Urinary Incontinence, Stress
Urinary Incontinence, Urge
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Quality of Life
Urologic Surgical Procedures
Obstetric Labor Complications
Homes for the Aged
Severity of Illness Index
Urinary Bladder, Overactive
Prostheses and Implants
Urinary Sphincter, Artificial
Urogenital Surgical Procedures
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. (1/494)BACKGROUND: Some patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool at least once per week. METHODS: A stimulating electrode was placed (percutaneously in 10 patients, operatively in two) into the S3 or S4 foramen. The electrode was left in situ for a minimum of one week with chronic stimulation. RESULTS: Evaluable results were obtained in nine patients, with early electrode displacement in the other three. Incontinence ceased in seven of nine patients and improved notably in one; one patient with previous imperforate anus and sacral agenesis had no symptomatic response. Stimulation seemed to enhance maximum squeeze pressure but did not alter resting pressure. The rectum became less sensitive to distension with no change in rectal compliance. Ambulatory studies showed a possible reduction in rectal contractile activity and diminished episodes of spontaneous anal relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: Short term sacral nerve stimulation notably decreases episodes of faecal incontinence. The effect may be mediated via facilitation of striated sphincter muscle function, and via neuromodulation of sacral reflexes which regulate rectal sensitivity and contractility, and anal motility. (+info)
Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence. (2/494)BACKGROUND: Perception of, and adaptation of the rectum to, distension probably play an important role in the maintenance of continence, but perception studies in faecal incontinence provide controversial conclusions possibly related to methodological biases. In order to better understand perception disorders, the aim of this study was to analyse anorectal adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in subjects with incontinence. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between June 95 and December 97, 97 consecutive patients (nine men and 88 women, mean (SEM) age 55 (1) years) suffering from incontinence were evaluated and compared with 15 healthy volunteers (four men and 11 women, mean age 48 (3) years). The patients were classified into three groups according to their perception status to rectal isobaric distensions (impaired, 22; normal, 61; enhanced, 14). Anal and rectal adaptations to increasing rectal pressure were analysed using a model of rectal isobaric distension. RESULTS: The four groups did not differ with respect to age, parity, or sex ratio. Magnitude of incontinence, prevalence of pelvic disorders, and sphincter defects were similar in the incontinent groups. When compared with healthy controls, anal pressure and rectal adaptation to distension were decreased in incontinent patients. When compared with incontinent patients with normal perception, patients with enhanced perception experienced similar rectal adaptation but had reduced anal pressure. In contrast, patients with impaired perception showed considerably decreased rectal adaptation but had similar anal pressure. CONCLUSION: Abnormal sensations during rectal distension are observed in one third of subjects suffering from incontinence. These abnormalities may reflect hyperreactivity or neuropathological damage of the rectal wall. (+info)
Anal ultrasound predicts the response to nonoperative treatment of fecal incontinence in men. (3/494)OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology, treatment, and utility of anal ultrasound in men with fecal incontinence and to review the outcomes of conservative (nonoperative) treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of fecal incontinence in women is almost exclusively from obstetric or iatrogenic surgical injuries resulting in damage to the anal sphincters and/or pudendal nerves. Corresponding data on men with fecal incontinence are sparse. METHODS: Between January 1995 and January 1998, 37 men with fecal incontinence were evaluated in the John Radcliffe Hospital anorectal ultrasound unit. Their clinical histories, anal ultrasound results, anorectal physiology studies, and responses to conservative therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Median age was 57 years. Major incontinence was present in 27% of the patients. Anal ultrasound localized anal sphincter damage in nine patients, and the characteristics of these nine patients with sphincter damage were then compared with the remaining 28 without sphincter damage. Prior anal surgery was more common in patients with sphincter damage. Hemorrhoids were more common in patients without sphincter damage. Anorectal physiology studies revealed significantly lower mean maximum resting and squeeze pressures in patients with sphincter damage, confirming poor sphincter function. With 92% follow-up, patients without sphincter damage were more likely to improve with nonoperative therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Anal ultrasound is extremely useful in the evaluation of fecal incontinence in men. Unlike women, the majority of men do not have a sphincter defect by anal ultrasound, and conservative management is usually successful in these patients. In contrast, in men with anal sphincter damage, almost all of these defects resulted from previous anal surgery. Conservative management rarely is successful in these cases, and surgical repair of the anal sphincter may be indicated. Therefore, because the presence or absence of sphincter damage on anal ultrasound usually predicts the response to nonoperative treatment, anal ultrasound should be used to guide the initial management of men with fecal incontinence. (+info)
Long-term results of artificial anal sphincter implantation for severe anal incontinence. (4/494)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term results of implantation of an artificial anal sphincter (AAS) for severe anal incontinence. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Implantation of an AAS is one of the options for treatment of anal incontinence when standard operations have failed. It is the only surgical option for treatment of anal incontinence in patients with neurologic disease that affects the pelvic floor and the muscles of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients underwent implantation of an AAS before 1993. These patients have been followed and their continence status evaluated. RESULTS: Two patients died of unrelated causes within the first 3 years after surgery, and in three patients the AAS was explanted because of infection. During the follow-up period, four patients had the AAS removed because of malfunction, and eight patients had a functioning AAS > or =5 years after the primary implantation. Five of these patients had revisional procedures, mainly because of technical problems in the early part of the study, when a urinary sphincter or slightly modified urinary sphincter was used. Continence at follow-up was good in four patients and acceptable in three, whereas one patient still had occasional leakage of solid stool. One patient had rectal emptying problems, which she managed by enema. CONCLUSIONS: An AAS based on the same principles as the artificial urinary sphincter seems to be a valid alternative in selected patients when standard surgical procedures have failed or are unsuitable. Approximately half of the patients have an adequate long-term result. Infectious complications still present a problem, whereas mechanical problems are less frequent with the modification of the device now available. (+info)
