Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (1/7142)Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses. (+info)
Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (2/7142)Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking. (+info)
Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (3/7142)Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior. (+info)
C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/7142)Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down. (+info)
In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (5/7142)Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. (+info)
Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (6/7142)A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. (+info)
Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (7/7142)Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior. (+info)
Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (8/7142)Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides. (+info)
SID.ir | EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL EATING ON EATING BEHAVIORS DISORDER IN STUDENTS: THE EFFECTS OF ANXIOUS MOOD AND EMOTION...
Содержание журнала №1(66) апрель 2015
The consequences of hysterectomy for a woman - one of the most discussed problems of modern gynecology. The aim of our study was to identify differences in the general health and feeding behavior of patients with severe manifestation or progression of obesity without such after undergoing a hysterectomy with preservation of ovaries. The study included 34 women 5 years after a hysterectomy without appendages or fallopian tubes. At the time of the study age was 46,4 ± 3,2 years. The study group included 22 women who reported an increase in the period of time after the surgery the body weight of 10-25 kg (14 ± 3,2). The control group consisted of 12 women whose weight for the period was stable or increased by no more than 3 kg. The study included a survey, the general clinical examination, testing the questionnaire assessment of eating behavior (Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) 1986). Also perform electroencephalography. Symptoms that are highly likely to indicate a hypothalamic ...
Whole Health Source: 60 Minutes Report on the Flavorist Industry
Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susceptibility to overeating. In a crossover design, 30 women (BMI = 22.7 ± 2.3; age = 21.9 ± 2.6 y) consumed a fixed energy preload (360 kJ/g) with a savory, sweet, or bland taste before selecting and consuming items from a test meal ad libitum. Sensations of hunger were used to calculate the satiating efficiency of the preloads. A computerized task was used to examine effects on food reward (explicit liking and implicit wanting). The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to compare individual differences in eating behavior traits. Satiation and total food intake did not differ according to preload taste, but there was an effect on explicit liking and food selection. The savory preload reduced ...
Export full-automatic nutritional artificial man-made rice processing line/machinery for daily meal with 100-240kg/h output
Macaroni pasta machinery has always featured high technology, reliability and flexibility in order to ensure not only production of traditional shapes, Macaroni pasta machinery but also special shapes by means of cutting devices and additional machines.Export full-automatic nutritional artificial man-made rice processing line/machinery for daily meal with 100-240kg/h output capacity is featuring output from 80 up to 120 Kg per hour are available, by
PLOS ONE: FTO at rs9939609, Food Responsiveness, Emotional Control and Symptoms of ADHD in Preschool Children
The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg)/height (m)2) in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A) at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21,
Prenol lipids | ENCOGNITIVE.COM
The purpose of the program was to determine if a 4-week group nutrition education series held at the worksite, focusing on eating behaviors can positively affect dietary behaviors that are associated with risk of chronic disease(s) related blood lipid parameters. Thirty-five employees (21 female, 14 male) participated. Before and after the program all participants completed fasting bloodwork (total cholesterol, TC; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C; high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides, TG) and diet records.. ...
Fitness consequences of altered feeding behavior in immune-challenged mosquitoes | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
Illness-induced anorexia is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of infection in host-parasite systems [13-17, 31]. Why such behavior should occur is unclear. Dietary restriction is generally thought to extend lifespan [48-50], and in Drosophila, anorexia induced by infection has been shown to increase tolerance to pathogens . In other insects, temporary down regulation of feeding has also been demonstrated to increase the ability of hosts to resist and survive infection [16, 31, 33]. Modulating behavior in the face of infection may be adaptive if these benefits to survival result in overall enhanced fitness. Here we tested whether known restricted blood-feeding behaviors observed in malaria-infected mosquitoes [1-5, 9, 51] provide fitness benefits, suggestive of adaptation. To do this, we presented the first quantification of the impact restricted feeding behaviors have on a composite measure of mosquito fitness and determined that restricted feeding increased survival and decreased ...
Increased cholesterol, LDL, Vit D3. Is this due to overweight, smoking and unhealthy eating habits ?
Mindful Eating Questionnaire | Mindful Eating Quiz | The Mindfulness Diet
salt intake - Search | eLitMed
NÉMETH Tünde, VÁRADY Erzsébet, DANIS Ildikó, SCHEURING Noémi, SZABÓ László. [Feeding and eating in infancy and early childhood part III. - Development of self-feeding skills in the large-sample of the "For Healthy Offspring" project INTRODUCTION - After introducing adequate complementary food to the diet of breastfed/formula-fed babies, the frequency and amount of semisolid/solid food is increasing, the breastmilk/formula intake is decreasing and finally the weaning process is completed. During this process the developing feeding skills of the infant enables them to self-feed. The self-feeding infant and toddler should participate in family meals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - In the Healthy Offspring project self reported questionnaires were received from 1133 parents of 0-3 year old children. Issues concerning the development of self-feeding skills were analyzed. RESULTS - With advancing age the proportion of infants/toddlers, reported to be able to (partially) self-feed, has increased. The ...
Young people may have most of their nutrition needs met while they are in school, but with childhood obesity growing rampantly; its time to take a look at what they eat when theyre not in school. Youth programs have a unique opportunity to influence kids eating habits. Children and teens lead quite busy and stressed lives with their school workload, after-school activities and family responsibilities. They consequently may skip breakfast, eat from vending machines and consume more fast food. By providing them with healthy eating behaviors, youth programs can help kids learn how to fuel their boding some cases, the daily intake recommendations for some nutrients are higher for teens than adults. Youth programs can take great strides toward meeting their needs by ensuring the food they serve is rich with these nutrients. Youll also help them develop an appreciation for properly fueling their bodies. For example, the Institute of Medicine says teens ages 14 to 18 need more calcium than adults, ...
717 diet rule daily meal plan Archives - AtoZfitness - Since 1995
CiNii Articles - MURAI YOKO
Fundamental theories and educational contents of diet and nutrition education adapted to human development and behavior changing : proposes regarding four areas of diet and nutrition education corresponding to learning stages founded on theory by Piaget, J. and behavior changing theory by prochaska, J. concerning level-Based instruction on healthy eating behavior and instruction of practice(Modified by Maruya, N.) （2009 ...
Pin on (1) Low Carb Foods - Motivation
ACANA HERITAGE Puppy & Junior Food - Patches Pet Supply
FOR PUPPIES WEIGHING 9 TO 25 KGS AT MATURITY By nature, all puppies are carnivores which means theyre biologically adapted for a diet rich and varied in fresh whole meats with smaller amounts of fruits and vegetables. Thats why ACANA Puppy & Junior is brimming with free-run chicken and nest-laid eggs from local p
What Common Addiction Behaviors Fascinate You? - Video - Sharecare
For the 12 rats, the average time from the blood sampling to the onset of the first meal was 3.6 ± 1.0 min so that the second samples were taken ∼6.4 min into the meal. A similar time period applies to the VMH samples. Defined in this way, beginning at ∼3.6 min before the first meal, statistically significant changes in blood glucose levels occurred in blood and VMH but in opposite directions. Blood levels fell in 8 of 12 rats by 7.5%, whereas VMH levels rose significantly in 9 of 12 rats by 8.5% (Table 2, Fig. 2). When the time period of observation was extended to include the 10 min before the 3.6 min time point before the first meal, there were no significant increases or decreases in blood or VMH glucose levels beginning ∼13.6 min before and continuing ∼6.4 min into the first meal.. Blood sampling and VMH glucose determinations occurred 4.7 ± 0.9 min preceding the second spontaneous meal. Data for the second spontaneous meals are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. When the data for the ...
FML : Today, I walked all the way across campus to eat the first meal I've had all day. After waiting for my food in a...
Quick Answer: Can Food Stay In Your Stomach For Days? - powersourcecountry.com
Eating smaller meals Increasing the number of daily meals and decreasing the size of each one can help alleviate bloating. The stomach may also be able to empty more quickly. Eating smaller amounts of food at each meal means the number of meals should be 4 to 6 per day to meet nutritional needs. ...
VITAL BODY: What does it take to shift an emotional eating pattern? - EMOTIONAL EATING - ARTICLE
New study finds Nutrisystem meal measure
Find great deals on eBay for nutrisystem meal measure and nutrisystem measure.Nutrisystem For Diabetics Reviews Type. on diabetic meal plans are out-of-date they dont.. Find great deals on eBay for portion plate meal measure and divided plate.Nutrisystem Daily Meal Planner Pdf This Is The Best Weight Loss Product, Cancel Nutrisystem Auto.For not to forget these foods for you to create a listing of preventive measure of type 1 diabetes ...
Hard to Find Foods - Unusual Food Items
Unhealthy Eating - Is Your Diet Making You 'Brain Fat?' | Shape
You want smart kids? 10 super brain foods to keep top of mind - Mumenough
Of course we all desire to have intelligent children who almost always top their class. While intelligence is a function of genetic makeup, good nutrition from pregnancy onwards plays an important role in brain health. Through extensive research, I discovered 10 superb brain foods that any mum should keep top of mind to boost health and intelligence. Despite not being an expert on brain matter, most of these foods are safe and readily available in the market or supermarkets. You can also prepare them in interesting ways as part of your childrens daily meal routine. If in doubt, please speak to a nutritionist or medical doctor concerning nutritional needs that suit your childs health and condition. ...
15 Foods To Do And Don't Eat On An Empty Stomach
Experts always claim that the breakfast is the most important daily meal, as it provides the needed nutrients for the following day. Yet, you should always choose the proper ingredients carefully, in order to give you the right kick off the day. The following list reveals 15 foods which should or shouldnt be
How many meals per day are recommended? - Botanical online
Hyperlipid: A defect of fat metabolism and a few thanks
Well, I am glad you are at a low body fat now, I had assumed you were just a regular young person who has never had a weight problem, based on your inability to relate to the fact that some people do grow obese based on the type of foods they eat... perhaps it is all a language barrier as I assume your primary language is spanish. There are a lot of ways to get your metabolism in order, and one daily meal of crap, is certainly much better than multiple meals of crap, because you have 23 hours to use glycogen and body fat and keep insulin low. But, meh, we are all different. Arguging for intermittent fasting is basically arguing for low carb anyway. Its a different approach to handle the same problem (do not use glucose normally - do not make insulin normally ... solution: eat glucose once per day, deal with one insulin surge, do not eat again until the next day ...
