much and which direction they roll during lunge feeding. (
  • The tagging, which was done for a previous study of how blue whales respond to disturbances in the environment, yielded a rich set of data for a wide range of blue whale behaviors, Friedlaender said. (
  • This study builds on our initial demonstration in mammals of single cell control with optogenetics in 2012, but now marks the first demonstration of control of mammalian behavior by the manipulation of multiple, individually specified neurons," he said. (
  • The study, "Bottom side-roll feeding by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southern Gulf of Maine, U.S.A," was first published online in Marine Mammal Science in July 2013. (
  • The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer-type chicks. (
  • In this July 2020 Journal of Animal Science study, the feeding behaviors of crossbred cattle were studied. (
  • For a sub-study to evaluate a market-based model for delivering micronutrient powders (MNP) along with behavior change interventions, there was subsequent randomization to comparison area, MNP-only area, Behavior Change Communication (BCC)-only area and MNP+BCC areas. (
  • The original anemia sub-study design had proposed surveying children 6.23.9 months of age for the MNP intervention in April-June 2013 and for the behavior change intervention in April-June 2014. (
  • Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. (
  • Building on that study, the researchers, in this new paper, recorded the worm's feeding under prolonged exposure to light. (
  • The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (
  • In order to study the causes of pine wood nematode (PWN) departure from Monochamus alternatus , the effects of the feeding behavior of M. alternatus on the start date of departureof PWN were studied. (
  • The study provides important information on what influences cooperative member side selling and focuses on specific types of side-selling behavior that have been largely overlooked. (
  • This study provides important data that contribute to the understanding of how soybean aphids (biotype 1) feed on soybean genotypes with various aphid resistant genes and categories. (
  • This is the first time drones have been used to study killer whale behavior and their prey. (
  • About 230 breast-feeding mothers (18-40 years) attending Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives were randomly selected for participation in the study. (
  • Future study on feeding stimulant on S. nigrum will enlighten the understanding of host selection in E. indica . (
  • Altogether, this study provides insights about the molecular communication between intestine and sensory neurons delivering hunger message to sensory neurons, which regulates avoidance behavior from pheromones to facilitate survival chance. (
  • In a study of feeding behavior in 15 transition dairy cows that were monitored from 10 d before until 10 d after calving (Huzzey et al. (
  • The aim of the present study was investigated the effects of dietary amino acid unbalances, or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injection of amino acids or metabolites on feeding behavior in chicks. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. (
  • An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 waslost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) and Narsap Sermia (NS), two tidewaterglaciers that exhibited asynchronous behavior over the study period. (
  • Moreover, the feeding response was completely inhibited by concurrent infusion of the GABAA agonist muscimol (10, 25 ng) into the lateral hypothalamus, a major projection area of the accumbens shell. (
  • These findings demonstrate a selective role for non-NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in ingestive behavior, and suggest an important functional link between two major brain regions involved in reward, the nucleus accumbens and lateral hypothalamus. (
  • For the evaluation of behavior change interventions only, the 20 clusters were randomized to 10 intensive and 10 non-intensive interventions areas. (
  • 24-48 months for child anthropometric outcomes (related to the behavior change interventions). (
  • Behavior change interventions (BCIs) have been used to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices with varying success. (
  • In the first series of experiments, it was shown that blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate glutamate receptors in the medial part of the accumbens, corresponding to the medial shell subregion, resulted in a pronounced feeding response. (
  • Subsequent experiments revealed that the feeding mechanism initiated by activating the transgenes was being controlled by a single pair of neurons in the fly's brain. (
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and dietary roughage on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). (
  • Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. (
  • Among a number of other roles, dopamine has previously been linked to feeding behavior. (
  • The researchers found that lowering Dpp levels in muscle led to higher levels of dopamine in the brain and increased feeding. (
  • The researchers also found that modulation of dopamine synthesis in the brain is key to the regulation of feeding by muscle-derived Dpp. (
  • Tag data showed that the bottom-feeding humpbacks were moving at too low a speed to characterize this behavior as lunge feeding. (
  • Disrupting the activity of these inhibitory neurons specifically during rapid eye movement sleep decreased subsequent feeding behavior. (
  • The AllBite™ block, officially launched at ONE: The Alltech Ideas Conference , allows pigs to exhibit foraging behaviors and to bite and chew on the block instead of on their pen mates, reducing vice behaviors such as tail biting, ear biting and general aggression. (
  • For example, "the feeding of squirrels had been seen as a way to civilize the parks and rechannel the energies of young boys from aggression and vandalism toward compassion and charity. (
  • In this review, we will examine the literature describing the mechanisms by which the brain senses changes in amino acids concentrations, and how these changes modulate feeding behavior. (
