Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
An autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by severe ichthyosis MENTAL RETARDATION; SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA; and congenital ICHTHYOSIS. It is caused by mutation of gene encoding microsomal fatty ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE leading to defect in fatty alcohol metabolism.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ALTEROMONADACEAE. The inability to utilize carbohydrates is a distinguishing feature from other genera in the family.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.

Effective method for activity assay of lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum. (1/502)

A method was devised for activity assay of the lipase [triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolase, EC] excreted from Chromobacterium viscosum into the culture medium; olive oil emulsified with the aid of Adekatol 45-S-8 (a non-ionic detergent, the ethoxylate of linear sec-alcohols having chain lengths of 10--16 carbon atoms) was used as the substrate. This method was specifically effective for Chromobacterium lipase acitvity assay, and was approximately twice as sensitive as the conventional method, in which polyvinyl alcohol is used for the emulsification of the substrate.  (+info)

Effects of short chain alkanols on the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a glial cell line. (2/502)

1. Ethanol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in C6 glioma cells by an unknown mechanism. Because relatively high concentrations are needed for inhibition in drug-naive cells (IC50 approximately = to 150 mM), suppression due to cytotoxicity is one possible mechanism that has not been ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of ethanol and other alkanols on C6 glioma cell viability and iNOS activity to better understand the mechanism for inhibition. 2. iNOS expression was induced in cell culture with lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester treatment. Nitrite accumulation in culture medium, the in vitro conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline, and immunoblotting were used to quantify iNOS induction and activity. Trypan blue exclusion, extracellular release of lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of total cell protein were used as measures of viability. 3. Short chain alkanols, methanol through 1-heptanol, concentration-dependently inhibited nitrite accumulation. Longer chain alkanols, 1-octanol and 1-decanol, did not except at cytotoxic concentrations. Experiments indicated short chain alkanol inhibition was not due to direct actions on iNOS catalytic activity, but that it transpires during iNOS induction. Immunoblots showed reduced iNOS protein levels. 4. Correlation analysis ruled out iNOS inhibition as being due to decreased cell number, total cell protein, or cell viability. In contrast, there was significant correlation with physical measures of lipophilicity. 5. In conclusion, inhibition of iNOS expression by ethanol and other short chain alkanols is not due to cytotoxicity. Instead, the strong correlation with lipophilicity suggests the inhibition derives from an interaction with unknown hydrophobic cellular sites.  (+info)

Plaunotol prevents indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by inhibiting neutrophil activation. (3/502)

BACKGROUND: Activated neutrophils play a critical role in indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury. AIM: To investigate the effect of plaunotol, an anti-ulcer agent, on neutrophil activation in vitro and its effect on gastric mucosal injury and gastric accumulation of neutrophils in rats given indomethacin. METHODS: Human monocytes and neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. We examined the effect of plaunotol on neutrophil elastase release, production of O2-, intracellular calcium concentration and expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and CD18 in activated neutrophils in vitro. The effect of plaunotol on TNF-alpha production by monocytes stimulated with endotoxin also was investigated in vitro. The effect of plaunotol (100 mg/kg, p.o.) on gastric mucosal injury and neutrophil accumulation was investigated in male Wistar rats given indomethacin (30 mg/kg, p.o.). RESULTS: Plaunotol inhibited the fMLP-induced release of neutrophil elastase from activated neutrophils, as well as the opsonized zymosan-induced production of O2- by neutrophils. Plaunotol significantly inhibited increased levels of intracellular calcium, a second messenger of neutrophil activation, in vitro. The fMLP-induced increases in CD11b and CD18 expression were also inhibited by plaunotol in vitro. Plaunotol inhibited monocytic production of TNF-alpha, a potent activator of neutrophils. Both gastric mucosal injury and gastric neutrophil infiltration in rats given indomethacin were significantly inhibited by the oral administration of plaunotol. CONCLUSIONS: Plaunotol inhibits indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury, at least in part by inhibiting neutrophil activation.  (+info)

Interactions of 6-gingerol and ellagic acid with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. (4/502)

The inotropic/lusitropic effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on the heart are mediated largely by protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of phospholamban, the natural protein regulator of the Ca2+ pump present in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Gingerol, a plant derivative, is known to produce similar effects when tested in isolated cardiac muscle. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of gingerol and another plant derivative, ellagic acid, on the kinetics of the SR Ca2+ pump with those of PKA-catalyzed phospholamban phosphorylation to elucidate their mechanisms of Ca2+ pump regulation. As previously demonstrated for PKA, 50 microM gingerol or ellagic acid increased Vmax(Ca) of Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity assayed at millimolar ATP concentrations in light cardiac SR vesicles. Unlike PKA, which decreases Km(Ca), neither compound had a significant effect on Km(Ca) in unphosphorylated vesicles. However, gingerol increased Km(Ca) in phosphorylated vesicles, in which Ca2+ uptake was significantly increased further at saturating Ca2+ and remained unchanged at subsaturating Ca2+. An inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by gingerol at micromolar MgATP concentrations was overcome with increasing MgATP concentrations. The stimulation of Ca2+ uptake attributable to gingerol in unphosphorylated microsomes at saturating Ca2+ was 30% to 40% when assayed at 0.05 to 2 mM MgATP and only about 12% in phosphorylated microsomes as well as in rabbit fast skeletal muscle light SR. The present results support the view that an ATP-dependent increase in Vmax(Ca) of the SR Ca2+ pump plays an important role in mediating cardiac contractile responses to gingerol and phospholamban-dependent beta-adrenergic stimulation.  (+info)

Steric hindrance is not required for n-alkanol cutoff in soluble proteins. (5/502)

A loss of potency as one ascends a homologous series of compounds (cutoff effect) is often used to map the dimensions of binding sites on a protein target. The implicit assumption of steric hindrance is rarely confirmed with direct binding measurements, yet other mechanisms for cutoff exist. We studied the binding and effect of a series of n-alkanols up to hexadecanol (C16) on two model proteins, BSA and myoglobin (MGB), using hydrogen-tritium exchange and light scattering. BSA binds the n-alkanols specifically and, at 1 mM total concentration, is stabilized with increasing potency up to decanol (C10), where a loss in stabilizing potency occurs. Cutoff in stabilizing potency is concentration-dependent and occurs at progressively longer n-alkanols at progressively lower total n-alkanol concentrations. Light scattering measurements of n-alkanol/BSA solutions show a smooth decline in binding stoichiometry with increasing chain length until C14-16, where it levels off at approximately 2:1 (alkanol:BSA). MGB does not bind the n-alkanols specifically and is destabilized by them with increasing potency until C10, where a loss in destabilizing potency occurs. Like BSA, MGB demonstrates a concentration-dependent cutoff point for the n-alkanols. Derivation of the number of methylenes bound at K(D) and the free energy contribution per bound methylene showed that no discontinuity existed to explain cutoff, rendering steric hindrance unlikely. The data also allow an energetic explanation for the variance of the cutoff point in various reductionist systems. Finally, these results render cutoff an untenable approach for mapping binding site sterics in the absence of complementary binding measurements, and a poor discriminator of target relevance to general anesthesia.  (+info)

