Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Glucose in blood.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Abstaining from all food.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (1/971)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

Degradation of two protein sources at three solids retention times in continuous culture. (2/971)

Effects of solids retention times (SRT) of 10, 20, and 30 h on protein degradation and microbial metabolism were studied in continuous cultures of ruminal contents. Liquid dilution rate was constant across all retention times at .12 h(-1) (8.3 h mean retention time). Two semipurified diets that contained either soybean meal (SBM) or alfalfa hay (ALFH) as the sole nitrogen source were provided in amounts that decreased as SRT was increased. Digestion coefficients for DM, NDF, and ADF increased with increasing SRT. Digestion coefficients for nonstructural carbohydrates were higher in the SBM diet than in the ALFH diet but were not affected by SRT. Protein degradation in the ALFH diet averaged 51% and was unaffected by retention time. In the SBM diet, digestion of protein was 77, 78, and 96% at 10-, 20-, and 30-h retention times, respectively. Microbial efficiency decreased with increasing SRT and was greater for the SBM than for the ALFH diet. Efficiencies ranged from 30.6 to 35.7 and 20.8 to 29.2 g of N/kg of digested DM for the SBM and ALFH diets, respectively, as SRT decreased from 30 to 10 h. The diaminopimelic acid content of the microbes increased as SRT increased, indicating that changes in microbial species occurred owing to passage rates. From these results, we concluded that the digestibility decreases associated with increased ruminal turnover rates may be less for nonstructural carbohydrates and protein than for the fiber fractions.  (+info)

Protection by short-chain fatty acids against 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced intestinal lesions in germfree mice. (3/971)

In germfree mice, the administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) protected the intestinal mucosa from damage produced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). Animals receiving SCFA and Ara-C had intestinal morphologies closer to normal than the control animals, which had severe intestinal lesions. We concluded that orally administrated SCFA reduce intestinal lesions, improving the mucosa pattern of the small intestine and colon.  (+info)

Maintenance and regulation of the pH microclimate at the luminal surface of the distal colon of guinea-pig. (4/971)

1. The fluorescent dye 5-N-hexadecanoyl-aminofluorescein (HAF) was used to study the mechanisms involved in maintaining a relatively constant luminal surface pH (pHs) in the distal colon of the guinea-pig. The fatty acyl chain of the HAF molecule inserts into the apical membrane of epithelial cells. This allows a continuous measurement of the surface pH for several hours. 2. The localization of HAF was confirmed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and by using monoclonal antibodies against fluorescein. The insertion of HAF into the apical membrane of the colonocytes did not change the transepithelial conductance or the short-circuit current of the epithelium. 3. With the HAF method a pH microclimate was confirmed at the colonic surface. Although the pH of the bulk luminal solution was decreased in bicarbonate-containing solution from 7.4 to 6.4 the pHs changed only in the range 7.54-6.98. 4. In the absence of bicarbonate pHs almost followed changes of bulk luminal pH. In the presence of bicarbonate there was a decrease in pHs after removal of chloride from the luminal side and an increase in pHs after addition of butyrate to the luminal solution. This suggests the involvement of a bicarbonate-anion exchange in bicarbonate secretion: a Cl--HCO3- as well as a short-chain fatty acid--HCO3- exchange. 5. The apical K+-H+-ATPase in the distal colon of guinea-pig has little influence on pHs in the presence of physiological buffer concentrations. 6. Our findings indicate that bicarbonate plays a major role in maintaining the pH microclimate at the colonic surface.  (+info)

Modulation of lipid metabolism and spiramycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces ambofaciens unstable mutants. (5/971)

Streptomyces ambofaciens is prone to genetic instability involving genomic rearrangements at the extremities of the chromosomal DNA. An amplified DNA sequence (ADS205), including an open reading frame (orfPS), is responsible for the reversible loss of spiramycin production in the mutant strain NSA205 (ADS205(+) Spi-). The product of orfPS is homologous to polyketide synthase systems (PKSs) involved in the biosynthesis of erythromycin and rapamycin and is overexpressed in strain NSA205 compared with the parental strain RP181110. As PKSs and fatty acid synthase systems have the same precursors, we tested the possibility that overexpression of orfPS also affects lipid metabolism in strain NSA205. This report focuses on comparative analysis of lipids in strain RP181110, the mutant strain NSA205, and a derivative, NSA228 (ADS205(-) Spi+). NSA205 showed a dramatically depressed lipid content consisting predominantly of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. This lipid content was globally restored in strain NSA228, which had lost ADS205. Furthermore, strains RP181110 and NSA205 presented similar phospholipid and triacylglycerol compositions. No abnormal fatty acids were detected in NSA205.  (+info)

Metabolism of short-chain fatty acids by rat colonic mucosa in vivo. (6/971)

To determine the influence of substrate concentration and substrate interactions on short-chain fatty acid metabolism in vivo, a surgical procedure was established. Rats were surgically operated to cannulate a 5-cm segment of proximal colon, isolate the vasculature, and cannulate the right colic vein draining this segment. Thus metabolism was restricted to the defined colonic segment. The appearance of total (14)C and (14)CO(2) in the mesenteric blood stabilized after 30 min of perfusion. Increasing luminal concentrations of butyrate from 2 to 40 mmol/l resulted in linear increases in total (14)C, but (14)CO(2) production from [(14)C]butyrate increased as a function of concentration only up to 10 mmol/l and was stable at higher butyrate concentrations. In addition to CO(2), 3-hydroxybutyrate and lactate were major metabolites of acetate and butyrate in vivo. The presence of a mixture of alternative substrates in the lumen had no influence on the metabolism of butyrate to CO(2) but significantly reduced the metabolism of acetate to CO(2). When compared with young (4 mo old) animals, transport of butyrate was significantly lower for aged (48 mo old) animals, as evidenced by the rate of appearance in blood of total (14)C (P = 0.04) and (14)C in butyrate (P = 0.03), but metabolism was similar, since differences were not significant for (14)C in the major metabolites 3-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.06) and CO(2) (P = 0.17). These results show that important aspects of short-chain fatty acid transport and metabolism are not predicted from data using isolated colonocytes but require study using an in vivo model.  (+info)

Influence of mass and volume of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and digesta passage of a forage diet in steers. (7/971)

To assess the influence of volume and mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and related variables, five ruminally cannulated steers (550 kg) were fed a low-quality forage diet (43.1% ADF, 8.1% CP) in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. Mass and volume of ruminal contents were altered by adding varying numbers and weights of filled tennis balls (6.7-cm diameter) to the rumen immediately before the initiation of each experimental period. Treatments consisted of 0 balls (control), 50 balls with a 1.1 specific gravity (SG), 100 balls with a 1.1 SG, 50 balls with a 1.3 SG, and 100 balls with a SG of 1.3. The total volume of balls was 7.25 and 14.5 L for 50 and 100 balls, respectively. The total weight of balls was 8.5 and 17 kg for 50 and 100 balls with a 1.1 SG and 10.75 and 21.5 kg for 50 and 100 balls with a 1.3 SG, respectively. Daily DMI was 8.3, 7.3, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0 kg for control; 50, 1.1 SG; 50, 1.3 SG; 100, 1.1 SG; and 100, 1.3 SG, respectively. Addition of balls to the rumen reduced (P < .01) DMI. Increasing the number (P < .01) and SG (P <. 01) of the balls decreased DMI further. However, digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, and CP were not influenced by treatment. Increasing the number of balls in the rumen increased (P < .05) rate of passage of digesta from the rumen, but increasing SG of the balls did not alter rate of passage. There was a treatment x hour interaction (P < .05) in the proportion of ruminal digesta with a functional specific gravity (FSG) less than 1.1, which decreased with time after feeding for the control but increased with time after feeding for other treatments. Ruminal passage rate of inert particles added in the rumen of different SG (1.1 and 1.3) and length (1 and 3 mm) decreased (P < .05) as SG of the balls increased. Mean fecal particle size was greater for those treatments with the heavier balls. Both the number and SG of balls (P < .10) influenced total VFA, and total concentrations were greater for the control and for the 1.1 SG than for the 1.3 SG treatments.  (+info)

Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis. (8/971)

The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10), 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10) or SCFA (N = 10) until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean +/- SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 +/- 0.5 g) than in the control (5.3 +/- 2.1 g) and glucose (5.2 +/- 1.3 g) groups (P<0.05). Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5]) than in control (grade 9 [4-10]) and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10]) animals (P<0.01). Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue) was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01) and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05) animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.  (+info)

Presented study revealed that volatile fatty acids concentration in wastewater from different sections of dairy in most cases was higher than at municipal wastewater where VFA content averagely was 60 mg CH3COOH · dm-3 [7]. Merely wastewater from milk reception point characterized by lower VFA concentration on the level 52.8 mg CH3COOH · dm-3. Taking into consideration that orthophosphate concentration in the influent wastewater gaining pump station was averagely 20.74 ± 8.89 mg PPO4 · dm-3, and that according to the literature date effective phosphorus removal at technical conditions needs to provide 4.0 mg CH3COOH per 1 mg PPO4 [1], it can be concluded that if the initial nitrate concentration was zero, VFA concentration would be enough to perform dephosphatation in SBR reactor. The average volatile fatty acids concentrations in wastewater from cheese and cottage cheese section were 236.3 ± 117.1 mg CH3COOH · dm-3 and 245.9 ± 99.9 mg CH3COOH · dm-3, respectively. It indicates on the ...
Volatile fatty acids produced in Robertsons cooked meat medium by a range of clinically relevant anaerobes were compared by gas liquid chromatography with those produced in blood agar. The same volatile fatty acid profiles were obtained in both media, although the concentration of acids was lower in blood agar. We conclude that detection of volatile fatty acids from a pure culture of an organism on solid medium is practicable and offers advantages over the conventional technique.. ...
Resource recovery from waste-streams is a highly promising approach to meet with urbanization and modernization consequences. Rapid human population growth, expanding industrialization and excessive consumption of resources lead to increasing demand for raw materials and energy sources, and an escalation of greenhouse gas emission. The recovery of valuable raw materials from waste-streams is a vital step towards environmentally friendly and sustainable bio-based production. One of the most promising resource recovery approaches from waste-streams is based on anaerobic digestion. In recent years, anaerobic digestion technology has started to go beyond energy recovery with the carboxylate platform. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are intermediate products of anaerobic digestion and possess great potential for bio-based production from waste streams. Because of its wide range of applications, high market demand and low greenhouse gas emissions, bio-based VFA production has gained attention in recent ...
Resource recovery from waste-streams is a highly promising approach to meet with urbanization and modernization consequences. Rapid human population growth, expanding industrialization and excessive consumption of resources lead to increasing demand for raw materials and energy sources, and an escalation of greenhouse gas emission. The recovery of valuable raw materials from waste-streams is a vital step towards environmentally friendly and sustainable bio-based production. One of the most promising resource recovery approaches from waste-streams is based on anaerobic digestion. In recent years, anaerobic digestion technology has started to go beyond energy recovery with the carboxylate platform. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are intermediate products of anaerobic digestion and possess great potential for bio-based production from waste streams. Because of its wide range of applications, high market demand and low greenhouse gas emissions, bio-based VFA production has gained attention in recent ...
Ruminal microbes are vital to the conversion of lignocellulose-rich plant materials into nutrients for ruminants. Although protozoa play a key role in linking ruminal microbial networks, the contribution of protozoa to rumen fermentation remains controversial; therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the temporal dynamics of methanogenesis, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles and dietary fiber digestibility in ruminants following the elimination of protozoa (also termed defaunation). A total of 49 studies from 22 publications were evaluated. The results revealed that defaunation reduced methane production and shifted ruminal VFA profiles to consist of more propionate and less acetate and butyrate, but with a reduced total VFA concentration and decreased dietary fiber digestibility. However, these effects were diminished linearly, at different rates, with time during the first few weeks after defaunation, and eventually reached relative stability. The acetate to
Two-stage in vitro fermentation was used to screen five amino acids and three branched-chain volatile fatty acids as potential additions to a grain urea supplement for cows grazing dormant winter range. Urea addition alone increased dry matter and fiber digestibility of dormant cool season grasses. Methionine addition improved fiber digestibility and rate of fermentation of cool season grasses over urea alone. Compared to urea addition, the branched-chain volatile fatty acids did not increase dry matter or fiber disappearance or improve rate of fermentation of dormant range grasses. None of the buffer additions tested or urea increased digestibility of the dormant warm season grasses. This preliminary laboratory study indicates that methionine offers the greatest potential for addition to a grain urea supplement to increase utilization of dormant range grasses.
The use of short chain fatty acids to modulate gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis has produced encouraging results either in animal models or also in clinical trials. Identifying the key cellular and molecular targets of this activity will contribute to establish the appropriate combinations/targeting strategies to maximize the efficacy of anti-inflammatory interventions. In the present work, we evaluated in vitro the interaction of lactate, acetate, propionate and butyrate on cells relevant for innate immune response of the gastrointestinal tract. All molecules tested regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines by TLR-4 and TLR-5 activated intestinal epithelial cells in a dose response manner. Furthermore SCFAs and lactate modulate cytokine secretion of TLR-activated bone marrow derived macrophages and also TLR-dependent CD40 upregulation in bone marrow derived dendritic in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate and propionate have been effective at concentrations
The study is an interventional double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with 3 arms (placebo, high-dose of SCFA, and low-dose of SCFA). The high and low doses of SCFA are equivalent to 20 and 10 grams of fiber respectively. Healthy male participants follow a low-fiber diet for the study duration (11 days). On day 4, baseline measurements are taken in the lab, including biological samples and psychophysiological measurements. Participants then consume placebo or SCFA for one week and revisit the lab on day 11 for a second measurement of the outcomes of interest. Specifically, we investigate the effect of SCFA supplementation on affective processing, including stress sensitivity, fear-related processes (e.g. extinction learning), and attentional bias to emotional stimuli. Volunteers also respond to questionnaires in relation to mood, and provide biological samples (blood and faecal samples) for analysis of circulating short chain fatty acids and microbiota composition, respectively ...
A blog post discussing research suggesting elevated fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and ammonia are present in cases of autism spectrum conditions
Sanitizing concentrate and use compositions comprising aliphatic, short chain fatty acid (i.e., C6 -C14 fatty acid), hydrotrope or solubilizer for the fatty acid, hydrotrope-compatible acid so that the concentrate, when diluted with a major amount of water provides a use solution having a pH in the range of 2.0 to 5.0. Sanitizing of substantially fixed, in-place processing lines in dairies, breweries and other food processing operations is a particular utility of this invention.
Sanitizing concentrate and "use" compositions comprising aliphatic, short chain fatty acid (i.e., C.sub.6 -C.sub.14 fatty acid), hydrotrope or solubilizer for the fatty acid, hydrotrope-compatible acid so that the concentrate, when diluted with a major amount of water provides a use solution having ...
We take a look at how gut microbes communicate with our bodies, as well as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and how they impact the intestine. Learn more.
Intra peritoneal administration of the short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate, in amounts calculated to reach 20 mM in total body water were given to fed and 48 hour starved male Wi
