Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (1/7142)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (2/7142)

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (3/7142)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/7142)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (5/7142)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons.  (+info)

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (6/7142)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

Lateral hypothalamic NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and/or NR2B mediate eating: immunochemical/behavioral evidence. (7/7142)

Cells within the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are important in eating control. Glutamate or its analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), elicit intense eating when microinjected there, and, conversely, LHA-administered NMDA receptor antagonists suppress deprivation- and NMDA-elicited eating. The subunit composition of LHA NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) mediating feeding, however, has not yet been determined. Identifying this is important, because distinct second messengers/modulators may be activated by NMDA-Rs with differing compositions. To begin to address this, we detected LHA NR2A and NR2B subunits by immunoblotting and NR2B subunits by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. To help determine whether NMDA-Rs mediating feeding might contain these subunits, we conducted behavioral studies using LHA-administered ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for NR2A- and/or NR2B-containing NMDA-Rs at the doses we used (0.001-100 nmol). Ifenprodil maximally suppressed NMDA- and deprivation-elicited feeding by 63 and 39%, respectively, but failed to suppress KA-elicited eating, suggesting its actions were behaviorally specific. Collectively, these results suggest that LHA NMDA-Rs, some of which contribute to feeding control, are composed of NR2A and/or NR2B subunits, and implicate NR2A- and/or NR2B-linked signal transduction in feeding behavior.  (+info)

Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (8/7142)

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

  • After an initial blood meal, Anopheles stephensi Liston mosquitoes were experimentally challenged with heat-killed E. coli at a dose known to mimic the same temporal changes in mosquito feeding behavior as active malaria infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli induces the same behavior, suggesting that altered feeding behavior may be driven by adaptive responses of hosts to cope with an immune response, rather than by parasite-specific factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, the behavioral alterations may be neither host nor parasite adaptations, but rather a consequence of constraints imposed on feeding by activation of the mosquito immune response, i.e. non-adaptive illness-induced anorexia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining fecundity and survival to estimate the population-scale intrinsic rate of increase ( r ), we found that, contrary to the mosquito adaptation hypothesis, mosquito fitness decreased if blood feeding was delayed following an immune challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Future work incorporating field conditions and different immune challenges could further clarify the effect of altered feeding on mosquito and parasite fitness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract Stage IV phyllosoma larvae of the packhorse lobster, Jasus verreauxi (H. Milne Edwards, 1851), were observed while feeding to determine the processing ability and involvement of mouthparts. (brillonline.com)
  • Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because insulin decreases Hap1 levels, and reducing Hap1 decreases the GABA receptor activity, we believe Hap1 is the link between circulating insulin and the regulation of GABA receptors in the hypothalamus in controlling eating behavior. (rxpgnews.com)
  • AMP-activated kinase links serotonergic signaling to glutamate release for regulation of feeding behavior in C. elegans. (nih.gov)
  • Serotonergic regulation of feeding behavior has been studied intensively, both for an understanding of the basic neurocircuitry of energy balance in various organisms and as a therapeutic target for human obesity. (nih.gov)
  • The nucleus accumbens in a brain region considered to be important in the regulation of appetitive behavior and reinforcement. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer-type chicks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, deciphering the underlying molecular mechanism of odor sensing through the detection machinery (olfactory system), odor processing and decision-making by decision machinery (brain), and regulation of saliva secretion by the action machinery (salivary gland) is likely to reveal molecular pathways which can be targeted to disrupt mosquitoes' feeding behavior. (intechopen.com)
  • Here we summarize how smart actions of highly specialized neurosensory systems guide and manage feeding behavior associated complex events of (i) successful navigation to find a suitable host, (ii) making food choice decisions, and (iii) regulation of the salivary gland actions in mosquitoes. (intechopen.com)
