Knowledge of Results (Psychology)
Gene Expression Regulation
Retinal Horizontal Cells
Period Circadian Proteins
Analysis of Variance
Task Performance and Analysis
Molecular Sequence Data
Promoter Regions, Genetic
ARNTL Transcription Factors
Post-ingestive feedbacks and associative learning regulate the intake of unsuitable sterols in a generalist grasshopper. (1/3981)Behavioural studies of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana were undertaken to identify the mechanisms that regulate the intake of dietary sterols. In the first experiment, grasshoppers were allowed to feed on spinach, a plant containing only unsuitable sterols; immediately after this first meal, a suitable or unsuitable sterol was injected into the haemolymph. Grasshoppers injected with unsuitable sterols had second meals on spinach that were significantly shorter than those of grasshoppers injected with suitable sterols, indicating that unsuitable dietary sterols are detected post-ingestively. In the second experiment, grasshoppers were fed food containing only unsuitable sterols and were then presented with glass-fibre discs containing different concentrations of a suitable sterol or sucrose only (the control). The results suggest that grasshoppers do not use a direct feedback operating on mouthpart chemoreceptors to regulate their intake of suitable sterols. In the third experiment, grasshoppers were presented with artificial diets containing different sterols and flavours, and feeding was observed over a sequence of meals. The results from both the first and last experiments suggest a role for associative learning in regulating the intake of unsuitable sterols. (+info)
Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (2/3981)BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model. (+info)
Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (3/3981)Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis . Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators  . The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism    . Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1  ) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria. (+info)
A strategy for enhancing the transcriptional activity of weak cell type-specific promoters. (4/3981)Cell type- and tissue-specific promoters play an important role in the development of site-selective vectors for gene therapy. A large number of highly specific promoters has been described, but their applicability is often hampered by their inefficient transcriptional activity. In this study, we describe a new strategy for enhancing the activity of weak promoters without loss of specificity. The basic principle of this strategy is to establish a positive feedback loop which is initiated by transcription from a cell type-specific promoter. This was achieved by using a cell type-specific promoter to drive the simultaneous expression of the desired effector/reporter gene product and a strong artificial transcriptional activator which stimulates transcription through appropriate binding sites in the promoter. Using a VP16-LexA chimeric transcription factor, we show that this approach leads to a 14- to > 100-fold enhancement of both the endothelial cell-specific von Willebrand factor promoter and the gastrointestinal-specific sucrase-isomaltase promoter while maintaining approximately 30- to > 100-fold cell type specificity. (+info)
Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (5/3981)The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2. (+info)
Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (6/3981)It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of effect of feedback on general practitioners' prescribing in Australia. (7/3981)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect on general practitioners' prescribing of feedback on their levels of prescribing. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practice in rural Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 2440 full time recognised general practitioners practising in non-urban areas. INTERVENTION: Two sets of graphical displays (6 months apart) of their prescribing rates for 2 years, relative to those of their peers, were posted to participants. Data were provided for five main drug groups and were accompanied by educational newsletters. The control group received no information on their prescribing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescribing rates in the intervention and control groups for the five main drug groups, total prescribing and potential substitute prescribing and ordering before and after the interventions. RESULTS: The intervention and control groups had similar baseline characteristics (age, sex, patient mix, practices). Median prescribing rates for the two groups were almost identical before and after the interventions. Any changes in prescribing observed in the intervention group were also seen in the control group. There was no evidence that feedback reduced the variability in prescribing nor did it differentially affect the very high or very low prescribers. CONCLUSIONS: The form of feedback evaluated here-mailed, unsolicited, centralised, government sponsored, and based on aggregate data-had no impact on the prescribing levels of general practitioners. (+info)
Inhibition of cellular growth by increased guanine nucleotide pools. Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant with a guanosine kinase that is insensitive to feedback inhibition by GTP. (8/3981)In Escherichia coli the enzyme guanosine kinase phosphorylates guanosine to GMP, which is further phosphorylated to GDP and GTP by other enzymes. Here I report that guanosine kinase is subject to efficient feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, GTP, and that this regulation is abolished by a previously described mutation, gsk-3, in the structural gene for guanosine kinase (Hove-Jensen, B., and Nygaard, P. (1989) J. Gen. Microbiol. 135, 1263-1273). Consequently, the gsk-3 mutant strain was extremely sensitive to guanosine, which caused the guanine nucleotide pools to increase dramatically, thereby initiating a cascade of metabolic changes that eventually led to growth arrest. By isolation and characterization of guanosine-resistant derivatives of the gsk-3 mutant, some of the crucial steps in this deleterious cascade of events were found to include the following: first, conversion of GMP to adenine nucleotides via GMP reductase, encoded by the guaC gene; second, inhibition of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase by an adenine nucleotide, presumably ADP, causing starvation for histidine, tryptophan, and pyrimidines, all of which require PRPP for their synthesis; third, accumulation of the regulatory nucleotide guanosine 5',3'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), a general transcriptional inhibitor synthesized by the relA gene product in response to amino acid starvation. (+info)