Clinical observations suggest that gut and dietary factors transiently worsen, and in some cases appear to improve, symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent clinical evidence suggests there is a high association of seizure disorder and abnormal electroencephalographic changes in this difficult to examine population. Furthermore, tics and repetitive behaviors, core features of persons with ASDs, resemble behaviors found in movement disorders. Can a common factor link these disparate findings in autism? This lecture outlines basic science and clinical evidence that short chain fatty acids, present in diet and produced by opportunistic gut bacterial infections, may be key triggers in ASD associated seizure and movement disorder. It discusses that these compounds have widespread effects on behavior, brain electrical activity, immune system and metabolism, which may have major implications in ASD diagnosis, cause and treatment.. Derrick MacFabe, MD is an Assistant Professor and Director ...
Clinical observations suggest that gut and dietary factors transiently worsen, and in some cases appear to improve, symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent clinical evidence suggests there is a high association of seizure disorder and abnormal electroencephalographic changes in this difficult to examine population. Furthermore, tics and repetitive behaviors, core features of persons with ASDs, resemble behaviors found in movement disorders. Can a common factor link these disparate findings in autism? This lecture outlines basic science and clinical evidence that short chain fatty acids, present in diet and produced by opportunistic gut bacterial infections, may be key triggers in ASD associated seizure and movement disorder. It discusses that these compounds have widespread effects on behavior, brain electrical activity, immune system and metabolism, which may have major implications in ASD diagnosis, cause and treatment.. Derrick MacFabe, MD is an Assistant Professor and Director ...
Title: Role of Dietary Fiber and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Akira Andoh, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa and Yoshihide Fujiyama. Affiliation:Division of Gastroenterology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tukinowa, Otsu 520-2192,Japan. Keywords:ibd, complement, decay-accelerating factor, fermentation, colon cancer. Abstract: Luminal nutrition is important for maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal structure and function. In particular, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch, are particularly important as the preferred respiratory fuel of the colonocytes. A variety of biological effects of SCFAs have been reported, and there is now increasing number of experimental works showing new aspects of these molecules. For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory ...
Despite questions regarding the role of microbiota in regulation of host immune responses within the intestines, evidence suggests that in the context of disease and autoimmunity bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response. Otherwise indigestible carbohydrates are metabolized into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by gut bacteria. SCFAs have been shown to inhibit intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through regulation of mucosal T cells and macrophages. Recently, neutrophils have been shown to regulate intestinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of IBD, however, how SCFAs may regulate neutrophil function is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SCFA differentially regulate neutrophil cytokine production. Of the three major SCFAs butyrate, acetate, and propionate, only butyrate down-regulated neutrophil IL-10 production. We further showed that butyrate-inhibition of neutrophil IL-10 is independent of GPR43, in that butyrate also inhibited IL-10 production in ...
Butyrate and propionate are two important short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced in the human gut. They have been shown to have significant immune system effects in the intestinal mucosa, by inducing the differentiation of T-regulatory cells via inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). This enzyme keeps chromatin from unwinding and, therefore, inhibits gene transcription ...
One of the ways your gut microbes contribute to overall health is through byproducts created by their fermentation of specific fibers in the GI tract. These fibers, known as prebiotics, resist decomposition and absorption in the upper GI tract but are utilized by bacteria in the colon for energy. These colonic bacteria use specific enzymes to break these fibers down into short chain fatty acids (SCFA), among other products. Acetate, propionate and butyrate are the predominate SFCAs created. These fatty acids provide energy to bacteria and also appear to also benefit their human host. (thats us!) Short chain fatty acids lower the pH of the colon, thus inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacterial species and promoting thriving populations of bifidiobacteria and lactobacilli species, also known as the good guys (Slavin, 2013). SCFA also appear to play a role in the association between fiber intake and reduced risk of developing gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, as well as cardiovascular ...
We tested the hypothesis that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and distention would stimulate ileal motility in humans. Intraluminal pressures in the ileocolonic region were recorded in 18 healthy human volunteers after instillation of boluses of SCFAs, air, and saline. Ileal motility was stimulated …
New research in mice has found that a previously unknown interaction between an immune cell protein and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are produced from dietary fiber by the actions of gastrointestinal bacteria, triggers protection against infection with Salmonella bacteria. Reporting their discovery in PLOS Biology, in a paper titled,
Despite some blockbuster G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drugs, only a small fraction (∼15%) of the more than 390 nonodorant GPCRs have been successfully targeted by the pharmaceutical industry. One way that this issue might be addressed is via translation of recent deorphanization programs that have opened the prospect of extending the reach of new medicine design to novel receptor types with potential therapeutic value. Prominent among these receptors are those that respond to short-chain free fatty acids of carbon chain length 2-6. These receptors, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41), are each predominantly activated by the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, ligands that originate largely as fermentation by-products of anaerobic bacteria in the gut. However, the presence of FFA2 and FFA3 on pancreatic β-cells, FFA3 on neurons, and FFA2 on leukocytes and adipocytes means that the biologic role of these receptors likely extends beyond the widely accepted role of ...
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the main products of dietary fiber fermentation, induce a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-dependent switch from lipid synthesis to lipid utilization, according to new research.
The decline in the populations of carbohydrate metabolizing genera caused a decline in production of short chain fatty acids. Production of antioxidants also dropped. The latter are compounds that neutralize free radicals, highly reactive compounds that damage cells, DNA, and collagen.. The relative beneficial and harmful effects of the high-carb and high-fat diets are a subject of many studies and debates, said Dr. Paliy. Several recent reports showed that low-carbohydrate diets can elicit improvement in the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance and its secondary manifestations, such as metabolic syndrome.. However, previous studies had suggested that at least some carbohydrate is needed in the diet for optimum health. When gut microbes ferment complex carbohydrates, short chain fatty acids are produced. These have many positive effects on the host, including lowering the risk of colorectal cancer, regulating appetite, and reducing inflammation in the body.. The experimental apparatus used ...
The current study was conducted to determine the effectof feed form (mash, pellet and extrude) on energy and protein efficiency, intestinal morphology and microbiology in broiler chickens. Energy and protein efficiency and European efficiency factor were calculated during the experiment period and jejunum morphology and relative length of intestine, microbial population, volatile fatty acids, viscosity of ileal were determined at 42 days of age. The results have shown that the effect of feed form on jejunum morphology (crypt depth (CD), serosa thickness, villous height (VH) and villous width (VW), VH:CD, length and relative length of intestine, microbial population (spore former bacteria, lactobacilli,colibacilli, total aerobic bacteria) of ileal digesta was not significant (P>0.05). The values of viscosity and volatile fatty acids (butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric) of ileal digesta was higher and values of pH, ascetic acid was lower in mash diet form in comparison to pellet and extrude diet
Propionic Acid (PPA) and related short chain fatty acids are produced in the body when several types of bad bacteria are present in the intestinal flora. Only these bacteria produce PPA. Unfortunately, many antibiotics alter gut flora to favor bacteria that create PPA and short chain fatty acids. When individuals have these bacteria, the subsequent PPA production causes significant health problems ...
PubMed journal article The type and quantity of dietary fat and carbohydrate alter faecal microbiome and short-chain fatty acid excretion in a metabolic syndrome at-risk populatio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