  • These results suggest that amino acids and/or these metabolites by which dietary amino acid composition pattern may influence feeding regulation via blood vessels in the central nervous system of chicks. (
  • The lunge feeding of blue whales is an extraordinary biomechanical event in which the largest animal on Earth accelerates and opens its mouth under water, expanding its enormous throat pouch to engulf a huge volume of water, then filtering out its prey (small crustaceans called krill) by forcing the water through sieve-like baleen plates. (
  • Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. (
  • According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. (
  • Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. (
  • Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s −1 after the lunge has ended. (
  • Neuropeptides are intercellular signaling molecules that are secreted by neurons to regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and behaviors in animals ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • By mounting cameras on the animals, researchers saw for the first time that these whales were bottom-feeding. (
  • So, the researchers have put 3D motion tags on whales here and they gotten records of this odd, twisting rolling behavior that is happening well below the surface where they can't see. (
  • While a number of classical neurotransmitters have been implicated in LH-induced feeding, the discovery of neuropeptides in the brain [ 4 ] has led researchers to consider several of these local neuromodulatory neurochemicals as major players in feeding and reward. (
  • These feeding shifts appear to be a "continent-wide phenomenon," the researchers conclude, and may explain why West Nile virus outbreaks are so intense in the U.S. compared to Europe and Africa, where the virus originates. (
  • This book provides students and researchers with reviews of biological questions related to the evolution of feeding by vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial environments. (
  • The researchers showed that manipulating this mechanism influences food seeking and feeding in fruit flies. (
  • To better understand how skeletal muscle communicates with the brain regarding feeding behavior, the researchers looked at the myokine Dpp in fruit flies. (
  • Furthermore, the researchers found that reducing Dpp levels promoted feeding and foraging behavior in fruit flies. (
  • Citation: Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P (2006) West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. (
  • In addition, the behavior of each bird was recorded for 2-hr periods at three different mosquito densities. (
  • The frequency of interrupted feeding (= partial blood meals) was also related to host behavior and mosquito density. (
  • Neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus, including GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), are known to be an important part of the pathway that regulates feeding behavior. (
  • In North America, most lactating dairy cows are intensively housed in either free-stall or dry-lot dairies and are fed a total mixed ration (TMR) along a feed bunk. (
  • Previous studies have shown that Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite exhibits avoidance behaviors to acute exposure of a pheromone, ascr#3 (asc‐ΔC9, C9). (
  • October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding behavior-called bubble-netting-at the water's surface. (
  • Blue whales are "the ultimate example of efficient feeding," he said. (
  • We tagged 63 whales over six years, so we had a huge data set, and that allowed us to do this quantitative assessment of feeding behaviors," he said. (
  • Blue whales, they found, show a right-side bias in their most common feeding behavior, rolling about 90 degrees to the right side during most feeding lunges. (
  • Humpback whales are known for the complexity of their feeding techniques, which include "trapping" krill and other prey within bubble nets they produce and gulping up to two-thirds their weight in prey-laden water. (
  • Now, scientists have confirmed that humpback whales in the southern Gulf of Maine are spending more feeding time on the ocean floor than in any of these other feeding behaviors. (
  • The tag data confirms the bottom-feeding that scientists had suspected from visible scarring along some whales' jaws. (
  • Not only did the data show that these humpbacks, "by far the most acrobatic of all baleen whales ," Ware says, were performing bottom side-rolls and seafloor scooping, it indicates that this bottom feeding does not include lunging, previously assumed to be the humpbacks' primary feeding behavior. (
  • Scientists at the University of British Columbia are getting a rare glimpse into the underwater behavior of northern and southern resident killer whales off the B.C. coast, with the help of aerial drones. (
  • The first images from the trip were of southern resident killer whales, feeding on salmon in the Salish Sea between UBC and the Fraser River. (
  • Observing both populations of killer whales means we'll be able to compare the foraging conditions and hunting behaviors of the two groups and see whether it is more difficult for southern residents to capture prey. (
  • Two neuropeptides transcribed in the LH are now understood to play significant roles in feeding and reward. (
  • Further complexity is conferred by the wide variety of feeding-modulatory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act within these circuits. (
  • However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. (
  • A treatment that focuses on helping toddlers with internal regulation of eating can decrease mother-toddler conflict and struggle for control during feeding and improve weight gain in such children," according to principal investigator Irene Chapoor, MD. Dr. Chapoor is director of the infant psychiatry and eating disorders program at Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC. (
  • In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. (
  • To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. (
  • In the eating behavior, the total eating time of a day and the average eating time were significantly reduced in the wet feeding sections compared with the control section. (