  • More recently, neuropeptides have been linked to the regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism and body weight. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Similar to mammals, it seemed that glutamate, GABA and glycine have an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior of chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results suggest that amino acids and/or these metabolites by which dietary amino acid composition pattern may influence feeding regulation via blood vessels in the central nervous system of chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
  • With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal volume Aguila, Rayner Núñez, Davis, Don R. (2016): Antillopsyche sessilis, new genus and species, a new Psychidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) from Cuba with an unusual larval feeding behavior. (gbif.org)
  • This disease is endemic throughout Mexico and Central and South America, but only a few autochthonous cases have been reported in the United States, despite the fact that infected insects readily invade houses and feed on humans. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, more than half of the immature insects that exhibited multiple feeding bouts (62%) defecated during interruptions of feeding, i.e., while likely on or near the host. (ajtmh.org)
  • Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. (epfl.ch)
  • Blood T influences the number of feeding insects. (schweizerbart.de)
  • Also probably feeds on a variety of small insects. (audubon.org)
  • The optimal lifetime was achieved by insects fed with 50 and 70% (w/v) of sugar solution for males and 70% (w/v) for females. (knaw.nl)
  • After arrival, anholocylic reproduction occurs on numerous herbaceous species, including many common weeds, before movement to potato, Solanum tuberosum L. In investigating aphid feeding behavior on barrier crops, we observed winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., colonized by green peach aphid. (bioone.org)
  • This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. (bioone.org)
  • Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). (bioone.org)
  • This study provides important data that contribute to the understanding of how soybean aphids (biotype 1) feed on soybean genotypes with various aphid resistant genes and categories. (unl.edu)
  • We concluded that increased levels of Hap1 correlated with increased feeding behavior in the mice, and our research helps explain how Hap1 is linked to feeding-related molecules such as insulin, and to hypothalamic neuronal function," said Xiao-Jiang Li, PhD, professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine and senior author of the study. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Serotonin mediated changes in corticotropin releasing factor mRNA expression and feeding behavior isolated to the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Feeding deterrents and sensitivity suppressors for Pieris rapae larvae in wheat germ diet. (springer.com)
  • A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the rising incidence of West Nile virus in North America. (eurekalert.org)
  • In Taiwan, both larvae and adults of some species of Epilachninae feed on the leaves of Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Urticaceae (Richards and Filewood, 1990). (scialert.net)
  • She will proceed back to the nest to regurgitate this material when feeding the queen or the larvae of her colony, and they will be affected, even though they did not contact the chemical themselves. (heartspm.com)
  • Larvae engage in a variety of behaviors to capture prey. (jrank.org)
  • The first and third stages of beaded lacewing larvae burrow in the soil in search of termites, while the second state is inactive and does not feed. (jrank.org)
  • The larvae of mantidflies feed in spider egg sacs or in the nests of social wasps. (jrank.org)
  • Eventually the larvae enter the egg sac to feed. (jrank.org)
  • Scientists think that these larvae might produce chemicals that slow down the development of the spider eggs to give them plenty of time to feed. (jrank.org)
  • Here, we show that neural serotonin signaling in C. elegans modulates feeding behavior through inhibition of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in interneurons expressing the C. elegans counterpart of human SIM1, a transcription factor associated with obesity. (nih.gov)
  • We examined feeding behaviors of 131 first-time parents, applying the theory of planned behavior to our investigation. (joe.org)
  • We applied the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988) to identify variables that influence the timing of the introduction of solid foods. (joe.org)
  • Originally applied to breastfeeding practices, the theory of planned behavior is a well-validated theoretical model that assumes that an individual's actions are based on his or her intent to perform, or not perform, a voluntary behavior. (joe.org)
  • This study was set up to understand breast-feeding behavior of mothers using a developed culture-specific tool grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in western Kenya. (scialert.net)
  • For a sub-study to evaluate a market-based model for delivering micronutrient powders (MNP) along with behavior change interventions, there was subsequent randomization to comparison area, MNP-only area, Behavior Change Communication (BCC)-only area and MNP+BCC areas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This show that the feeding behavior, subsequent metabolic changes caused by feeding behavior of M. alternatus and pine volatiles were not the triggers for PWN departure. (biorxiv.org)
  • The primary objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of prior exposure to amphetamine on subsequent stress-induced and free feeding of regular chow or palatable cereal. (concordia.ca)