The mice eating the normal HFD preceeded to gain 40% of thier weight over 4 weeks, while the mice eating the HFD + butyrate gained........ nothing! Now, although they did reduce thier food intake slightly, this was only initially. Also, look at the acetate group, they ate the most calories but were still only half as fat as the control mice ...
Francesca De Filippis, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Lucia Vannini, Ian B Jeffery, Antonietta La Storia, Luca Laghi, Diana I Serrazanetti, Raffaella Di Cagno, Ilario Ferrocino, Camilla Lazzi, Silvia Turroni, Luca Cocolin, Patrizia Brigidi, Erasmo Neviani, Marco Gobbetti, Paul W OToole, Danilo Ercolini ...
MicrobeTV is an independent podcast network for people who are interested in the sciences. Our shows are about science: viruses, microbes, parasites, evolution, urban agriculture, communication, and engineering.. ...
The structural organization and regulation of the genes involved in short-chain fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli, referred to as the ato system, have been studied by a combination of classic genetic and recombinant DNA techniques. A plasmid containing a 6.2-kilobase region of the E. coli chromosome was able to complement mutations in the ato structural genes, atoA (acetyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acetoacetyl [AA]-CoA transferase) and atoB (thiolase II), as well as mutations in the ato regulatory locus, atoC. Complementation studies performed with mutants defective in acetyl-CoA:AA-CoA transferase suggest that two loci, atoD and atoA, are required for the expression of functional AA-CoA transferase. The ato gene products were identified by in vitro transcription and translation and maxicell analysis as proteins of 48, 26.5, 26, and 42 kilodaltons for atoC, atoD, atoA, and atoB, respectively. In vitro and insertional mutagenesis of the ato hybrid plasmid indicated that the ato structural genes ...
This is the final article in a series of three which covers the fungal and bacterial origins of wine aromas. These articles detail esters, aldehydes, volat
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, TR-55139 Samsun - TURKEY DOI : 10.9775/kvfd.2017.18007 The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of diet with increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on digestibility, rumen pH, growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and on several blood parameters (serum urea, glucose and total protein), in the finishing period of Bafra lambs. Thirty male Bafra lambs, which were 3-3.5 months of age and average live weight of 24±0.4 kg, were divided into three groups (n=10 lambs per group) in a completely randomized design experiment. The diets were composed of 80% compound feed containing 11, 14 or 17% CP and 20% vetch straw. Lambs were fed ad libitium twice each day during the feeding trial period of 60 days. In the last week of the feeding period, all feces were collected to determine digestibility. The rumen and blood samples were collected at ...
SCFAs are the most overlooked and under-utilized compounds in functional medicine today, and have profound impacts on your gut, immune, and brain health.
2) Microbiology Unit which provides microbiologic support for culture of aerobic and anaerobic species, biochemical characterizations, continuous chemostat/fermenter analyses, metabolite phenotyping of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and has access to a large strain repository of human and animal commensal species and pathogens, including genetically tenable strains and systems developed by the unit ...
By stabilizing blood sugar levels, Balance allows the body to turn free fatty acids and triglycerides into energy through the process of lipolysis.*. Fermentation of fiber in the intestines produces short chain fatty acids, inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol.. ...
All, As discussed in this thread, research suggests that the gut microbiome can have a dramatic impact on physical, and even mental, health. But the relationship between the gut and health remains pretty murky, and research in the area is still in its infancy. Today everyones favorite nutrition pundit, Dr. Greger had what I think even his skeptics will agree was a helpful video outlining one mechanistic account of how gut bacteria impact health via their influence on systemic inflammation, which itself has been implicated in most of the diseases of aging. In the video, he suggests that our body has a love/hate relationship with the bacteria in our gut. On the one hand, some bacteria are quite helpful, turning what would otherwise be indigestible food (i.e. fiber) into useful metabolites, like short chain fatty acids that our body can burn as fuel. On the other hand, some bacteria like cholera or e. Coli are quite detrimental to our health, and can sometimes be fatal. So how does our immune ...
Huang HM, Ou HC, Chen HL, et al. Protective effect of alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid on BV-2 microglia under hypoxia or oxidative stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 May;1042:272-8. PMID: 15965072.. Huang HM, Zhang H, Ou HC, et al. alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid diminishes reactive oxygen species and alters endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Dec 1;37(11):1779-89. PMID: 15528037.. Midtvedt AC, Midtvedt T. Production of short chain fatty acids by the intestinal microflora during the first 2 years of human life. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1992 Nov;15(4):395-403. PMID: 1469519. ...
A number of compounds actually render the aroma that we find in the food products- lactones, aldehydes, ketones, esters, short chain fatty acids, phenolic compounds, diacetyls and many more.
The researchers found that travel induced or exacerbated ulceration of the squamous mucosa in most horses. This was particularly so in horses that had been fasted for 12 hours before travel. Surprisingly, the pH of the gastric fluid was higher (less acidic) in the horses when transported than when they were confined. They suggest that this may be due to reflux of less acidic factors, such as short‐chain fatty acids, and duodenal bile salts, which may contribute to gastric squamous mucosal damage ...
This product is a phytoceramide containing a short chain fatty acid which enables it to more easily enter into cells. Phytosphingosine is a long-chain sphingoid base having important cellular functions such as signaling, cytoskeletal structure, cellular c
The present study was aimed to determine whether stimulating Npr1 gene activity using Valporic acid (VA), a small short chain fatty acid molecule can enhance ANP mediated anti-hypertrophic activity in isoproterenol (ISO) - treated H9c2 cells in vitro. H9c2 cells were treated with ISO (10(-5) M) and co-treated with VA (10(-5) M) in the presence and absence of ANP (10(-8)M), for 48h. ATRA (10(-5) M) was used as a positive inducer of Npr1 gene transcription. The mRNA expression of Npr1 and PKG-I genes, proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) and hypertrophic markers (ANP, BNP, α-sk and β-MyHC), genes were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR ...
J&W Scientific DB-FFAP GC Standard 178 cm (7) Cage Columns, Agilent Technologies : A high-polarity column designed for analysis of volatile fatty ac
The role by which the gut microbiome influences host health (e.g., energy equilibrium and immune system) may be partly mediated by short-chain fatty acids, which are bacterial fermentation products from the dietary fibers. However, little is known about longitudinal changes in gut microbiome metabolites during cohabitation alongside social contact. In common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), the gut microbiome community is influenced by social contact, as newly paired males and females develop convergent microbial profiles. Here, we monitored the dynamics of short-chain fatty acid concentrations in common marmoset feces from the prepairing (PRE) to postpairing (POST) stages. In males, we observed that the con- centrations of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate significantly increased in the POST stage compared to the PRE stage. However, no significant changes were found in females. We further found that the propionate concentration was significantly positively correlated with the abundance
PURPOSE: Children with Hirschsprung disease (HD) who have a history of enterocolitis (HAEC) have a shift in colonic microbiota, many of which are necessary for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. As SCFAs play a critical role in colonic mucosal preservation, we hypothesized that fecal SCFA composition is altered in children with HAEC.METHODS: A multicenter study enrolled 18 HD children, abstracting for history of feeding, antibiotic/probiotic use, and enterocolitis symptoms. HAEC status was determined per Pastor et al. criteria (12). Fresh feces were collected for microbial community analysis via 16S sequencing as well as SCFA analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Nine patients had a history of HAEC, and nine had never had HAEC. Fecal samples from HAEC children showed a 4-fold decline in total SCFA concentration vs. non-HAEC HD patients. We then compared the relative composition of individual SCFAs and found reduced acetate and increased butyrate in HAEC children. ...
Summary: The volatile fatty acids produced in culture medium by 357 Pseudomonas strains belonging to eight species were determined quantitatively by GLC. The resultant chromatograms were submitted to discriminant analysis. Stable discriminant functions were computed and included in a computerized identification system which also involved some distinctive volatile fatty acids regarded as two-state qualitative characters (presence or absence characters). Using a test group of 249 strains belonging to the studied species, more than 89% of the identifications made by this system agreed with those made by conventional biochemical methods despite the relatively poor differentiation between P. putida and P. fluorescens. When the individual species within the matrices were weighted with prior probabilities reflecting results given by two simple biochemical tests, 96% of the 249 strains were correctly identified.