8 Essential Tips of Healthy Dieting - AskTheTrainer.com
Some claim that you should always count calories of what you eat while the others cant stop talking about the carbs/fats/protein ratio. We would say that both strategies are beneficial. For starters, in order to lose weight, you should burn more calories than you consume. 10% deficit per day is enough for safe weight loss - about 1 kilo per week.. At the same time, counting calories only, you may consume more carbs or fats than you actually need. That is why it is important to take carbs/fats/protein ratio into account when planning your meal for the next day. The proper ratio of these nutrients for bodybuilders is 40-60% / 15-25% / 25-35% respectively. If you maintain muscles, it will be 30-50% / 25-35% / 25-35%. Finally, the daily meal of those who are losing fat should contain only 10-30% of carbs, 30-40% of fats, and 40-50% of protein.. Carbs should never go below 10% since their presence in our diet is crucial, as well as fats, by the way. Their amount shouldnt fall below 15%. It is ...
We are what we eat | Health Abroad
I am now past that age and need help called "assisted living." I cant clean my house, I cant cook for myself, and now I cant drive to the market. I have heard that there are Gay Retirement Complexes in LA and SF and NYC, but there is nothing anywhere near Sacramento, and I couldnt afford such a move in any case.. Such care and services remain a vital, unfilled, unrecognized need for a growing demographic. More and more of us older Gay men and women will be needing the help traditionally supplied by family. Im very lucky, so far. I have three close younger friends who are my "adopted family," and will help me if something happens, but they cant take me in if I need that kind of care. Im able to stay in my home because my best friend comes over weekly and cleans and fixes things-he would do it for free, but I insist on paying him. Id have to pay a straight handy-man even more. My straight female friends come by with food from time to time-but I need daily Meals on Wheels and cant afford ...
Youth enhansement cream - Herbal Dual Action Cleanse - Dec 17, 2017
Top tips for healthy eating during lock-down | The George Institute for Global Health
Against the Grain Nutrition: March 2014
This is actually reminiscent of The China Study, where they fed the animals a huge quantity of casein (an isolated protein in milk). A large proportion of the animals developed cancer. The authors concluded that animal products cause cancer. This is a problem in so many ways - casein is an isolated nutrient that no one would ever consume on its own. It would be part of a whole food (milk) and so the milk-cancer link cannot be drawn from such a study. Many studies have similar flaws in that they feed animals ridiculous isolated nutrients, or extremely processed foods (e.g. the studies that show saturated fat is bad for you often use hydrogenated fats) and therefore are not representative of a human eating a whole-food diet ...
Blood Spatter Analysis - What Is, Types & Bloodshed Events
NEURAL SYSTEMS OF INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR - Penn State
Timed Eating May be Key to a Healthy Thyroid - ProgressiveHealth.com
The Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB)
Leave No Trace - MeritBadgeDotOrg
A Simple Plan: Meals | OVS
Eating problems and their risk factors : A 7-year longitudinal study of a population sample of Norwegian adolescent girls.
The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating Attitudes Test. The aim of the study was to investigate the stability of these eating problem symptoms both as separate components (as opposed to total symptom load) as well as from a syndrome perspective. Over 7 years, dieting behavior showed the highest correlational stability (0.32). Regarding stable eating problem syndromes, at all 3 time points, 1 group of girls with generalized eating problems was found, characterized by simultaneously pronounced bulimic tendencies and dieting. However, we did not establish individual stability across 7 years for this syndrome group. Through development, eating problem symptoms were associated with characteristic risk ...
Development and validation of the Self-Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for adults | International Journal of...
The aim of the present study was to design and validate a measure to assess eating-related self-regulatory capacity for the UK adult population. The content of the SREBQ was informed by examining the literature and existing questionnaires on self-regulation; and by consulting experts in the field. The process of developing the SREBQ resulted in a 5-item questionnaire. The face validity was satisfactory and the factor structure analysis suggested that the questionnaire has one underlying factor. This structure was then tested in a different sample, and showed a good fit. Evidence for the construct validity of the SREBQ was demonstrated with tests of concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity.. Associations between the SREBQ and other measures of self-regulation were positive and represented a medium correlation, as expected . The SREBQ was better at assessing self-regulatory capacity related to healthy diet than the SCS and PSRSDS. It was also better at assessing self-regulatory ...
Changes in Body Image Yield a Positive Impact on Eating Behavior - Guided Imagery and Meditation Blog | Health Journeys
This study used a focus group methodology to examine the perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors among African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White American children from families with low household incomes. The present study also examined if there were differences in perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors in association with gender and race/ethnicity. Specifically, the healthy eating behaviors assessed in this study include (a) eating foods and snacks that are lower in fat and calories; and (b) eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Participants were 37 children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old who were from families with an annual household income of 40,000 dollars or less. These children participated in one of six gender- and race/ethnicity- concordant focus groups that were conducted at various community sites and led by trained focus group leaders of the same gender and race/ethnicity as the focus group?s participants. ...
"THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, BODY MASS INDEX AND EA" by Feai-Voon Wong
Available research has shown a relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health behaviors. However, the link between EI and eating behaviors has not been well explained. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations among EI, eating behaviors, as measured by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and body mass index (BMI) in college students. One hundred and eighty four students (118 (64%) female, 66 (36%) male, average BMI = 23.8kg/m2) were recruited to complete an online survey. The survey consisted of basic demographic questions, academic information with grade point average (GPA), ACT and SAT scores, a 19-item Self-Rated EI Scale, and 18-item Consumer EI Scale (CEIS) and the 33-item DEBQ. BMI was computed using self-report data. Results showed that the overall SREIS and the understanding emotions subscale were positively correlated with BMI. Both the SREIS and CEIS managing emotions subscales were correlated with eating behavior. GPA was correlated with BMI
Differences in meal patterns of African American adolescents of varied hypertension risk, NC DOCKS (North Carolina Digital...
Abstract: Effective diet-based interventions targeting youth at risk for developing hypertension (HTN) require understanding adolescent meal patterns and their relation to HTN. The purpose of this research was to determine usual meal patterns of African American adolescents and how these vary by gender and HTN risk status. Specific aims were: develop a method to visually represent meal patterns; describe differences in meal patterns between participants of differing genders and HTN risk categories; and explore relationships between meal patterns and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-eight African Americans (ages 17-20, 30F) at either high- (n=29) or low-risk (n=29) of developing HTN were interviewed about their week-day eating and activities. The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) was used to estimate intake of select foods and nutrients associated with blood pressure (BP). Height, weight, and BP were measured. A daily timeline for each ...
Had stomach infection. Red rashes appeared after eating food. Undergone allergy food panel test. Worrisone
Most recent papers with the keyword tDCS and weight | Read by QxMD
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity.Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity ...
Food Sensitivity Test | IgG Food Panel
About half of the females reported dieting in the past year compared to about a fourth of the males. The prevalence of dieting remained fairly constant from adolescence through young adulthood for females in both age groups. Among males, the prevalence of dieting stayed constant over time in the younger age cohort, but significantly increased in the older cohort as they progressed from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood (21.9% to 27.9%). In the younger females, unhealthy weight control behaviors remained constant from early adolescence to early young adulthood. Among older females, unhealthy weight control behaviors showed a statistically significant decrease from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood, but still remained very high (60.7% to 54.4%). Approximately one-third of males reported unhealthy weight control behaviors, and the prevalence remained fairly constant over the study period in both age cohorts ...
EFFECT ON CHILDRENS EATING BEHAVIOR AND SELF-EFFICACY FROM PARTICIPATION IN FUN WITH FOOD SUMMER CAMP - OpenThesis
The demand for nutrition professionals to develop creative programs to improve childrens eating behavior is being driven by growing numbers of overweight children and lack of food and nutrition knowledge. This study evaluated the effect on childrens eating behaviors from participation in a week-long Fun with Food camp. A survey was administered on the first day of camp and a post-survey was mailed to participants. Thirty-three participants (56%) returned a completed survey. Significant (p
Increased Dietary Protein and Meal Frequency Reduces Total and Abdominal Body Fat During Weight Maintenance and Weight Loss -...
The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of macronutrient intake (PRO, 15% vs. 35%) and meal frequency (3 vs. 6 meals/day) on body composition, postprandial thermogenesis and plasma adipokines before and after 28days each of EB (28days) and ED (25%; 28days) in overweight individuals. We hypothesize that HP will elicit more favorable body composition, thermogenic, and cardiometabolic changes than HC intakes and the magnitude of change will be greatest in those consuming HP meals more frequently ...
Genetic control of novel food preference in mice, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007/s00335-003-2307-7 | DeepDyve
Unhealthy - Kellogg's Fruit Loops from The Healthiest and Unhealthiest Breakfast Cereals - The Daily Meal
The Daily Meal's 101 Best Restaurants in America for 2013 Slideshow
Effect of pregnancy on food consumption and consciousness factors associated with food satisfaction
To examine the effect of pregnancy on food consumption, we surveyed the recall of past experience of two groups of women, those who had been pregnant (PY, n=188) and those who never had (PN, n=111), regarding their food consumption and related dietary behaviors. The questionnaire, answered with rega …
Quick Facts: Eating Problems in Young Children - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
Conclusions - Amino Acids - Barnard Health Care
Body weight depends on equality between food intake and expenditures of nutrients and energy. This balance is largely achieved by controlling the intake of nutrients based on the size and frequency of meals. Intake is assessed by a pattern of signals eminating from the digestive tract as a meal is in progress. The characteristics of the food and the products of its digestion are used to inform the CNS continuously as to the amounts of nutrient ingested. This information is in the form of satiety signals that may be chemical signals or nerve impulses. As the meal proceeds, these satiety signals become progressively stronger, until they cause the meal to end at an appropriate size. In the subsequent intermeal interval, these satiety signals weaken as nutrients are consumed within the body again until the tonic influences driving eating behavior initiate eating.. ...
96 General Food Panel: IgG - Blood Spot - Rupa Health
Guinea - Net Intake Rate To Grade 1 Of Primary Education By Under-age Entrants (-1 Year), Gender Parity Index - 1999-2016 Data ...
Net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education by under-age entrants (-1 year), gender parity index (GPI) in Guinea was reported at 0.90772 GPI in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Guinea - Net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education by under-age entrants (-1 year), gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on December of 2020.
Blood Source ! - Page 2 - Transfusion Forums
4evry1: Steam is ALMOST a subscription service, except you dont have to pay to use, only to buy software. Not only does it distribute the software to any computer you want it to, you can completely format/reinstall Windows and steam will still have your games ready for download. Games are updated automatically, and the content is usually ready for you to acquire. If you dont want to update, you can run in offline mode. All you need to do that is to have connected with it once. / ...