  • To identify potential risk factors for speech disorders in children, there is a need to better understand the association between early life feeding and sucking behaviors and subsequent speech development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feeding behavior of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on so" by E. L.L. Baldin, Mitchell D. Stamm et al. (unl.edu)
  • The lateral hypothalamus encompasses neural circuits that are highly active during feeding behavior and rapid eye movement sleep. (pnas.org)
  • Yet, it remains unclear whether these mutually exclusive behaviors share common neural populations. (pnas.org)
  • Illumination of the neural pathway used by hormones to regulate appetite and eating behavior could eventually provide new drug targets for treating eating disorders and obesity. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In a paper published in the journal Current Biology , the researchers identify three neural circuits - inside and outside the pharynx - that cause the worm to stop feeding and spit in the presence of light, which generates deadly hydrogen peroxide. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Two other neural circuits, the researchers found - the I1 circuit and the previously identified I2 circuit - inhibit feeding when exposed to light by disrupting the pharynx's pumping. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory versus appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption) but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Infant feeding practices will be assessed using before-after intervention-comparison area group differences between 2010, and 2013 and 2014. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although effects of parents' feeding practices on children's health have been studied often, most of the research has focused on preschool children rather than infants (Polfuss & Frenn, 2012), and few studies have addressed why parents decide to introduce solid foods when they do (Horodynski & Mills, 2014). (joe.org)
  • This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. (mdpi.com)
  • Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. (mdpi.com)
  • A Review of Methods to Assess Parental Feeding Practices and Preschool Children's Eating Behavior: The Need for Further Development of Tools. (inserm.fr)
  • The educational intervention assessed whether teaching formula-feeding caregivers about infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and result in less weight gain. (nwica.org)
  • The high proportion of leaf-feeding species with wind-pollinated host-plants may reflect the nutritional advantage of being able to feed additionally on pollen that lands on the leaves. (springer.com)
  • 1987. Impact of pollen food on the fecundity and feeding time in two species of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) infesting flowers of Solanaceae. (springer.com)
  • Sinigrin as a feeding deterrent in two crucifer-feeding polyphagous lepidopterous species and the effects of feeding stimulant mixtures on deterrency. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Kilpatrick says, "To find out which species mosquitoes favored as hosts, we collected thousands of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and selected those that had just fed and still had bloodmeals in them. (eurekalert.org)
  • We sequenced the DNA in the bloodmeal to identify the species of host they had fed on. (eurekalert.org)
  • This feeding shift happened, even though the total number of birds at our site increased as other species' offspring joined the population," said Kilpatrick. (eurekalert.org)
  • You've got this prominent species, and until now nobody knew how they were doing most of their feeding. (phys.org)
  • In order to envisage the behaviors and lifestyles of now extinct animals, palaeontology often relies on extrapolating from modern species. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previous work on pterosaurs concluded that some species fed by skimming along the surface of the water with their mouths held open, but this paper overturns that inference, showing that this kind of feeding was highly unlikely to have occurred in pterosaurs after all. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Anopheles species biodiversity and species richness seem to be one of the dominantly evolved blood-feeding insect species race on earth, impacting millions of lives through transmitting deadliest disease malaria around the globe. (intechopen.com)
  • Both species are possibly stimulated to feed by some other substances contained in solanaceous host plants such as potato and tomato (Abe and Matsuda, 2000). (scialert.net)
  • 1989). The feeding preference was influenced by chemical factors as in three Aulocophora leaf beetle species (Abe and Matsuda, 2005). (scialert.net)
  • Hormones such as insulin and leptin, which circulate in the blood plasma, are known to play an important role in regulating the brain's feeding signals, but scientists have not fully understand how these hormones interact with the brain circuitry. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our aim was to study the feeding behavior of healthy term infants in the first week of life and determine whether this was related to cord blood leptin, ghrelin, and insulin. (fil-idf.org)
  • Circulating insulin concentrations may have a role in the initiation of feeding behavior. (fil-idf.org)
  • Here, we show that the ascr#3 avoidance behavior is modulated by feeding state via the insulin signaling pathway. (embopress.org)