Abstract Text: Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), primarily acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major carbohydrate fermentation end products of in the gut. Previously, we had demonstrated that inulin, a fermentable fiber, alleviated high fat diet induced fat mass accumulation, and that this was accompanied by increased expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, decreased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and alteration in the gut microbial community structure to favor increased level of butyrate-producing bacteria. Although gut microbial structure is highly associated with SCFAs production, direct effect of SCFAs on lipid metabolism is still unclear. Therefore, we examined, by RT-PCR, the effect of SCFAs administration on markers of lipid metabolism in differentiated pig adipocytes. Increasing concentrations of SCFAs (µM to low mM) led to an upregulation of expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c ...
Pork produced by outdoor-reared pigs raised mostly on alfalfa pastures attracts increasing population of consumer from most of the world. In China, pigs were raised with alfalfa-containing diets to seek for good quality pork. However, the influence of dietary alfalfa involving high level of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on pig intestinal luminal microbiota composition remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alfalfa on luminal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, and gene expressions involved in SCFA sensing, transporting and absorbing in pig caecal mucosa. Twenty-four growing pigs were randomly allotted to four diets containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% alfalfa meal for a 28-d experiment. Ingestion of alfalfa meal-contained diets significantly increased the ratio of body weight gain to feed consumption. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that alfalfa-containing diet significantly decreased the relative abundance
Adipose tissue homeostasis is regulated by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signalling pathways. Activation of surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and insulin receptors, influence the rate of lipolysis within adipocytes, the pathway responsible for triacylglycerol (TAG) breakdown into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol. A GPCR for short chain fatty acids (SCFA) has been identified on the surface of mature adipocytes and activation of this receptor by SCFA including acetate, butyrate and propionate has resulted in a decrease in lipolysis, measured as a reduction in NEFA and glycerol concentration in the media. However, evidence for a mechanism of action of SCFA within adipocytes has remained unclear. Therefore, this thesis has aimed to better understand the mechanism(s) by which the SCFA, acetate, regulates adipose tissue metabolism and function, and in particular the pathway of lipolysis. Through the development of experimental methods in vitro, it was ...
Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. ...
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial with 225 overweight and obese healthy adults was conducted for six months to investigate the effects of B. lactis 420 alone and in combination with a fiber supplement on weight management, markers of inflammation, bacterial translocation, and fecal short-chain fatty acids.¹ Due to the lower number of observations in the B420 group (n=24) compared to the other groups (n=35-37), a post-hoc factorial analysis was conducted to evaluate the independent effects of B420 and fiber supplement in the per-protocol population.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Novel Antiinflammatory Role for the Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Human Labor. AU - Voltolini, Chiara. AU - Battersby, Sharon. AU - Etherington, Sophie L.. AU - Petraglia, Felice. AU - Norman, Jane E.. AU - Jabbour, Henry N.. N1 - RIS file. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Human parturition is an inflammatory process that can be activated prematurely by pathological stimuli. This study investigated the expression of G protein-coupled receptors GPR43 and GPR41 receptors in human uteroplacental tissues and the role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in modulating inflammatory pathways in fetal membranes. Expression of GPR43 and GPR41 was investigated in uteroplacental tissues collected from women delivering at term or preterm after ethical approval and patient informed consent. The effect of SCFA on expression of inflammatory genes was assessed in amnion explants after culture with a mimetic of infection (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Sodium propionate effect on LPS-induced neutrophil ...
Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as an antifungal agent in food. It is present naturally at low levels in dairy products and occurs ubiquitously, together with other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), in the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other mammals as an end-product of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates. It has significant physiological activity in animals. PA is irritant but produces no acute systemic effects and has no demonstrable genotoxic potential. (PMID 1628870 ) Propionic aciduria is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, a disease that comprise many various disorders. The outcome of patients born with Propionic aciduria is poor intellectual development patterns, with 60% having an IQ less than 75 and requiring special education. Successful liver and/or renal transplantations, in a few patients, have resulted in better quality of life but have not necessarily prevented neurological and various visceral complications. These results emphasize the need for permanent ...
G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids ...
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the crosstalk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking. Therefore, we have addressed the analysis of the relationship among gut microbial populations, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, FFA levels and immune mediators (IFN, IL-6 and MCP-1) in 101 human adults from the general Spanish population. Levels of selected microbial groups, representing the major phylogenetic types present the human intestinal microbiota, were determined by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the intestinal abundance of Akkermansia
The effect of ammonia treatment of straw on both the rumen environment and the extent of its microbial fermentation was studied. Four rumen cannulated sheep were randomly given 700 g/day of untreated straw plus urea (US), ammonia-treated straw (TS) and alfalfa hay (AH) in a change-over design with three periods. Rumen pH was lower and ammonia-nitrogen and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were higher (P , 0·001) with AH than with US or TS. With the straw diets, TS promoted a lower pH than US (P , 0·05), but differences were less than 0·3 units and the mean pH was never below 6·5. There were no differences between the straw diets in ammonia-nitrogen or VFA concentration (P , 0·05). When untreated barley straw (BS) and treated straw (TS) were incubated in situ disappearance of dry matter (dDM) at 12, 24 and 48 h (P , 0·01) and neutral-detergent fibre (dNDF) at 48 h (P , 0·001) were higher with TS. In vitro incubation showed a higher gas production with TS only after 36 h (P , ...
The potential physiological benefits of the resistant starches studied appear to relate to colonic health in terms of effects on fecal bulk and SCFA metabolism.
GPR41 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by short chain fatty acids. site located in the intergenic region of a bicistronic mRNA. This novel sequence business may be utilized to enable coordinated rules of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR41. and flanking the GPR40 ORF indicate 5- and 3UTRs. upstream of the GPR40 … Studies from our laboratory have shown that selective manifestation of GPR40 in beta cells is definitely controlled by transcriptional mechanisms (21). Of particular importance is definitely HR2, a beta cell-specific transcriptional enhancer located 1.1 kb upstream of the gene (Fig. 1method, relative to control (22). 5-Quick 14919-77-8 supplier Amplification of cDNA Ends (5-RACE) 5-RACE was performed as explained previously (21) with the following modifications. Method A, 1st strand cDNA was synthesized from 5 g of DNase-treated TC1 RNA, using reverse transcriptase (SuperScript II; Invitrogen) according to 14919-77-8 supplier the manufacturers instructions. The reaction ...
African Americans (AA) have the greatest burden of hypertension and elucidating the pathogenesis of this racial disparity is important for amending treatment strategies. Gut microbial dysbiosis has been linked to hypertension and has been characterized as low microbial composition of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing microbes. Reduced gut SCFA production has been observed in AA with disease, such as glucose intolerance and vitamin deficiency, and may be related to the pathogenesis of hypertension in this group. Preliminary data show that aerobic exercise improves the gut microbial profile and increases SCFA production in animal models and humans. Additional preliminary data show that the SCFA butyrate attenuates dysfunction in AA endothelial cells suggesting a role for SCFA in endothelial/vascular function. The proposed studies have been constructed to fill a critical void in our understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension in AA involving the gut microbiome. The investigators ...