Functional disorders of the anus and rectum. (5/494)In this report the functional anorectal disorders, the etiology of which is currently unknown or related to the abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, are discussed. These disorders include functional fecal incontinence, functional anorectal pain, including levator ani syndrome and proctalgia fugax, and pelvic floor dyssynergia. The epidemiology of each disorder is defined and discussed, their pathophysiology is summarized and diagnostic approaches and treatment are suggested. Some suggestions for the direction of future research on these disorders are also given. (+info)
Mortality in relation to urinary and faecal incontinence in elderly people living at home. (6/494)OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between incontinence and mortality in elderly people living at home. DESIGN: Of the randomly selected people aged 65 years and older living in Settsu city, Osaka in October 1992, 1405 were contacted and constituted the study cohort. Follow-up for 42 months was completed for 1318 (93.8%; 1129 alive, 189 dead). MEASURES: Data on general health status, history of health management, psychosocial conditions and urinary and faecal incontinence were collected by interview during home visits at the time of enrolment. RESULTS: From the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the estimated survival rates decreased with a decline in continence in both the 65-74 and 75 years and older age groups. From the Cox proportional hazards model, unadjusted hazard ratios of minor, moderate and severe incontinence for mortality, compared with continence, were 2.27, 2.96 and 5.94, respectively. Multivariate analysis yielded adjusted hazard ratios of minor, moderate and severe incontinence of 0.99, 1.17 and 1.91, respectively, leaving severe incontinence as the significant factor, when other indicators are controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Incontinence is related to mortality and severe incontinence represents an increased risk factor for mortality in elderly people living at home. (+info)
Long-term functional outcome and quality of life after stapled restorative proctocolectomy. (7/494)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively long-term quality of life and functional outcome after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and to evaluate and validate a novel quality-of-life indicator in this group of patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is now the preferred option when total proctocolectomy is required for ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis, but long-term data on functional outcome and quality of life after the procedure are lacking. METHODS: Patients (n = 977) who underwent RPC with stapled anastomosis for colitis or polyposis coli and who were followed for > or =12 months were included. Quality of life, fecal incontinence, and satisfaction with surgery were prospectively evaluated by structured interview or questionnaire for 1 to 12 years after surgery (median 5.0). Quality of life was scored using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) instrument (Fazio Score). This is a novel score developed over the past 15 years by the senior author. Quality of life was also evaluated in a subgroup of patients with the Short Form 36 (SF-36). The CGQL was validated by determining its reliability, responsiveness, and validity as well as its correlation with the SF-36 score. RESULTS: Postoperative quality of life as measured by SF-36 was excellent and compared well with published norms for the general U.S. population. The CGQL was found to be reliable, responsive, and valid, and there was a high correlation with the SF-36 scores. Using the CGQL, quality of life was shown to increase after the first 2 years after surgery, and there was no deterioration thereafter. The prevalence of perfect continence increased from 75.5% before surgery to 82.4% after surgery, and although this deteriorated somewhat >2 years after surgery, it was no worse than preoperative values. Ninety-eight percent of patients would recommend the surgery to others. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term quality of life after ileal pouch surgery is excellent and the level of continence is satisfactory. This surgery is an excellent long-term option in patients requiring total proctocolectomy. The CGQL is a simple, valid, and reliable measure of quality of life after pelvic pouch surgery and may well be applicable in many other clinical conditions. (+info)
Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study. (8/494)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between midline episiotomy and postpartum anal incontinence. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with three study arms and six months of follow up. SETTING: University teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Primiparous women who vaginally delivered a live full term, singleton baby between 1 August 1996 and 8 February 1997: 209 who received an episiotomy; 206 who did not receive an episiotomy but experienced a second, third, or fourth degree spontaneous perineal laceration; and 211 who experienced either no laceration or a first degree perineal laceration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported faecal and flatus incontinence at three and six months postpartum. RESULTS: Women who had episiotomies had a higher risk of faecal incontinence at three (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 16.2) and six (3.7, 0.9 to 15.6) months postpartum compared with women with an intact perineum. Compared with women with a spontaneous laceration, episiotomy tripled the risk of faecal incontinence at three months (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9) and six months (0.7 to 11.2) postpartum, and doubled the risk of flatus incontinence at three months (1.3 to 3.4) and six months (1.2 to 3.7) postpartum. A non-extending episiotomy (that is, second degree surgical incision) tripled the risk of faecal incontinence (1.1 to 9.0) and nearly doubled the risk of flatus incontinence (1.0 to 3.0) at three months postpartum compared with women who had a second degree spontaneous tear. The effect of episiotomy was independent of maternal age, infant birth weight, duration of second stage of labour, use of obstetric instrumentation during delivery, and complications of labour. CONCLUSIONS: Midline episiotomy is not effective in protecting the perineum and sphincters during childbirth and may impair anal continence. (+info)
