Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.
An assessment of a patient's illness, its chronicity, severity, and other qualitative aspects.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to destroy tissue. It is sometimes used in conjunction with but is distinct from INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
A dead body, usually a human body.

The feasibility of conducting occupational epidemiology in the UK. (1/8584)

A postal survey was carried out of 1,000 UK companies to collect information about employee biographical and work history records. The overall response rate was 46%. All companies collected surname, forenames, address, date of birth and National Insurance number--information needed for cross-sectional studies. Other biographical details such as maiden name and National Health Service number were collected less often, which could increase the cost and difficulty of tracing ex-employees. Seventy per cent reported destroying their records within 10 years of an employee leaving, rising to 82% for companies with fewer than 100 employees. The destruction of employee records creates problems for historical cohort studies and case-control studies, and may hamper ex-employees trying to claim benefit for occupational-related illness. If the scope of future occupational epidemiology is to be improved, guidelines for the collection and retention of the data required must be developed and industry encouraged to participate.  (+info)

Management of asthma and COPD patients: feasibility of the application of guidelines in general practice. (2/8584)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of the application of guidelines to the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by assessing compliance with the guidelines and listing the barriers general practitioners (GPs) encountered during implementation. Insight into the feasibility of individual items in the guidelines can guide implementation strategies in the future and, if necessary, support revision of the guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study of care delivered during the implementation of guidelines by means of documentation of the care provided, education, feedback on compliance and peer review. SETTING: General practice. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen GPs in 14 general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance was expressed as the percentage of patients per practice managed by the GPs according to the guidelines. For each patient (n=413) data were collected on the care delivered during the first year of the implementation. Barriers encountered were derived from the summaries of the discussions held during the monthly meetings. RESULTS: The GPs were most compliant on the items 'PEFR measurement at every consultation' (98%), 'allergy test' (78%) and 'advice to stop smoking' (82%), and less compliant on the items 'four or more consultations a year' (46%), 'ordering spirometry' (33%), 'adjustment of medication' (42%), 'check on inhalation technique' (38%) and referral to a chest physician (17%) or a district nurse (5%). The main barriers were the amount of time to be invested, doubts about the necessity of regular consultations and about the indications for ordering spirometry and for referral to a chest physician or a district nurse. CONCLUSION: Although the feasibility was assessed in a fairly optimal situation, compliance with the guidelines was not maximal, and differed between the individual items of care. Suggestions are given for further improvements in compliance with the guidelines and for revision of the guidelines.  (+info)

Phase I study of eniluracil, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inactivator, and oral 5-fluorouracil with radiation therapy in patients with recurrent or advanced head and neck cancer. (3/8584)

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an effective enhancer of radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck cancers. Due to rapid, predominantly hepatic metabolism by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and suggested clinical benefit from prolonged drug exposure, 5-FU is commonly given by continuous infusion. Eniluracil is a novel DPD-inactivator designed to prolong the half-life of 5-FU and provide sustained plasma concentrations of 5-FU with oral dosing. We conducted a Phase I study of the safety and efficacy of eniluracil given with oral 5-FU in patients receiving concurrent RT for recurrent or advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Thirteen patients with recurrent, metastatic, or high-risk (defined as an expected 2-year survival rate of <10%) head and neck cancer were enrolled and treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy on an every-other-week schedule. Eniluracil at a fixed dose [20 mg twice a day (BID)] was given for 7 consecutive days (days 1-7). 5-FU and RT were given on 5 consecutive days (days 2-6). One patient was treated with once-daily RT (2.0 Gy fractions). The remaining patients received hyperfractionated RT (1.5-Gy fractions BID). The initial dose of 5-FU was 2.5 mg/m2 given BID. Dose escalation in patient cohorts was scheduled at 2.5-mg/m2 increments, with intrapatient dose escalation permitted. Lymphocyte DPD activity and serum 5-FU and uracil concentrations were monitored during two cycles. DPD activity was completely or nearly completely inactivated in all patients. Sustained, presumed therapeutic concentrations of 5-FU were observed at a dose of 5.0 mg/m2 given BID. Cumulative dose-limiting myelosuppression (both neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) was observed during the fourth and fifth cycles following administration of 5.0 mg/m2 5-FU BID. One patient died of neutropenic sepsis during cycle 4. Other late cycle toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis. Grade 3 mucositis was observed in 4 patients, but no grade 4 mucositis or grade 3 or 4 dermatitis was observed. A second patient death occurred during cycle 1 of treatment. No specific cause of death was identified. The study was subsequently discontinued. Cumulative myelosupression was the significant dose-limiting toxicity of oral 5-FU given with the DPD-inactivator eniluracil on an every-other-week schedule. Clinical radiation sensitization was not observed, based on the absence of dose-limiting mucositis and dermatitis. Alternative dosing schedules need to be examined to determine the most appropriate use of eniluracil and 5-FU as radiation enhancers.  (+info)

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (4/8584)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (5/8584)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (6/8584)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke. (7/8584)

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting. (8/8584)

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Computer-assisted image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist healthcare professionals in analyzing and interpreting medical images. These systems use various techniques such as pattern recognition, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to help identify and highlight abnormalities or patterns within imaging data, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound images. The goal is to increase the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of image interpretation, while also reducing the potential for human error. It's important to note that these systems are intended to assist healthcare professionals in their decision making process and not to replace them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "videoconferencing" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Videoconferencing generally refers to the use of technology to communicate and share information remotely through real-time video and audio interactions. It can be used in various settings, including healthcare, for telemedicine consultations, remote patient monitoring, continuing medical education, and professional meetings or conferences.

In a medical context, videoconferencing is often utilized as part of telemedicine services to connect patients with healthcare providers over long distances. This can help improve access to care, especially in rural or underserved areas where specialized medical expertise might not be readily available. However, the term "videoconferencing" itself does not have a unique medical definition and is used more broadly across various industries and fields.

Patient acuity is a term used to describe the level of care and attention a patient requires based on their current health status and condition. It's an assessment of how critical or complex a patient's needs are, taking into account various factors such as their physical condition, mental state, and any co-existing medical conditions.

Patient acuity can be determined through a variety of methods, including the use of standardized assessment tools that evaluate different aspects of a patient's health. These tools may consider factors such as vital signs, level of consciousness, mobility, pain management needs, and other relevant clinical indicators.

The level of patient acuity is often used to determine staffing levels and skill mix for nursing units or hospital wards, as well as to prioritize care delivery in busy healthcare settings. Patients with higher acuity levels typically require more frequent monitoring and interventions, and may need to be cared for by nurses with advanced training and expertise.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Tomography is a medical imaging technique used to produce cross-sectional images or slices of specific areas of the body. This technique uses various forms of radiation (X-rays, gamma rays) or sound waves (ultrasound) to create detailed images of the internal structures, such as organs, bones, and tissues. Common types of tomography include Computerized Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The primary advantage of tomography is its ability to provide clear and detailed images of internal structures, allowing healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

I must apologize, but "Gardening" is not a term that has a medical definition. Gardening is an activity that involves the cultivation and care of plants, typically in a garden or other outdoor space. It may include tasks such as planting, watering, weeding, pruning, and harvesting. While gardening can have physical and mental health benefits, it is not a medical term or concept.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Telemedicine is the use of digital information and communication technologies, such as computers and mobile devices, to provide healthcare services remotely. It can include a wide range of activities, such as providing patient consultations via video conferencing, monitoring a patient's health and vital signs using remote monitoring tools, or providing continuing medical education to healthcare professionals using online platforms.

Telemedicine allows patients to receive medical care from the comfort of their own homes, and it enables healthcare providers to reach patients who may not have easy access to care due to geographical distance or mobility issues. It can also help to reduce the cost of healthcare by decreasing the need for in-person visits and reducing the demand on hospital resources.