Biofeedback is a technique used in psychology and medicine to help individuals gain control over their body's physiological processes, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. It involves using electronic devices to measure these processes and provide feedback to the individual in real-time, allowing them to learn how to regulate them voluntarily. In the medical field, biofeedback is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. It can also be used to help individuals manage symptoms of certain medical conditions, such as migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and hypertension. During biofeedback therapy, the individual is typically seated in a comfortable chair and connected to a device that measures their physiological responses. The device provides visual or auditory feedback to the individual, such as a graph or sound, that shows how their body is responding to different stimuli. The therapist works with the individual to develop strategies for regulating their physiological responses and to help them identify and manage any underlying emotional or psychological factors that may be contributing to their symptoms. Overall, biofeedback is a non-invasive and relatively low-risk technique that has been shown to be effective in helping individuals manage a variety of physical and emotional symptoms.
In the medical field, computer simulation refers to the use of computer models and algorithms to simulate the behavior of biological systems, medical devices, or clinical procedures. These simulations can be used to study and predict the effects of various medical interventions, such as drug treatments or surgical procedures, on the human body. Computer simulations in medicine can be used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Training and education: Medical students and professionals can use computer simulations to practice and refine their skills in a safe and controlled environment. 2. Research and development: Researchers can use computer simulations to study the underlying mechanisms of diseases and develop new treatments. 3. Clinical decision-making: Physicians can use computer simulations to predict the outcomes of different treatment options and make more informed decisions about patient care. 4. Device design and testing: Engineers can use computer simulations to design and test medical devices, such as prosthetics or surgical instruments, before they are used in patients. Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in the medical field that can help improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and advance medical knowledge.
Biological clocks are internal mechanisms that regulate various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans. These clocks are responsible for controlling the timing of events such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and other circadian rhythms. In the medical field, the study of biological clocks is important because disruptions to these rhythms can have negative effects on health. For example, shift work and jet lag can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, leading to sleep disorders, fatigue, and other health problems. Research has also shown that disruptions to biological clocks can increase the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biological clocks and how they can be influenced by external factors is an important area of medical research.
Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Clinical competence in the medical field refers to the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe, effective, and ethical patient care. It encompasses a range of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are necessary for the delivery of high-quality healthcare services. Clinical competence includes both technical skills, such as the ability to perform medical procedures and interpret diagnostic tests, as well as non-technical skills, such as communication, teamwork, and decision-making. It also involves an understanding of the latest medical research and best practices, as well as an ability to apply this knowledge to individual patients in a compassionate and ethical manner. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through a combination of formal assessments, such as board exams and performance evaluations, as well as informal assessments, such as patient feedback and peer review. Healthcare professionals are expected to continuously improve their clinical competence through ongoing education and training, as well as self-reflection and self-assessment.
Biomechanical phenomena refer to the study of the mechanical properties and behavior of living organisms, particularly in relation to movement and function. In the medical field, biomechanical phenomena are often studied in the context of musculoskeletal disorders, sports injuries, and rehabilitation. This involves analyzing the forces and movements involved in various activities, such as walking, running, or lifting, and how they affect the body's tissues and structures. Biomechanical engineers and researchers use a variety of techniques, including computer simulations, imaging technologies, and physical measurements, to study biomechanical phenomena and develop new treatments and interventions for a range of medical conditions.