  • The feeding trough usage rate, when the number of pigs per feeding space was 10 in the wet feeding sections, was significantly increased compared with the control section. (
  • The role of the lateral septal area (LS) in the regulation of energy balance and the estrogenic control of feeding behavior in the female rat has been examined. (
  • BW = 339 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based control diet that contained 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing either 20% WCGF and 9% roughage or 40% WCGF with 9 or 4.5% roughage. (
  • We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. (
  • In this paper the authors describe the factors that control the feeding behavior patterns of group-housed dairy cows. (
  • The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. (
  • Such lateralized behaviors are found throughout the animal kingdom, but scientists still do not fully understand the reasons for them. (
  • Scientists say injuries such as this one are sometimes a result from bottom-feeding. (
  • According to Eigenberg and Brown-Brandl, the feedlot system has successfully collected each individual animal's feeding behavior throughout two research cycles. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of wet corn gluten feed and roughage levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle. (
  • In turn, glutamatergic signaling links these interneurons to pharyngeal neurons implicated in feeding behavior. (
  • Our characterization of the actions of NGFFYamide in starfish indicates that NPS/NG peptide/CCAP-type signaling is an evolutionarily ancient regulator of feeding and locomotion. (
  • Beyond feeding behavior, endocrine Dpp signaling could be regulating a number of other tissue and systemic functions, including disease processes that involve dopaminergic neurons, " Demontis said. (
  • This means that these neurons are integrating both internal and external stimuli in order to initiate a complex feeding behavior with multiple motor programs. (
  • Doing so, he hopes to uncover how memory integrates stimuli to illicit a conditioned behavior. (
  • To examine the extent to which aquatic prey-capture behavior in salamanders is stereotyped and how feeding kinematics scales with size, the ontogenetic variability of aquatic feeding behavior was examined in eight Salamandra salamandra. (
  • Feeding kinematics (seven duration and angular displacement variables), kinematic variance and capture performance were quantified and compared in the first several feedings after birth with a series of feedings 8 weeks later, just prior to metamorphosis. (
  • In addition, the lack of kinematic change through ontogeny indicates that feeding kinematics do not scale with body size, contrary to predictions that movements should be slower in larger animals. (
  • In that previous research, the investigators identified a method for psychotherapeutic intervention that consists of 3 components: (1) education regarding the toddler temperament, (2) addressing the parents' issues regarding eating and the setting of limits for the child, and (3) several specific guidelines for feeding. (
  • Although effects of parents' feeding practices on children's health have been studied often, most of the research has focused on preschool children rather than infants (Polfuss & Frenn, 2012), and few studies have addressed why parents decide to introduce solid foods when they do (Horodynski & Mills, 2014). (
  • Additional research is needed to better understand why side-selling behavior differs between groups and to better understand how household head gender influences side selling. (
  • Future research should include qualitative methods to better understand motivations for side-selling behavior. (
  • Bergen Open Research Archive: Feeding behavior and bioenergetic balance of the great scallop (Pecten maximus) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in a low seston environment and relevance to suspended shellfish aquaculture. (
  • Unfortunately, the majority of research on dairy cattle feeding behavior has been completed with individually housed animals. (
  • We found that feeding is reliably encoded by specific patterns of neuron activity and that these patterns are reactivated during rapid eye movement sleep. (
  • The class includes feeding cues for breast and bottle feeding, infant sleep patterns, comforting a crying infant, information about returning to work, continued support for breastfeeding moms, pumping techniques, and storage of breast milk. (
  • Nectar characteristics, patterns of secretion and availability, flower production, spatial arrangement, and morphological aspects of flowers and flower-visiting birds are important in order to understand the foraging behavior of birds on flowers (FEINSINGER & COLWELL 1978, WASER 1983, KEARNS & INOUYE 1993), as well as the consequences on pollen flow and seed set (MURCIA & FEINSINGER 1996, FRANCESCHINELLI & BAWA 2000). (
  • In modern dairy operations, cows are group-housed, and this social environment can have a major effect on feeding patterns. (
  • Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. (
  • Furthermore, these feeding (Fdg) neurons were responsible for synthesizing cues about available food and hunger, and using them to start the feeding mechanism. (
  • 1984. A new look at thrips (Thysanoptera) mouthparts, their action and effects of feeding on plant tissue. (
  • Many owners can tell you about the effects that certain feeds or dietary components have on the behavior of certain horses. (
  • Fenfluramine's effects on feeding behavior and mRNA expression were blocked by PVN injections of a 5-HT(1-2) receptor antagonist, metergoline (15 nmol/0.5 μl/side). (
  • Infant feeding practices will be assessed using before-after intervention-comparison area group differences between 2010, and 2013 and 2014. (
  • Results indicated that parents' attitudes influenced infant feeding behavior at 6 months old. (
  • Moreover, our sample relied heavily on health professionals, friends and family, and books or videos for infant feeding information, so Extension professionals should consider targeting other influential groups in addition to targeting parents directly. (