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, a "two-hit" ischemia/reperfusion injury: evidence from an analysis of oxidative products. (6/502)

PURPOSE: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) remains a lethal condition despite improvements in perioperative care. The consequences of RAAA are hypothesized to result from a combination of two ischemia/reperfusion events: hemorrhagic shock and lower torso ischemia. Ischemia/reperfusion results in tissue injury by diverse mechanisms, which include oxygen free radical-mediated injury produced from activated neutrophils, xanthine oxidase, and mitochondria. Oxygen-free radicals attack membrane lipids, resulting in membrane and subsequently cellular dysfunction that contributes to postoperative organ injury/failure. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the oxidative injury that occurs as a result of the ischemia/reperfusion events in RAAAs and elective AAAs. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 22 patients for elective AAA repair and from 14 patients for RAAA repair during the perioperative period. Plasma F(2)-isoprostanes were extracted, purified, and measured with an enzyme immunoassay. Aldehydes and acyloins were purified and quantified. Neutrophil oxidative burst was measured in response to a receptor independent stimulus (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) with luminol-based chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Plasma from patients with RAAAs showed significantly elevated F(2)-isoprostane levels on arrival at hospital and were significantly elevated as compared with the levels of patients for elective repair throughout the perioperative period (two-way analysis of variance, P <.0001). Multiple regression showed a significant relationship between the phagocyte oxidative activity and F(2)-isoprostane levels (P <.013). Total acyloin levels were significantly higher in patients with RAAAs as compared with the levels in elective cases. CONCLUSION: The F(2)-isoprostane levels, specific markers of lipid peroxidation, showed that patients with RAAAs had two phases of oxidative injury: before arrival at hospital and after surgery. The significant relationship between the postoperative increases in F(2)-isoprostane levels and the neutrophil oxidant production implicates neutrophils in the oxidative injury that occurs after RAAA. New therapeutic interventions that attenuate neutrophil-mediated oxidant injury during reperfusion may decrease organ failure and ultimately mortality in patients with RAAAs.  (+info)

Effects of a lipoxygenase inhibitor, panaxynol, on vascular contraction induced by angiotensin II. (7/502)

We investigated whether a lipoxygenase inhibitor, panaxynol, affected the vascular contraction induced by angiotensin (Ang) II and the mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Panaxynol suppressed dose-dependently the contractile responses induced by 30 nM Ang II in isolated intact and endothelial cell-denuded aorta in the hamster. IC50 values in the intact and endothelial cell-denuded aorta were 23 and 20 microM, respectively. In SHR, the mean arterial pressure after injection of 30 and 60 mg/kg panaxynol was reduced, and the maximum hypotensive values were 23 and 48 mmHg, respectively. Thus, lipoxygenase products may affect the renin-angiotensin system.  (+info)

Effect of policosanol on cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. (8/502)

Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from sugar cane wax, whose main component is octacosanol. An inhibitory effect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and cerebral ischemia in animal models has been reported. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of policosanol on cerebral ischemia induced by unilateral carotid ligation and bilateral clamping and recirculation in Mongolian gerbils. Policosanol (200 mg/kg) administered immediately after unilateral carotid ligation and at 12- or 24-h intervals for 48 h significantly inhibited mortality and clinical symptoms when compared with controls, whereas lower doses (100 mg/kg) were not effective. Control animals showed swelling (tissue vacuolization) and necrosis of neurons in all areas of the brain studied (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and olfactory tubercle), showing a similar injury profile. In the group treated with 200 mg/kg policosanol swelling and necrosis were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. In another experimental model, comparison between groups showed that the brain water content of control gerbils (N = 15) was significantly higher after 15 min of clamping and 4 h of recirculation than in sham-operated animals (N = 13), whereas policosanol (200 mg/kg) (N = 19) significantly reduced the edema compared with the control group, with a cerebral water content identical to that of the sham-operated animals. cAMP levels in the brain of control-ligated Mongolian gerbils (N = 8) were significantly lower than those of sham-operated animals (N = 10). The policosanol-treated group (N = 10) showed significantly higher cAMP levels (2.68 pmol/g of tissue) than the positive control (1.91 pmol/g of tissue) and similar to those of non-ligated gerbils (2.97 pmol/g of tissue). In conclusion, our results show an anti-ischemic effect of policosanol administered after induction of cerebral ischemia, in two different experimental models in Mongolian gerbils, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect in cerebral vascular disorders.  (+info)

* Intellectual disability: Individuals with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome typically have mild to moderate intellectual disability, which can range from mild cognitive impairment to more severe developmental delays.
* Seizures: Seizures are a common feature of Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, and they can be difficult to control with medication.
* Physical abnormalities: Individuals with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome may have distinctive physical features, such as short stature, thinning of the hair on the scalp, and thin, brittle skin. They may also have joint deformities, such as clubfoot or scoliosis.
* Vision problems: Sjogren-Larsson syndrome can cause vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
* Hearing loss: Some individuals with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome may experience hearing loss or auditory processing disorders.

There is no cure for Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include medications to control seizures, physical therapy to improve joint mobility and strength, and occupational therapy to develop daily living skills. In addition, speech and language therapy may be helpful for individuals with hearing loss or communication difficulties.

Early diagnosis of Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is important to ensure that children receive appropriate interventions and support as early as possible. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, genetic testing, and imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans. Genetic counseling can also be helpful for families who have a history of the condition.

Overall, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a rare and complex disorder that requires careful management and support. With appropriate interventions and resources, individuals with this condition can lead fulfilling lives.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Symptoms of ichthyosis can include:

* Thickened, scaly skin on the arms, legs, back, and chest
* Redness and itching
* Cracking and splitting of the skin
* Increased risk of infection
* Respiratory problems

Treatment for ichthyosis typically involves the use of topical creams and ointments to help soften and hydrate the skin, as well as oral medications to reduce inflammation and itching. In severe cases, phototherapy or systemic corticosteroids may be necessary.