Blood Source mod for Half-Life 2 - Mod DB
Mike James on Behance
Omega XL is definitely an improvement based only on omega-3 fat given that they are among the most crucial choice nourishment of the regular human eating plan. You will discover no bad side results, only a lot of results provided to an individual human body, different from mind to foot. They are very healthy and effective. Joint pain is definitely an incredibly common sickness in people because they get old because of general destruction of tissues. Pain can worsen it. As fibrous will get damaged, the bone get used against other tissue which become infected. This will cause agonizing pain. Joint pain drugs usually pay attention to decreasing the swelling, rather working with the real cause. You will discover several significant negative side results from anti-inflammation drugs like Pain killers and Advil. Omega XL is definitely an improvement based only on omega-3 fat given that they are among the most crucial choice nourishment of the regular human eating plan. You will discover no bad side results,
Wofford College - Neuroscience Facilities
The AC-108 is an 8-channel lickometer capable of recording the licking behavior of rats for up to 24 hours. The 8 lickometers can be installed in single cages allowing testing of a single solution for 8 rats at a time or the lickometers can be installed 2 per cage to allow 2-bottle data collection for 4 rats at a time. The time of each lick made by a rat is recorded with a 1 microsecond resolution. Custom software allows microanalysis of the licking behavior. The microanalysis can be used to identify licking behaviors associated with taste-mediated cues such as lick rate and number of licks within a burst or licking behaviors typically associated with post-ingestive cues such as licks per meal and meal durations ...
Nutrition Bites: Fat Facts
Keeping fat intake in a healthy range and from healthier sources requires label reading and portion control. When it comes to portion control a good guide is Mypyramid.gov where you can see which foods are part of the Oils group and how much is healthful. Label reading requires not only searching for the healthier fats but also noting how much fat is in one serving. If the grams of fat dont mean much to you look at the % of Daily Value which makes it easier to put into perspective how a serving will fit into a daily meal pattern ...
Self-feeding toddler food sugestions - February 2010 Babies | Forums | What to Expect
The inhibition of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection increased food intake in GLUT2-SDD mice (line TgG) by enlarging meal sizes without changes in meal frequency. The decision to stop eating is delayed in conjunction with defects in arcuate c-Fos activation in response to glucose and changes in orexin and TRH neuropeptide mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of fed mice. Thus, GLUT2 receptor function, independent of sugar transport and metabolism, is involved in controlling feeding behavior.. GLUT2 plays a key role in glucodetection, which controls the feeding behavior in mice. Indeed, daily food intake is similarly increased in GLUT2-SDD (line TgG) and in GLUT2-null rescued (ripglut1;glut2−/−) mice (5), and in both mouse models, provision of glucose failed to reduce food intake. GLUT2-dependent sugar transport (except in pancreatic β-cells) and sugar detection were invalidated in GLUT2-null mice; by contrast, GLUT2-SDD mice lack only the receptor function, and thus sugar transport was still able to ...
Eating behaviors in children | Noldus
Eating Behaviors - Journal - Elsevier
Page 112 - My Own Perfect Site
Here Are The Factors That Affects Your Health And Fitness. The food that you eat is not only the things that affect your health and fitness. Aside from food and exercise, there are other elements that can create a healthy and fit body.. In order for these factors to be effective, you need to really know and understand them.. Below are the elements that has a big impact to your overall wellbeing:. A. The things that we eat and drink. Your weight can be affected by your diet. You really need to consider the food that you eat. You do not need to stop eating food that you love, even if you are on a diet. You may not have good results if you will avoid eating the food that you love. Your diet should be balanced. You can actually search the internet to find a list of the nutrients that you body will need everyday. There are some websites that provide a healthy daily meal plan. Nowadays there are businesses that prepare and deliver healthy meals.. When you have a healthy diet then you really be healthy ...
Marine organisms live in metapopulations because of connectivity in the ocean. A very common demersal fish, the sand goby, of the Belgian Continental shelf will be studied with high-resolution genetic markers to quantify spatio-temporal variation in population structure. We expect that geographical and oceano- graphic characteristics influence the structure on a large scale while behaviour traits influence small-scale patterns.. ...
Carbs in fruit
So, what about fruit? Where does fruit fit in a healthy diet? Even though fruit does contain carbohydrates, almost all fruits are filled with vitamins and They are low in calories and are virtually fat free. Fruit also has fiber, which has been shown to help lower blood sugar levels as well as contribute to overall health. If you are keeping track of your carbs, testking 220-602 its good to know that some fruits are lower in carbs than others, while still packing a great nutritional punch. What are the healthiest choices? Using an online nutrition an make things easier. I researched a variety of fruit and found the calories and carbs for each, on Calorie Count. Use Calorie Count to check out the carb count on your favorite fruits, testking JN0-311 or use the handy chart below to help you make good fruit choices in your daily meal plans ...
Whole Earth Farms Grain Free Real Chicken and Turkey Pate Canned Cat F - Pet Discounters
Whole Earth Farms™ canned food formulas were created as a truly holistic food at a value price, without compromising the quality of your beloved pets food. We take the best, healthy ingredients from the earth and mix them into a delicious daily meal. With multiple protein sources, vitamins and minerals, Whole Earth Fa
Oxpeckers - Sample Essays
Both species of the oxpecker bird differ slightly by their feeding habits, but mainly differing on what types of animals they choose to land upon and to be a host for their daily meals (Stutterheim et al. , 2000). The oxpecker bird has caused much conflict when it comes to its true relationships with animal hosts. It has been noticed to have both a mutualistic and parasitic relationships with the host they land upon (Stutterheim et al. , 2000).. With further exploration for information on this bird, we are able to determine what type of relationship is truly present in the oxpeckers daily interactions. The oxpecker bird spends most of its typical, normal day flying around and looking for a decently sized ungulate host to land upon or rest upon to begin its normal, everyday feeding process (Stutterheim et al. , 2000). Once the host animal has been located and the bird has landed, the oxpecker bird begins to remove and feast upon the invading ticks that are lingering on or are attached to the ...
Interview with Birgitte Rasine on Cacao | Brien Shamp's Fit Body Boot Camp
10% OFF 2lb: Addiction Herbed Lamb & Potatoes Grain Free Raw Dehydrated Dog Food | Kohepets
Interesting Food Facts: Tomatoes and Broccoli | Health Articles
Rainbow Carrots | Food & Fresh Produce | SuperNature
Have No Fear, Cancer Treatment is Finally Here! | EUTimes.net
Chemotherapy is pure quackery. According to the Big Pharma doctrine, humans are a random formation of chemicals formed by chance over billions of years of evolution, therefore the solution is also chemical. Yeah thats right, because our daily meals are chemicals, petrol, etc. Even if we evolved for billions of years, we ate plants and meat, not freaking chemicals. Our bodies are adapted to plants. The solutions have always been and will always be found in plants, not in patented chemicals, but again, they dont care. Chemotherapy is a "therapy" made out of a cocktail of toxic chemicals which are carefully disposed by the medical mafia. They wear biohazard suits when they dispose those chemo "therapy" drugs which are incinerated and melted at high temperatures. Even after those used chemo bags have been incinerated they are still dangerous and hazardous. Yes, thats how good and healthy they are for you! They will fix you in no time, you will loose all your hair, weight and become a walking ...
10 Rules for an Ayurvedic Diet
Emotional Eating: How to Cope
Emotional Eating: How to Cope
Diet Doc Offers Doctor-Supervised Paleo Diet to Minimize Emotional Eating and Promote Weight Loss
MONTPELIER, VT--(Marketwired - October 27, 2016) - More than 78 million individuals in the U.S. are obese with many more overweight. Obesity, perpetuated by emotional eating due to everyday stress, leads to extreme health issues like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer, which are some...
Sublimation Of Blood Thoughts • View topic • The Tavern
So, heres an idea. Why not allow species to butcher drinkable corpses if they are Kiku worshipers, and produce potions of blood in addition to chunks? If there is a potion of blood in the inventory (possibly with a configuration option to prompt for confirmation if the supply dips below a specified number of potions), then one of the potions will be consumed, otherwise if the player is able to cast the current version of the spell, 10% of the players maximum HP is consumed (players unable to cast the current version of the spell can only cast the spell by consuming a potion). Regardless of blood source, something like 3d3 + rnd(power * maxMP / 200) MP are restored, making it potentially useful but somewhat unreliable throughout the game, while presenting a manageable risk to non-Kiku worshipers and a competitive MP management feature to Kiku worshipers. Vampires would gain some collateral benefit from this, since they can get blood potions without worshiping Kiku, but their very survival is ...
Disorders of eating behavior at different phenotypes of obesity in children | Интернет-издание 'Новости медицины и фармации'
Patent US6676679 - Method and apparatus for recurrent demand injury in stimulating angiogenesis - Google Patents
Various methods and devices for treating a patient who has lost, or is at risk of losing cardiac function by cardiac ischemia are disclosed. Treatment includes first imaging a patients heart, or a portion thereof, to identify underperfused regions of cardiac muscle, and a source of oxygenated blood that is proximate to the underperfused region. Between the underperfused regions and the oxygenated blood source, a target area is selected where thermal or mechanical injury is introduced, and optionally reintroduced, to convert initial capillary blush, resulting from the injury.
5 Easy Facts About Heart Scarring After Heart Attack Described
Much like arm muscles that begin to ache or damage when hefty factors are lifted, or legs that ache after you run far too rapidly; the heart muscle mass will ache if it would not get suitable blood source. This ache or suffering known as angina. It is vital to realize that angina can manifest in a number of approaches and will not always need to be expert as chest agony ...
Effect of Diet on Sperm | HealthEngine Blog
Breakfast, Why you should not skip breakfast, A healthy breakfast
Feeding behavior. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Social behavior. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... As stated above, the P. t. ilioneus strain, found in Florida, mostly feeds on redbay, while P. t. troilus feeds on either ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Feeding behavior. Foraging, flying or crawling insects such as flies are attracted to a cavity formed by the cupped leaf ... Mature plants of Nepenthes lowii attract tree shrews (Tupaia montana), which feed on nectar that the plant produces but also ... Furthermore, some pitcher plants contain mutualistic insect larvae, which feed on trapped prey, and whose excreta the plant ... shape of the pitcher rim and the position of the nectar ensure that the animal's hindquarters are over the rim while it feeds.[ ...
Feeding behavior and diet. Stingrays employ a wide range of feeding strategies. Some have specialized jaws that allow ... Most stingrays feed primarily on mollusks, crustaceans, and occasionally on small fish. Freshwater stingrays in the amazon feed ... Behavior. Reproduction. During the breeding season, males of various stingray species such as Urolophus halleri, ... Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding, often leaving only their eyes and tails visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding ...