Fecal incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of feces or stool. It can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic floor muscles, damage to the nerves that control bowel movements, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease. Fecal incontinence can be classified into two main types: urge incontinence and stress incontinence. Urgent incontinence is characterized by the sudden and urgent need to have a bowel movement, followed by the involuntary loss of feces. Stress incontinence, on the other hand, occurs when physical activities such as coughing, sneezing, or lifting weights put pressure on the rectum and cause feces to leak out. Fecal incontinence can be a distressing and embarrassing condition that can affect a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes, such as dietary modifications and exercise, as well as medical interventions such as medications, biofeedback therapy, and surgery.
The anal canal is the final segment of the large intestine, located at the lower end of the rectum. It is a muscular tube that connects the rectum to the anus and is responsible for the elimination of solid waste from the body. The anal canal is about 2-3 inches long and is lined with mucus-secreting glands that help to lubricate and protect the lining of the canal during defecation. The anal canal is also surrounded by a ring of muscles called the anal sphincter, which helps to control the flow of feces out of the body. In the medical field, the anal canal is often referred to as the rectum or the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Stress urinary incontinence is a type of urinary incontinence that occurs when the muscles and ligaments that support the bladder are weakened or damaged, causing the bladder to leak urine when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or engage in physical activity. This type of incontinence is often caused by childbirth, aging, or certain medical conditions, such as pelvic floor disorders or neurological disorders. Stress urinary incontinence can be treated with a variety of methods, including pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, and medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
Urinary incontinence, urge is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of urine due to a sudden and strong urge to urinate. This type of incontinence is also known as "urge incontinence" or "overactive bladder." In urge incontinence, the bladder muscle contracts too frequently or too strongly, leading to the sudden and urgent need to urinate. This can result in the loss of urine before reaching a bathroom or before being able to fully empty the bladder. The causes of urge incontinence can vary, including age-related changes in the bladder and urinary tract, certain medical conditions such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis, and the use of certain medications. Treatment options for urge incontinence may include lifestyle changes, bladder training, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, defecation refers to the process of eliminating solid waste, also known as feces, from the body through the anus. This process involves the movement of feces through the large intestine, where water is absorbed, and the rectum, where the feces are stored until they are eliminated from the body. Defecation is a normal and essential function of the digestive system, and any problems with this process can lead to a range of medical conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Medical professionals may use various diagnostic tools and techniques to evaluate the function of the digestive system and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting defecation. Treatment options may include changes in diet and lifestyle, medications, and in some cases, surgical procedures.
Biofeedback is a technique used in psychology and medicine to help individuals gain control over their body's physiological processes, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. It involves using electronic devices to measure these processes and provide feedback to the individual in real-time, allowing them to learn how to regulate them voluntarily. In the medical field, biofeedback is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. It can also be used to help individuals manage symptoms of certain medical conditions, such as migraines, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and hypertension. During biofeedback therapy, the individual is typically seated in a comfortable chair and connected to a device that measures their physiological responses. The device provides visual or auditory feedback to the individual, such as a graph or sound, that shows how their body is responding to different stimuli. The therapist works with the individual to develop strategies for regulating their physiological responses and to help them identify and manage any underlying emotional or psychological factors that may be contributing to their symptoms. Overall, biofeedback is a non-invasive and relatively low-risk technique that has been shown to be effective in helping individuals manage a variety of physical and emotional symptoms.
Urinary incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of urine. It can occur at any age and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic muscles, nerve damage, hormonal changes, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence, urge incontinence, mixed incontinence, and overflow incontinence. Stress incontinence occurs when the bladder leaks urine when the abdominal muscles are squeezed, such as during coughing, laughing, or exercising. Urge incontinence occurs when a person experiences an urgent need to urinate and is unable to reach a bathroom in time. Mixed incontinence is a combination of stress and urge incontinence, while overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder is unable to empty completely, leading to dribbling or leakage. Treatment for urinary incontinence may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, medication, and surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Constipation is a common digestive disorder characterized by difficulty in passing stools or infrequent bowel movements. It is typically defined as having fewer than three bowel movements per week or difficulty passing stools that are hard, dry, and lumpy. Constipation can be caused by a variety of factors, including a lack of fiber in the diet, dehydration, certain medications, hormonal changes, and certain medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Parkinson's disease. Symptoms of constipation may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Treatment for constipation typically involves changes in diet and lifestyle, such as increasing fiber intake and staying hydrated, as well as the use of over-the-counter laxatives or stool softeners. In severe cases, medical intervention may be necessary.