  • Starvation increases ascr#3 avoidance behavior, and loss‐of‐function mutations in daf‐2 insulin‐like receptor gene dampen this starvation‐induced ascr#3 avoidance behavior. (embopress.org)
  • The class includes feeding cues for breast and bottle feeding, infant sleep patterns, comforting a crying infant, information about returning to work, continued support for breastfeeding moms, pumping techniques, and storage of breast milk. (eventbrite.com)
  • Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. (jci.org)
  • Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. (biologists.org)
  • Temporary inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), via GABAA agonist muscimol administration prevents increased consumption following intra-Acb opioid administration of the selective μ-opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), yet leaves food approach behaviors intact, particularly after consumption has ended. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of quantitative variations of sugar sources on survival, feeding behavior, and consumption of A. ervi. (knaw.nl)
  • Thrips that live on plants can feed on a wide range of types of food. (springer.com)
  • Thrips may feed more opportunistically and have wider diets, in terms of food type, than has been recognised. (springer.com)
  • In these lesioned animals, the food stimulus appears to elicit a bite command, though the biting behavior itself does not occur. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spend some time in a food court, and you'll see that feeding behavior says a lot about people, for better or worse. (genomealberta.ca)
  • The most interesting problems of food behavior from a clinical point of view are, in the dog, the obesity and the coprophagy, and in the cat, the anorexia, the obesity and the pike. (vin.com)
  • Phyllosomata became entangled in food material and did not feed when provided soft tissue, such as jellyfish and mussel gonad. (brillonline.com)
  • Animals change sensory responses and their eventual behaviors, depending on their internal metabolic status and external food availability. (embopress.org)
  • You should provide a moderate supply of feed at every point in time considering that they do not have so large a stomach to take in much food. (inlandaquatics.com)
  • Feeding disorders include difficulty getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow food. (cslot.com)
  • Feeding disorders typically occur in children, such as when a child cannot completely close her lips to prevent food from falling out. (cslot.com)
  • Feeding therapy supports infants and children dealing with a wide array of food-related challenges. (cslot.com)
  • Signs that indicate that your child may have a feeding disorder include refusal to eat certain textures of food (i.e. only eating crunchy cereals), long meal times (i.e. more than 30 minutes), difficulty chewing, gagging or coughing during meals, frequently spitting up or vomiting, or slow weight gain or growth. (cslot.com)
  • Your dog's behavior and yes, even your dog's health can be affected by the diet you feed him if his food does not agree with his genetic makeup. (petiquettedog.com)
  • Leaving food down is okay for some dogs but can be a poor feeding habit to get into with many other dogs. (petiquettedog.com)
  • Some behaviors associated with "hunger tension" can be: destructive chewing, stealing food, begging at the table etc. (petiquettedog.com)
  • To avoid "hunger tension" in your dog, feed your dog half of the daily ration of food but give it to him in two feedings. (petiquettedog.com)
  • Whether you are just beginning to set boundaries for a new puppy or just now setting boundaries to improve behavior in your older dog, food and the ritual of the feast can have a very significant impact on your dog's attitude and perception of his sense of place in the pack. (petiquettedog.com)
  • Always feed a measured amount of food. (petiquettedog.com)
  • Continuous feeding allows your dog to develop guarding instincts of his food bowl and the surrounding space. (petiquettedog.com)
  • The goal of this study was to examine the ability of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum to modulate its food capture behavior with different sizes and types of food items. (usf.edu)
  • Eight sub-adult specimens of G. cirratum were filmed feeding on two different food types (squid and fish) and sizes (gape size and larger than gape size). (usf.edu)
  • There is little evidence that there is modulation in feeding behavior based on food size or food type. (usf.edu)
  • While a number of classical neurotransmitters have been implicated in LH-induced feeding, the discovery of neuropeptides in the brain [ 4 ] has led researchers to consider several of these local neuromodulatory neurochemicals as major players in feeding and reward. (hindawi.com)
  • Long-term change in feeding behavior was produced by organophosphate insufficient to induce outward illness or to depress brain AChE activity. (highbeam.com)
  • The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, our Tax ID # is 31-1020010. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The lunge feeding of blue whales is an extraordinary biomechanical event in which the largest animal on Earth accelerates and opens its mouth under water, expanding its enormous throat pouch to engulf a huge volume of water, then filtering out its prey (small crustaceans called krill) by forcing the water through sieve-like baleen plates. (eurekalert.org)