Such feeding behavior lasts for 23 to 27 days and the caterpillar feeds on an average of one to two fruits during this time. ... Adult moths feed little if at all. Though feeding may prolong life a little longer, abstaining from feeding does not ... and embryonic development in eggs is not affected by lack of feeding behavior of the parent moths. If they choose to feed, the ... Feeding behavior. The codling moth caterpillars bore into a fruit within 24 hours of hatching from their eggs, usually ...
Australian swamp rat
Behavior. Feeding. The royal tern typically feeds in small secluded bodies of water such as estuaries, mangroves, ... When feeding they fly long distances from the colony to forage. The royal tern feeds by diving into the water from heights ... Fish are their main source of food but they also eat insects, shrimp, and crabs. The royal tern feeds on small crabs, ... They tend to feed near the shore, close to the beach or in backwater bays. The royal tern's conservation status is listed as ...
Chinese giant salamander
Behavior. Feeding. The Chinese giant salamander has been recorded feeding on insects, millipedes, horsehair worms, ... Most Chinese giant salamanders stop feeding at water temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) and feeding ceases almost entirely at 28 ... Most individuals stop feeding at water temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) and feeding ceases almost entirely at 28 °C (82 °F). ...
Common vampire bat
Behavior. Feeding. A vampire bat drinking at the Buffalo Zoo ... the common vampire bat feeds on mammalian blood more than the other two species, which primarily feed on that of birds. ... They are protective of their host and will fend off other bats while feeding. It is uncommon for two or more bats to ... Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies, the common vampire bat is considered a pest. Its conservation status ...
Behavior. Feeding. Feeding at Zoo Miami, USA. Adults are near the top of a food chain and are rarely preyed on. ... The chick fledges at the age of 6 months, but the parents continue to feed it for another 6 to 10 months. The male captures ... where many mammals go to feed for nutrients). The more common hunting technique of the species is perch-hunting, which ... large size and nearly fearless behavior around humans reportedly make it an "irresistible target" for hunters. Such threats ...
Ecology and behavior. Feeding. Marine halfbeaks are omnivores feeding on algae; marine plants such as seagrasses; ... Behavior. Marine halfbeaks are typically pelagic schooling forage fish. The southern sea garfish Hyporhamphus ... They are also fed upon by other commercially important predatory fishes, such as billfishes, mackerels, and sharks. ... Some tropical species feed on animals during the day and plants at night, while other species alternate between carnivory in ...
Kahl, M. P. (January 1971). "Food and feeding behavior of Openbill Storks". Journal of Ornithology. 112 (1): 21-35. doi:10.1007 ... This can also include regular commutes from nesting sites to feeding areas. Wood storks have been observed feeding 130 km (81 ... They feed in small groups, sometimes African openbills ride on the backs of hippos while foraging. Having caught a snail it ... Larger still are the massive daggers of the two adjutants and marabou (Leptoptilos), which are used to feed on carrion and in ...
Behavior and ecology. Feeding and diet. Ratite chicks tend to be more omnivorous or insectivorous; similarities in ... Rhea feathers are popular for dusters, and eggs and meat are used for chicken and pet feed in South America. Ratite hides are ... adults end with feeding, as they all vary in diet and length of digestive tract, which is indicative of diet. Ostriches, with ...
"Prey Capture Behavior and Feeding Mechanisms of Elasmobranchs". In Carrier, J. C.; Musick, J. A.; Heithaus, M. R. (eds.). ... those that feed on fish have needle-like teeth for gripping, and those that feed on larger prey such as mammals have pointed ... For suction feeding a system of linked four-bar linkages is responsible for the coordinated opening of the mouth and the three- ... Video of a red bay snook catching prey by suction feeding. *. "Moray Eels Are Uniquely Equipped to Pack Big Prey Into Their ...
Such feeding behavior is considered ram suspension-feeding. Further research has indicated that their electroreceptors may also ... The feeding behavior of fingerlings is quite different from that of older juveniles and adults. They capture individual ... Feeding ecology and physiology. Scientists began to debate the function of the American paddlefish's rostrum when the ... Veligers are poor swimmers, making them susceptible to predation by any animal that feeds on zooplankton. However, natural ...
Matthews, Robert W. & Matthews, Janice R. Insect Behavior; Foraging and Feeding. Springer Netherlands, 2010. ISBN 978-90-481- ... In species that feed on mammalian or avian blood, hosts whose blood pressure is high, the mosquito feeds selectively from ... The pupa is less active than the larva because it does not feed, whereas the larva feeds constantly. ... many adult mosquitoes must excrete unwanted aqueous fractions even as they feed. (See the photograph of a feeding Anopheles ...
Behavior and ecology. Hunting and feeding. Feeding of a juvenile ... The female will take over when the demand is higher. Chicks feed off the regurgitated fish in the adult's mouth. If the ... Thus, they respond to the brood hierarchy and not to the level of begging when deciding which chick to feed, as both chicks beg ... The blue-footed booby is a specialized fish eater, feeding on small schooling fish such as sardines, anchovies, mackerel, and ...
Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR. Handbook of Behavior ... "Physiology & Behavior. 94 (1): 121-35. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.037. PMC 2601682 . PMID 18164737.. ... "Physiology & Behavior. 94 (1): 121-35. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.037. PMC 2601682 . PMID 18164737.. ... "Feeding and eating disorders" (PDF). American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2015. ...
One hypothesized feeding behavior strategy considers them to be low-level browsers, eating low-growing fruit of various ... A detailed computer analysis of the biomechanics of Stegosaurus's feeding behavior was performed in 2010, using two different ... Bakker RT (1978). "Dinosaur feeding behavior and the origin of flowering plants". Nature. 274 (5672): 661-63. Bibcode:1978Natur ... Barrett, P.M. (2001). Tooth wear and possible jaw action of Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen and a review of feeding mechanisms in ...
Astheimer, L; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Buttemer, W (1989). "Corticosterone Feeding Behavior and Food Deprivation in ... Prescott, DRC (1985). "Feeding at Night by Wintering Pine Siskins Carduelis-Pinus". Journal of Field Ornithology. 56: 4.. ... In summer, they will eat many insects, especially aphids, as well as a few spiders and grubs, which they then feed to the young ... While they favor feeding in open forest canopies where cone seeds are abundant, they'll forage in habitats as diverse as ...
Orexigenic Hypothalamic Peptides Behavior and Feeding - 24.5 Orexin". In Preedy VR, Watson RR, Martin CR (eds.). Handbook of ... a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior". Cell. 92 (4): 573-85. ... Additionally, when either orexin peptide was administered to rats it stimulated feeding, giving rise to the name 'orexin'. ... feeding, and other behaviours. There are two types of orexin peptide and two types of orexin receptor. ...
Zhang, X.; Song, J.; Fan, C.; Guo, H.; Wang, X. & Bleckmann, H. (2012). "Use of electrosense in the feeding behavior of ... Exceptionally, both Huso species, the white sturgeon, and the pallid sturgeon feed primarily on other fish as adults. They feed ... The electroreceptors are thought to be used in various behaviors such as feeding, mating and migration. ... Sturgeon feeding on the remains of a fish at Eccleston Delph, Lancashire England - Set of images on Flickr ...
Feeding behaviorEdit. Haws and crab-apples are the original food source of the flies, but they have moved to feeding on mainly ... The apple-feeding race does not normally feed on hawthorns, and the hawthorn-feeding race does not normally feed on apples. ... However, these organisms generally feed in the apple's core while apple maggots feed on the fruit flesh. The apple maggot ... the race that feeds on apples spontaneously evolved from the hawthorn-feeding race in 1800 to 1850 CE after apples were ...
Stanley E. Trauth
... has evolved the capability to manipulate mosquito feeding behavior. Mosquitoes harboring Plasmodium have a higher ... In all cases, only female mosquitoes can be infected with Plasmodium species, since only the females feed on the blood of ... These gametocytes circulate in the blood until they are taken up when a mosquito feeds on the infected vertebrate host, taking ... or produce gametocytes which are taken up by insects which feed on the vertebrate host. In the insect host, gametocytes merge ...
Dumont, Elizabeth R.; O'Neal, Reilly (2004). "Food Hardness and Feeding Behavior in Old World Fruit Bats (Pteropodidae)". ... Megabat social behavior includes using sexual behaviors for more than just reproduction. Female Egyptian fruit bats take food ... Behavior and social systems. Many megabat species are highly gregarious, or social. Megabats will vocalize to communicate ...
Moyle, R.G.; Fuchs, J.; Pasquet, E.; Marks, B.D. (2007). "Feeding behavior, toe count, and the phylogenetic relationships among ... It feeds mainly on fish, caught by diving, and has special visual adaptations to enable it to see prey under water. The glossy ... In winter it is more coastal, often feeding in estuaries or harbours and along rocky seashores. Tropical populations are found ... The courtship is initiated by the male chasing the female while calling continually, and later by ritual feeding, with ...
... biomechanical models of theropod mandibles and implications for feeding behavior". In Carpenter, K. (ed.). The Carnivorous ... "Feeding Mechanics in Spinosaurid Theropods and Extant Crocodilians." PLOS ONE 8 (5): e65295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065295. ... Direct fossil evidence shows that spinosaurids fed on fish as well as a variety of other small to medium-sized animals, ... by feeding on different prey items and living in different habitats, the different types of theropods would have been out of ...
Asian water monitor
"Mammal-like Feeding Behavior of Varanus salvator and its Conservational Implications" (PDF). Biawak. 4 (4): 128-131.. ... Behavior and diet. Water monitors robbing eggs from a nest. Illustration by P.J. Smit from Richard Lydekker's The Royal ... They are known to feed on dead human bodies. While on the one hand their presence can be helpful in locating a missing person ... The first description of the water monitor and its behavior in English literature was made in 1681 by Robert Knox, who had had ...
Fitness consequences of altered feeding behavior in immune-challenged mosquitoes | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
The feeding behavior of mosquitoes is altered after infection with malaria parasites [1-10]. Blood feeding, a behavior with ... All females were fed on experimental days 0, 12 and 16. Restricted feeding regimes mimicked altered feeding behaviors observed ... Unaltered U feeding regimes were fed every 4 days, while restricted R feeding regimes fed on days 0, 12, and 16 after ... However, immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli induces the same behavior, suggesting that altered feeding behavior ...
Содержание журнала №1(66) апрель 2015
... eating behavior, externalities feeding behavior, emotion-eating behavior, food stereotype prevention of obesity, dysfunction ... The aim of our study was to identify differences in the general health and feeding behavior of patients with severe ... On a scale of externalities eating behavior index of the main group was 3,5 ± 1,4, the control 1,4 ± 0,5 (the statutory rate - ... The study included a survey, the general clinical examination, testing the questionnaire assessment of eating behavior (Dutch ...