The potential role of the intestinal microbiota in modulating visceral pain has received increasing attention during recent years. This has led to the identification of signaling pathways that have been implicated in communication between gut bacteria and peripheral pain pathways. In addition to the well-characterised impact of the microbiota on the immune system, which in turn affects nociceptor excitability, bacteria can modulate visceral afferent pathways by effects on enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells and the neurons themselves. Proteases produced by bacteria, or by host cells in response to bacteria, can increase or decrease the excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons depending on the receptor activated. Short chain fatty acids generated by colonic bacteria are involved in gut-brain communication, and intracolonic short chain fatty acids have pro-nociceptive effects in rodents but may be anti-nociceptive in humans. Gut bacteria modulate the synthesis and release of ...
One shouldnt forget that enzymes are highly efficient machines that evolved and were optimized over the past hundreds of thousands of years. Even if one fraction of enzymes in the digestive tract is inhibited, the few remaining are so potent that they can digest a significant amount of starch molecules. It will just take longer. Thus, you cant expect that by taking a carb blocker you can block starch digestion and absorption completely.. Also, there is the chance that the starch that doesnt get digested and absorbed will be converted into short chain fatty acids by the intestinal microbiota. These short chain fatty acids are taken up by the human body and contribute to ingested calories.. Lets do the numbers - which is a very speculative idea from my side:. An in vitro (in the reagent tube) research study has shown that amylase inhibitors have the potential to inhibit about 50% of starch-digesting enzymes. Although this finding is not directly transferable to what happens in the human ...
Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 +/- 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To ...
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Bao-Min Li, MD, of PLA General Hospital (Beijing, China), and colleagues evaluated the outcomes of 8 patients with 8 unruptured VFAs who underwent parallel stenting between April 2011 and August 2012.. Parallel stenting involves the placement of multiple self-expandable stents side by side (ie, parallel to each other) in vascular lesions with unruptured large VFAs. Using a microcatheter, the investigators advanced the stents over the prepositioned exchangeable guidewire and deployed them to cover the entire lesioned segment.. The diameters of the VFAs treated in this study ranged from 7.9 to 10.0 mm, and their lengths ranged from 27.5 to 54.4 mm. The number and arrangement of the stents was determined based on the location, size, and shape of each VFA. Overall, 3 patients received double or triple parallel stents, and 5 received series-connected stents, with another 1 or 2 stents deployed parallel to these devices. The 2 series-connected stents were overlapped by more than 5 mm to ensure the ...
Global Microbial Fermentation Technology Market: OverviewThis report on the microbial fermentation technology market analyzes the current and future scenario of the global market. Growth of the global&nbsp;microbial fermentation technology market&nbsp;is driven by wide use of fermentation technology derived chemicals in various industries around the globe due to their natural structure, low cost and better output.Moreover, rising research and developmental activities in different fields of...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Pappas on what are characteristics of a high fiber diet: High fiber diets, prevent colorectal cancer, and help people with constipation. The fiber enables you to have more frequent and softer bowel movements. Toxins and contaminants in food, dont stay as long in the colon as those who are not on high fiber diets, so there is less exposure to cancer causing toxins.
The rumen microorganisms are the key to breaking down the dry pasture to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). These VFAs are a source of energy and microbial protein that, in turn, are a source of protein for the animal.. Establishing an efficient working rumen is the key to increasing pasture intake and improving pasture utilisation. The more efficient the rumen is the better, which means an increased population of these rumen microorganisms. However, for these microorganisms to proliferate they need their own source of nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur, sodium, potassium and trace minerals in order to function. Dry pasture is normally deficient in these important key nutrients and therefore must be provided to rumen microorganisms via a supplement.. ...
Introduction: Although dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism involved is not clear. Consumption of a diet high in fibre increases gut microbiota populations that generate short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, which has a protective role in experimental models of inflammatory diseases.. Hypothesis: We hypothesised that SCFAs, including acetate, would attenuate the development of cardiac fibrosis in a mineralocorticoid-excess (MRE) model, given that inflammation has also been implicated in cardiac remodelling.. Methods: Mice were fed control chow (47.6% fibre), high fibre chow (72.7% fibre) or water supplemented with acetate for 3 weeks, and then submitted to sham (uninephrectomy+1% salt) or MRE (uninephrectomy+1% salt+ DOCA tablet) surgeries (n=11-14/group). At the end of 6 weeks, cardiac structure (cardiac weight index and fibrosis by Mason trychrome) and function (by echocardiography) were examined. The gut ...
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Dietary fiber may be a new tool in the prevention of progressive lung disease, thanks to the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acc
can also induce Treg differentiation. SCFA production also protects the intestinal barrier. Butyrate, for example, is an important energy source for colonocytes; its utilization drives local hypoxia, which in turn favors the anaerobic microbiota. Tryptophan metabolites can act as AhR ligands and induce the production of IL-22 by ILC3s. IL-22 acts on the epithelium to strengthen the intestinal barrier function, for example by induction of antimicrobial peptides or mucus production. Dietary antigens sampled in this environment will lead to tolerance induction rather than sensitization against the antigen. AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; AMP, antimicrobial peptide; APC, antigen-presenting cell; GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor; HDAC, histone deacetylase; IEC, intestinal epithelial cell; ILC, innate lymphoid cell; LCFA, long-chain fatty acid; LN, lymph node; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; PSA, polysaccharide A; SCFA, short-chain fatty acid; Treg, regulatory T cell ...
As I mentioned on earlier posts just to explain fiber... viscous (referring to the thickening gel consistency) has its fullness effect in your stomach ( the upper GI) ... hence that fullness feeling everyone talks about related to fiber. Fermentability refers to its capacity to be broken down by bacteria, when its broken down - short chain fatty acids are produce- which also does NOT contribute to fecal bulk . Fecal bulk contributes to dilution of the lower GI... and now we are at ...
STEPHEN, A (1994) PROPIONATE - SOURCES AND EFFECT ON LIPID-METABOLISM In: 73rd Falk Symposium on Short Chain Fatty Acids, 1993-09-08 - 1993-09-10, MED COLL WISCONSIN, MILWAUKEE, WI. Full text not available from this repository ...
The short‐chain fatty acid butyrate, which is mainly produced in the lumen of the large intestine by the fermentation of dietary fibers, plays a major role in ...
The development of toxin producing E. coli in cattle suggests how pathogenic C. butyricum was produced in the hospital environment. E. coli was a healthy component of the digestive system of cattle, until the gut flora community was reengineered by antibiotics, so that short chain fatty acids that were normally converted into more gut bacteria and more steer manure, were instead absorbed by the gut to produce a fatter steak. Unfortunately, this newly designed gut flora community left no place for E. coli. Some of the E. coli spontaneously mutated to antibiotic resistance and/or picked up multi-drug resistant plasmids from other bacteria, but that still didnt provide a niche in the new community. Picking up a toxin-producing gene solved that problem, because the toxin releases needed nutrients from host cells. Thus, antibiotic use in cattle directly selected for the evolution of toxin-producing, antibiotic resistant E. coli. ...
Background. The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. Methods. The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired end, mate pair and PacBio). The transcriptome was sequenced (Illumina HiSeq) while growing on three different carbohydrate sources and short chain fatty acids were measured via HPLC. Results. Hence, we present the complete genome of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT, a natural inhabitant and key player of the small intestine of rats. R. ilealis CRIBT possesses a circular chromosome of 2,581,778 bp and a plasmid of 6,145 bp, carrying 2,351 and eight predicted protein coding sequences, respectively. Analysis of the genome revealed limited capacity to