Telemedicine is an important tool for improving access to healthcare, particularly in rural areas where there may be a shortage of healthcare providers. It can also be used to provide specialty care to patients who may not have easy access to specialists in their local area. Overall, telemedicine has the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare while making it more convenient and accessible for patients.

Elasticity imaging techniques are non-invasive medical diagnostic methods used to evaluate the stiffness or elasticity of various tissues in the body, such as organs, muscles, and breast tissue. These techniques can help detect and diagnose abnormalities, including tumors, lesions, and other conditions that may affect tissue stiffness.

There are several types of elasticity imaging techniques, including:

1. Ultrasound Elastography: This technique uses ultrasound waves to apply pressure to tissues and measure their deformation or strain. The degree of deformation is then used to calculate the stiffness of the tissue.
2. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE): MRE uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of tissue elasticity. A mechanical device is used to apply vibrations to the body, and the resulting motion is measured using MRI to determine tissue stiffness.
3. Shear Wave Elastography: This technique uses acoustic radiation force impulses to generate shear waves in tissues. The speed of these waves is then measured to calculate tissue stiffness.
4. Strain Imaging: This technique measures the amount of deformation or strain that occurs in tissues when they are compressed or stretched. It can be used to detect areas of increased stiffness, such as tumors or scar tissue.

Elasticity imaging techniques have several advantages over traditional diagnostic methods, including their non-invasive nature and ability to provide real-time images of tissue elasticity. They are also useful for monitoring changes in tissue stiffness over time, making them valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and monitoring disease progression.

X-ray tomography, also known as computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT), is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. In this technique, an X-ray source and detectors rotate around the patient, acquiring multiple X-ray projections at different angles. A computer then processes these projections to reconstruct tomographic images (slices) of the internal structures of the body, such as bones, organs, and soft tissues.

The term "tomography" comes from the Greek words "tome," meaning slice or section, and "graphein," meaning to write or record. X-ray tomography allows radiologists and other medical professionals to visualize and diagnose various conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and internal injuries, more accurately and efficiently than with traditional X-ray imaging techniques.

It is important to note that while X-ray tomography provides valuable diagnostic information, it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, the benefits of the examination should outweigh the potential risks, and the use of this technique should be justified based on clinical necessity and patient safety considerations.

Radiotherapy setup errors refer to inaccuracies or discrepancies in the positioning and alignment of patients, target volumes (tumors), and surrounding healthy tissues during radiotherapy treatments. These errors can occur due to various factors, including improper patient immobilization, incorrect identification of the treatment area, miscommunication between healthcare professionals, and mechanical malfunctions of the radiation equipment.

Setup errors can lead to unintended irradiation of normal tissues or inadequate dosing of the tumor, potentially resulting in reduced treatment efficacy and increased side effects for patients. Therefore, rigorous quality assurance programs are essential to minimize setup errors and ensure precise and accurate delivery of radiotherapy treatments.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure that uses high-frequency ultrasound energy to generate heat and destroy targeted tissue. The ultrasound beam is focused on a specific point within the body, raising the temperature at that spot to between 65 and 90°C, which causes coagulative necrosis and ablation of the targeted tissue.

HIFU ablation is often used in the treatment of various types of tumors, including prostate, liver, kidney, and breast cancer. It can also be used to treat benign conditions such as uterine fibroids. The procedure does not require incisions, which reduces the risk of complications and speeds up recovery time compared to traditional surgical procedures.

During the procedure, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the body and positioned near the targeted tissue. High-intensity ultrasound waves are then emitted from the probe and focused on a small area within the tissue. The energy from the ultrasound waves causes the temperature at the focal point to rise rapidly, destroying the targeted tissue.

HIFU ablation is typically performed as an outpatient procedure, and patients can usually return to their normal activities within a few days. However, the effectiveness of HIFU ablation varies depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as other factors. Therefore, it is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of HIFU ablation with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

Image enhancement in the medical context refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of medical images, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound images, to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Image enhancement techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, or sharpness; removing noise or artifacts; or applying specialized algorithms to highlight specific features or structures within the image.

The goal of image enhancement is to provide clinicians with more accurate and detailed information about a patient's anatomy or physiology, which can help inform medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

An endoscope is a medical device used for examining the interior of a body cavity or organ. It consists of a long, thin, flexible (or rigid) tube with a light and a camera at one end. The other end is connected to a video monitor that displays the images captured by the camera. Endoscopes can be inserted through natural openings in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through small incisions. They are used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for performing various medical procedures, including biopsies and surgeries. Different types of endoscopes include gastroscopes, colonoscopes, bronchoscopes, and arthroscopes, among others.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in various medical fields, particularly in diagnostic imaging and telemedicine. It is a measure from signal processing that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

In the context of medical imaging (like MRI, CT scans, or ultrasound), a higher SNR means that the useful information (the signal) is stronger relative to the irrelevant and distracting data (the noise). This results in clearer, more detailed, and more accurate images, which can significantly improve diagnostic precision.

In telemedicine and remote patient monitoring, SNR is crucial for ensuring high-quality audio and video communication between healthcare providers and patients. A good SNR ensures that the transmitted data (voice or image) is received with minimal interference or distortion, enabling effective virtual consultations and diagnoses.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

Neurofeedback, also known as neurobiofeedback or EEG biofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that involves measuring brain waves and providing that information to the individual in real-time so that they can learn to modify their brain wave activity. It typically involves the use of sensors placed on the scalp that measure electrical activity in the brain, which is displayed to the person in the form of visual or auditory feedback. Through this process, individuals can learn to voluntarily regulate their brain wave activity, with potential applications in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, migraines, anxiety disorders, and insomnia.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that combines the diagnostic capabilities of MRI with minimally invasive image-guided procedures. It uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and computer software to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures and soft tissues.

In interventional MRI, the technology is used in real-time to guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other medical instruments for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This can include biopsies, tumor ablations, or targeted drug deliveries. The primary advantage of interventional MRI over traditional interventional radiology techniques is its ability to provide high-resolution imaging without the use of radiation, making it a safer option for certain patients. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform these procedures.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a medical imaging technique that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed, cross-sectional images of the body. In dental and maxillofacial radiology, CBCT is used to produce three-dimensional images of the teeth, jaws, and surrounding bones.

CBCT differs from traditional computed tomography (CT) in that it uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam instead of a fan-shaped beam, which allows for a faster scan time and lower radiation dose. The X-ray beam is rotated around the patient's head, capturing data from multiple angles, which is then reconstructed into a three-dimensional image using specialized software.

CBCT is commonly used in dental implant planning, orthodontic treatment planning, airway analysis, and the diagnosis and management of jaw pathologies such as tumors and fractures. It provides detailed information about the anatomy of the teeth, jaws, and surrounding structures, which can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care.

However, it is important to note that CBCT should only be used when necessary, as it still involves exposure to ionizing radiation. The benefits of using CBCT must be weighed against the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Prosthesis fitting is the process of selecting, designing, fabricating, and fitting a prosthetic device to replace a part of an individual's body that is missing due to congenital absence, illness, injury, or amputation. The primary goal of prosthesis fitting is to restore the person's physical function, mobility, and independence, as well as improve their overall quality of life.

The process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical condition, and functional needs is conducted to determine the most appropriate type of prosthesis. This may include measurements, castings, or digital scans of the residual limb.

2. Design: Based on the assessment, a customized design plan is created for the prosthetic device, taking into account factors such as the patient's lifestyle, occupation, and personal preferences.

3. Fabrication: The prosthesis is manufactured using various materials, components, and techniques to meet the specific requirements of the patient. This may involve the use of 3D printing, computer-aided design (CAD), or traditional handcrafting methods.