REM sleep stabilizes hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior | PNAS
At the single-cell level, the activity of feeding-max neurons was significantly decreased during postsilencing feeding behavior ... feeding and sleeping behaviors and tested the role of REM sleep in the encoding of neuronal representation of feeding behavior. ... across feeding behavior and sleep in freely behaving mice. We found that feeding is reliably encoded by specific patterns of ... REM sleep stabilizes hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior. Lukas T. Oesch, Mary Gazea, Thomas C. Gent, Mojtaba ...
Snakes! Behavior, Feeding and Diversity - CornellCast
Video Reveals Surprising Humpback Feeding Behavior
By mounting cameras on the animals, researchers saw for the first time that these whales were bottom-feeding. ... 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding behavior-called bubble-netting-at the waters surface. But researchers ... Video Reveals Surprising Humpback Feeding Behavior. October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding ... Video Reveals Surprising Humpback Feeding Behavior. October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding ...
Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain
... Published Friday 26 February 2016 Published Fri 26 Feb ... "Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 26 Feb. 2016 ... 2016, February 26). "Metabolism protein found to also regulate feeding behavior in the brain ." Medical News Today. Retrieved ... "We also looked directly at how amylin and leptin affect feeding behavior," says lead author Zhiying Li, a research associate in ...
Duckling feeding behavior | BackYard Chickens
Duckling feeding behavior Discussion in Ducks started by lindsaymarshall, Nov 22, 2011. ... My water buckets are not right next to the feeding troughs, That way they can still have the water close by but they dont get ... I think at the end of the day I would toss any feed that was wet. Thats what i do. ...
Effects of Furanocoumarins on Feeding Behavior of Parsnip Webworms Depressaria pastinacella | SpringerLink
Sinigrin as a feeding deterrent in two crucifer-feeding polyphagous lepidopterous species and the effects of feeding stimulant ... Behavior furanocoumarins insect parsnip webworm Depressaria pastinacella wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa This is a preview of ... Feeding deterrents and sensitivity suppressors for Pieris rapaelarvae in wheat germ diet. J. Chem. Ecol.232:51-70.Google ... They also feed preferentially on parthenocarpic fruits, which are lower in furanocoumarin content than are normal fruits. ...
Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals
J. A. Davis and E. B. Radcliffe "Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals," Journal of Economic ... J. A. Davis, E. B. Radcliffe "Reproduction and Feeding Behavior of Myzus persicae on Four Cereals," Journal of Economic ... In investigating aphid feeding behavior on barrier crops, we observed winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., colonized by green ...
RA: Jason Fernandes // Droid Behavior Podcast - Feed
Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice.. Krashes MJ1, Koda S, Ye C, Rogan SC, Adams AC, ... Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... A) Ad lib-fed animals injected with saline were first trained to associate a successful nose poke with a reward pellet using an ...
A squid fossil offers a rare record of pterosaur feeding behavior | Science News
Video tags reveal surprising details of blue whale feeding behavior | EurekAlert! Science News
A new study of blue whale feeding strategies reveals surprising preferences with respect to how much and which direction they ... The lunge feeding of blue whales is an extraordinary biomechanical event in which the largest animal on Earth accelerates and ... roll during lunge feeding in order to maximize efficiency. ... feeding behavior.. The study, published November 20 in Current ... show a right-side bias in their most common feeding behavior, rolling about 90 degrees to the right side during most feeding ...
Complementary Roles of Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Feeding Behavior
"Orexin-mediated feeding behavior involves both leptin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways," Physiology and Behavior, vol. 77, ... The hypothalamus has long been known to play an important role in feeding behavior. As far back as 1951, Anand and Brobeck  ... R. D. Palmiter, "Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior?" Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 30, no. 8 ... Complementary Roles of Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Feeding Behavior. Jessica R. Barson, Irene Morganstern, and ...
Method of inducing feeding behavior in fish - LAKEY, SR.; ROBERT W.
A method of inducing feeding behavior and accelerating the feeding activity of fish contained within an impoundment of known ... A method of inducing feeding behavior and accelerating the feeding activity of fish contained within an impoundment of known ... an object of the present invention to provide a method of inducing feeding behavior in fish and maintaining that behavior over ... It will also be readily understood and expected that the method of inducing feeding behavior in fish through elevation of the ...
Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior. | NCBS
Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior.. Title. Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior.. ... Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical ... The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made ... during naturally evoked proboscis extension show that orchestration of serial motoneuron activation does not rely on feed- ...
Effects of Thiamethoxam Seed Treatments on Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Feeding Behavior
Feeding Behavior of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera Aphididae) Biotype... Feeding Behavior Analysis of the Soybean Aphid ( ... In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on ... to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and ... A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h ...
JCI - Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice
Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... Among these, agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons are thought to promote feeding and weight gain; however, the evidence ... Together, these findings demonstrate that AgRP neuron activity is both necessary and sufficient for feeding. ...
JCI - Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice
Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, ... demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. Due to its ease of use and ... Ad lib-fed animals injected with saline were first trained to associate a successful nose poke with a reward pellet using an ... Acute stimulation of AgRP neurons in mice fed ad lib led to a significant increase in the break point, similar to the break ...
Browsing Publications by Subject "Feeding Behavior"
Complementary feeding : report of the global consultation, and summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the ... Complementary feeding counselling : a training course World Health Organization (World Health OrganizationWorld Health ... Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding World Health Organization; United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) ( ... Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age ...
The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats.
Behavior, Animal. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Eating / drug effects*. Feeding Behavior / drug effects*. ... it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight ... and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the ... Title: Physiology & behavior Volume: 89 ISSN: 0031-9384 ISO Abbreviation: Physiol. Behav. Publication Date: 2006 Aug ...
Postnatal Newborn Behavior and Feeding Class Registration, Tue, Jul 10, 2018 at 6:30 PM | Eventbrite
Baystate Parent Education Department presents Postnatal Newborn Behavior and Feeding Class - Tuesday, July 10, 2018 at Wesson ... Postnatal Newborn Behavior and Feeding Class at Wesson Women & Infants Unit Lundy Boardroom 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, ... The class includes feeding cues for breast and bottle feeding, infant sleep patterns, comforting a crying infant, information ... this class with your new baby provides postpartum support for new parents and provides information on newborn behavior in the ...
Shift in feeding behavior of mosquitoes sheds light on West Nile virus outbreaks | EurekAlert! Science News
A shift in the feeding behavior of mosquitoes from birds to mammals in late summer amplifies the number of human infections of ... A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the ... Shift in feeding behavior of mosquitoes sheds light on West Nile virus outbreaks. PLOS ... Shift in feeding behavior of mosquitoes sheds light on West Nile virus outbreaks ...
JCI - Extrahypothalamic GABAergic nociceptin-expressing neurons regulate AgRP neuron activity to control feeding behavior
Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher ... Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior by connecting AgRP neurons to both ... Extrahypothalamic GABAergic nociceptin-expressing neurons regulate AgRP neuron activity to control feeding behavior. ... Extrahypothalamic GABAergic nociceptin-expressing neurons regulate AgRP neuron activity to control feeding behavior. ...
Ver Technical documents por tema "Feeding Behavior"
Complementary feeding and the control of iron deficiency anaemia in the Newly Independent States : presenation by WHO at a WHO/ ... Complementary feeding and the control of iron deficiency anaemia in the Newly Independent States : presentation by WHO at a WHO ... The WHO Working Group on Complementary Feeding and the Control of Iron Deficiency was invited to present an overview of current ... The WHO Working Group on Complementary Feeding and the Control of Iron Deficiency was invited to present an overview of current ...
Research confirms bottom-feeding behavior of humpback whales
... in the southern Gulf of Maine are spending more feeding time on the ocean floor than in any of these other feeding behaviors. ... Humpback whales are known for the complexity of their feeding techniques, which include trapping krill and other prey within ... Tag data showed that the bottom-feeding humpbacks were moving at too low a speed to characterize this behavior as lunge feeding ... primary feeding behavior.. In lunge feeding, whales accelerates to propel water full of prey into their enlarged mouths; they ...
Food Fight: The NPY-Serotonin Link Between Aggression and Feeding Behavior | Science Signaling
Experiments on the Feeding Behavior of the Hematophagous Candiru, Vandellia cf. Plazaii | SpringerLink
Experiments on the Feeding Behavior of the Hematophagous Candiru, Vandellia cf. Plazaii. ... The taste system of the channel catfish: from biophysics to behavior. Trends Neurosci. 16: 192-197.Google Scholar ... Feeding of reportedly parasitic catfishes (Trichomycteridae and Cetopsidae) in the Rio Portuguesa Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica ... Visual, chemical and sound stimuli as cues in the sex discriminatory behavior of the gobiid fish Bathygobius soporator. ...
Hap1 protein links circulating insulin to feeding behavior regulating brain circuits
"We concluded that increased levels of Hap1 correlated with increased feeding behavior in the mice, and our research helps ... "GABA is known to have a stimulating effect on feeding behavior. Because insulin decreases Hap1 levels, and reducing Hap1 ... Hap1 protein links circulating insulin to feeding behavior regulating brain circuits. By Emory University Health Sciences ... are known to be an important part of the pathway that regulates feeding behavior.. Scientists at Emory University School of ...
Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning | Journal of Neuroscience
Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning. T Teyke, KR Weiss and I ... The appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia consists of a behavioral sequence in which the quiescent animal starts to ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ... Appetitive feeding behavior of Aplysia: behavioral and neural analysis of directed head turning ...
AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans. -...
Serotonergic regulation of feeding behavior has been studied intensively, both for an understanding of the basic neurocircuitry ... AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans.. ... Here, we show that neural serotonin signaling in C. elegans modulates feeding behavior through inhibition of AMP-activated ... In turn, glutamatergic signaling links these interneurons to pharyngeal neurons implicated in feeding behavior. We show that ...
Glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell control feeding behavior via the lateral hypothalamus | Journal of...
Glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell control feeding behavior via the lateral hypothalamus. CS Maldonado-Irizarry ... Glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell control feeding behavior via the lateral hypothalamus ... Glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell control feeding behavior via the lateral hypothalamus ... Glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell control feeding behavior via the lateral hypothalamus ...