In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several home remedies and lifestyle modifications that can help manage the symptoms of ichthyosis. These include:

* Moisturizing regularly with a fragrance-free moisturizer
* Avoiding harsh soaps and cleansers
* Using lukewarm water when showering or bathing
* Applying cool compresses to the skin to reduce redness and inflammation
* Wearing loose, breathable clothing to avoid irritating the skin
* Protecting the skin from extreme temperatures and environmental stressors.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:

1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:

* Obesity
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* Diabetes
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease

Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:

* Fatigue
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests

Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)

Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.

Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:

* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.

The three main subtypes of FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a combination of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with FAS often have facial abnormalities, growth retardation, and central nervous system defects.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This subtype is characterized by some, but not all, of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This subtype includes individuals who have physical birth defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the full criteria for FAS or pFAS.

Other types of FASD include:

1. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): This subtype is characterized by behavioral and cognitive abnormalities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression.
2. Maternal and Child Health Consensus Statement on FASD: This subtype includes individuals who have a history of prenatal alcohol exposure and exhibit a range of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities, but do not meet the full criteria for any of the other subtypes.

The diagnosis of FASD is based on a combination of clinical findings, medical history, and developmental assessments. There is no specific test or biomarker for FASD, so diagnosis can be challenging and requires expertise in pediatrics, neurology, and developmental psychopathology.

Treatment for FASD typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical care, behavioral interventions, and supportive services. Management of the condition may involve working with a team of healthcare professionals, such as pediatricians, neurologists, developmental specialists, and social workers.

The prognosis for individuals with FASD varies depending on the severity of their alcohol exposure during pregnancy, the timing and amount of exposure, and the presence of any comorbid conditions. However, early diagnosis and intervention can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

In summary, FASD is a complex and multifactorial condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Diagnosis can be challenging, but a comprehensive evaluation and multidisciplinary approach to treatment can improve outcomes for individuals with FASD.

The causes of alcoholic intoxication are due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol, a psychoactive substance that affects the central nervous system. When alcohol is ingested, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly distributed throughout the body. As the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rises, it can impair the functioning of various organs and systems, including the brain, liver, and cardiovascular system.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the individual's BAC, but common signs include:

* Slurred speech and poor coordination
* Dizziness and drowsiness
* Decreased inhibitions and impaired judgment
* Memory loss or blackouts
* Nausea and vomiting
* Headaches and hangovers

In severe cases of alcoholic intoxication, individuals may experience more serious symptoms such as:

* Confusion and disorientation
* Agitation and belligerence
* Seizures and loss of consciousness
* Coma and death

Treatment for alcoholic intoxication typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and monitoring of vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as seizures or respiratory depression.

Prevention of alcoholic intoxication includes responsible drinking practices, such as limiting the amount of alcohol consumed, pacing oneself, and avoiding binge drinking. It is also important to eat before and while drinking, as food can help slow down the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream.

Overall, alcoholic intoxication is a common condition that can have serious consequences if not managed properly. It is important to be aware of the risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption and to take steps to prevent or manage intoxication.