4. Fitting: Once the prosthesis is fabricated, it is carefully fitted to the patient's residual limb, ensuring optimal comfort, alignment, and stability. Adjustments may be made as needed to achieve the best fit and function.

5. Training: The patient receives training on how to use and care for their new prosthetic device, including exercises to strengthen the residual limb and improve overall mobility. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor progress, make any necessary adjustments, and provide ongoing support.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

A cellular phone, also known as a mobile phone, is a portable device that uses wireless cellular networks to make and receive voice, video, and data communications. The term "cellular" refers to the way that the network is divided into small geographical areas, or cells, each served by a low-power transmitter/receiver. As a user moves from one cell to another, the phone automatically connects to the nearest cell site, allowing for uninterrupted communication as long as the user remains within the coverage area of the network.

Cellular phones typically use digital technology and operate on a variety of frequency bands, depending on the region and the specific carrier. They are equipped with a rechargeable battery, an antenna, a display screen, and a keypad or touchscreen interface for dialing numbers, sending messages, and accessing various features and applications.

Modern cellular phones offer a wide range of functions beyond basic voice communication, including text messaging, multimedia messaging, email, web browsing, social media, gaming, and photography. They may also include features such as GPS navigation, music players, and mobile payment systems. Some high-end models even serve as portable computing devices, with powerful processors, large memory capacities, and advanced software applications.

Patient positioning in a medical context refers to the arrangement and placement of a patient's body in a specific posture or alignment on a hospital bed, examination table, or other medical device during medical procedures, surgeries, or diagnostic imaging examinations. The purpose of patient positioning is to optimize the patient's comfort, ensure their safety, facilitate access to the surgical site or area being examined, enhance the effectiveness of medical interventions, and improve the quality of medical images in diagnostic tests.

Proper patient positioning can help prevent complications such as pressure ulcers, nerve injuries, and respiratory difficulties. It may involve adjusting the height and angle of the bed, using pillows, blankets, or straps to support various parts of the body, and communicating with the patient to ensure they are comfortable and aware of what to expect during the procedure.

In surgical settings, patient positioning is carefully planned and executed by a team of healthcare professionals, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians, to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize risks. In diagnostic imaging examinations, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, patient positioning is critical for obtaining high-quality images that can aid in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages between people using computer networks. The term "electronic mail" is a direct comparison to traditional paper-based mail systems and has been in use since the creation of the first email system in 1971.

In medical terms, email is commonly used as a means of communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and other stakeholders in the healthcare industry. For example, physicians may use email to communicate with colleagues or staff members, while hospitals and clinics may use email to send appointment reminders or test results to patients.

Email messages can include text, images, videos, and attachments, making them a versatile tool for communication. However, it is important to note that email is not considered a secure means of transmitting sensitive medical information due to the risk of interception or unauthorized access. As such, healthcare professionals must follow established guidelines and regulations when using email to communicate protected health information (PHI) in order to maintain patient privacy and confidentiality.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to create and manage designs in a variety of fields, such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. It allows designers to visualize their ideas in 2D or 3D, simulate how the design will function, and make changes quickly and easily. This can help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process, and can also facilitate collaboration and communication among team members.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Particle Accelerators" are not a medical term. Particle accelerators are large pieces of scientific equipment that use electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and contain them in well-defined beams. They are used for a variety of purposes, including research in particle physics, nuclear physics, and synchrotron light sources in a wide range of disciplines, such as condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Text Messaging" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Text messaging generally refers to the act of sending short messages, usually comprised of text and/or media, through electronic communication systems, such as mobile phones or online platforms. If you're looking for a term with a medical connotation, perhaps you meant "Telemedicine" or "e-Prescribing," which are medical practices that involve the use of technology for communication and patient care.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

Directive counseling is a type of counseling approach where the therapist takes an active and direct role in guiding the therapeutic process. The therapist provides clear directions, sets specific goals, and offers practical solutions to help the client overcome their problems or challenges. This approach is often used when the client is seeking advice or guidance on a specific issue, or when they are having difficulty making decisions or taking action.

In directive counseling, the therapist may provide education, offer suggestions, and assign homework or tasks for the client to complete between sessions. The therapist's role is to help the client identify their goals, develop a plan to achieve them, and provide support and guidance along the way. This approach can be particularly effective for clients who are seeking concrete solutions to practical problems, such as time management, career development, or relationship issues.

It's important to note that directive counseling is not appropriate for all clients or situations. Some clients may prefer a more collaborative or exploratory approach, where they have more control over the therapeutic process. In these cases, non-directive or client-centered approaches may be more appropriate. Ultimately, the choice of counseling approach should be based on the individual needs and preferences of the client.

Computer-assisted radiotherapy planning (CARP) is the use of computer systems and software to assist in the process of creating a treatment plan for radiotherapy. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a precise and effective dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue. CARP involves using imaging data, such as CT or MRI scans, to create a 3D model of the patient's anatomy. This model is then used to simulate the delivery of radiation from different angles and determine the optimal treatment plan. The use of computers in this process allows for more accurate and efficient planning, as well as the ability to easily adjust the plan as needed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An artifact, in the context of medical terminology, refers to something that is created or introduced during a scientific procedure or examination that does not naturally occur in the patient or specimen being studied. Artifacts can take many forms and can be caused by various factors, including contamination, damage, degradation, or interference from equipment or external sources.

In medical imaging, for example, an artifact might appear as a distortion or anomaly on an X-ray, MRI, or CT scan that is not actually present in the patient's body. This can be caused by factors such as patient movement during the scan, metal implants or other foreign objects in the body, or issues with the imaging equipment itself.

Similarly, in laboratory testing, an artifact might refer to a substance or characteristic that is introduced into a sample during collection, storage, or analysis that can interfere with accurate results. This could include things like contamination from other samples, degradation of the sample over time, or interference from chemicals used in the testing process.

In general, artifacts are considered to be sources of error or uncertainty in medical research and diagnosis, and it is important to identify and account for them in order to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Radiotherapy dosage refers to the total amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by tissues or organs, typically measured in units of Gray (Gy), during a course of radiotherapy treatment. It is the product of the dose rate (the amount of radiation delivered per unit time) and the duration of treatment. The prescribed dosage for cancer treatments can range from a few Gray to more than 70 Gy, depending on the type and location of the tumor, the patient's overall health, and other factors. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a sufficient dosage to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

A laparoscope is a type of medical instrument called an endoscope, which is used to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. Specifically, a laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera attached to it. This device allows surgeons to view the abdominal cavity through small incisions, without having to make large, invasive cuts.

During a laparoscopic procedure, the surgeon will insert the laparoscope through a small incision in the abdomen, typically near the navel. The camera sends images back to a monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the organs and tissues inside the body. This allows for more precise and less invasive surgical procedures, often resulting in faster recovery times and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopes are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including:

1. Gynecological surgeries (e.g., hysterectomies, ovarian cyst removals)
2. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
3. Gastrointestinal surgeries (e.g., removing benign or malignant tumors)
4. Hernia repairs
5. Bariatric surgeries for weight loss (e.g., gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy)

While laparoscopes provide numerous benefits over open surgery, they still require specialized training and expertise to use effectively and safely.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

Cryosurgery is a medical procedure that uses extreme cold, such as liquid nitrogen or argon gas, to destroy abnormal or unwanted tissue. The intense cold causes the water inside the cells to freeze and form ice crystals, which can rupture the cell membrane and cause the cells to die. Cryosurgery is often used to treat a variety of conditions including skin growths such as warts and tumors, precancerous lesions, and some types of cancer. The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require local anesthesia.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. In the context of medicine and biology, transducers often refer to devices that convert a physiological parameter (such as blood pressure, temperature, or sound waves) into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of medical transducers include:

1. Blood pressure transducer: Converts the mechanical force exerted by blood on the walls of an artery into an electrical signal.
2. Temperature transducer: Converts temperature changes into electrical signals.
3. ECG transducer (electrocardiogram): Converts the electrical activity of the heart into a visual representation called an electrocardiogram.
4. Ultrasound transducer: Uses sound waves to create images of internal organs and structures.
5. Piezoelectric transducer: Generates an electric charge when subjected to pressure or vibration, used in various medical devices such as hearing aids, accelerometers, and pressure sensors.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is not typically a term used in medical definitions, but it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that is heavier than air. It is commonly used in the medical field for its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties.