The bowels are a long tubelike conveyance and it takes food about a day to travel from table to toilet. In the colon, all of the plant polysaccharide fibers remaining after removal of sugar, starch, fat and protein, are digested by enzymes of the microbiota and converted into more bacteria and short chain fatty acids that feed the colon tissue. There is nothing toxic left behind in the colon. Protein from meat is readily digested in the stomach and the first part of the small intestines. Plant materials cannot be digested without the help of a complex array of hundreds of enzymes produced by gut bacteria. Food intolerances are caused by the loss of particular bacterial species needed for complete digestion of one type of plant fiber. The bacteria form the stools, and insufficient healthy bowel bacteria, normally fed by the fiber, is the cause of constipation. Clearly, flushing out bacteria with a cleanse is unhealthy and counterproductive. There is nothing in the colon but gut bacteria and ...
The bowels are a long tubelike conveyance and it takes food about a day to travel from table to toilet. In the colon, all of the plant polysaccharide fibers remaining after removal of sugar, starch, fat and protein, are digested by enzymes of the microbiota and converted into more bacteria and short chain fatty acids that feed the colon tissue. There is nothing toxic left behind in the colon. Protein from meat is readily digested in the stomach and the first part of the small intestines. Plant materials cannot be digested without the help of a complex array of hundreds of enzymes produced by gut bacteria. Food intolerances are caused by the loss of particular bacterial species needed for complete digestion of one type of plant fiber. The bacteria form the stools, and insufficient healthy bowel bacteria, normally fed by the fiber, is the cause of constipation. Clearly, flushing out bacteria with a cleanse is unhealthy and counterproductive. There is nothing in the colon but gut bacteria and ...
The bowels are a long tubelike conveyance and it takes food about a day to travel from table to toilet. In the colon, all of the plant polysaccharide fibers remaining after removal of sugar, starch, fat and protein, are digested by enzymes of the microbiota and converted into more bacteria and short chain fatty acids that feed the colon tissue. There is nothing toxic left behind in the colon. Protein from meat is readily digested in the stomach and the first part of the small intestines. Plant materials cannot be digested without the help of a complex array of hundreds of enzymes produced by gut bacteria. Food intolerances are caused by the loss of particular bacterial species needed for complete digestion of one type of plant fiber. The bacteria form the stools, and insufficient healthy bowel bacteria, normally fed by the fiber, is the cause of constipation. Clearly, flushing out bacteria with a cleanse is unhealthy and counterproductive. There is nothing in the colon but gut bacteria and ...
Ghee is known for the healing properties. It facilitates fast recovery from wounds and bedsores. It reduces inflammations by reducing the leukotriene secretion as well as prostaglandin. Majority of the fat content in the ghee consists of saturated fatty acids that contains 85% short chain fatty acids which are are easily digestible and immediately utilized by the body. So the medicated ghee used in ayurvedic treatments is absorbed into the system very fast and facilitate the transport of active principles of the herbs.. Ayurveda says ghee is yoga vahi that means it is used as carrier media for the transport of active principles in herbs and it assimilates the properties of the herbal ingredient without losing its own properties. The ghee being very good lipid base is used for transport of the active principles across the cell membrane even the blood brain barrier. Mostly memory & cognitive power enhancing medicines are ghee based.. Our body loves ghee because of its primary ingredient the ...
Poultry Swine Conferences 2019 Poultry: Gut health:Dietary fibres, short chain fatty acids or probiotics are potential means to improve the gut functioning....
GPR41 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by short chain fatty acids. site located in the intergenic region of a bicistronic mRNA. This novel sequence business may be utilized to enable coordinated rules of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR41. and flanking the GPR40 ORF indicate 5- and 3UTRs. upstream of the GPR40 … Studies from our laboratory have shown that selective manifestation of GPR40 in beta cells is definitely controlled by transcriptional mechanisms (21). Of particular importance is definitely HR2, a beta cell-specific transcriptional enhancer located 1.1 kb upstream of the gene (Fig. 1method, relative to control (22). 5-Quick 14919-77-8 supplier Amplification of cDNA Ends (5-RACE) 5-RACE was performed as explained previously (21) with the following modifications. Method A, 1st strand cDNA was synthesized from 5 g of DNase-treated TC1 RNA, using reverse transcriptase (SuperScript II; Invitrogen) according to 14919-77-8 supplier the manufacturers instructions. The reaction ...
In the video below, Steve Hill from Lifespan.io and I talk about findings from a recent paper (https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200306) that supports a role for the gut microbiome on Alxheimers disease. Check it out! https://youtu.be/kATDti1sLW8?t=2
Koivula, R.W., Forgie, I.M., Kurbasic, A., Viñuela, A., Heggie, A., Giordano, G.N., Hansen, T.H., Hudson, M., Koopman, A.D., Rutters, F., Siloaho, M., Allin, K.H., Brage, S., Brorsson, C.A., Dawed, A.Y., De Masi, F., Groves, C.J., Kokkola, T., Mahajan, A., Perry, M.H., Rauh, S.P., Ridderstråle, M., Teare, H.J.A., Thomas, E.L., Tura, A., Vestergaard, H., White, T., Adamski, J., Bell, J.D., Beulens, J., Brunak, S., Dermitzakis, E.T., Froguel, P., Frost, G., Gupta, R., Hansen, T., Hattersley, A., Jablonka, B., Kaye, J., Laakso, M., McDonald, T.J., Pedersen, O., Schwenk, J.M., Pavo, I., Mari, A., McCarthy, M.I., Ruetten, H., Walker, M., Pearson, E. and Franks, P.W. 2019. Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes: descriptive characteristics of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium. Diabetologia. 62 (9), pp. 1601-1615. doi:10.1007/s00125-019-4906-1 Intraperitoneal delivery of acetate-encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles ...
In egg-laying chickens, the trend in the move away from the cage to alternative housing systems and restriction in antimicrobial use requires alternative approaches to maintain health and prevent diseases. There is increased research and commercial interest toward alternative gut health solutions while improving the performance and product safety in poultry production systems. One such approach, in recognition of the importance of the... ...
The sterilized concentrate of the metabolic products of lactic acid -producing organisms, with metabolic products of Gram-positive and Gram-negative small and large intestine symbionts, biosynthetic lactic acid, lactate buffer salts, amino acids, short-chain, volatile fatty acids. PH: 3.0-3.4. Properties and Effectivit
When you consume dietary fibers, it is not your body that breaks them down-its the bacteria in your large intestine! Important molecules produced by this bacterial activity are called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which comprise a maximum of six carbon atoms along with atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Your body absorbs around 95% of these SCFAs and puts them to work. Could fibers beneficial effects - including weight control, blood sugar balance, and a decreased risk of certain diseases - be attributed to the activities of SCFAs? Research is revealing more about how these molecules benefit your health as they travel around the body.. ...
HiFeed is a liquid formulation for daily dry fodder/TMR. It is based on select group of fiber acting microbes & enzymes. It results into quick production of volatile fatty acids and reduce the pH of the feed. They improve the feed assimilation and palatability by acting on fibers and protein through active enzyme production. With HiFeed the feed gets better texture, flavour and taste while minimizing fungal growth and afla-toxin production. Hifeed stops acidosis and stabilizes rumen. The proven benefit of HiFeed is minimal feed wastage that leads to better economic gains.. SID: Silage inoculant cultures quick silage from corn, sorghum, grass and sugarcane ...
Microbial fermentation services aim at prolonging the product quality and improving the sensory and health parameters of the final food product.
Vitamins such as B2, B12 and C are produced by the technique of microbial fermentation. They are extracted from their microbial sources.
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Sartorius™ BIOSTAT A™ Standard Equipment Packages, for Microbial Fermentation .
... volatile fatty acids and minerals. For biosafety reasons and for optimum degradation efficiency, the compartment operates in ... mainly the volatile fatty acids. The nitrifying compartment (compartment 3): The nitrifying compartments main function is to ...
A class of aliphatic acids (volatile fatty acids as a kind of carboxylic acid) was found in female rhesus monkeys that produced ... Richard P. Michael; Bonsall, R.W.; Kutner, M. (1975). "Volatile fatty acids, "copulins", in human vaginal secretions". ... The combination of these acids is referred to as "copulins". One of the acids, acetic acid, was found in all of the sampled ... Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator that can trigger flight (in aphids) or aggression (in ...