CLOCK proteins are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating the body's circadian rhythm, or internal clock. The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. The CLOCK proteins are involved in the regulation of this cycle by controlling the expression of genes that are involved in the circadian rhythm. There are two main types of CLOCK proteins: CLOCK and BMAL1. These proteins form a heterodimer, which is a complex of two different proteins, and this complex binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of circadian rhythm-related genes. This binding activates the expression of these genes, which in turn helps to regulate the circadian rhythm. Disruptions in the function of the CLOCK proteins have been linked to various sleep disorders, such as insomnia and sleep apnea, as well as other conditions, such as depression and obesity.
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the medical field refers to the use of computer technology to provide educational materials and interactive learning experiences to medical students, residents, and practitioners. CAI can take many forms, including online courses, simulations, virtual reality, and multimedia presentations. CAI in the medical field is designed to enhance the learning experience by providing personalized instruction, immediate feedback, and opportunities for practice and repetition. It can also help medical professionals keep up-to-date with the latest medical knowledge and techniques, as well as improve their skills in areas such as diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient communication. CAI in the medical field can be used for a variety of purposes, including medical education, continuing medical education, and professional development. It can also be used to support patient care by providing medical professionals with access to up-to-date information and decision-making tools.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system in both males and females. In females, LH stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone, which are essential for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It also triggers ovulation, the release of a mature egg from the ovary. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics and the production of sperm. LH levels can be measured in the blood or urine to diagnose and monitor various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism. It is also used in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate ovulation and increase the chances of conception.
In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Period circadian proteins (PERs) are a group of proteins that play a critical role in regulating the body's internal clock, also known as the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is a 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. PERs are produced in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small region of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN receives input from the retina, which detects changes in light and darkness, and uses this information to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. PERs are involved in the negative feedback loop that regulates the circadian rhythm. When light enters the eye, it inhibits the production of PERs, which in turn leads to the release of other hormones that promote wakefulness. As the day progresses, PER levels increase, leading to the suppression of wakefulness-promoting hormones and the onset of sleep. Disruptions in the regulation of PERs can lead to various sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep apnea, and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Additionally, mutations in the genes that encode PERs have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, the term "arm" typically refers to one of the two appendages located on the upper limb of the human body. The arm is composed of three bones: the humerus, radius, and ulna. It is responsible for a variety of movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation. The arm is also home to a number of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to allow for movement and sensation. Injuries or conditions that affect the arm can range from minor sprains and strains to more serious conditions such as fractures, dislocations, and nerve damage. In some medical contexts, the term "arm" may also refer to the upper part of the body, including the shoulders, chest, and upper back. For example, in the context of chemotherapy, the term "arm" may refer to the area of the body where the chemotherapy medication is administered, typically through an IV catheter.
In the medical field, algorithms are a set of step-by-step instructions used to diagnose or treat a medical condition. These algorithms are designed to provide healthcare professionals with a standardized approach to patient care, ensuring that patients receive consistent and evidence-based treatment. Medical algorithms can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnosing diseases, determining the appropriate course of treatment, and predicting patient outcomes. They are often based on clinical guidelines and best practices, and are continually updated as new research and evidence becomes available. Examples of medical algorithms include diagnostic algorithms for conditions such as pneumonia, heart attack, and cancer, as well as treatment algorithms for conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. These algorithms can help healthcare professionals make more informed decisions about patient care, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of medical errors.
In the medical field, circadian clocks refer to the internal biological rhythms that regulate various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, metabolism, and body temperature. These rhythms are controlled by a complex network of genes and proteins that are primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain. The SCN acts as the master clock, receiving input from light-sensitive cells in the retina and synchronizing the body's internal clock with the external environment. The SCN then sends signals to other parts of the body to regulate various physiological processes in a 24-hour cycle. Disruptions to the circadian clock can lead to a range of health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, metabolic disorders, and increased risk of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate circadian rhythms is an important area of research in medicine and has implications for the development of new treatments for various health conditions.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Acoustic Stimulation refers to the use of sound waves to stimulate or activate certain areas of the brain or body. This technique is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes, including: 1. Treating hearing loss: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate the auditory nerve and improve hearing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. 2. Treating tinnitus: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to reduce the perception of ringing or buzzing in the ears, which is commonly known as tinnitus. 3. Treating sleep disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to promote relaxation and improve sleep in individuals with insomnia or other sleep disorders. 4. Treating neurological disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate specific areas of the brain to improve symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Acoustic Stimulation is typically delivered through a device that emits low-level sound waves, which are then directed to the targeted area of the body or brain. The frequency and intensity of the sound waves can be adjusted to optimize the therapeutic effect.