In MRI, SF6 is used as a contrast agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels and flow. When injected into a patient's bloodstream, the gas displaces oxygen in the blood, causing the blood vessels to appear darker on an MRI scan. This allows doctors to better see any abnormalities or blockages in the blood vessels.

It is important to note that sulfur hexafluoride should only be used under medical supervision and with appropriate precautions, as it can have adverse effects if not handled properly.

Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a type of radiation therapy that uses medical imaging techniques to improve the precision and accuracy of radiation delivery. It allows for real-time or periodic imaging during the course of radiation treatment, which can be used to confirm the position of the targeted tumor and make any necessary adjustments to the patient's position or the radiation beam. This helps ensure that the radiation is focused on the intended target, while minimizing exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. IGRT may be used to treat a variety of cancer types and can be delivered using various radiation therapy techniques such as 3D-conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The feasibility study outputs the feasibility study report, a report detailing the evaluation criteria, the study findings, and ... A feasibility study is an assessment of the practicality of a project or system. A feasibility study aims to objectively and ... Feasibility studies as a tool for successful co-operative business enterprises "(A case study of the importance of Feasibility ... Generally, feasibility studies precede technical development and project implementation. A feasibility study evaluates the ...
Feasibility study may also refer to: Feasibility study, an evaluation and analysis of the potential of a proposed project "A ... "Feasibility Study" (The Outer Limits), a 1997 remake of the above episode Mining feasibility study, an evaluation of a proposed ... A feasibility study is a process that defines exactly what a project is and what strategic issues need to be considered to ... study into a tidal power project This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Feasibility study. If an ...
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... is the name of a UK Government feasibility study into a tidal power project looking at the ... Building on past studies, the feasibility study will provide an up-to-date overview of all the key issues involved. There are ... On 22 January 2008, the Government launched the feasibility study. The study, previously led by the Department of Business, ... This feasibility study aims to consider all tidal range technologies, including barrages and lagoons. The focus is on tidal ...
Policy Studies Journal, 14: 545-553. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1986.tb00360.x Bardach, Eugene (2005). A practical guide for ... Feasibility is "the state or degree of being easily or conveniently done". More plainly, one might ask "can we get this done?" ... Political feasibility analysis is used to predict the probable outcome of a proposed solution to a policy problem through ... Political feasibility is often an essential criterion for ensuring the adoption of a policy proposal, however depending on the ...
... (or Study) (PUFFS) was a passive sonar system for submarines. It was ...
A feasibility study is an assessment of the practicality of a project or system. A feasibility study aims to objectively and ... Justis, R. T. & Kreigsmann, B. (1979). The feasibility study as a tool for venture analysis. Business Journal of Small Business ... Georgakellos, D. A. & Marcis, A. M. (2009). Application of the semantic learning approach in the feasibility studies ... McLeod, Sam (2021-12-01). "Feasibility studies for novel and complex projects: Principles synthesised through an integrative ...
"Feasibility Studies". "Aire Valley Leeds Area Action Plan Adoption". Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of ...
Freedom's Frontier (n.d.). "Study Area History and Contributions" (PDF). Feasibility Study. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... "A study in poverty, or how college towns skew Census data - Policy Blog NH". Archived from the original on ... Lawrence is home to the Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction, the first research center in the world dedicated to ... "Center for the Study of Science Fiction website". Retrieved June 7, 2020. Valverde, Rochelle (July 19, 2017). "58th Annual ...
The chronological stages for adopting a biometric voting registration project usually include assessment; feasibility studies; ... "McAfee-Atlantic Council Joint Study Sees Important Role for Biometrics in e-Voting". FindBiometrics. 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2017 ...
Feasibility Study. Report for the construction and development of the Vietnamese-German University, p. 64-70. "Hessisches ... VGU's programs of study are focused on real-world experiences and industry to improve the student's opportunities on the job ... "Studies". Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-05-17. "Hessisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft ... To grant the quality of VGU's programs of study, different measures for quality assurance have been installed, e.g., the ...
feasibility study An investigation which aims to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of an existing ... Justis, R. T. & Kreigsmann, B. (1979). The feasibility study as a tool for venture analysis. Business Journal of Small Business ... Young, G. I. M. (1970). Feasibility studies. Appraisal Journal 38 (3) 376-383. R. W. Butler (2001-08-06). "What is Formal ... Georgakellos, D. A. & Marcis, A. M. (2009). Application of the semantic learning approach in the feasibility studies ...
... including a further study to examine the feasibility of the tunnel. This study is the first to be conducted on the state level ... "Feasibility Study, Helsinki-Tallinn, Railway Tunnel" Geotechnical Division of the Real Estate Department of the City Of ... Pre-feasibility study of Helsinki-Tallinn fixed link (Sweco, February 2015) Moilanen, Anne (11 February 2015). "Esiselvitys: ... The European Union has approved €3.1 million in funding for feasibility studies. Helsinki and Tallinn are separated by the Gulf ...
In July 2017, the Washington State Legislature budgeted $300,000 for a preliminary feasibility study of "Ultra High Speed ... Feasibility Study Underway". KUOW. Retrieved 2017-08-03. CH2M Hill (February 2018). "Ultra High Speed Ground Transportation ... 750,000 to be spent on conducting a detailed business case analysis as recommended by the preliminary feasibility study, if ... This study was completed by December that year, and analysed technology options, route options, preliminary financing and ...
A pre-feasibility study for building infrastructure to export 10 million tonnes of coal yearly via Namibia gave estimates of US ... "Pre-feasibility study for the export of coal from the Mmamabula Coal Fields, Botswana". Aurecon Group Brand (Pte) Ltd. ... Takeover hopes brighten... Pre-feasibility study. Shot in the arm for Mmamabula. Scramble for Mmamabula licences... Benza 2012b ...
Experimental feasibility study. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 23(9):89-98. Abraham, B.M., Schreiner, F., 1974. ... Much of the initial research was conducted in the United States, with sulfate- and sulfide-based cycles studied at Kentucky ... Chueh W.C. 2010 thermochemical study of ceria: exploiting an old material for new modes of energy conversion and CO2 mitigation ... However, optimistic expectations based on initial thermodynamics studies were quickly moderated by pragmatic analyses comparing ...
Experimental feasibility study". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Great Britain: Elsevier Science Ltd. 23 (2): 89-98. ... 2016). "Effective Thermal Conductivity of Submicron Powders: A Numerical Study". Applied Mechanics and Materials. 846: 500-505 ...
Feasibility Study (PDF). Manchester: Atkins Ltd. Retrieved 3 July 2017. (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Railway lines in ...
"Feasibility Design Study on the Utilization of the Water Resources of the Chobe/Zambezi River" (PDF). Ministry of Minerals, ... Feasibility Design Study... 2010, p. 1-1/2. Varis, Tortajada & Biswas 2008, p. 61. Haddad 1997, p. 233. United Nations Economic ... Feasibility Design Study... 2010, p. 2-1. Central Statistics Office 2009, p. 3. Swanepoel 2008. Bevanger 1994, p. 5. UNEP 2005 ... The impact of the Letsibogo reservoir on an ecology that has not been carefully studied would be greater. It would both destroy ...
"Feasibility study" (PDF). KML file (edit • help) Template:Attached KML/Antelope Valley Line KML is from ...
"Crossroads Feasibility Study". National Park Service. August 2002. p. 29. Retrieved 9 August 2014. Di Ionno, Mark (2021). "How ...
"Feasibility study" (PDF). June 16, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved June 6 ... The study concluded that such an extension, completed at-grade along Metro-owned right-of-way, could be completed for as little ... The study suggested an alternative station at the Division 20 Yard north of 4th Street and Santa Fe Avenue. This station would ... In 2010, at the request of L.A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the ...