In the medical field, flatulence refers to the passing of gas from the digestive system through the rectum and anus. This gas is typically odorless, but can sometimes have a foul smell. Flatulence is a normal bodily function and is caused by the breakdown of food by bacteria in the large intestine. However, excessive flatulence can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or certain digestive disorders. Treatment for excessive flatulence depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medication, or other medical interventions.
Diaper rash is a common skin condition that occurs in infants and young children who wear diapers. It is characterized by redness, irritation, and inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. The rash can be caused by a variety of factors, including prolonged exposure to wetness, friction from the diaper, and the use of harsh soaps or detergents. In severe cases, the rash may also be accompanied by blisters, pus, and even bleeding. Treatment typically involves keeping the affected area clean and dry, using protective creams or ointments, and changing diapers frequently. In some cases, a healthcare provider may prescribe medication to help alleviate symptoms.
Uterine prolapse is a medical condition in which the uterus, the muscular organ that contains and nourishes a developing fetus, drops down into the vagina or even outside of the body. This can occur due to weakened or damaged muscles and ligaments that support the uterus, which can be caused by childbirth, aging, menopause, or chronic coughing or constipation. Symptoms of uterine prolapse may include a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis, a bulge or lump in the vagina, difficulty emptying the bladder or bowels, and pain during intercourse or when coughing or sneezing. In severe cases, the uterus may protrude so much that it is visible outside of the body. Treatment for uterine prolapse may include lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or quitting smoking, as well as physical therapy to strengthen the muscles and ligaments that support the uterus. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the damaged tissues and restore the uterus to its proper position.
Lacerations are cuts or tears in the skin that are typically caused by a sharp object or forceful trauma. They can range in severity from minor scrapes to deep, gaping wounds that require surgical repair. Lacerations can occur on any part of the body and can be accompanied by bleeding, bruising, and swelling. In some cases, they may also result in nerve or tissue damage. Treatment for lacerations depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and suturing the wound, administering antibiotics to prevent infection, and providing pain medication as needed.
Rectal prolapse is a medical condition in which the rectum, the lower part of the large intestine, descends or protrudes through the anus. This can cause a bulge or lump in the anus, which may be visible externally or felt internally. Rectal prolapse can be classified as either complete or incomplete, depending on whether the entire rectum or just part of it is involved. It can also be classified as primary or secondary, depending on whether it is caused by a weakness in the rectal muscles or by an underlying medical condition such as constipation, childbirth, or chronic straining. Treatment for rectal prolapse may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Fecal impaction is a medical condition in which hardened stool becomes stuck in the rectum or colon, making it difficult or impossible to pass. This can occur when there is a lack of normal bowel movements, or when the stool is too hard or dry to pass through the rectum and colon. Fecal impaction can cause abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and nausea, and may require medical treatment to resolve. It is more common in older adults, people with certain medical conditions, and those who are bedridden or have limited mobility.
Rectocele is a medical condition in which the rectum bulges into the vagina. It is a type of pelvic organ prolapse, which occurs when the muscles and tissues that support the organs in the pelvis weaken or become damaged. Rectoceles can cause symptoms such as difficulty emptying the bladder or bowels, pain during sex, and a sensation of fullness or pressure in the pelvis. Treatment options for rectoceles may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and surgery.
A rectal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and another body cavity or surface, such as the skin, vagina, or bladder. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, trauma, or surgery. Symptoms of a rectal fistula may include discharge from the anus, pain or discomfort in the rectal area, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment options for rectal fistulas may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the cause and severity of the condition.
Gum Arabic, also known as Acacia gum or Gum Acacia, is a natural gum that is derived from the bark of various species of Acacia trees, primarily Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal, which are found in parts of Africa, particularly in Sudan and Ethiopia. In the medical field, Gum Arabic is used as a thickening agent, emulsifying agent, and stabilizer in various pharmaceutical and healthcare products. It is also used as a laxative and demulcent to soothe the digestive tract and relieve constipation. Gum Arabic has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and it may also have potential benefits for managing diabetes and improving cardiovascular health. However, more research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic effects.