Studies of fatty alcohol metabolism in fibroblasts suggest that very long-chain fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, and fatty ... Most fatty alcohols in nature are found as waxes which are esters of fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are produced by ... Short-chain fatty alcohols are considered eye irritants, while long chain alcohols are not. Fatty alcohols exhibit no skin ... Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range ...
... which is often the final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production from fatty alcohols and fatty ... In enzymology, a long-chain-alcohol O-fatty-acyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Both enzymes have dissimilar substrate specificities: AWAT1 prefers decyl alcohol (C10) and AWAT2 prefers C16 and C18 alcohols ... and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids and that the formation of wax esters in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic ...
... (EC, FAR (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name long-chain acyl-CoA:NADPH ... Alcohol-forming+fatty+acyl-CoA+reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ... Metz JG, Pollard MR, Anderson L, Hayes TR, Lassner MW (March 2000). "Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A ... a long-chain alcohol + 2 NADP+ + coenzyme A The enzyme has been characterized from the plant Simmondsia chinensis. ...
As with other fatty alcohols, octane-1,8-diol is used in cosmetics as an emollient and humectant. Ethylene glycol 1,2- ... "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_277.pub2. (ECHA ...
... the Guerbet reaction is mainly applied to fatty alcohols to afford oily products, which are called Guerbet alcohols. They are ... While the Guerbet reaction is traditionally (and commercially) focused on fatty alcohols, it has been investigated for the ... Oxo alcohols - a different reaction which gives similar products Guerbet alcohols 2-Ethyl-1-butanol 2-Ethylhexanol 2- ... "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_277.pub2. Marcel ...
The usually targeted products are fatty alcohols, which are otherwise derived from natural fats and oils. Fatty alcohols are ... a route for the production of branched fatty alcohols Klaus Noweck, Wolfgang Grafahrend (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's ... In organic chemistry, the Ziegler process (also called the Ziegler-Alfol synthesis) is a method for producing fatty alcohols ... Zerong Wang "Ziegler Alcohol Synthesis (Ziegler Higher Alcohol Synthesis, Alfol Process, Ziegler-Alfol Process, Ziegler-Alfol ...
... fatty alcohols, and methyl ester. Especially fatty alcohols and ester between a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol (wax ester) can ... Furthermore we can use metabolite engineering to produce fatty alcohol and wax ester from non-oleaginous organism. Leman, Jacek ... Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/ ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans since humans cannot ...
... , or 1-octadecanol, is an organic compound classified as a saturated fatty alcohol with the formula CH3(CH2) ... Fatty alcohols, Non-ionic surfactants, Primary alcohols, Alkanols). ... Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... Stearyl alcohol is prepared from stearic acid or some fats by the process of catalytic hydrogenation. It has low toxicity. ...
... /ˈoʊliˌɪl, ˈoʊliəl/, or cis-9-octadecen-1-ol, is an unsaturated fatty alcohol with the molecular formula C18H36O ... "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_277.pub2. ... Fatty alcohols, Non-ionic surfactants, Cosmetics chemicals, Alkenols). ... Reid, E. E.; Cockerille, F. O.; Meyer, J. D.; Cox, W. M.; Ruhoff, J. R. (1935). "Oleyl Alcohol". Organic Syntheses. 15: 51. doi ...
... is a fatty alcohol. A colorless oil, it is produced by the reduction of the carboxylic acid group in linoleic ... Fatty alcohols, Polyunsaturated compounds, Alkenols, All stub articles, Alkene stubs, Alcohol stubs). ... Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... Adkins, Homer; Gillespie, R. H. (1949). "Oleyl Alcohol". Organic Syntheses. 29: 80. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.029.0080. v t e v t e ( ...
"Fatty alcohols". Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2006-04-01. Beegle LW, Wilson MG, Abilleira F, Jordan JF, ... Another example is the presence of straight-chain lipids in the form of alkanes, alcohols and fatty acids with 20-36 carbon ... Another example are the long-chain fatty alcohols with more than 23 atoms that are produced by planktonic bacteria. When used ... the particular fatty acids measured in a sample can indicate which types of bacteria and archaea live in that environment. ...
It is a fatty alcohol. Sulfate esters of lauryl alcohol, especially sodium lauryl sulfate, are very widely used as surfactants ... Fatty alcohols, Primary alcohols, Alkanols, All stub articles, Organic chemistry stubs). ... Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley- ... Lauryl alcohol is tasteless and colorless with a floral odor. In 1993, the European demand of dodecanol was around 60 thousand ...
Fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyglycol ethers with 7-12 ethylene oxide (EO) units are used as surfactants. For ferrous metals ... Acetic acid (vinegar) Various forms of alcohol including isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol Ammonia solution Amyl nitrite and ... Some cleaners contain water-soluble organic solvents like glycol ethers and fatty alcohols, which ease the removal of oil, fat ... Surfactants are usually modified fatty alcohols. Silver cleaning is a specialty since silver is noble but tends to tarnish via ...
At old plants have been added new ones: fatty alcohols, vinyl compounds, caustic soda. At the rubber plant, new polyisoprene ... fatty alcohols, liquid chlorine, and the like. In addition, installations for the production of ammonium chloride, chlorinated ... cinematographic approach to the consequences of ingestion of methyl alcohol from the Borzești Chemical Plant Cineclub Cotidian ...
... fatty acids, and alcohols. Examples of photoheterotrophic organisms include purple non-sulfur bacteria, green non-sulfur ...
Lubricants, such as fatty alcohols, Panthenol, Dimethicone, etc. Moisturizers, whose role is to hold moisture in the hair. ... fatty alcohols, and quaternary ammonium compounds. These chemical products have the benefits of hair conditioner without ... Oils (EFAs - essential fatty acids), which can help dry/porous hair become more soft and pliable. The scalp produces a natural ... They are based on unsaturated fatty acid chains, which are bent, not straight. Leave-in conditioner is designed to be used in a ...
It is a fatty alcohol. Many other isomers are also known generically as octanols. 1-Octanol is manufactured for the synthesis ... This route is known as the Ziegler alcohol synthesis. An idealized synthesis is shown: Al(C2H5)3 + 9 C2H4 → Al(C8H17)3 Al(C8H17 ... The resulting doubly unsaturated alcohol is then hydrogenated. Octanol and water are immiscible. The distribution of a compound ... Falbe, Jürgen; Bahrmann, Helmut; Lipps, Wolfgang; Mayer, Dieter; Frey, Guido D. (2013). "Alcohols, Aliphatic". Ullmann's ...
Other names in common use include long-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, and fatty alcohol oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates ... Lee T (April 1979). "Characterization of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase from rat liver". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... In enzymology, a long-chain-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a long-chain ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. ...
The oils are often mineral oil or vegetable oils and the waxes are long chain fatty alcohol, fatty acid soaps or esters. These ... Fatty alcohols (C7 - C22) were effective but expensive antifoams. They were added to oil products to boost the efficiency. Milk ... Typical waxes are ethylene bis stearamide (EBS), paraffin waxes, ester waxes and fatty alcohol waxes. These products might also ... Commonly used agents are insoluble oils, polydimethylsiloxanes and other silicones, certain alcohols, stearates and glycols. ...
... esters of fatty acids are hydrogenated to fatty alcohols. RCO 2 R ′ + 2 H 2 ⟶ RCH 2 OH + R ′ OH {\displaystyle {\ce {RCO2R' + 2 ... The reaction is widely used for degrading triglycerides, e.g. in the production of fatty acid esters and alcohols. Poly( ... as in the substitution reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides are fatty acid esters of glycerol; they are ... Alcohols react with acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides to give esters: RCOCl + R ′ OH ⟶ RCO 2 R ′ + HCl {\displaystyle {\ce { ...