  • Friedlaender is lead author of a new study of blue whale feeding strategies that reveals surprising preferences in the massive whales with respect to how much and which direction they roll during lunge feeding. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. (biologists.org)
  • According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. (biologists.org)
  • Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s −1 after the lunge has ended. (biologists.org)
  • Considering that feed represents the largest cost of production and one of the main causes for the ecological footprint of a farm, more knowledge on the extent of individual differences in feed efficiency and underlying physiological processes are needed. (wur.nl)
  • These preferences show how the need to maximize efficiency shapes the whales' feeding behavior. (eurekalert.org)
  • That's one of the questions being addressed as scientists apply genomics to improve key beef industry traits such as carcass quality and feed efficiency. (genomealberta.ca)
  • Determination of correlations between phenotype and performance and efficiency traits and their relationship to the feeding behavior of growing crossbred cattle was a primary goal of this study. (asas.org)
  • Fourteen feeding behavior traits, including performance and efficiency traits, traditional feeding behavior traits, meal behavior traits and social dominance rank were evaluated. (asas.org)
  • Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. (wur.nl)
  • This suggests that individual differences in feeding activity and stress response explain part of the differences in feed efficiency by explaining variance in maintenance energy expenditure. (wur.nl)
  • Citation: Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P (2006) West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, the behavior of each bird was recorded for 2-hr periods at three different mosquito densities. (ajtmh.org)
  • The frequency of interrupted feeding (= partial blood meals) was also related to host behavior and mosquito density. (ajtmh.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate Anopheles multiple blood feeding behavior (MBF) and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection (MOI) within the mosquito host in Nchelenge District, northern Zambia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tagging, which was done for a previous study of how blue whales respond to disturbances in the environment, yielded a rich set of data for a wide range of blue whale behaviors, Friedlaender said. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a new study published in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Drs. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and colleagues now present evidence that the major vector of West Nile virus in the USA, Culex pipiens mosquitoes, change their feeding behavior in the fall from their preferred host, American robins, to humans, resulting in large scale outbreaks of disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, "Bottom side-roll feeding by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southern Gulf of Maine, U.S.A," was first published online in Marine Mammal Science in July 2013. (phys.org)
  • In this July 2020 Journal of Animal Science study, the feeding behaviors of crossbred cattle were studied. (asas.org)
  • In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A stimulation on the feeding behavior of quails ( Coturnix japonica ). (scielo.br)
  • The original anemia sub-study design had proposed surveying children 6.23.9 months of age for the MNP intervention in April-June 2013 and for the behavior change intervention in April-June 2014. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study aimed to determine the relationship between damage caused by ECB larval feeding and different irrigation and nitrogen fertilization rates on different maize genotypes. (intechopen.com)
  • Building on that study, the researchers, in this new paper, recorded the worm's feeding under prolonged exposure to light. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (intra-Acb) opioid activation in the rat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to study the causes of pine wood nematode (PWN) departure from Monochamus alternatus , the effects of the feeding behavior of M. alternatus on the start date of departureof PWN were studied. (biorxiv.org)
  • About 230 breast-feeding mothers (18-40 years) attending Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives were randomly selected for participation in the study. (scialert.net)
  • Future study on feeding stimulant on S. nigrum will enlighten the understanding of host selection in E. indica . (scialert.net)
  • The aim of the present study was investigated the effects of dietary amino acid unbalances, or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injection of amino acids or metabolites on feeding behavior in chicks. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 waslost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) and Narsap Sermia (NS), two tidewaterglaciers that exhibited asynchronous behavior over the study period. (dtu.dk)
  • This study quantifies feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens (77 to 80 weeks old) as influenced by the management practice of beak trimming. (iastate.edu)
  • This study aims to investigate the activity, den preference, territorial range, and feeding behavior of lionfish on 3 reefs around El Porvenir, Guna Yala. (sit.edu)