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including reproductive processes. GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating the production of sex hormones by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). In females, GnRH stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are essential for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. In males, GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, sperm production, and muscle mass. GnRH is also used in medical treatments, such as infertility, menopause, and prostate cancer. It is administered as a medication to stimulate the production of FSH and LH, which can help to induce ovulation in women or stimulate sperm production in men. In menopause, GnRH is used to reduce the production of estrogen and testosterone, which can help to alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. In prostate cancer, GnRH is used to reduce the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of cancer cells.
Afferent pathways refer to the neural pathways that carry sensory information from the body's sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for transmitting information about the external environment and internal bodily sensations to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent pathways can be further divided into two types: sensory afferent pathways and motor afferent pathways. Sensory afferent pathways carry information about sensory stimuli, such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure, from the body's sensory receptors to the CNS. Motor afferent pathways, on the other hand, carry information about the state of the body's muscles and organs to the CNS. Afferent pathways are essential for our ability to perceive and respond to the world around us. Any damage or dysfunction to these pathways can result in sensory deficits or other neurological disorders.
Action potentials are electrical signals that are generated by neurons in the nervous system. They are responsible for transmitting information throughout the body and are the basis of all neural communication. When a neuron is at rest, it has a negative electrical charge inside the cell and a positive charge outside the cell. When a stimulus is received by the neuron, it causes the membrane around the cell to become more permeable to sodium ions. This allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, causing the membrane potential to become more positive. This change in membrane potential is called depolarization. Once the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold, an action potential is generated. This is a rapid and brief change in the membrane potential that travels down the length of the neuron. The action potential is characterized by a rapid rise in membrane potential, followed by a rapid fall, and then a return to the resting membrane potential. Action potentials are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. They allow neurons to communicate with each other and transmit information throughout the body. They are also involved in a variety of important physiological processes, including muscle contraction, hormone release, and sensory perception.
ARNTL Transcription Factors are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the circadian rhythm, which is the body's internal clock that controls various physiological processes such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. ARNTL Transcription Factors are encoded by the ARNTL gene and are composed of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and a PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain. These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm. Mutations in the ARNTL gene have been associated with various sleep disorders, including advanced sleep phase syndrome and delayed sleep phase syndrome.
Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.
Cryptochromes are a class of photoreceptor proteins that are found in a variety of organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals. They are responsible for detecting and responding to blue light, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of around 400-500 nanometers. In the medical field, cryptochromes have been studied for their potential role in regulating circadian rhythms, which are the internal biological clocks that control various physiological processes in the body, such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone production, and metabolism. Cryptochromes have been shown to play a key role in the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the external environment, and they are thought to be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, and other cognitive functions. In addition to their role in circadian rhythms, cryptochromes have also been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, the protection against oxidative stress, and the prevention of cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of cryptochromes in health and disease.