... s: esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. a. Fats: esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the ... A simple lipid is a fatty acid ester of different alcohols and carries no other substance. These lipids belong to a ... b. Waxes: Solid esters of long-chain fatty acids such as palmitic acid with aliphatic or alicyclic higher molecular weight ... monohydric alcohols. Waxes are water-insoluble due to the weakly polar nature of the ester group. Lipid v t e (Articles lacking ...
... is classified fatty alcohol. A secondary alcohol, it is chiral, although it is mainly encountered as a racemic ... Dr.), Taylor & Francis, 1975 - page 443 Industrial Alcohol Technology Handbook ; NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers ; ASIA ...
Industrial ethoxylation is primarily performed upon fatty alcohols in order to generate fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE's), ... In particular ethoxylated fatty alcohols which have been 'capped' with ~1 propylene oxide unit are extensively marketed as ... Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the corresponding organosulfates, which can be easily deprotonated to give ... Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are surfactants found in products such as laundry detergents, surface ...
Also fatty alcohols (wax alcohols) and diols are alcohol components. Besides that, about 5 to 10% consist of unesterified diols ... Sugarcane wax consists of the following ingredients: about 70% of alcohols of long-chain hydrocarbons having chain lengths of C ...
Like other fatty alcohols, myristyl alcohol has very low acute toxicity, with LD50 >5000 mg/kg (oral, rat). Merck Index, 12th ... As with other fatty alcohols, 1-tetradecanol is used as an ingredient in cosmetics such as cold creams for its emollient ... "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_277.pub2. ... Kreutzer, Udo R. (February 1984). "Manufacture of Fatty Alcohols Based on Natural Fats and Oils". Journal of the American Oil ...
... is a straight chain fatty alcohol with ten carbon atoms and the molecular formula C10H21OH. It is a colorless to ... Like other medium chain fatty alcohols, 1-decanol is able to permeate the skin which can lead to irritation. Merck Index, 12th ... "Skin permeation enhancement effect and skin irritation of saturated fatty alcohols". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... ". "Material Safety Data Sheet - Decyl alcohol, 99%". Archived from the original on 2021-09-01. ...
Enol Ethanol fuel Fatty alcohol Index of alcohol-related articles List of alcohols Lucas test Polyol Rubbing alcohol Sugar ... "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on ... The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main ... Other simple alcohols, chiefly fusel alcohols, are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols however are pervasive, ...
... converts fatty acids into fatty alcohols. Fatty alcohols are, however, more easily produced from fatty acid esters. In the ... Fatty acid synthase Fatty acid synthesis Fatty aldehyde List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids List of ... Fatty acids are also converted, via their methyl esters, to fatty alcohols and fatty amines, which are precursors to ... Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Saturated fatty acids have no C ...
Fatty alcohols, Conjugated diynes, Vicinal diols, All stub articles, Alcohol stubs). ... Panaxytriol is a fatty alcohol found in ginseng. Shim, Sang Chul; Koh, Hun Yeoung; Han, Byung Hoon (1983). "Polyacetylenes from ...
Azerbaijan's main exports to Brazil include: industrial fatty acids, oils, and alcohols. Brazil's main exports to Azerbaijan ...
... and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Lactitol - humectant Lactose - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and ... gelling agent Alcohol - Alfalfa - Alginic acid - thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, gelling agent, emulsifier Alitame - ... Pectin - vegetable gum, emulsifier Perilla seed oil - high in omega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for medicinal ... Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ...
Alcohol rubs (≥62% isopropyl alcohol) may be used as an adjunct, but are less effective than hand-washing, as norovirus lacks a ... Bile salts are produced by the liver in response to eating fatty foods, and they help with the absorption of consumed lipids. ... Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are not effective against the norovirus, according to the NHS information page on the subject; ... Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 systems is used in health care environments where medical electronics would be adversely ...
Its red color is due primarily to the presence of bacterioruberin, a 50 carbon carotenoid Alcohol (polyol) pigment present ... Vreeland, H; Rosenzweig, W D; Lowenstein, T; Satterfield, C; Ventosa, A (December 2006). "Fatty acid and DNA analyses of ...
The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, ... The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups: in animals and fungi, all these fatty acid synthase ... The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty ... Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. ...
Primary alcohols, Fatty alcohols, Terpenes and terpenoids). ... containing an alcohol functional group. Dolichols play a role ... and this α-saturated polyprenyl alcohol is known as dolichol. Dolichols are found in eukaryotes and in archaea, although ...
... is derived from both a dedicated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a polyketide synthase (PKS), together known as ... Now an esterase, EstA, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl, forming the primary alcohol in versiconal. The acetal in ... Averantin is converted to averufin via a two different enzymes, a hydroxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. This will oxygenate ... In monkeys for instance, subacute toxicity studies showed portal inflammation and fatty change. Chronic toxicity Chronic ...
Fatty acid-derived volatiles (C8-alcohols and aldehydes with a characteristic fungal odor, such as 1-octen-3-ol and 2-octenal ... Because more aromatic molecules in truffles are soluble in alcohol, it can be used to carry a more complex and accurate truffle ... ethers or alcohols, respectively. The sweaty-musky aroma of truffles is similar to that of the pheromone androstenol that also ... "Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements". International Alliance for Responsible Drinking. Archived from the original on 2018-12 ...
The Makassarese exchanged goods such as cloth, tobacco, knives, rice and alcohol for the right to trepang coastal waters and ... "Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus, for wound healing". General Pharmacology. 33 (4): 337-340 ...
The synthesis of 2-oxazoline rings is well established and in general proceeds via the cyclisation of a 2-amino alcohol ( ... The dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives of fatty acids are amenable to analysis by gas chromatography. Structural analogues ... The usual route to oxazolines entails reaction of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl chloride is commonly used to ... The cyclisation of an amino alcohol and an aldehyde produces an intermediate oxazolidine which can be converted to an oxazoline ...
... omega-3 fatty acid Serotonin-dopamine antagonist, atypical antipsychotic Space domain awareness, the ability to detect, track, ... a DoD RDT&E agency Specially denatured alcohol Speed Demos Archive of video game speedruns Swiss Telegraphic Agency ( ...
Fatty alcohols, Polyketides, NADH dehydrogenase inhibitors, Plant toxins). ...
A proposed mechanism involves the 2' alcohol oxygen acting as a nucleophile to attack the gamma-phosphoryl of ATP, releasing ... reduced to NADPH primarily by the pentose phosphate pathway to provide reducing power in biosynthetic processes such as fatty ...
In fatty acid (FA) metabolism, long chain fatty acids in the cytosol cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane because they are ... This, in summary, shows that meldonium given in acute doses could be beneficial for the treatment of seizures and alcohol ... fatty acid transport is reduced and the accumulation of cytotoxic intermediate products of fatty acid beta-oxidation in ... Long chain FA are first activated via esterification with coenzyme A to produce a fatty acid-coA complex which can then cross ...