Absorbent pads are medical devices that are designed to absorb and retain fluids, such as blood, urine, or other bodily fluids. They are commonly used in a variety of medical settings, including hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, as well as in the home for personal use. Absorbent pads can be made from a variety of materials, including cellulose, cotton, synthetic fibers, and superabsorbent polymers. They are typically available in various sizes and shapes to fit different body parts and wound sizes. Absorbent pads are often used in conjunction with other medical devices, such as bandages, dressings, and compression stockings, to provide effective wound care and manage fluid loss. They are also used in surgical procedures to collect and contain blood and other fluids during and after surgery. Overall, absorbent pads play an important role in the medical field by providing a convenient and effective way to manage fluid loss and promote wound healing.
Defecography is a medical imaging procedure used to evaluate the function of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically the rectum and anus. It is also known as a barium enema or barium. During the procedure, a contrast material called barium is introduced into the rectum and colon through a small enema tube. The patient is then positioned on an X-ray table, and a series of X-ray images are taken as the barium flows through the lower GI tract. The images show the movement of the barium through the rectum, sigmoid colon, and anal canal, allowing the doctor to assess the function of these areas. Defecography can help diagnose conditions such as rectal prolapse, rectocele, anal sphincter dysfunction, and other abnormalities of the lower GI tract. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as a digital rectal exam or a colonoscopy, to provide a more complete picture of a patient's condition.
Obstetric labor complications refer to any problems that arise during pregnancy, labor, or delivery that can potentially harm the mother or the baby. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening emergencies that require immediate medical attention. Some common obstetric labor complications include: 1. Preterm labor: This occurs when labor starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, which can lead to premature birth and associated health risks for the baby. 2. Fetal distress: This occurs when the baby is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to low birth weight, brain damage, or even death. 3. Uterine rupture: This occurs when the uterus tears during labor, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby. 4. Postpartum hemorrhage: This occurs when the mother experiences excessive bleeding after delivery, which can lead to shock and even death if not treated promptly. 5. Placenta previa: This occurs when the placenta covers the cervix, which can lead to bleeding during pregnancy or delivery. 6. Gestational diabetes: This occurs when the mother develops high blood sugar during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. 7. Preeclampsia: This is a serious condition that can develop during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. These are just a few examples of the many obstetric labor complications that can occur. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these potential complications and to take appropriate steps to prevent and manage them when they do occur.
Antidiarrheals are medications that are used to treat diarrhea, which is characterized by loose, watery stools. They work by slowing down the movement of food through the digestive tract, reducing the number of bowel movements, and thickening the stool. Antidiarrheals are often used to treat acute diarrhea, which is typically caused by an infection or food poisoning, as well as chronic diarrhea, which can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions. Some common examples of antidiarrheal medications include loperamide (Imodium), atorvastatin (Lomotil), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). It is important to note that antidiarrheals should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone.
Delivery, Obstetric refers to the process of bringing a baby from the mother's womb to the outside world. It is a medical procedure that is typically performed by obstetricians, who are medical doctors specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, and the care of newborns. Obstetric delivery can be performed in a variety of ways, including vaginal delivery (also known as childbirth) and cesarean section (also known as C-section). The choice of delivery method depends on a variety of factors, including the health of the mother and baby, the stage of labor, and the position of the baby in the womb.
Eructation, also known as belching, is the act of expelling air from the stomach through the mouth. It is a normal bodily function that occurs when air is trapped in the stomach and needs to be released. Eructation can be caused by swallowing air, eating too quickly, drinking carbonated beverages, or certain medical conditions such as acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In some cases, excessive eructation may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. They are a common condition that affects many people at some point in their lives. Hemorrhoids can be either internal or external, and they can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort during bowel movements. Internal hemorrhoids are located inside the rectum and are not visible from the outside. They may cause bleeding during bowel movements or discomfort when passing stool. External hemorrhoids are located under the skin around the anus and are visible. They may cause itching, pain, and discomfort, especially when sitting for long periods or during bowel movements. Hemorrhoids can be caused by a variety of factors, including straining during bowel movements, pregnancy, obesity, and chronic constipation. Treatment options for hemorrhoids include lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake and staying hydrated, as well as medical treatments, such as medications, rubber band ligation, and surgery.
A colostomy is a surgical procedure in which a section of the colon (large intestine) is brought through the abdominal wall and connected to an opening on the surface of the abdomen, called a stoma. The purpose of a colostomy is to divert the flow of stool from the colon to an external pouch, which can be emptied by the patient or a caregiver. This is typically done when the colon is damaged or diseased, such as in cases of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis. Colostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the patient's needs.
Anus diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the anus, which is the opening at the end of the rectum through which solid and liquid waste is eliminated from the body. Some common examples of anus diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the anus or rectum that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and difficulty passing stool. 3. Anal cancer: A rare but serious cancer that can develop in the cells lining the anus. 4. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the anus and other organs, such as the bladder or vagina. 5. Anal abscess: A collection of pus that forms in the skin or tissue around the anus. 6. Perianal warts: Small, raised growths on the skin around the anus that are caused by a sexually transmitted infection. 7. Anal itching: A persistent or severe itching sensation around the anus that can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, and allergies. These conditions can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms related to anus diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Urinary Bladder, Overactive, also known as Overactive Bladder (OAB), is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder, leading to frequent and urgent urination, often accompanied by a strong and sudden urge to urinate. This can result in leakage of urine, which can be embarrassing and affect a person's quality of life. OAB can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, certain medical conditions, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can be treated with a variety of medications, behavioral therapies, and in some cases, surgery.