"Rail Feasibility Study". Rocky Mountain Rail Authority. Retrieved November 23, 2021. "High-Speed Rail Feasibility Study" (PDF ... In July 2009, in hopes of conducting a feasibility study, the states applied for $5 million in funds made available by the ... In September 2006, the Colorado Transportation Commission approved a $1,246,000 grant for a high-speed rail feasibility study ... In April 2012, CDOT began an Interregional Connectivity Study (ICS) through an FRA grant, building on the 2010 RMRA study. ...
Feasibility Study (PDF). Australian Renewable Energy Agency. 1 July 2014. "Viaje de hermanamiento a la ciudad francesa de Mâcon ...
Feasibility Study (PDF). Australian Renewable Energy Agency. 1 July 2014. Peris Sánchez 2013, p. 211. "La Minería en Castilla- ... It will connect the Autovía del Este (Autovía A-4) with the Autovía del Nordeste (Autovía A-2) (currently being studied). The ... second currently being studied). Autovía del Júcar, 130 kilometres (81 mi), will connect Albacete to Cuenca (in project). ...
"Feasibility Study" (PDF). CH Johnson. Retrieved February 20, 2014. "History". Minor League Baseball. February 6, 2006. ...
OMR Architects (September 2009). "LHS Feasibility Study". Retrieved 2018-10-12. Craven, Katherine (March 31 ... 96% of graduates continue their studies at the college level. The original high school building was replaced by a new building ...
"Toll Feasibility Study" (PDF). Hampton Roads Planning District Commission. October 28, 2005. Retrieved March 31, 2015. "Hampton ... Based on this study, the MPO added the projects to the regions 2030 RTP, now estimated to cost around $779 million- if the ...
The feasibility study outputs the feasibility study report, a report detailing the evaluation criteria, the study findings, and ... A feasibility study is an assessment of the practicality of a project or system. A feasibility study aims to objectively and ... Feasibility studies as a tool for successful co-operative business enterprises "(A case study of the importance of Feasibility ... Generally, feasibility studies precede technical development and project implementation. A feasibility study evaluates the ...
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Details on the feasibility study of possible fallout as a result of nuclear weapons tests. Provided by the Centers for Disease ... The draft Feasibility Study was also sent to the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Assessment of CDC Radiation Studies ... an extensive two-volume Feasibility Study providing details on the scientific methods and conclusions of this feasibility study ... National Academy of Sciences Review of the CDC-NCI Draft Report on a Feasibility Study of the Health Consequences to the ...
Observers of the study at TCT 2021 seemed enthusiastic about the studys results but recognized that TMVR in its current form ... Transfemoral TMVR With Intrepid Valve a Limited Success in Early Feasibility Study - Medscape - Nov 09, 2021. ... Transfemoral TMVR With Intrepid Valve a Limited Success in Early Feasibility Study. ... or new need for a pacemaker in any of the high-surgical-risk patients with MR in this feasibility study of the transfemoral ...
Feasibility Study, Pacific Northwest, Bureau of Reclamation - Managing water and power in the West ... What is the purpose of a feasibility study? The purpose of a Reclamation feasibility study is to determine the viability of a ... The Boise River Basin Feasibility Study, at the request of the Idaho Water Resource Board, was initiated in 2017, published in ... The 2019 Idaho State Legislature passed House Joint Memorial 4 and House Bill 285 affirming support for the feasibility study ...
To conduct a feasibility study, in partnership with UCLA School of Medicine, on the creation of a National Forum on Aging. ... To conduct a feasibility study, in partnership with UCLA School of Medicine, on the creation of a National Forum on Aging. ...
This report addresses the question of whether it is scientifically feasible to conduct a cancer study among former employees of ... In summary, such a study is scientifically feasible. However, the overall feasibility of a study also depends on the ... If a study is conducted, the study researchers would need access to relevant records at IBM. A study would also require ... Feasibility Assessment for a Cancer Study Among Former IBM Employees Who Worked at the Endicott, New York Plant. ...
The feasibility study will focus on the Wish & Westbourne area. Its been chosen because of its potential to develop a ... Funding award for mini-Holland feasibility study Brighton & Hove is being given the chance to explore ways to further improve ... "While this is only a feasibility study at the moment, this is an area with huge potential for walking and cycling. ... Weve been awarded nearly £80,000 from the Department for Transport (DfT) for a mini-Holland feasibility study to assess how ...
The Redevelopment Authority of the City of Butler added $10,000 to this years Community Development grants to the city, part of which will
This feasibility study evaluated the measures to be used for a future randomized cont... ... A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients ... This feasibility study evaluated the measures to be used for a future randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of ... A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients ...
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The agreement with the Northern Ohio Area Coordinating Committee puts in motion a regional feasibility study, to be carried out ... HTT has announced an agreement with an Ohio agency to launch a study on creating its first interstate hyperloop project in the ... The agreement with the Northern Ohio Area Coordinating Committee puts in motion a regional feasibility study, to be carried out ... It would not require the development of new technology, she told TechNewsWorld, and could be built before the Hyperloop study ...
Feasibility Study on Detection of Transportation Information Exploiting Twitter as a Sensor. February 1, 2023. ... Feasibility Study on Detection of Transportation Information Exploiting Twitter as a Sensor. Proceedings of the International ... Feasibility Study on Detection of Transportation Information Exploiting Twitter as a Sensor. Proceedings of the International ... Feasibility Study on Detection of Transportation Information Exploiting Twitter as a Sensor. Proceedings of the International ...
City Receives Feasibility Study for Multi-Purpose Stadium. The facility would be the permanent home of the New Mexico United, ... City Receives Feasibility Study for Multi-Purpose Stadium The facility would be the permanent home of the New Mexico United, ... The City of Albuquerque released an extensive study from CAA ICON and Crawford Architects analyzing the feasibility of a multi- ... ...
Cabinet approves projects with foreign entities: Roads, transit trade, feasibility studies, radar systems, culture and training ...
Feasibility Study. This study will work on establishing Catalents Zydis ODT technology for the delivery of MDMA. If proven ... This morning the company released it has initiated a feasibility study of MDMA leveraging Catalents proprietary Zydis ODT fast ... February 10, 2023 ( Newswire) This morning Awakn Life Sciences announced it had initiated a feasibility study ... This study has the potential to demonstrate that Zydis ODT technology can provide an ideal MDMA formulation option both for ...
... the study aims to connect the local residents with adequate railway transit to facilitate further growth of the communities and ... West Island Line Feasibility Study. Hong Kong South Island Line & West Island Line Feasibility Study. Hong Kong South Island ... Hong Kong South Island Line & West Island Line Feasibility Study. Hong Kong, Hong Kong ... As the southern and western parts of Hong Long Island are becoming centers of Hongs new residential development, the study ...
... the importance of a feasibility study will be central to the success of your project. This online micro-credential explores the ... Identify the process of conducting a feasibility study. *Reflect on case study examples in which an analysis of a feasibility ... In this micro-credential you will explore the use of a feasibility study to inform the proposed project plan. A feasibility ... This online micro-credential explores the use of a feasibility study to inform the proposed project plan. It outlines why it is ...
Dual gated cardiac PET studies were performed successfully and showed better resolved myocardial walls as compared with ungated ... Dual cardiac-respiratory gated PET: implementation and results from a feasibility study Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007 Sep;34 ... We investigated the feasibility of a dual cardiac-respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition using a ... Conclusion: Dual gated cardiac PET studies were performed successfully and showed better resolved myocardial walls as compared ...
PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- IndoUSrare and RARE-X partnered to understand Indias rare disease landscape and conducted a feasibility ... A complimentary copy of The India Feasibility Study Report: Patient-Owned Health Data Registries can be found at ... The India Feasibility Study Report: Patient-Owned Health Data Registries establishes a scoping document and blueprint for ... The India Feasibility Study Report draws from a combination of literature, surveys, and stakeholder interviews from patient ...