Liver disease may also be a result of lifestyle factors, such as fatty liver and NASH. Alcoholic liver disease may also develop ... Chronic pancreatitis may predispose to pancreatic cancer and is strongly linked to alcohol use. Other rarer diseases affecting ... alcohol use and food consumption, may be taken. A medical examination may be conducted to investigate for symptoms of liver ... or due to acute or chronic hazardous alcohol use or as a side-effect of ERCP. Other forms of pancreatitis include chronic and ...
Alcohols kill vegetative bacteria, most viruses and fungi. Ethyl alcohol, n-propanol and isopropyl alcohol are the most ... and fatty acids. Bromine is also an effective antimicrobial that is used in water treatment plants. When mixed with chlorine it ... Alcohols have a high efficiency against enveloped viruses (60-70% ethyl alcohol) 70% isopropyl alcohol or ethanol are highly ... Alcohols are not quite efficient when it comes to spores. The mode of action is by denaturing the proteins. Alcohols interfere ...
... or fatty) Zucker rat or Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF rat), which is actually a recessive trait (fa/fa) of the leptin receptor ... Long-Evans consume alcohol in a much higher rate compared to other strains, thus require less time for these behavioral studies ... Kurtz TW, Morris RC, Pershadsingh HA (June 1989). "The Zucker fatty rat as a genetic model of obesity and hypertension". ... They are utilized as a multipurpose model organism, frequently in behavioral research, especially in alcohol research. ...
Especially consider saving rich and fatty foods for Easter. Consider not eating before receiving Communion in Lent. Abstain ... lacticinia and alcohol. In Western Christianity, fasting is observed during the forty-day season of Lent by many communicants ... lacticinia and alcohol for the entire forty days of the liturgical season. In the traditional Black Fast, the observant ...
Edward Mutesa (45), who was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda in Uganda died on 21 November 1969 from alcohol poisoning, in his ... told the San Francisco Police Department that silent film comedian Fatty Arbuckle had sexually assaulted Rappe during a Labor ... behavior that investigating officers did not believe was caused by alcohol or drugs. The coroner has said her death did not ...
... tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixatives, ... A myelinated axon is wrapped in a fatty insulating sheath of myelin, which serves to greatly increase the speed of signal ... This applies to drugs such as cannabinoids, nicotine, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, fluoxetine, chlorpromazine, and many others. ... together with contributions from medium chain fatty acids (caprylic and heptanoic acids), lactate, acetate, and possibly amino ...
Fatty acid - fc immunoglobulin - fc receptor - feedback inhibition - fermentation - fetal protein - fibroblast growth factor - ... alcohol - alcoholic fermentation - alicyclic compound - aliphatic compound - alkali - allosteric site - allostery - allotrope ...
Because oxaloacetate is crucial for entry of acetyl-CoA into the TCA cycle, the rapid production of acetyl-CoA from fatty acid ... excessive alcohol consumption; and/or insulin deficiency. ... can be synthesized in the liver via the metabolism of fatty ...
The nine-carbon fatty acid 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid (9-HN) is derived as a separate compound and later esterified to monic acid ... and reduction of the B-keto group to an alcohol. The dehydration (DH) domain in module 1 is predicted to be non-functional due ... Pseudomonic acid A is the product of an esterification between the 17C polyketide monic acid and the 9C fatty acid 9-hydroxy- ... 13C labeled acetate feeding has shown that C1-C6 are constructed with acetate in the canonical fashion of fatty acid synthesis ...
Despite its stronger disinfecting capabilities, it is less commonly used as a disinfectant compared to bleach and alcohol due ... Winterbourn, CC; Van Den Berg, JJ; Roitman, E; Kuypers, FA (1992). "Chlorohydrin formation from unsaturated fatty acids reacted ... fatty acid groups, cholesterol and proteins. Knox et al. first noted that HClO is a sulfhydryl inhibitor that, in sufficient ...
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 21 (2): 286-92. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1997.tb03762.x. PMID 9113265. Laposata M. (1998). "Fatty acid ... 2002). "Fatty acid ethyl esters: recent observations". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. 67 (2-3): 193- ... Ethyl oleate may be the toxic mediator of alcohol in fetal alcohol syndrome. The oral ingestion of ethyl oleate has been ... Ethyl oleate is a fatty acid ester formed by the condensation of oleic acid and ethanol. It is a colorless oil although ...
Alternatively, authors have reported using the dye saturated in isopropyl alcohol, 95% ethanol, or 0.05% by weight in acetone: ... offering the ability to visually qualify the presence of the fatty compound of interest without isolating it. For staining ...
She frowned on alcohol and tobacco, and would reduce pocket money for minor mishaps. Grant attributed her behavior to ... She occasionally took him to the cinema, where he enjoyed the performances of Charlie Chaplin, Chester Conklin, Fatty Arbuckle ...
Newer fluids have been proposed, including new ester-based fluids, low-molecular weight dimethyl siloxane oils, fatty-acid ... alcohol compounds, including aqueous ethylene glycol and ethanol solutions; and esters, including n-butyl acetate. ...
Stepuro, I.I. (2005). "Thiamine and vasculopathies". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 72 (2): 115-127. ... Primary alcohols, Thiazoles, Heterocyclic compounds with 3 rings). ...
Ovar is a simple dish made from rather fatty pork meat (head or knuckle). These pieces of lower quality meat are boiled in ... "ČSÚ: Czechs eat less meat, drink more alcohol". Czech News Agency. The Prague Post. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original ...
The fatty acids in phospho- and glycolipids usually contain an even number, typically between 14 and 24, of carbon atoms, with ... Sphingosine is an amino alcohol that contains a long, unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. In sphingomyelin and glycolipids, the ... The hydrophobic chains belong either to: two fatty acids (FA) - in the case of the phosphoglycerides, or one FA and the ... due to the abundance of 18-carbon fatty acyl chains with three double bonds, linolenic acid, as has been revealed by 13-C NMR ...
1. Steffens, G. L., T. C. Tso and D. W. Spaulding: Fatty alcohol inhibition of tobacco axillary and terminal bud growth;}. ... Surfactant Residues in Maryland Tobacco Treated with a Fatty-Alcohol-Type Sucker-Control Formulation. ... 8. Tso, T. C., and H. Chu: The fate of fatty compounds and surfactants used as sucker control agents on field tobacco; Beitr. ... 7. Tso, T. C., H. Chu and D. W. DeJong: Residue levels of fatty compounds and surfactants as suckering agents on tobacco; Beitr ...
Severity of alcohol dependence is associated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A missense variant. Thursday, September 15 ... One of the primary endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a ... The present study sought to determine whether the FAAH C385A polymorphism was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) ... functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH C385A, rs324420) that has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use in humans. However ...
Chemical Name: Natural Fatty Alcohol Abbrev: Fatty Alcohol. Technical Specification: Technical Indexes: Apearance: White flakes ...
Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase, Neurodevelopment, and Alcohol: Illuminating the Intricacies of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase, ... Neurodevelopment, and Alcohol: Illuminating the Intricacies of the Endocannabinoid System in Addiction Susceptibility. ...
What alcohol is best for fatty liver?. Oct. 15, 2008 - Scientists looking for ways to help treat fatty livers have discovered ... Does alcohol make fatty liver worse?. (Reuters Health) - People who have fatty liver disease that wasnt caused by heavy ... How long does it take to reverse fatty liver alcohol?. If people stop drinking and no fibrosis is present, fatty liver and ... How much alcohol is safe for Fatty Liver?. Myth 2: Only alcoholics get fatty liver ...