Rectal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. The rectum is responsible for storing feces until they are eliminated from the body through the anus. Rectal diseases can be acute or chronic and can range from minor to severe. Some common rectal diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. 3. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the rectum and other organs or tissues, such as the skin or vagina. 4. Polyps: Non-cancerous growths in the rectum that can cause bleeding or blockage. 5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the rectum and other parts of the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 6. Rectal cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the rectum and can spread to other parts of the body. Rectal diseases can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical imaging tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment options depend on the specific disease and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a medical condition in which one or more of the pelvic organs, such as the uterus, bladder, or rectum, drop down and push into the vagina. This can cause a feeling of heaviness or pressure in the pelvis, difficulty emptying the bladder or bowels, and discomfort during sexual activity. POP is more common in women, especially those who have given birth vaginally or who are overweight, and it can become more severe over time if left untreated. Treatment options for POP may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and surgery.
In the medical field, the chi-square distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables. It is often used in medical research to determine whether there is a significant association between two variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. The chi-square distribution is a probability distribution that describes the sum of the squared differences between the observed and expected frequencies of a categorical variable. It is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed frequencies of a categorical variable differ significantly from the expected frequencies. In medical research, the chi-square test is often used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. For example, a researcher may want to determine whether there is a significant association between smoking and lung cancer. To do this, the researcher would collect data on the smoking habits of a group of people and their incidence of lung cancer. The chi-square test would then be used to determine whether the observed frequencies of lung cancer among smokers differ significantly from the expected frequencies based on the overall incidence of lung cancer in the population. Overall, the chi-square distribution is a valuable tool in medical research for analyzing the relationship between categorical variables and determining whether observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies.
Encopresis | Fecal Incontinence | Bowel Incontinence | MedlinePlus
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Sacral nerve stimu5
- UCLA has had success in treating patients with sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) in recent years for the treatment of fecal incontinence. (uclahealth.org)
- Sacral nerve stimulation has shown promise in the treatment of fecal incontinence. (msdmanuals.com)
- Is the efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence dependent on the number of active electrode poles achieved during permanent lead insertion? (au.dk)
- Is the efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal in. (au.dk)
- AIM: Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective for faecal incontinence (FI). (au.dk)
Impact of fecal2
- It stimulates the bowel, sphincter and bladder muscles to work normally to treat overactive bladder, urge incontinence, fecal incontinence and/or urinary retention without obstruction. (orlandohealth.com)
- Obtain a thorough disease history to identify the cause and specific risk factors for incontinence, delineate the duration and severity of the main symptoms, and gather details about secondary issues and associated pathologies. (medscape.com)
- Also known as neuromuscular training through UCLA Santa Monica has helped to improve symptoms of fecal incontinence. (uclahealth.org)
- This information was combined with their responses to a questionnaire about fecal incontinence symptoms and, if the women had current symptoms, how these were affecting them some 20 years later when they were aged 50-60. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- Pessaries--devices inserted maintaining a healthy weight, not symptoms of urinary into the vagina to support pelvic smoking, eating a high-fiber diet, or fecal incontinence. (nih.gov)
- A nonsurgical, in-office neuromodulation therapy provides electrical nerve stimulation to treat symptoms of urge incontinence (acupuncture needle treatment placed behind the ankle to help with bladder control). (orlandohealth.com)
- The major contributing factors to fecal incontinence include abnormal muscular function or pelvic floor function, diarrhea, or other issues including immobility, drug reactions, or are psychogenic in nature. (uclahealth.org)
- The primary aim of this study was to determine if fecal incontinence (FI) is associated with self-reported fluid intake in women seeking care for pelvic floor disorders. (nih.gov)
- A weak or damaged pelvic floor can malfunction, leading to the anal muscles losing control over the fecal matter. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- Also found was high-confidence evidence that biofeedback as an adjunctive treatment for pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) can result in both immediate- and long-term improvements in urinary incontinence for men after a prostatectomy as compared with PFMT alone. (va.gov)
- Fecal incontinence (FI) is the uncontrolled leakage of fecal matter (poop/stool) or gas. (theflowerempowered.com)
- The main symptom of fecal incontinence is leakage of stool. (theflowerempowered.com)
- If you become sick and develop severe diarrhea, you may experience the unintentional leakage of runny poo, however this is not considered fecal incontinence but rather a symptom of your sickness. (theflowerempowered.com)