Field Planning, Feasibility and Concept Studies. T. +47 67 51 30 00. E. Send message. ... Field Planning, Feasibility and Concept Studies Improving the productivity of new and existing oil and gas fields has never ... Our feasibility and concept studies focus on the specific building blocks and detail these to the required level. We prove a ... Field Planning, Feasibility and Concept Studies. Mature areas, deep water, remote locations, arctic frontiers, shallow ...
This lithium company is starting the first phase of the Definitive Feasibility Study for its 100%-owned Ontario lithium project ... Lithium Miner Starts on Path To Definitive Feasibility Study View Important Disclosures for this Article Close Important ... FL:TSX.V; LITOF:OTCQX; HL2:FRA) announced it is starting the first phase of the Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS) for its 100 ... This lithium company is starting the first phase of the Definitive Feasibility Study for its 100%-owned Ontario lithium project ...
MCRIT approach to feasibility and impact assessment studies. Feasibility studies are conducted to determine the degree to which ... financial feasibility). We believe that best feasibility studies are not meant to just approve or reject a given project, but ... MCRIT has participated in many feasibility and road design studies. We believe that environmental impact assessment tools (e.g ... socioeconomic and environmental feasibility), or an eventual construction and operation can be financed and managed by public/ ...
MIYCN Feasibility Study in East Pokot. Posted on 22/11/2018. by Siki kigongo ...
The Nuclear Innovation Institute study will be the first of its kind in Canada to evaluate the technical viability and business ... A Canadian innovation organisation has launched a new study into the role of nuclear power in supporting a growing hydrogen ... Work on the study will be led by design, engineering and consultancy company Arcadis, supported by NII and project partners ... The study will also benefit governments at all levels as they work on their own hydrogen strategies, the NII said. ...
Articles similar to: TITAN 1 Feasibility Study. FDA Authorizes Study Exploring Novel Device for Bladder Incontinence. The FDA ... The trial, known as the TITAN 1 Feasibility Study, is a multicenter, prospective trial aiming to enroll 20 patients at 8 ... They will be followed for 12 months to assess the feasibility of the product. Enrollment for the trial is expected to commence ...
... Yoji Takeuchi, Takeshi Yamashina, Noriko Matsuura, Takashi Ito, ... Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of the use of CSP in a Japanese center. ... Because this was a pilot feasibility study, the sample size was not estimated. The results related to non-parametric data are ... Study design. This retrospective study was performed at the endoscopy unit of the Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and ...
... World J Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 7(17): 1250-1256 ... Feasibility of cold snare polypectomy in Japan: A pilot study. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 7(17): 1250-1256 [PMID: ...
SRG has started the Northern Berks County Feasibility Study to determine the best route for the Schuylkill River Trail from ... Home / SRT Feasibility Study & Survey. Help Us Find the Best Route for the SRT!. Para español mira abajo. The Schuylkill River ... The feasibility study is expected to be complete by fall 2022. Throughout this process, Schuylkill River Greenways will invite ... Greenways National Heritage Area has started the Northern Berks County Feasibility Study to determine the best route for the ...
  • Economic feasibility study of the transportation and sale of natural gas liquids/LP gas for the Alaska Gasline Development Corporation by: Beck, R. W. (
  • This study tested the acceptability and feasibility of a technology-based intervention to engage hospital patients in nutrition care at a tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage pilot and/or feasibility research in the following areas: 1) the development and pilot testing of new or adapted interventions to prevent or delay the initiation of substance use and/or the progression from use to misuse or disorder and 2) pre-trial feasibility and acceptability testing of services and service system research relevant to the prevention of substance use. (
  • This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of conducting VA interviews via telephone calls, and the quality of the data gathered. (
  • Data collected from the form were used to assess the feasibility, acceptability and quality of the telephone interviews using IBM SPSS version 23. (
  • In 1998, the Senate Appropriations Committee asked the Department of Health and Human Services to conduct an initial assessment of the feasibility and public health implications of a study concerning the health consequences to the American population of radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. (
  • When writing a feasibility report, the following should be taken to consideration: A brief description of the business to assess more possible factors which could affect the study The part of the business being examined The human and economic factor The possible solutions to the problem At this level, the concern is whether the proposal is both technically and legally feasible (assuming moderate cost). (
  • We've been awarded nearly £80,000 from the Department for Transport (DfT) for a 'mini-Holland' feasibility study to assess how part of the city could be made as pedestrian and cycle-friendly as a Dutch city equivalent. (
  • A study to assess the feasibility. (
  • They will be followed for 12 months to assess the feasibility of the product. (
  • We prove a project's feasibility by uncovering potential technology gaps and specify fabrication and installation requirements. (
  • However, the existing system takes a long time from the beginning of the pre-feasibility study to the implementation of the project, which makes it difficult to reflect the technological and circumstantial changes that occur during the project's operation. (
  • Previously, it was difficult to reflect the changes that occurred during a project's execution because once a project plan passed the pre-feasibility test, it could not be changed. (
  • In 2002, HHS transmitted to the Senate Appropriations Committee a progress report and an extensive two-volume Feasibility Study providing details on the scientific methods and conclusions of this feasibility study. (
  • The project also includes conceptual design for three non-traditional demonstration projects to be implemented in 2016 to determine the feasibility of full scale installation. (
  • Following the study, to be completed by March 2023, there will be a further DfT selection process to determine which of the 19 local authorities will receive funding to develop the project further. (
  • February 10, 2023 ( Newswire) This morning Awakn Life Sciences announced it had initiated a feasibility study of MDMA leveraging Catalent's proprietary Zydis ODT fast dissolve technology. (
  • citation needed] A project feasibility study is a comprehensive report that examines in detail the five frames of analysis of a given project. (
  • citation needed] The technical feasibility assessment is focused on gaining an understanding of the present technical resources of the organization and their applicability to the expected needs of the proposed system. (
  • Twelve studies which were interventional pilot/feasibility studies and which included testing of some component of the research process were identified through the UKCRN Portfolio database. (
  • A feasibility study aims to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of an existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats present in the natural environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. (
  • As the southern and western parts of Hong Long Island are becoming centers of Hong's new residential development, the study aims to connect the local residents with adequate railway transit to facilitate further growth of the communities and increase land use efficiency. (
  • To conduct a feasibility study, in partnership with UCLA School of Medicine, on the creation of a National Forum on Aging. (
  • This report addresses the question of whether it is scientifically feasible to conduct a cancer study among former employees of the IBM facility in Endicott, NY. (
  • Guidance on the conduct and reporting of pilot studies was retrieved from the websites of three grant giving bodies and seven journal editors were canvassed. (
  • A global consortium led by Energy & Environmental Research Associates (EERA) is slated to conduct the study under a contract that was signed with REMPEC in June. (
  • The DSR consultant will serve as an independent technical expert to conduct a thorough DSR of the work product completed by the Study Contractor. (
  • A study that evaluates the association between exposure to hazardous substances and disease by testing scientific hypotheses. (
  • Technical outcomes of robotic-assisted surgery versus laparoscopic surgery for rectal tumors: a single-center safety and feasibility study. (
  • This study compared the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery for rectal tumors . (
  • TELOS is an acronym in project management used to define five areas of feasibility that determine whether a project should run or not. (