Fatty alcohol polyoxypropylene ether. It is a transparent, colorless liquid. The Fatty Alcohol Polyoxypropylene Ether: The ... Isomeric alcohol ethoxylates CAS 9043-30-5. Isomeric alcohol is easily dispersed and soluble in water. It can be used along ... The Isomeric alcohol Ethoxylates Isomeric alcohol isothoxylates can be easily dispersed in water or used with a wide ...… ... Semi-branched C12-13 Alcohol Ether Sulphate, 70%. Semi-branched C12-13 alcohol ether sulphate is an anionic high-performance ...
Fatty alcohol ether sulfates with low 1,4-dioxane levels. 1,4-dioxane is a common by-product in manufacturing of fatty alcohols ...
Alcohol Behind the Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Epidemic in India. Experts blame the increased consumption of alcohol, junk ... food, high-fat diets, and sugary drinks are driving a spike in alcoholic fatty liver disease in India. ...
The fatty alcohols remain through the process untouched ... Jojoba oil breaks into free fatty acids and fatty alcohols ... Jojoba oil breaks into free fatty acids and fatty alcohols after the -OH reaction. The fatty alcohols remain through the ... Forum Jojoba Oil - Has anyone successfully removed Fatty Alcohols from Fatty Acids prior to BF3 in FAME reaction? * ... BF3/methanol will also form ethers with the fatty alcohols and you end up with a FAME/fatty ether mixture. With a simple sample ...
C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol is a small part compared with the higher grade fatty alcohol type because the downstream application of 1- ... Global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol Market Sales, 2017-2022, 2023-2028, (MT). Global top five C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol companies in 2021 ... Global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol Market, by Type, 2017-2022, 2023-2028 ($ Millions) & (MT). Global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol Market ... Global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol Market, by Application, 2017-2022, 2023-2028 ($ Millions) & (MT). Global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol ...
Fatty Acid and Alcohol Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida: Functional Analysis Using Random Barcode Transposon Sequencing. ... Here, we provide functional evidence for the putative roles of hundreds of genes involved in the fatty acid and alcohol ... The gaps are particularly noticeable in our understanding of both fatty acid and alcohol catabolism, where many paralogs ... Because fatty acids and alcohols may serve as both feedstocks and final products of metabolic-engineering efforts, the fitness ...
Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols from Glucose. Fatty alcohols are used in detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants and ... More than 1.3 million tons of fatty alcohols are used worldwide each year, representing a $3 billion market.. ... P140076US02 ... Fatty acids generally can be classified as straight-chain or non-straight-chain. Non-straight-chain fatty acids are less ... Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long-Chain Hydrocarbons. New, renewable sources of transportation fuel ...
Dehydration of fatty alcohols on zirconia supported tungstate catalysts ( Read More ) MAY 25, 2023 ...
Dive into the research topics of Lipase-Mediated Synthesis of Fatty Acid Esters Using a Blending Alcohol Consisting of ... Lipase-Mediated Synthesis of Fatty Acid Esters Using a Blending Alcohol Consisting of Methanol and 1-Butanol. ...
... and the co-surfactant fatty alcohol (FA) through the pseudo-ternary phase diagram, mapped at 25°C. Transition between the ... Investigation of possible interactions between the surfactant alkyl polyglucoside (APG) and the co-surfactant fatty alcohol (FA ... Understanding the interactions between natural surfactant/co-surfactant of Alkyl polyglucoside/Fatty alcohol type through ... Understanding the interactions between natural surfactant/co-surfactant of Alkyl polyglucoside/Fatty alcohol type through ...
Program for Extramural/Intramural Alcohol Research Collaborations (U01) PAR-11-189. NIAAA ... interactions of alcohol with essential fatty acids and their metabolism; research on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-related ... essential fatty acids among children exposed to alcohol pre- or post-natally; the use of alcohol-preferring rodent strains in ... alcohol use disorders including dependence, and the effects of alcohol on health. The NIH Intramural Scientist will be a ...
The classes of volatile compounds identified were ketones, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, fatty acids, alcohol, and miscellaneous ... Gas-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Ketones; Aldehydes; Hydrocarbons; Fatty-acids; Alcohols; Dairy-products; Sampling; ...
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester; Glycerol Esters; Fatty Alcohol; Fatty Amines; Other Products2) By Application: Personal Care And ... By Product: Fatty Acid; Fatty Acid Methyl Ester; Glycerol Esters; Fatty Alcohol; Fatty Amines; Other Products ... Including: 1) By Product: Fatty Acid; Fatty Acid Methyl Ester; Glycerol Esters; Fatty Alcohol; Fatty Amines; Other Products. 2 ... Including: 1) By Product: Specialty Esters; Fatty Acid Methyl Ester; Glycerol Esters; Alkoxylates; Fatty Amines. 2) By ...
Primary fatty alcohols are major components of suberized root tissues of Arabidopsis in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates.. ...
Fatty Alcohols / therapeutic use* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Fatty foods, carbonated drinks, and alcohol can also upset digestion. Theres no proof any of these foods cause IBS, but they ...
Avoiding alcohol and spicy, fatty or acidic foods that trigger heartburn. *Eating smaller meals ...
Other risk factors include heavy alcohol use, obesity, and fatty liver disease. ...
Diseases : Alcohol Toxicity , Alcoholic Liver Disease, Dysbiosis, Endotoxemia, Fatty Liver. Additional Keywords : Diseases that ... Intestinal dysbios is a possible causative factor in alcohol-incuded endotoxemia and alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Oct 01, ... Diseases : Endotoxemia, Fatty Liver, Fructose-Induced Toxicity , Liver Stress: Fructose-Induced, Nonalcoholic fatty liver ... Diseases : Alcohol Toxicity , Colitis, Colorectal Cancer, Endotoxemia, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress. Pharmacological Actions ...
  • Has anyone successfully removed Fatty Alcohols from Fatty Acids prior to BF3 in FAME reaction? (
  • Working in small volumes - Jojoba oil breaks into free fatty acids and fatty alcohols after the -OH reaction. (
  • Another possibility could be a weak ion exchanger SPE to remove the acids from the alcohols and subsequent step to FAMEs. (
  • CMT's 6th Oleochemicals Outlook in Bali from 5-6 September, 2018 aims to discuss developments in fatty acids, fatty alcohol markets as well as the prospects of palm oil, coconut and castor based oleochemicals among others. (
  • BALI, Indonesia , July 24, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Brand owners, oleochemical/derivatives producers as well as biodiesel players are coming together to assess the fatty acids market consolidation, rising fatty alcohol production as well as new markets for palm-based biodiesel in response to EU's phasing out of palm oil from motor fuels by 2030. (
  • 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] It catalyzes the oxidation of medium- and long-chain fatty aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. (
  • Cetearyl olivate is composed of cetearyl alcohol and fatty acids derived from olive oil. (
  • This anaerobic bacterium catalyzed the conversion of ethyl alcohol into fatty acids. (
  • The oxidative stress, we suspected, resulted in part from alcohol-induced excessive release of unsaturated fatty acids from brain membranes," explained Dr. Collins. (
  • Drinking heavily may lead to chronic health issues including heart disease, ulcers, excessive weight gain, and liver damage such as alcoholic fatty liver disease (FLD) and cirrhosis. (
  • Experts blame the increased consumption of alcohol, junk food, high-fat diets, and sugary drinks are driving a spike in alcoholic fatty liver disease in India. (
  • But it often alcoholic fatty liver disease. (
  • Semi-branched C12-13 alcohol ether sulphate is an anionic high-performance surfactant. (
  • The Fatty Alcohol Polyoxypropylene Ether: The fatty alcohol polyoxypropylene is ethert, which is a colorless liquid to light yellow. (