- If the leakage continues once your illness has cleared, this could indicate fecal incontinence, where leakage happens under "normal" conditions in the absense of illness. (theflowerempowered.com)
- The risk of subsequent fecal incontinence and intestinal gas leakage is significantly higher among women who, during childbirth, have suffered a sphincter injury and consequent damage to the anal sphincter muscle, was shown in a new study from the University of Gothenburg. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- Incontinence is a loss of control of a person's bowels or bladder which can cause accidental leakage of body fluids and waste. (cancer.org)
- Consider biofeedback as an initial treatment in the setting of incontinence with some preservation of voluntary sphincter contraction. (medscape.com)
- Consider sacral neuromodulation as a first-line surgical option for patients with fecal incontinence, with and without sphincter defects. (medscape.com)
- Artificial bowel sphincter implantation remains effective for select patients with severe fecal incontinence. (medscape.com)
- Preliminary experience in management of fecal incontinence caused by internal anal sphincter injury. (medscape.com)
- Flatulence (where you are unable to control your gas) is considered to be a form of fecal incontinence if it is caused by weakness of the anal sphincter. (theflowerempowered.com)
- Of the women who avoided sphincter injury entirely in two vaginal births, 11.7% reported some degree of fecal incontinence 20 years later. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- Severe fecal incontinence followed a similar pattern: from 1.8% in the women without sphincter damage to 5.4% and 9% after, respectively, one or two births causing sphincter injury. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- For women affected by sphincter damage who have had fecal incontinence later in life, there are few or no effective surgical treatments, and it often leads to chronic suffering, with social isolation as a result. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- In this study, we've been able to determine how sphincter injuries are associated with involuntary intestinal incontinence much later on in life, which has been questioned before. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- Bowel surgery can can be injected near can be surgical y a surgical procedure help repair damaged the bladder neck and implanted to support the that narrows and anal sphincter muscles urethra to make the urethra and treat urinary shortens the vagina to or certain types of tissues thicker and close incontinence. (nih.gov)
- Bowel incontinence is the inability to control your bowels. (medlineplus.gov)
- Fecal incontinence is a disabling condition where patients have the inability to control their bowel movements and consequently have accidents. (uclahealth.org)
- Fecal and urinary incontinence the inability to control bowel movements or urination, respectively are conditions with ramifications that extend well beyond their physical manifestations. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of fecal incontinence ranges from 2% to 24% in community-dwelling older adults, but Dr. Markland said statistics on incidence are sparse. (medscape.com)
- What are the prevalence, incidence, and natural history of fecal and urinary incontinence in the community and long-term care settings? (nih.gov)
- At UCLA Urology our goal of treating patients with fecal incontinence is to restore continence and improve their quality of life. (uclahealth.org)
- The degree of faecal incontinence was measured using the Wexner faecal incontinence score. (bvsalud.org)
- Severe diarrhea can lead to fecal incontinence because liquid stool is more difficult to control than solid stool. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- Urinary incontinence can occur if muscles in the wall of the bladder suddenly contract, or if muscles surrounding the urethra suddenly relax. (nih.gov)
- This medicine is introduced into the bladder to treat incontinence or lessen urinary urgency. (orlandohealth.com)
- Having accidental loss, leaking, or dribbling of urine is called bladder or urinary incontinence . (cancer.org)
- Bladder incontinence is more common in women than in men. (cancer.org)
- Colostomy creation is an excellent surgical option for those whose fecal incontinence has failed other therapies or who do not wish to pursue them. (medscape.com)
- May 5, 2009 (Chicago, Illinois) - Community-dwelling older adults are twice as likely to develop fecal incontinence if they already have urinary incontinence, and depression is associated with the development of fecal incontinence over time, a new study has found. (medscape.com)
- Fecal incontinence is an underrecognized problem in [community-dwelling] older adults," said Dr. Colon-Emeric, a geriatrician from Duke University School of Medicine and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, in North Carolina. (medscape.com)
- Fecal incontinence may affect patients of all ages, but is greater in older adults and nursing home residents. (uclahealth.org)
- What are the strategies to improve the identification of persons at risk and patients who have fecal and urinary incontinence? (nih.gov)
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation to RDD-0315, a novel topical gel for the treatment of fecal incontinence in spinal cord injury patients. (empr.com)
- We believe RDD-0315 has the opportunity to be the first drug treatment option for patients with spinal cord injury and associated fecal incontinence. (empr.com)
- At Huntington Colorectal Surgeons, our team of leading colorectal surgeons has helped hundreds of patients lead better lives through timely treatment for fecal incontinence in Pasadena . (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- Does perineal body thickness affect faecal incontinence in multiparous patients? (bvsalud.org)
- To determine the role of PBT in the assessment of this type of faecal incontinence in multiparous patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Fecal incontinence is involuntary defecation. (msdmanuals.com)