AnophelesMosquitoesResponsesBehavioralBloodEffectNeuronsAbstractIntakeRegulationRegulate feedingLarval feedingRatsInsectsStimuliAphidHypothalamicLarvaeModulatesBehaviourTheory of plannSubsequentBottom feedingMiceHemipteraNeuralPracticesSpeciesInsulinComplementaryAnimal behaviorCuesCorrelationLateral hypothalamusConsumptionFoodBrainQuantitativeCharacterizeSurvivalLungePhysiological processesEfficiencyMosquitoStudyAcute exposureOrganismWhalesNeuropeptidesRegulatesDrosophilaHumansScientistsFeedlotSignalingOpioid-drivenAdultKinematicsPrey-captureExperimentsLeptinPatternsMRNAEffectsTraitsInterventionsBiologySensoryInfantsResearchReinforcementStarvation
- We measured the impact of immune challenge and blood feeding on the fitness of individual mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We then tracked daily egg production and survivorship of females maintained on blood-feeding regimes that either mimicked down-regulated feeding behaviors observed during early malaria infection, or were fed on a four-day feeding cycle typically associated with uninfected mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data provide no support for the idea that malaria-induced suppression of blood feeding is an adaptation by mosquitoes to reduce the impact of immune challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
- Altered feeding behavior in malaria-infected mosquitoes could similarly have evolved as an adaptation to enhance the fitness of infected mosquitoes if feeding during infection has a cost. (biomedcentral.com)
- If the altered behaviors are adaptive, then we expect that mosquitoes feeding on these altered regimes should have increased fitness following an immune-challenge compared to those that continue to feed normally. (biomedcentral.com)
- At first glance, delayed blood feeding seems likely to reduce fitness because mosquitoes require a blood meal to mature eggs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we recorded and perturbed the activity of inhibitory neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) across feeding behavior and sleep in freely behaving mice. (pnas.org)
- Disrupting the activity of these inhibitory neurons specifically during rapid eye movement sleep decreased subsequent feeding behavior. (pnas.org)
- Using in vivo calcium imaging in freely behaving mice, we found that inhibitory neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH vgat ) show unique activity patterns during feeding that are reactivated during REM, but not non-REM, sleep. (pnas.org)
- Amylin caught our attention when we were profiling a set of neurons in the hypothalamus, a part of the brain known to be involved in feeding behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Rapid, reversible activation of AgRP neurons drives feeding behavior in mice. (nih.gov)
- Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to provide specific and reversible regulation of neuronal activity in mice, we have demonstrated that acute activation of AgRP neurons rapidly and dramatically induces feeding, reduces energy expenditure, and ultimately increases fat stores. (nih.gov)
- Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites controlling multiple levels of feeding behavior. (nih.gov)
- Acute stimulation of AgRP neurons in mice fed ad lib led to a significant increase in the break point, similar to the break point observed in fasted mice. (jci.org)
- Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. (jci.org)
- We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. (jci.org)
- Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior by connecting AgRP neurons to both homeostatic and nonhomeostatic neuronal inputs. (jci.org)
- In turn, glutamatergic signaling links these interneurons to pharyngeal neurons implicated in feeding behavior. (nih.gov)
- Serotonergic neurons innervate hypothalamic areas involved with feeding and other homeostatic and behavioral functions. (scielo.br)
- This powerful new tool for identifying and characterizing neural circuitry has lead to the identification of a pair of neurons - now called Fdg neurons - in the fruit fly that decide when to eat and initiate the subsequent feeding action. (medicalxpress.com)
- To isolate the neurons responsible for sensing food and initiating the complex feeding program in Drosophila , UMMS scientists had to develop a method of studying the behavior of freely moving flies while targeting and manipulating individual neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
- Subsequent experiments revealed that the feeding mechanism initiated by activating the transgenes was being controlled by a single pair of neurons in the fly's brain. (medicalxpress.com)
- Furthermore, these feeding (Fdg) neurons were responsible for synthesizing cues about available food and hunger, and using them to start the feeding mechanism. (medicalxpress.com)
- This means that these neurons are integrating both internal and external stimuli in order to initiate a complex feeding behavior with multiple motor programs. (medicalxpress.com)
- Neuropeptides are intercellular signaling molecules that are secreted by neurons to regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and behaviors in animals ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Altogether, this study provides insights about the molecular communication between intestine and sensory neurons delivering hunger message to sensory neurons, which regulates avoidance behavior from pheromones to facilitate survival chance. (embopress.org)
- Feeding state modulates ascr#3 pheromone avoidance behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans via an interplay between DAF ‐2 insulin‐like receptor/ DAF ‐16 FOXO signaling axis in ascr#3 sensing ADL neurons, and regulation of intestinal secretion of the DAF ‐2‐inhibitory insulin‐like peptide INS ‐18. (embopress.org)
- These results suggest that rapid eye movement sleep stabilizes the hypothalamic representation of feeding behavior and modulates future food intake. (pnas.org)
- REM sleep-specific optogenetic silencing of LH vgat cells induced a reorganization of these activity patterns during subsequent feeding behaviors accompanied by decreased food intake. (pnas.org)
- While these two neuropeptides share this similar positive relationship with food, recent evidence suggests that this occurs through different albeit complementary effects on behavior, with OX promoting food seeking and motivation for palatable food and MCH functioning during ongoing food intake, reinforcing the consumption of calorically dense foods. (hindawi.com)
- Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. (biomedsearch.com)
- The two agricultural engineers investigated existing RFID-based systems to monitor feed intake. (rfidjournal.com)
- While many solutions were available that can monitor feed intake, those products substantially alter the normal feeding process, thereby potentially influencing the animals' behavior. (rfidjournal.com)
- Variables measured in feeding studies may include average feed intake per minute, number of feeding events per day, or the amount of time spent eating. (asas.org)
- Feeding behavior traits were also related to variability in metabolizable energy intake (MEI). (asas.org)
- The administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 to 5.0 mg/Kg) dose-dependently inhibited the food intake in normally fed quails. (scielo.br)
- Reduced food intake response is associated with an increase of serotonin release in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region involved in feeding coordination (Shimizu et al . (scielo.br)
- The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. (mdpi.com)
- This study is the first to investigate individual differences in feed efficiency, measured as residual feed intake and its relationship with feeding behaviour and stress response in one of the most important farmed fish, the Nile tilapia. (wur.nl)
- The individual feed intake of twenty-four juvenile of Nile tilapia was followed during 57 days. (wur.nl)
- Individual growth rates and residual feed intake were determined at the end of the experiment. (wur.nl)
- Results show pronounced individual differences in residual feed intake as well as a significant correlation with both feeding behavior (feeding latency, total feeding time and number of feeding acts) and stress (cortisol) response. (wur.nl)
- There was no relationship between cord ghrelin or leptin and milk intake or feed frequency. (fil-idf.org)
- Birth weight and milk intake are the major determinants of weight gain in the first week of life in healthy bottle-fed infants. (fil-idf.org)
- Total cord ghrelin and leptin are not directly related to milk intake or feed frequency in the first week of life. (fil-idf.org)
- GrowSafe Systems Ltd. develops livestock feed intake and behavior monitoring technology. (seedstock.com)
- Currently, more than 55 major Agricultural Research Centers and premium seedstock centers worldwide use GrowSafe Feed Intake and Behavior Monitoring technology to conduct livestock research and to measure feed efficiency. (seedstock.com)
- Feed intake data acquisition systems. (seedstock.com)
- Phenylalanine (Phe)-or tryptophan (Trp)-excess feed induced anorexia and ICV injection of Phe or Trp also decreased food intake in chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
- Frequent feeding allows you to monitor intake and better house train your puppy. (petiquettedog.com)
- Non-trimmed (NT) and beak-trimmed (BT) hens showed similar daily feed intake and meal size. (iastate.edu)
- We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. (inserm.fr)
- Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. (biomedsearch.com)
- Because insulin decreases Hap1 levels, and reducing Hap1 decreases the GABA receptor activity, we believe Hap1 is the link between circulating insulin and the regulation of GABA receptors in the hypothalamus in controlling eating behavior. (rxpgnews.com)
- AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans. (nih.gov)
- Serotonergic regulation of feeding behavior has been studied intensively, both for an understanding of the basic neurocircuitry of energy balance in various organisms and as a therapeutic target for human obesity. (nih.gov)
- The nucleus accumbens in a brain region considered to be important in the regulation of appetitive behavior and reinforcement. (jneurosci.org)
- The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer-type chicks. (biomedsearch.com)
- Thus, deciphering the underlying molecular mechanism of odor sensing through the detection machinery (olfactory system), odor processing and decision-making by decision machinery (brain), and regulation of saliva secretion by the action machinery (salivary gland) is likely to reveal molecular pathways which can be targeted to disrupt mosquitoes' feeding behavior. (intechopen.com)
- Here we summarize how smart actions of highly specialized neurosensory systems guide and manage feeding behavior associated complex events of (i) successful navigation to find a suitable host, (ii) making food choice decisions, and (iii) regulation of the salivary gland actions in mosquitoes. (intechopen.com)
- More recently, neuropeptides have been linked to the regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism and body weight. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Similar to mammals, it seemed that glutamate, GABA and glycine have an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior of chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
- These results suggest that amino acids and/or these metabolites by which dietary amino acid composition pattern may influence feeding regulation via blood vessels in the central nervous system of chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
- As far back as 1951, Anand and Brobeck [ 1 ] reported that bilateral destruction of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in rats resulted in the complete absence of eating, leading them to term this area of the brain the "feeding center. (hindawi.com)
- The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- Such a combination has revealed enhanced drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in OBX rats, but no study has investigated so far potential sex differences in operant responding and motivation for natural reinforcers in OBX rats. (frontiersin.org)
- This study investigated for the first time operant self-administration of palatable food pellets in male and female OBX rats under different feeding status, i.e., ad libitum vs. restricted food, and schedules of reinforcement, i.e., a continuous ratio schedule fixed ratio 1 (FR1) vs. a complex (FR5 (x) ) second order schedule of reinforcement. (frontiersin.org)
- Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Magnetically induced vagus nerve stimulation and feeding behavior in rats. (emf-portal.org)
- This disease is endemic throughout Mexico and Central and South America, but only a few autochthonous cases have been reported in the United States, despite the fact that infected insects readily invade houses and feed on humans. (ajtmh.org)
- Furthermore, more than half of the immature insects that exhibited multiple feeding bouts (62%) defecated during interruptions of feeding, i.e., while likely on or near the host. (ajtmh.org)
- Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. (epfl.ch)
- Blood T influences the number of feeding insects. (schweizerbart.de)
- Also probably feeds on a variety of small insects. (audubon.org)
- The optimal lifetime was achieved by insects fed with 50 and 70% (w/v) of sugar solution for males and 70% (w/v) for females. (knaw.nl)
- Doing so, he hopes to uncover how memory integrates stimuli to illicit a conditioned behavior. (medicalxpress.com)