  • 1,4-dioxane is a common by-product in manufacturing of fatty alcohols ethoxylates and fatty alcohols ether sulfates. (
  • Dear plowmase, BF3/methanol will also form ethers with the fatty alcohols and you end up with a FAME/fatty ether mixture. (
  • and most of them don't know it," diabetes are at greater risk of "We're finding that these says Dr. Matt Cave, a liver specialist nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (
  • Causes include alcohol-associated liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic hepatitis C, and chronic hepatitis B. (
  • One of the primary endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH C385A, rs324420) that has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use in humans. (
  • Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase, Neurodevelopment, and Alcohol: Illuminating the Intricacies of the Endocannabinoid System in Addiction Susceptibility. (
  • About 20 percent of alcoholics and heavy drinkers develop fatty liver, or steatosis. (
  • Alcohol is metabolized in the likely to develop fatty liver disease. (
  • Accumulation of long-chain fatty alcohols and modification of macromolecules by an excess of fatty aldehydes are thought to be the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing the manifestations of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. (
  • High amounts of alcohol cause fatty deposits in your liver and scarring, which can eventually cause liver failure. (
  • also cause fatty liver disease. (
  • Patients with NAFLD are generally recommended not to consume any alcohol for the fear of worsening their underlying liver disease. (
  • The National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) convened for its 153rd meeting at 9:00 a.m. on Thursday, February 6, 2020, at NIAAA headquarters in Rockville, Maryland. (
  • The global C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol market was valued at 270.9 million in 2021 and is projected to reach US$ 423.9 million by 2028, at a CAGR of 6.6% during the forecast period. (
  • Fatty acid synthesis was Earl's area of research during his years of graduate study. (
  • Primary fatty alcohols are major components of suberized root tissues of Arabidopsis in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates. (
  • Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. (
  • In the current study, the researchers exposed brain cell cultures from adult rats to heavy amounts of alcohol and then compared half the cells, which were further exposed to omega-3 DHA, with the other nonexposed half. (
  • Other risk factors include heavy alcohol use, obesity, and fatty liver disease. (
  • Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is due to deficient activity of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), an enzyme required to oxidize fatty alcohol to fatty acid. (
  • Fatty Liver Disease to NASH is a liver biopsy. (
  • Reuters Health) - People who have fatty liver disease that wasn't caused by heavy drinking may still need to avoid alcohol if they want to prevent their liver damage from getting worse, a Korean study suggests. (
  • These tests can help look for a fatty liver end up with liver damage. (
  • Latest research report on " C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol Market " now available at high quality database of with market size, share, trends, competitive and statistical analysis. (
  • Whether you feel dependent on alcohol or not, drinking anything over the recommended 'safe limit' may put your body at risk of fatty liver. (
  • Because your liver breaks down alcohol in your body, heavy drinking can lead to liver disease. (
  • If people stop drinking and no fibrosis is present, fatty liver and inflammation can be reversed. (
  • Fatty liver disease rarely causes any symptoms, but it's an important warning sign that you're drinking at a harmful level. (
  • If you stop drinking alcohol for 2 weeks, your liver should return to normal. (
  • You asked: Why does my blood pressure go up after drinking alcohol? (
  • In other words, excessive drinking can cause higher levels of PLA2 activity, leading to excessive production of AA (a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid), which in turn leads to increased AQP4/neuroinflammation and swelling of the brain. (
  • Dr. Collins reported that the investigators are planning now to conduct studies that replicate the findings in intact adult rats exposed to binge-drinking levels of alcohol and that elucidate how DHA exerts its protection in the brain. (
  • The early stages of alcohol-related liver disease typically have no symptoms. (
  • have been linked to fatty liver has no symptoms. (
  • Some are found in common symptoms, they may include fatigue have nonalcoholic fatty liver household products and stick around and discomfort in the upper right disease," says Dr. Rohit Loomba, a in the environment. (
  • effects of cyclohexenonic long-chain fatty alcohol. (
  • The present study sought to determine whether the FAAH C385A polymorphism was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 Caucasian and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD. (
  • The goal of the research proposed by the collaborating investigators should address questions that advance the alcohol research field with respect to issues surrounding alcohol use disorders including dependence, and the effects of alcohol on health. (
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity is to encourage collaboration between alcohol researchers in the extramural community and those within the NIAAA intramural research program. (
  • Oct. 15, 2008 - Scientists looking for ways to help treat fatty livers have discovered that an ingredient in red wine can help protect from - and possibly even be used to treat - fat buildup in the liver that goes hand-in-hand with chronic alcohol use. (
  • The truth is, alcohol can have both pros and cons when it comes to cosmetics. (
  • Alcohol can have both benefits and drawbacks when it comes to cosmetics. (
  • Alcohol can make cosmetics feel lighter and more airy, which makes them ideal for those with oily or combination skin. (
  • Are you curious about the use of alcohol in cosmetic products? (
  • Alcohol is a common ingredient in many beauty products, but it can be a bit confusing to understand why it's used and whether it's good or bad for your skin. (
  • Alcohol is used in cosmetic products for a variety of reasons. (
  • Finding Fatty Liver · Most people tions, your genes, your diet, and your disease. (
  • We don't want people to think it's okay to take a few fish oil capsules and then continue to go on abusing alcohol," he said. (
  • In contrast, free fatty aldehyde levels are not elevated. (
  • A study presented at the recent Congress of the European Society for Biomedical Research on Alcohol in Warsaw, Poland, examined rat brain cells exposed to alcohol levels equivalent to 4 times the legal driving limit. (
  • Systemic inactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase 2 in mice protects from alcohol-induced fatty liver disease. (
  • The early stages of alcohol-related liver disease can potentially be reversed by abstaining from alcohol. (
  • Fatty liver is reversible at an early stage, but it sometimes progresses to advanced liver disease. (
  • Fatty liver disease is reversible. (
  • The specific scientific knowledge to be gained from research supported by this special program could fit into any broad area of alcohol research of interest to the Institute, such as epidemiology, treatment, recovery, prevention, neuroscience and behavior, metabolism and health effects. (
  • Investigation of possible interactions between the surfactant alkyl polyglucoside (APG) and the co-surfactant fatty alcohol (FA) through the pseudo-ternary phase diagram, mapped at 25°C. Transition between the fundamental research on the mixed surfactant behavior towards its interest in cosmetic field. (
  • The objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to bring together the research expertise that, as a functioning collaborative unit, will address key alcohol-based research questions that would not otherwise be possible by the same individuals working towards similar goals in isolation. (
  • C6-C10 Fatty Alcohol is a small part compared with the higher grade fatty alcohol type because the downstream application of 1-octanol is much smaller thanC12-C14 and C16-C20 alcohol. (
  • Avoid foods and drinks that can damage the liver, such as raw shellfish and alcohol. (
  • The liver has on noninvasive tests for fatty liver the ability to repair itself. (