  • The findings are intended to inform decision-makers outside the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) who would determine whether or not such a study should be performed. (
  • Reflect on case study examples in which an analysis of a feasibility study has been undertaken to determine the viability of a project proposal. (
  • ALISO VIEJO, Calif. , April 20, 2021 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- IndoUSrare and RARE-X partnered to understand India's rare disease landscape and conducted a feasibility study to determine the challenges to creating patient-owned health data registries for international data sharing. (
  • The Schuylkill River Greenways National Heritage Area has started the Northern Berks County Feasibility Study to determine the best route for the Schuylkill River Trail from Reading to Hamburg. (
  • Floating constructed wetlands are one of the non-traditional technologies being considered by the Town of Orleans, and AECOM has enlisted Biohabitats to determine the feasibility of installing and monitoring a series of floating constructed wetlands for reducing nitrogen levels in the estuarine waters of Orleans. (
  • This pilot study aimed to describe a participatory ergonomic approach and determine the feasibility and extent of adoption of self-management strategies in clam farm ers with LBP. (
  • Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study. (
  • Ong M-S, Magrabi F, Coiera E. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study. (
  • Initial feasibility-level designs estimate a 3.5 to 4-year construction window for the proposed raise of Anderson Ranch Dam. (
  • The recommended approach is a four-stage process: initial response, assessment, major feasibility study, and etiologic investigation. (
  • The feasibility studies mentioned in paragraph 1 were undertaken. (
  • Generally, feasibility studies precede technical development and project implementation. (
  • This agreement provides funding for an for further study based on the likelihood that independent state evaluation of adverse health releases from these activities could have effects that may have occurred in populations resulted in off-site exposures. (
  • Existing studies, however, are prone to at least one of the following issues: ad-hoc keyword selection, overfitting, insufficient predictive evaluation, lack of generalization, and failure to compare against trivial baselines. (
  • This report documents findings from a study conducted by the Collaborating Center for Questionnaire Design and Evaluation Research (CQDER) to explore the feasibility of expanding this population to non-office-based physicians, including radiologists, pathologists, anesthesiologists, and hospitalists (such as surgeons, emergency room and intensive care unit physicians). (
  • In doing so, this study shows a low-to-moderate validity of Google Trends in the context of lifestyle disease surveillance, even when applying novel corrective approaches, including a proposed denormalization scheme. (
  • Switching off validation on the mHealth artefact served its purpose within the context of a feasibility study where a parallel paper-based clinical assessment process remained in place. (
  • 54 pilot or feasibility studies published in 2007-8 were found, of which 26 (48%) were pilot studies of interventions and the remainder feasibility studies. (
  • A report from that committee issued in February 2003 was peer reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) Committee to Review the CDC-NCI Feasibility Study of the Health Consequences from Nuclear Weapons Tests (NAS/NRC 2003). (
  • CDC reviewed and addressed the comments received on the draft report, and on January 25, 2006, the Department of Health and Human Services transmitted to Congress the final "Report on the Feasibility of a Study of the Health Consequences to the American Population from Nuclear Weapons Tests Conducted by the United States and Other Nations. (
  • The India Feasibility Study Report: Patient-Owned Health Data Registries establishes a scoping document and blueprint for opportunities to support patient-owned data collection in country. (
  • The India Feasibility Study Report draws from a combination of literature, surveys, and stakeholder interviews from patient advocacy groups, physicians, policy professionals, and industry leaders with biopharma, diagnostic labs, and contract research organizations. (
  • A complimentary copy of The India Feasibility Study Report: Patient-Owned Health Data Registries can be found at . (
  • Authors should be aware of the different requirements of pilot studies, feasibility studies and main studies and report them appropriately. (
  • This feasibility study report is the result of a process that began in December 2010 with the signing of an agreement between USBU* Global and EduGlobal China aimed at increasing the number of international students on USBU campuses. (
  • The goal of the ESSνSB H2020 Design Study is to organize European physicists and accelerator engineers in co-operation with the ESS Laboratory and the Garpenberg Mining Company to study and produce a Conceptual Design Report for the ESSnuSB project. (
  • Errors and electronic prescribing: a controlled laboratory study to examine task complexity and interruption effects. (
  • Since I took office as vice minister for science, technology and innovation, many of the opinions suggested by the research community called for improvement of the "preliminary feasibility study system for national research and development projects," hereafter referred to as the "R&D pre-feasibility study. (
  • This study provides preliminary evidence that VA via telephone interview is feasible, acceptable and can be used as an alternative to face-to-face interviews without affecting data quality. (
  • If necessary, a fast-track approach will be introduced to shorten the pre-feasibility study process and time, so that R&D investments can be made in a more timely manner. (
  • Chronic lower back pain in aquaculture clam farm ers: adoption and feasibility of self-management strategies introduced using a rapid prototype participatory ergonomic approach. (
  • We also conducted a survey to identify the methodological components in registered research studies which are described as 'pilot' or 'feasibility' studies. (
  • The UK Government has confirmed plans to carry out a capability study regarding the installation of the latest and advanced Australian radar on-board the Royal Navy's future warships. (
  • Work on the study is slated to begin early next year and will be conducted to look at the feasibility of fitting Australian defence contractor CEA Technologies' Ceafar radar on-board navy vessels. (
  • A lot of them had atrial fibrillation, a lot of them were on anticoagulation to start with," observed Firas Zahr, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, as part of his presentation of the study at Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2021 , held virtually as well as onsite in Orlando, Florida. (
  • Agreement Steering Panel the Oak Ridge Health Studies in two phases. (
  • In July 1991, the Tennessee Department of operations, waste management practices, Health initiated a Health Studies Agreement special projects, and accidents and incidents. (
  • Health Studies) and to facilitate interaction received from chemical and radionuclide and cooperation with the community. (
  • This study has the potential to demonstrate that Zydis ODT technology can provide an ideal MDMA formulation option both for patients and for health care providers. (
  • The Institute of Active Ageing ("IAA") of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University ("PolyU") has conducted the baseline assessment study between May 2017 and August 2017 to gather the views of Yau Tsim Mong residents on the age-friendliness of the District with reference to the eight age-friendly city domains within the World Health Organisation ("WHO")'s Global Age- friendly Cities framework. (
  • During this time, Reclamation will take the current design from feasibility level to 30%, 60%, 90% design levels and then to a complete 100% final design specification and cost estimate. (
  • The new study will continue the Centre for Next Generation Nuclear's research into the potential for hydrogen production and use in Ontario, and will investigate the viability of a local pilot project to demonstrate the economics of the technology, in preparation for the rapid growth of the hydrogen economy. (
  • The International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC) will be responsible for coordinating the study, which will investigate whether the Mediterranean Sea, or parts of it, can be marked as a SOx-ECA under IMO's prevention of pollution convention (MARPOL) Annex VI. (
  • The PPP Task Force North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) is the central unit of the Federal State NRW concerning Public Private Partnership (PPP) and responsible for mandate experts with the development of guidelines and studies in important fields of interest. (
  • A feasibility study enables assessment as to the viability of a proposed project. (
  • The Nuclear Innovation Institute (NII) study will be the first of its kind in Canada to evaluate the technical viability and business case for hydrogen production from emissions-free nuclear power. (
  • SINGAPORE: Singapore and the United States have expressed interest in conducting a feasibility study to enhance energy connectivity in Southeast Asia. (