  • In one study [ 5 ] involving 108 children, a significant association between children who were bottle fed and presence of anteroposterior malocclusion was reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • October 11, 2013-Humpback whales are known for their unique feeding behavior-called bubble-netting-at the water's surface. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • By mounting cameras on the animals, researchers saw for the first time that these whales were bottom-feeding. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • So, the researchers have put 3D motion tags on whales here and they gotten records of this odd, twisting rolling behavior that is happening well below the surface where they can't see. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Blue whales are "the ultimate example of efficient feeding," he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Blue whales, they found, show a right-side bias in their most common feeding behavior, rolling about 90 degrees to the right side during most feeding lunges. (eurekalert.org)
  • Humpback whales are known for the complexity of their feeding techniques, which include "trapping" krill and other prey within bubble nets they produce and gulping up to two-thirds their weight in prey-laden water. (phys.org)
  • Now, scientists have confirmed that humpback whales in the southern Gulf of Maine are spending more feeding time on the ocean floor than in any of these other feeding behaviors. (phys.org)
  • The tag data confirms the bottom-feeding that scientists had suspected from visible scarring along some whales' jaws. (phys.org)
  • Not only did the data show that these humpbacks, "by far the most acrobatic of all baleen whales ," Ware says, were performing bottom side-rolls and seafloor scooping, it indicates that this bottom feeding does not include lunging, previously assumed to be the humpbacks' primary feeding behavior. (phys.org)
  • The researchers were particularly interested in "lateralized behaviors," seen in humans as a bias toward right-handedness and more generally in all vertebrates as a bias to the right side. (eurekalert.org)
  • As the summer wore on and robins left their breeding grounds, the probability that humans were fed on increased sevenfold. (eurekalert.org)
  • Good thing humans don't feed like this or we would all be walking around with killer headaches! (onthewingphotography.com)
  • Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adult E. vigintioctomaculata and E. vigintioctopunctata attacks cucubitaceous plants when they cannot find solanaceous plant to feed (Abe and Matsuda, 2000). (scialert.net)
  • To examine the extent to which aquatic prey-capture behavior in salamanders is stereotyped and how feeding kinematics scales with size, the ontogenetic variability of aquatic feeding behavior was examined in eight Salamandra salamandra. (biologists.org)
  • Feeding kinematics (seven duration and angular displacement variables), kinematic variance and capture performance were quantified and compared in the first several feedings after birth with a series of feedings 8 weeks later, just prior to metamorphosis. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the lack of kinematic change through ontogeny indicates that feeding kinematics do not scale with body size, contrary to predictions that movements should be slower in larger animals. (biologists.org)
  • These results indicate that the initial prey-capture behavior remains unchanged throughout larval ontogeny. (biologists.org)
  • If modulation does exist in the feeding behavior, it is more likely to occur after prey capture while the prey is being processed and manipulated prior to transport. (usf.edu)
  • In the first series of experiments, it was shown that blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate glutamate receptors in the medial part of the accumbens, corresponding to the medial shell subregion, resulted in a pronounced feeding response. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1984. A new look at thrips (Thysanoptera) mouthparts, their action and effects of feeding on plant tissue. (springer.com)
  • 1990, Hart 1993), but long-term changes in behavior among birds that have otherwise completely recovered from the effects of acute organophosphate exposure have not been reported. (highbeam.com)
  • We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Part of my thesis is looking at feeding behavior and seeing if it has predictive value for traits related to cow fertility," said Cameron Olson, PhD student in the Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences at the University of Alberta. (genomealberta.ca)
  • They found that the most efficient cattle were associated with the following traits: fed for a shorter duration per day, fed less often per day, had slower feeding rate, and fed for a longer period when feeding. (asas.org)
  • One of the most remarkable aspects of starfish biology is their feeding behavior, where the stomach is everted out of the mouth over the soft tissue of prey. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fortunately, Genome Alberta researchers have already collected data on feeding behavior via GrowSafe bins at the Lacombe Research Centre. (genomealberta.ca)
  • To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. (mdpi.com)
  • C. fuscescens collected aboard research cruises were dissected, and prey items were counted in order to calculate feeding rates and prey selectivity. (uoregon.edu)
  • The start date of the departure of PWN carried by the M. alternatus fed after starvation was 5-14 d after beetle emergence, mainly concentrated within 6-9 d, with a mean of 7.76 ± 2.28 d. (biorxiv.org)
  • Starvation increases ascr#3 avoidance behavior. (embopress.org)