- Channel catfish, maintained individually in aquaria with dark substrate, responded to visual stimuli from above with escape behavior and to amino acid stimuli with feeding behavior. (nih.gov)
- Research with two other chickadee species has found a relationship between predator stimuli and calling behavior, including the note composition of chick-a-dee calls. (openthesis.org)
- Modulation is the ability to distinctly and consistently alter a behavior to accommodate different stimuli. (usf.edu)
- After arrival, anholocylic reproduction occurs on numerous herbaceous species, including many common weeds, before movement to potato, Solanum tuberosum L. In investigating aphid feeding behavior on barrier crops, we observed winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., colonized by green peach aphid. (bioone.org)
- This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. (bioone.org)
- Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). (bioone.org)
- This study provides important data that contribute to the understanding of how soybean aphids (biotype 1) feed on soybean genotypes with various aphid resistant genes and categories. (unl.edu)
- We concluded that increased levels of Hap1 correlated with increased feeding behavior in the mice, and our research helps explain how Hap1 is linked to feeding-related molecules such as insulin, and to hypothalamic neuronal function," said Xiao-Jiang Li, PhD, professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine and senior author of the study. (rxpgnews.com)
- Serotonin mediated changes in corticotropin releasing factor mRNA expression and feeding behavior isolated to the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Feeding deterrents and sensitivity suppressors for Pieris rapae larvae in wheat germ diet. (springer.com)
- A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the rising incidence of West Nile virus in North America. (eurekalert.org)
- In Taiwan, both larvae and adults of some species of Epilachninae feed on the leaves of Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Urticaceae (Richards and Filewood, 1990). (scialert.net)
- She will proceed back to the nest to regurgitate this material when feeding the queen or the larvae of her colony, and they will be affected, even though they did not contact the chemical themselves. (heartspm.com)
- Larvae engage in a variety of behaviors to capture prey. (jrank.org)
- The first and third stages of beaded lacewing larvae burrow in the soil in search of termites, while the second state is inactive and does not feed. (jrank.org)
- The larvae of mantidflies feed in spider egg sacs or in the nests of social wasps. (jrank.org)
- Eventually the larvae enter the egg sac to feed. (jrank.org)
- Scientists think that these larvae might produce chemicals that slow down the development of the spider eggs to give them plenty of time to feed. (jrank.org)
- Feeding mechanism, behaviour and effects of Limothrips spp. (springer.com)
- These results supported content and construct validity and the tool was useful in measuring factors influencing breast-feeding behaviour. (scialert.net)
- The term carousel feeding was first used to describe a similar hunting behaviour in bottlenose dolphins (Turslops truncatus) in the Black Sea. (wikipedia.org)
Theory of plann4
- We examined feeding behaviors of 131 first-time parents, applying the theory of planned behavior to our investigation. (joe.org)
- We applied the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988) to identify variables that influence the timing of the introduction of solid foods. (joe.org)
- Originally applied to breastfeeding practices, the theory of planned behavior is a well-validated theoretical model that assumes that an individual's actions are based on his or her intent to perform, or not perform, a voluntary behavior. (joe.org)
- This study was set up to understand breast-feeding behavior of mothers using a developed culture-specific tool grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in western Kenya. (scialert.net)
- For a sub-study to evaluate a market-based model for delivering micronutrient powders (MNP) along with behavior change interventions, there was subsequent randomization to comparison area, MNP-only area, Behavior Change Communication (BCC)-only area and MNP+BCC areas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This show that the feeding behavior, subsequent metabolic changes caused by feeding behavior of M. alternatus and pine volatiles were not the triggers for PWN departure. (biorxiv.org)
- The primary objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of prior exposure to amphetamine on subsequent stress-induced and free feeding of regular chow or palatable cereal. (concordia.ca)
- To identify potential risk factors for speech disorders in children, there is a need to better understand the association between early life feeding and sucking behaviors and subsequent speech development. (biomedcentral.com)
- The lateral hypothalamus encompasses neural circuits that are highly active during feeding behavior and rapid eye movement sleep. (pnas.org)
- Yet, it remains unclear whether these mutually exclusive behaviors share common neural populations. (pnas.org)
- Illumination of the neural pathway used by hormones to regulate appetite and eating behavior could eventually provide new drug targets for treating eating disorders and obesity. (rxpgnews.com)
- In a paper published in the journal Current Biology , the researchers identify three neural circuits - inside and outside the pharynx - that cause the worm to stop feeding and spit in the presence of light, which generates deadly hydrogen peroxide. (scitechdaily.com)
- Two other neural circuits, the researchers found - the I1 circuit and the previously identified I2 circuit - inhibit feeding when exposed to light by disrupting the pharynx's pumping. (scitechdaily.com)
- Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory versus appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption) but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Infant feeding practices will be assessed using before-after intervention-comparison area group differences between 2010, and 2013 and 2014. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Although effects of parents' feeding practices on children's health have been studied often, most of the research has focused on preschool children rather than infants (Polfuss & Frenn, 2012), and few studies have addressed why parents decide to introduce solid foods when they do (Horodynski & Mills, 2014). (joe.org)
- This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. (mdpi.com)
- Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. (mdpi.com)
- A Review of Methods to Assess Parental Feeding Practices and Preschool Children's Eating Behavior: The Need for Further Development of Tools. (inserm.fr)
- The educational intervention assessed whether teaching formula-feeding caregivers about infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and result in less weight gain. (nwica.org)
- The high proportion of leaf-feeding species with wind-pollinated host-plants may reflect the nutritional advantage of being able to feed additionally on pollen that lands on the leaves. (springer.com)
- 1987. Impact of pollen food on the fecundity and feeding time in two species of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) infesting flowers of Solanaceae. (springer.com)
- Sinigrin as a feeding deterrent in two crucifer-feeding polyphagous lepidopterous species and the effects of feeding stimulant mixtures on deterrency. (springer.com)
- Dr. Kilpatrick says, "To find out which species mosquitoes favored as hosts, we collected thousands of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and selected those that had just fed and still had bloodmeals in them. (eurekalert.org)
- We sequenced the DNA in the bloodmeal to identify the species of host they had fed on. (eurekalert.org)
- This feeding shift happened, even though the total number of birds at our site increased as other species' offspring joined the population," said Kilpatrick. (eurekalert.org)
- You've got this prominent species, and until now nobody knew how they were doing most of their feeding. (phys.org)
- In order to envisage the behaviors and lifestyles of now extinct animals, palaeontology often relies on extrapolating from modern species. (bio-medicine.org)
- Previous work on pterosaurs concluded that some species fed by skimming along the surface of the water with their mouths held open, but this paper overturns that inference, showing that this kind of feeding was highly unlikely to have occurred in pterosaurs after all. (bio-medicine.org)
- Anopheles species biodiversity and species richness seem to be one of the dominantly evolved blood-feeding insect species race on earth, impacting millions of lives through transmitting deadliest disease malaria around the globe. (intechopen.com)
- Both species are possibly stimulated to feed by some other substances contained in solanaceous host plants such as potato and tomato (Abe and Matsuda, 2000). (scialert.net)
- 1989). The feeding preference was influenced by chemical factors as in three Aulocophora leaf beetle species (Abe and Matsuda, 2005). (scialert.net)
- Hormones such as insulin and leptin, which circulate in the blood plasma, are known to play an important role in regulating the brain's feeding signals, but scientists have not fully understand how these hormones interact with the brain circuitry. (rxpgnews.com)
- Our aim was to study the feeding behavior of healthy term infants in the first week of life and determine whether this was related to cord blood leptin, ghrelin, and insulin. (fil-idf.org)
- Circulating insulin concentrations may have a role in the initiation of feeding behavior. (fil-idf.org)
- Here, we show that the ascr#3 avoidance behavior is modulated by feeding state via the insulin signaling pathway. (embopress.org)
- Starvation increases ascr#3 avoidance behavior, and loss‐of‐function mutations in daf‐2 insulin‐like receptor gene dampen this starvation‐induced ascr#3 avoidance behavior. (embopress.org)
- The class includes feeding cues for breast and bottle feeding, infant sleep patterns, comforting a crying infant, information about returning to work, continued support for breastfeeding moms, pumping techniques, and storage of breast milk. (eventbrite.com)
- Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. (jci.org)
- Though it's too early to draw conclusions, preliminary research suggests a low to moderate correlation between feeding behavior and traits like age at first calving, which is a pleasant surprise for those involved. (genomealberta.ca)
- Overall, the authors of this study reported large variations in feeding behavior traits and a correlation between phenotypic variation and feeding behaviors in crossbred growing cattle. (asas.org)
- Moreover, the feeding response was completely inhibited by concurrent infusion of the GABAA agonist muscimol (10, 25 ng) into the lateral hypothalamus, a major projection area of the accumbens shell. (jneurosci.org)
- These findings demonstrate a selective role for non-NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in ingestive behavior, and suggest an important functional link between two major brain regions involved in reward, the nucleus accumbens and lateral hypothalamus. (jneurosci.org)
- Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. (biologists.org)
- Temporary inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), via GABAA agonist muscimol administration prevents increased consumption following intra-Acb opioid administration of the selective μ-opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), yet leaves food approach behaviors intact, particularly after consumption has ended. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of quantitative variations of sugar sources on survival, feeding behavior, and consumption of A. ervi. (knaw.nl)
- Thrips that live on plants can feed on a wide range of types of food. (springer.com)
- Thrips may feed more opportunistically and have wider diets, in terms of food type, than has been recognised. (springer.com)
- In these lesioned animals, the food stimulus appears to elicit a bite command, though the biting behavior itself does not occur. (jneurosci.org)
- Spend some time in a food court, and you'll see that feeding behavior says a lot about people, for better or worse. (genomealberta.ca)
- The most interesting problems of food behavior from a clinical point of view are, in the dog, the obesity and the coprophagy, and in the cat, the anorexia, the obesity and the pike. (vin.com)
- Phyllosomata became entangled in food material and did not feed when provided soft tissue, such as jellyfish and mussel gonad. (brillonline.com)
- Animals change sensory responses and their eventual behaviors, depending on their internal metabolic status and external food availability. (embopress.org)
- You should provide a moderate supply of feed at every point in time considering that they do not have so large a stomach to take in much food. (inlandaquatics.com)
- Feeding disorders include difficulty getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow food. (cslot.com)
- Feeding disorders typically occur in children, such as when a child cannot completely close her lips to prevent food from falling out. (cslot.com)
- Feeding therapy supports infants and children dealing with a wide array of food-related challenges. (cslot.com)
- Signs that indicate that your child may have a feeding disorder include refusal to eat certain textures of food (i.e. only eating crunchy cereals), long meal times (i.e. more than 30 minutes), difficulty chewing, gagging or coughing during meals, frequently spitting up or vomiting, or slow weight gain or growth. (cslot.com)