  • USTDA is seeking a small business contractor under this non-personal services Desk Study Review (DSR) contract to support its decision-making relative to assessing the completeness of the work performed and deliverables submitted to a Grantee by a Feasibility Study Contractor ("Study Contractor") for an airline feasibility study in Southeast Asia. (
  • USTDA approved funding for a feasibility study ("FS") for an airline project in Southeast Asia. (
  • In 2005 the Bauhaus-University Weimar, the PPP Task Force NRW and the Ministry of the Interior NRW assisted the local authorities with developing a guideline for the revisal of economic feasibility studies of PPP-projects. (
  • Bentonville Parks and Recreation partnered with Hight Jackson Associates, Barker Rinker Seacat Architecture, and Ballard King and Associates on a feasibility study for an Adult Wellness Center in Bentonville. (
  • In summary, such a study is scientifically feasible. (
  • Under the current laws and regulations, in order to proceed with large-scale R&D projects under the South Korean government's budget, an R&D pre-feasibility study is mandatory. (
  • Meanwhile, the lower bound for pre-feasibility studies will be raised from 50 billion won to 100 billion won so that moderate scale projects can be processed quickly. (
  • R&D pre-feasibility studies will now evolve from merely injecting an appropriate amount of funding into large-scale R&D projects to maximizing returns on investment. (
  • It includes standards for the procedure and revisal of economic feasibility studies of PPP-projects. (
  • Currently, designs and cost estimates for the proposed plan are developed to a feasibility level as verified through the design, estimating, and construction review process. (
  • The programming process revealed opportunities to consolidate spaces for books, reorganize an indiscriminate network of study rooms, and provide open areas for interaction, all of which allow for future flexibility as needs continue to evolve. (
  • The draft Feasibility Study was also sent to the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Assessment of CDC Radiation Studies. (
  • Councillor Steve Davis, Co-Chair of the Environment, Transport and Sustainability committee said: "This funding is great news for Brighton & Hove and allows us to study and explore active travel improvements in this part of the city. (
  • The agreement with the Northern Ohio Area Coordinating Committee puts in motion a regional feasibility study, to be carried out in conjunction with the Illinois Department of Transportation. (
  • The Local Ethics Committee of Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases approved the protocols of this study. (
  • A retrospective cohort study of cancer would have value in addressing the community's concern about the risk of cancer among former IBM employees. (
  • This single-center, retrospective study included 273 patients with rectal tumors who underwent surgery with anastomosis between 2017 and 2021. (
  • The study, funded by City Council, includes a comprehensive assessment of market demand for a stadium and analyzed several sites across the metro area as potential locations for the team's permanent home. (
  • A well-designed feasibility study should provide a historical background of the business or project, a description of the product or service, accounting statements, details of the operations and management, marketing research and policies, financial data, legal requirements and tax obligations. (
  • The challenge becomes less about the technology and more about understanding the regulatory environment and nuances on governance by country," said Nicole Boice , CEO RARE-X. "We have learned a tremendous amount based on this study, and we hope that we soon have the ability to support patient-owned data collection and sharing in India as part of our commitment to IndoUSrare and their affiliate patient advocacy organizations. (
  • QUEBEC - Stornoway Diamond Corp . of Vancouver has awarded SNC-Lavalin the lead contract for the Renard diamond project feasibility study. (
  • A feasibility study is an assessment of the practicality of a project or system. (
  • Nor were there adverse clinical events such as death, stroke, reintervention, or new need for a pacemaker in any of the high-surgical-risk patients with MR in this feasibility study of the transfemoral Intrepid TMVR System (Medtronic). (
  • The Ministry of Science and ICT prepared the "R&D Pre-feasibility System Improvement Plan," taking into account comments from the research community, new trends and the need to effectively manage funding. (
  • In line with rapidly changing circumstances, the R&D pre-feasibility system is trying to "don the cape of innovation. (
  • The project "Feasibility study/validation of energy collector technology for reloading of geothermal drill holes" has during six months 2018 demonstrated two versions of Evertech Energy Solution´s system solution for recharging geothermal drill holes. (
  • It would not require the development of new technology, she told TechNewsWorld, and could be built before the Hyperloop study is completed. (
  • This morning the company released it has initiated a feasibility study of MDMA leveraging Catalent's proprietary Zydis ODT fast dissolve technology. (
  • This study will work on establishing Catalent's Zydis ODT technology for the delivery of MDMA. (
  • Until now, R&D pre-feasibility studies took a maximum of two years from planning to budget allocation, so there were difficulties in reflecting global technology trends. (
  • Observers of the study at TCT 2021 seemed enthusiastic about the study's results but recognized that TMVR in its current form still has formidable limitations. (
  • Work on the study will be led by design, engineering and consultancy company Arcadis, supported by NII and project partners Bruce Power and Greenfield Global. (
  • The study will also benefit governments 'at all levels' as they work on their own hydrogen strategies, the NII said. (
  • The trial, known as the TITAN 1 Feasibility Study, is a multicenter, prospective trial aiming to enroll 20 patients at 8 clinical sites in the United States. (
  • Reports of registered and completed studies on the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Portfolio database were retrieved and scrutinized. (
  • therefore, perceived objectivity is an important factor in the credibility of the study for potential investors and lending institutions. (
  • While this is only a feasibility study at the moment, this is an area with huge potential for walking and cycling. (
  • A feasibility study is essential to become aware of any potential problems, issues or obstacles that may occur when implementing a project. (
  • The purpose of the feasibility study is to analyze potential roadway options for improving US 380 in Collin County. (
  • Authors should be explicit as to the purpose of a pilot study. (
  • Furthermore an explanation of the concerned elements of PPP economic feasibility studies and a description of effects on different project scenarios is included. (
  • To this end, the ministers expressed interest in a feasibility study on enhancing energy connectivity in the region," the statement read. (
  • If so, the importance of a feasibility study will be central to the success of your project. (
  • Current feasibility level estimated schedules show construction beginning in 2025. (
  • The feasibility study will focus on the Wish & Westbourne area. (
  • Our feasibility and concept studies focus on the specific building blocks and detail these to the required level. (
  • In 2004, a review of pilot studies published in seven major medical journals during 2000-01 recommended that the statistical analysis of such studies should be either mainly descriptive or focus on sample size estimation, while results from hypothesis testing must be interpreted with caution. (
  • A Canadian innovation organisation has launched a new study into the role of nuclear power in supporting a growing hydrogen economy. (
  • But now a 15-patient study of transfemoral, transeptal TMVR - with a prosthesis designed for the mitral position and previously tested only transapically - has shown good 30-day results in that MR was essentially abolished with virtually no paravalvular leakage. (
  • We're glad to have the results of the study so we can discuss the findings with the community, make proper considerations, and initiate next steps. (
  • This online micro-credential explores the use of a feasibility study to inform the proposed project plan. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Nous avons évalué la mise en œuvre de l'approche pratique de la santé respiratoire (APSR) dans les services de soins de santé primaires de la République arabe syrienne et ses effets à court terme sur les soins respiratoires chez les patients âgés de 5 ans et plus. (
  • But when the project is ready to launch after the pre-feasibility test, it may already be outdated. (
  • At the time of the study, insufficient information was available on storage conditions for reagents. (
  • Kodali said his center contributed a patient to the study, and he is listed as a coauthor on the publication. (
  • IndoUSrare assessed the feasibility of patient-owned registries in India , which can potentially serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries," said Harsha Rajasimha, MS, PhD, Founder and Chairman of IndoUSrare, and Founder and CEO of Jeeva Informatics Solutions. (
  • Safety through redundancy: a case study of in-hospital patient transfers. (