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- Provide your feedback in the space below. (cdc.gov)
- If you are a member, please provide any additional information that may help us in identifying you and responding to your feedback, such as your assigned Clinical Center of Excellence (CCE). (cdc.gov)
- PQS actively encourages product users to provide feedback on product performance or any defects, as well as evolving operational needs. (who.int)
- Through a partnership with Genetic Alliance , MedlinePlus invites patient support and advocacy groups to provide feedback on genetics-related content on the website to help ensure that it is up-to-date and relevant for the patient community. (medlineplus.gov)
- This feedback helps us provide high-quality information about genetics to patients, their families, and the general public. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your feedback on the content is very important to us. (cdc.gov)
- Course feedback usually opens two weeks before the end of a course and remains open through the last week of classes and reading days. (nyu.edu)
- This device illustrated the principle of feedback: a low water level opens the valve, the rising water then provides feedback into the system, closing the valve when the required level is reached. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, when you return to your Course Feedback page the status for that form will say Complete. (nyu.edu)
- During the feedback period, response rate information is updated in real time every time the page is opened or refreshed. (nyu.edu)
- In order to support this step, there is a user feedback link on the PQS Catalogue page. (who.int)
- Negative feedback is used in natural and artificial regulatory mechanisms, as well as in the design of oscillators. (dictionary.com)
- Karl Johan Åström and Richard M.Murray, Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity, and the idea of feedback had started to enter economic theory in Britain by the 18th century, but it was not at that time recognized as a universal abstraction and so did not have a name. (wikipedia.org)
- The development of cybernetics from the 1940s onwards was centred around the study of circular causal feedback mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
- According to cybernetician Ashby (1956), mathematicians and theorists interested in the principles of feedback mechanisms prefer the definition of "circularity of action", which keeps the theory simple and consistent. (wikipedia.org)
- The first ever known artificial feedback device was a float valve, for maintaining water at a constant level, invented in 270 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
- Over the years there has been some dispute as to the best definition of feedback. (wikipedia.org)
- User feedback supplies valuable information on equipment performance under field conditions. (who.int)
- He says he has yet to experience any negative feedback from the galaxy of Whovians. (dictionary.com)
- I believe that many depressed people are constantly afflicted by the crushing negative feedback of a negative personal narrative. (dictionary.com)
- But ultimately, the onslaught of negative feedback forced the lingerie monopoly to remove the item from its inventory. (dictionary.com)
- I got some negative feedback for my unenthralled response to Chris Christie's convention speech. (dictionary.com)
- The trouble with the Ditmars-Horst reactor was that it lacked any automatic negative-feedback system. (dictionary.com)
- Whether it's a poorly received creative project or a crushing performance review, it's easy to immediately go on the defensive when you get negative feedback. (lifehacker.com)
- Creativity site 99U suggests one way to better handle negative feedback is to start asking questions that will lead to a real solution. (lifehacker.com)
- Negative feedback: If the signal feedback is out of phase by 180° with respect to the input signal, the feedback is called negative feedback. (wikipedia.org)
- As an example of negative feedback, the diagram might represent a cruise control system in a car that matches a target speed such as the speed limit. (wikipedia.org)
- I'm always interested in your comments, suggestions, feedback about a farm, and ways to improve the web site! (pickyourown.org)
- Although resources, especially time, are limited during emergencies, focusing some attention on feedback can help us share better information with the people who need it. (cdc.gov)
- You can monitor the response rates for your courses in NYU Course Feedback . (nyu.edu)
- Do you have questions or feedback for the app? (google.com)
- If you would like to contact us about a travel experience on a past flight, if you have questions and further information regarding an existing feedback report, or if you want to offer praise, you are very welcome to do this here. (lufthansa.com)
- Feedback Studio is designed to complement existing workflows through integrations with your Learning Management System, single sign-on partners, and collaboration tools. (turnitin.com)
- Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. (wikipedia.org)
- The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to feedback systems: Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. (wikipedia.org)
- Thanks for sharing your feedback about the DSpace system. (who.int)
- The system is updated daily with Web-based feedback. (cdc.gov)
- The Course Feedback process takes place at the end of each semester. (nyu.edu)
- Empower instructors with commenting and grading tools that make the feedback process faster, easier, and more consistent. (turnitin.com)
- Audience feedback is a critical part of the communication process. (cdc.gov)
- As provided by Webster, feedback in business is the transmission of evaluative or corrective information about an action, event, or process to the original or controlling source. (wikipedia.org)
- Below is a 2 minute video of the student course feedback experience. (nyu.edu)
- If you ask for feedback from people whose opinions you respect, either you are unsure about your own feelings, you need their approval, or both. (forbes.com)
- You can complete your course feedback on any web-enabled device through NYU Course Feedback . (nyu.edu)
- We will also send a confirmation to this email when your feedback is submitted. (cdc.gov)
- between its position and its momentum-a "feedback" that, from the practical point of view, is somewhat mystical. (wikipedia.org)
- This app has been made in public interest to give information and capture feedback on any treatment undergone by individuals. (who.int)
- Turnitin Feedback Studio with Originality helps you identify, escalate, and investigate potential cases of contract cheating. (turnitin.com)