- Your dog's behavior and yes, even your dog's health can be affected by the diet you feed him if his food does not agree with his genetic makeup. (petiquettedog.com)
- Leaving food down is okay for some dogs but can be a poor feeding habit to get into with many other dogs. (petiquettedog.com)
- Some behaviors associated with "hunger tension" can be: destructive chewing, stealing food, begging at the table etc. (petiquettedog.com)
- To avoid "hunger tension" in your dog, feed your dog half of the daily ration of food but give it to him in two feedings. (petiquettedog.com)
- Whether you are just beginning to set boundaries for a new puppy or just now setting boundaries to improve behavior in your older dog, food and the ritual of the feast can have a very significant impact on your dog's attitude and perception of his sense of place in the pack. (petiquettedog.com)
- Always feed a measured amount of food. (petiquettedog.com)
- Continuous feeding allows your dog to develop guarding instincts of his food bowl and the surrounding space. (petiquettedog.com)
- The goal of this study was to examine the ability of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum to modulate its food capture behavior with different sizes and types of food items. (usf.edu)
- Eight sub-adult specimens of G. cirratum were filmed feeding on two different food types (squid and fish) and sizes (gape size and larger than gape size). (usf.edu)
- There is little evidence that there is modulation in feeding behavior based on food size or food type. (usf.edu)
- While a number of classical neurotransmitters have been implicated in LH-induced feeding, the discovery of neuropeptides in the brain [ 4 ] has led researchers to consider several of these local neuromodulatory neurochemicals as major players in feeding and reward. (hindawi.com)
- Long-term change in feeding behavior was produced by organophosphate insufficient to induce outward illness or to depress brain AChE activity. (highbeam.com)
- The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, our Tax ID # is 31-1020010. (bbrfoundation.org)
- The lunge feeding of blue whales is an extraordinary biomechanical event in which the largest animal on Earth accelerates and opens its mouth under water, expanding its enormous throat pouch to engulf a huge volume of water, then filtering out its prey (small crustaceans called krill) by forcing the water through sieve-like baleen plates. (eurekalert.org)
- Friedlaender is lead author of a new study of blue whale feeding strategies that reveals surprising preferences in the massive whales with respect to how much and which direction they roll during lunge feeding. (eurekalert.org)
- Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. (biologists.org)
- According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. (biologists.org)
- Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. (biologists.org)
- Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s −1 after the lunge has ended. (biologists.org)
- These preferences show how the need to maximize efficiency shapes the whales' feeding behavior. (eurekalert.org)
- That's one of the questions being addressed as scientists apply genomics to improve key beef industry traits such as carcass quality and feed efficiency. (genomealberta.ca)
- Determination of correlations between phenotype and performance and efficiency traits and their relationship to the feeding behavior of growing crossbred cattle was a primary goal of this study. (asas.org)
- Fourteen feeding behavior traits, including performance and efficiency traits, traditional feeding behavior traits, meal behavior traits and social dominance rank were evaluated. (asas.org)
- Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. (wur.nl)
- This suggests that individual differences in feeding activity and stress response explain part of the differences in feed efficiency by explaining variance in maintenance energy expenditure. (wur.nl)
- Citation: Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P (2006) West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. (eurekalert.org)
- In addition, the behavior of each bird was recorded for 2-hr periods at three different mosquito densities. (ajtmh.org)
- The frequency of interrupted feeding (= partial blood meals) was also related to host behavior and mosquito density. (ajtmh.org)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. (biomedcentral.com)
- The tagging, which was done for a previous study of how blue whales respond to disturbances in the environment, yielded a rich set of data for a wide range of blue whale behaviors, Friedlaender said. (eurekalert.org)
- In a new study published in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Drs. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and colleagues now present evidence that the major vector of West Nile virus in the USA, Culex pipiens mosquitoes, change their feeding behavior in the fall from their preferred host, American robins, to humans, resulting in large scale outbreaks of disease. (eurekalert.org)
- The study, "Bottom side-roll feeding by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southern Gulf of Maine, U.S.A," was first published online in Marine Mammal Science in July 2013. (phys.org)
- In this July 2020 Journal of Animal Science study, the feeding behaviors of crossbred cattle were studied. (asas.org)
- In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A stimulation on the feeding behavior of quails ( Coturnix japonica ). (scielo.br)
- The original anemia sub-study design had proposed surveying children 6.23.9 months of age for the MNP intervention in April-June 2013 and for the behavior change intervention in April-June 2014. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study aimed to determine the relationship between damage caused by ECB larval feeding and different irrigation and nitrogen fertilization rates on different maize genotypes. (intechopen.com)
- Building on that study, the researchers, in this new paper, recorded the worm's feeding under prolonged exposure to light. (scitechdaily.com)
- The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In order to study the causes of pine wood nematode (PWN) departure from Monochamus alternatus , the effects of the feeding behavior of M. alternatus on the start date of departureof PWN were studied. (biorxiv.org)
- About 230 breast-feeding mothers (18-40 years) attending Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives were randomly selected for participation in the study. (scialert.net)
- Future study on feeding stimulant on S. nigrum will enlighten the understanding of host selection in E. indica . (scialert.net)
- The aim of the present study was investigated the effects of dietary amino acid unbalances, or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injection of amino acids or metabolites on feeding behavior in chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
- An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 waslost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) and Narsap Sermia (NS), two tidewaterglaciers that exhibited asynchronous behavior over the study period. (dtu.dk)
- This study quantifies feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens (77 to 80 weeks old) as influenced by the management practice of beak trimming. (iastate.edu)
- This study aims to investigate the activity, den preference, territorial range, and feeding behavior of lionfish on 3 reefs around El Porvenir, Guna Yala. (sit.edu)
- In one study [ 5 ] involving 108 children, a significant association between children who were bottle fed and presence of anteroposterior malocclusion was reported. (biomedcentral.com)
- Some studies have reported short-term changes in behavior of birds sickened by acute exposure to organophosphates (Grue et al. (highbeam.com)
- Previous studies have shown that Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite exhibits avoidance behaviors to acute exposure of a pheromone, ascr#3 (asc‐ΔC9, C9). (embopress.org)
- October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding behavior-called bubble-netting-at the water's surface. (nationalgeographic.com)
- By mounting cameras on the animals, researchers saw for the first time that these whales were bottom-feeding. (nationalgeographic.com)
- So, the researchers have put 3D motion tags on whales here and they gotten records of this odd, twisting rolling behavior that is happening well below the surface where they can't see. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Blue whales are "the ultimate example of efficient feeding," he said. (eurekalert.org)
- Blue whales, they found, show a right-side bias in their most common feeding behavior, rolling about 90 degrees to the right side during most feeding lunges. (eurekalert.org)
- Humpback whales are known for the complexity of their feeding techniques, which include "trapping" krill and other prey within bubble nets they produce and gulping up to two-thirds their weight in prey-laden water. (phys.org)
- Now, scientists have confirmed that humpback whales in the southern Gulf of Maine are spending more feeding time on the ocean floor than in any of these other feeding behaviors. (phys.org)
- The tag data confirms the bottom-feeding that scientists had suspected from visible scarring along some whales' jaws. (phys.org)
- Not only did the data show that these humpbacks, "by far the most acrobatic of all baleen whales ," Ware says, were performing bottom side-rolls and seafloor scooping, it indicates that this bottom feeding does not include lunging, previously assumed to be the humpbacks' primary feeding behavior. (phys.org)
- The researchers were particularly interested in "lateralized behaviors," seen in humans as a bias toward right-handedness and more generally in all vertebrates as a bias to the right side. (eurekalert.org)
- As the summer wore on and robins left their breeding grounds, the probability that humans were fed on increased sevenfold. (eurekalert.org)
- Good thing humans don't feed like this or we would all be walking around with killer headaches! (onthewingphotography.com)
- According to Eigenberg and Brown-Brandl, the feedlot system has successfully collected each individual animal's feeding behavior throughout two research cycles. (rfidjournal.com)
- Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and dietary roughage on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of wet corn gluten feed and roughage levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To examine the extent to which aquatic prey-capture behavior in salamanders is stereotyped and how feeding kinematics scales with size, the ontogenetic variability of aquatic feeding behavior was examined in eight Salamandra salamandra. (biologists.org)
- Feeding kinematics (seven duration and angular displacement variables), kinematic variance and capture performance were quantified and compared in the first several feedings after birth with a series of feedings 8 weeks later, just prior to metamorphosis. (biologists.org)
- In addition, the lack of kinematic change through ontogeny indicates that feeding kinematics do not scale with body size, contrary to predictions that movements should be slower in larger animals. (biologists.org)
- In the first series of experiments, it was shown that blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate glutamate receptors in the medial part of the accumbens, corresponding to the medial shell subregion, resulted in a pronounced feeding response. (jneurosci.org)
- We found that feeding is reliably encoded by specific patterns of neuron activity and that these patterns are reactivated during rapid eye movement sleep. (pnas.org)
- Feeding behavior was composed of a) appetitive patterns, such as barbel movements, orienting posture, and search swimming and b) consummatory patterns that included a halt in swimming, turning, snapping-biting, ingestion, mastication, and swallowing. (nih.gov)
- 1984. A new look at thrips (Thysanoptera) mouthparts, their action and effects of feeding on plant tissue. (springer.com)
- 1990, Hart 1993), but long-term changes in behavior among birds that have otherwise completely recovered from the effects of acute organophosphate exposure have not been reported. (highbeam.com)
- We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Part of my thesis is looking at feeding behavior and seeing if it has predictive value for traits related to cow fertility," said Cameron Olson, PhD student in the Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences at the University of Alberta. (genomealberta.ca)
- They found that the most efficient cattle were associated with the following traits: fed for a shorter duration per day, fed less often per day, had slower feeding rate, and fed for a longer period when feeding. (asas.org)
- For the evaluation of behavior change interventions only, the 20 clusters were randomized to 10 intensive and 10 non-intensive interventions areas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 24-48 months for child anthropometric outcomes (related to the behavior change interventions). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Exposure to large-scale social and behavior change communication interventions is associated with. (ifpri.org)
- Fortunately, Genome Alberta researchers have already collected data on feeding behavior via GrowSafe bins at the Lacombe Research Centre. (genomealberta.ca)
- To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. (mdpi.com)
- C. fuscescens collected aboard research cruises were dissected, and prey items were counted in order to calculate feeding rates and prey selectivity. (uoregon.edu)