- Treatment of fecal incontinence includes a bowel management program to develop a predictable pattern of defecation. (msdmanuals.com)
- They defined incident cases of fecal incontinence as the loss of control of bowels that occurred in the previous year. (medscape.com)
- In these cases, some softer fecal matter may pass around the impaction and leak out of the rectum. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- First-line therapy for fecal incontinence is the use of conservative measures comprising dietary and medical management. (medscape.com)
- It has been shown to improve fecal incontinent episodes and is thought that SNS helps by improving rectal sensitivity, compliance, or sphincteric tone. (uclahealth.org)
- a statistically significant reduction in the number of fecal incontinence episodes was observed 8 hours and 12 hours post-administration. (empr.com)
- What are the treatment options for fecal incontinence? (uclahealth.org)
- Treatment options for fecal incontinence depend on the severity and the cause of the fecal incontinence. (uclahealth.org)
- See also the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons' 2015 clinical practice guideline for the treatment of fecal incontinence. (msdmanuals.com)
- The purpose of this committee was to plan a meeting to present the research world with information on the state of fecal incontinence research and generate discussion about how to move forward research that will improve treatment and outcomes in people with fecal incontinence. (nih.gov)
- She and her colleagues looked at the incidence of and risk factors for developing fecal incontinence by conducting a population-based longitudinal study of a random sample of 1000 Medicare beneficiaries in Alabama. (medscape.com)
- The incidence of fecal incontinence was nearly 16.7%, Dr. Markland said. (medscape.com)
- As baby boomers approach their 60s, the incidence and public health burden of incontinence are likely to increase. (nih.gov)
- Individuals suffering from fecal incontinence cannot hold and defer bowel movements in order to eliminate them at an appropriate time and place. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Classification of Fecal Incontinence: State of the Science Summary for the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Workshop. (medscape.com)
- Your doctor may use one or more of the following lab tests to look for signs of certain diseases and conditions that may be causing your fecal incontinence. (nih.gov)
- Factors impacting quality of life in women with fecal incontinence. (medscape.com)
- Does the mode of delivery predispose women to anal incontinence in the first year postpartum? (medscape.com)
- Although urinary incontinence can affect people at all stages of life, it has been estimated that urinary incontinence affects 38 percent of women and 17 percent of men 60 years of age and older. (nih.gov)
- Women who have undergone childbirth are the most commonly associated at-risk population for urinary incontinence. (nih.gov)
- Is Fluid Intake Associated With Fecal Incontinence in Women? (nih.gov)
- Many men and women experience difficulty socializing or indulging in their everyday routines out of fear of fecal incontinence. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- 2019). Release: Surgery may benefit women with two types of urinary incontinence. (nih.gov)
- Obstetric trauma is the most common cause of faecal incontinence in multiparous women . (bvsalud.org)
- Forty-four women with faecal incontinence, and 36 asymptomatic women who had had two or more previous deliveries, were investigated with endoanal ultrasonography from January to December 2016. (bvsalud.org)
- Your doctor may perform an endoscopy to look inside your anus, rectum, and colon for signs of inflammation and digestive tract problems that may be causing your fecal incontinence. (nih.gov)
- Fecal incontinence is a condition where stool and/or gas leak suddenly and uncontrollably through the anus. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- If these nerves are damaged, the rectum and anus may not get the right message which may lead to fecal incontinence. (huntingtoncolorectal.com)
- Of the 67 participants who had fecal incontinence at baseline, 29 (43%) still had it 4 years later. (medscape.com)
- Cathleen Colon-Emeric, MD, MS, a member of the AGS abstract review committee who was not involved in the study, told Medscape Internal Medicine that it was apparent that the authors looked carefully at potential risk factors for fecal incontinence. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: AGS 2009: Urinary Incontinence, Depression Are Risk Factors for Fecal Incontinence - Medscape - May 05, 2009. (medscape.com)
- Because incontinence is likely widely underdiagnosed and underreported, it has been difficult to identify both at-risk and affected populations. (nih.gov)
- What are the risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence? (nih.gov)
- An elevated risk of fecal incontinence after ventouse delivery was demonstrated in a previous study from the same research group. (globalwomenshealthacademy.org)
- The presence of urinary incontinence in a patient should trigger a physician to ask about fecal incontinence and to suggest possible prevention strategies, such as weight loss, Dr. Markland said. (medscape.com)
- National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference statement: prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults. (medscape.com)
- Anyone can have incontinence during and after surgery or some other treatments for cancer. (cancer.org)
- Talking about incontinence can be embarrassing, but being open and honest with your health care team can help manage it. (cancer.org)
- Fear, anxiety , and anger are common feelings for people dealing with incontinence. (cancer.org)
- Depression is frequently also associated with urinary incontinence , according to Dr. Markland. (medscape.com)
- Other tests used to detect polyps include a digital rectal exam, stool based screening like fecal occult blood testing (this tests for microscopic or invisible blood in the stool) or stool DNA-based test (this tests for genetic markers of cancer in stool), barium enema, and sigmoidoscopy, which uses a flexible tube to inspect the sigmoid colon. (fascrs.org)