... into the three volatile fatty acids (VFAs): acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. Protein and nonstructural ... The omasum also absorbs volatile fatty acids and ammonia. After this, the digesta is moved to the true stomach, the abomasum. ... and absorbs volatile fatty acids abomasum-true stomach The first two chambers are the rumen and the reticulum. These two ... This compartment releases acids and enzymes that further digest the material passing through. This is also where the ruminant ...
One obtained thereby volitile fatty acids; acetic acid; normal and isobutyric acid; as well as the aromatic substances: phenol ... Tryptophan is converted to indoleacetic acid, which decarboxylates to give the methylindole. Skatole can be synthesized via the ... Translation: I was occupied initially with the investigation of the volitile components of excrement in acidic solution. ... On the volatile components of human excrement]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 10: 1027-1032. doi:10.1002/cber ...
... food-waste-derived n-paraffin volatile fatty acid-based sustainable aviation fuels could enable up to a 165% reduction in ... "Toward net-zero sustainable aviation fuel with wet waste-derived volatile fatty acids". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
A biological reaction where volatile fatty acids are converted into acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen Methanogenesis: A ... The hydrolyzed compounds are fermented into volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate), neutral ... A biological reaction where simple monomers are converted into volatile fatty acids; Acetogenesis: ... Acetic acid is equally a co-metabolite of the organic substrates fermentation (sugars, glycerol, lactic acid, etc.) by diverse ...
Furthermore, the microbes depend upon short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) as a nutrient source. These are nearly always ... Bacterially, sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria are dependent on the reaction of water and iron to form the ... acid producing bacteria) The viability of microbes to corrode piping interior surfaces depends upon the same source materials ...
The added organic substrates are first fermented to hydrogen (H2) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The VFAs, including acetate ... This results in higher contaminated volatile compounds due to their high molecular weight and an increased difficulty to remove ...
These features increase the surface area of the reticulorumen wall, facilitating the absorption of volatile fatty acids. ... and disaccharides may be assimilated into microbial biomass or fermented to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) acetate, propionate, ... Non-amino acid nitrogen is used for synthesis of microbial amino acids. In situations in which nitrogen for microbial growth is ... Butyrate is an essential fatty acid necessary for rumen epithelium growth, capillary development, and papillae formation. "The ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Balch, D. A.; Rowland, S. J. (1957). "Volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in the rumen ... A 1956 study used cannulated cows to determine that a hay-only diet does not change the proportion of fatty acids in a cow's ... "Destruction of Ascorbic Acid in the Rumen of the Dairy Cow". Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. ...
Their fore stomach has fermentation carried out by microbes and has high levels of volatile fatty acid; it has been proposed ...
Ricks CA, Cook RM (1981). "Regulation of volatile fatty acid uptake by mitochondrial acyl CoA synthetases of bovine liver". ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ...
Microbial fermentation degrades otherwise indigestible polymers in the reticulorumen to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), methane, ...
"Effects of Process Parameters on Formation of Volatile Acids and Free Fatty Acids in Quick-Ripened Blue Cheese". Journal of ... During ripening, free fatty acids increase in amount which contribute to the characteristic flavor of blue cheeses due to fat ... The addition of modified milk fat stimulates a progressive release of free fatty acids via lipase action which is essential for ... Therefore, initial fermentation of the cheese is done by lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria, however, are killed by ...
... releasing individual fatty acids. In the case of paints, some portion of these free fatty acids (FFAs) react with metals in the ... As oxygen uptake ceases, the weight of the film declines as volatile compounds evaporate. As the oil ages, further transitions ... Diene-containing fatty acid derivatives, such as those derived from linoleic acid, are especially prone to this reaction ... Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, are slower to undergo drying because the allylic radical intermediates are ...
... the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid". Biochemical Journal. 50 (5): ... From these, the CF-FAB was more successful as a LC-MS interface and was useful to analyze non-volatile and thermally labile ... This pioneer interface for LC-MS had the same analysis capabilities of GC-MS and was limited to rather volatile analytes and ... 1978). "Capillary system for continuous introducing of volatile liquids into analytical MS and its application". Adv. Mass ...
... allowing otherwise indigestible cellulose to be turned into volatile fatty acids. Naked mole-rats sometimes also eat their own ... As a result, the naked mole-rats feel no pain when they are exposed to acid or capsaicin. When they are injected with substance ... When deprived of oxygen, the animal uses fructose in its anaerobic glycolysis, producing lactic acid. This pathway is not ... the pain signaling works as it does in other mammals but only with capsaicin and not with acids. This is proposed to be an ...
Otto ER, Yokoyama M, Hengemuehle S, von Bermuth RD, van Kempen T, Trottier NL (July 2003). "Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, ... For example, meat protein is rich in the amino acid methionine, which is a precursor of the sulfur-containing odorous compounds ... Tangerman A (October 2009). "Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, ... is the most common volatile sulfur compound in feces. The odor of feces may be increased when various pathologies are present, ...
PDF fulltext C., Gasaway, William (1976). Seasonal variation in diet, volatile fatty acid production and size of the cecum of ...
These are fatty acid chains present in the grasshopper's regurgitant. When the grasshopper feeds on a plant, the caeliferins in ... This is a common response to herbivory in plants; the volatile organic compounds are attractive to predators of the herbivorous ... 2007). Disulfooxy fatty acids from the American bird grasshopper Schistocerca americana, elicitors of plant volatiles. ... the regurgitant induce the plant to release volatile organic compounds. ...
PHGG is fully fermentable in the large bowel, with a high rate of volatile fatty acid formation. The pH of the feces is lowered ... 2011) Agriculture Forage: Guar plants can be used as cattle feed, but due to hydrocyanic acid in its beans, only mature beans ... PHGG as sold commercially is completely soluble, acid and heat stable, unaffected by ions, and will not gel at high ...
During the anaerobic phase, CAP can take up volatile fatty acids and store these simple carbon sources intracellularly as ...
In particular, short-chain fatty acids, such as butyric acid, are malodorous. When short-chain fatty acids are produced, they ... This reaction causes the release of malodorous and highly volatile aldehydes and ketones. Because of the nature of free-radical ... This reaction of lipid with water may require a catalyst, leading to the formation of free fatty acids and glycerol. ... The double bonds of an unsaturated fatty acid can be cleaved by free-radical reactions involving molecular oxygen. ...
These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids cattle use ... The microbes inside the rumen also synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. As ...
... also called gelsemic acid), a small amount of volatile oil, fatty acid and tannins. Gelsemium has been shown to contain ...
It is measure of the steam volatile and water insoluble fatty acids,chiefly caprylic, capric and lauric acids present in oil ... The Polenske value is an indicator of how much volatile fatty acid can be extracted from fat through saponification. It is ... of milliliters of 0.1 normal alkali solution necessary for the neutralization of the water-insoluble volatile fatty acids ...
The Reichert value is an indicator of how much volatile fatty acid can be extracted from fat through saponification. It is ... to the number of ml of 0.1 normal hydroxide solution necessary for the neutralization of the water-soluble volatile fatty acids ...
The Kirschner value is an indicator of how much volatile fatty acid can be extracted from fat through saponification. It ... hydroxide necessary for the neutralization of water-soluble silver salts made from the water-soluble volatile fatty acids ...
... s (JA) are an oxylipin, i.e. a derivative of oxygenated fatty acid. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid in ... Another indirect result of JA signaling is the volatile emission of JA-derived compounds. MeJA on leaves can travel airborne to ... Synthesis is initiated with the conversion of linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which then undergoes a ... Arachidonic acid (AA), the counterpart of the JA precursor α-LeA occurring in metazoan species but not in plants, is perceived ...
Activity of various rumen organisms results in accumulation of various volatile fatty acids (normally, mostly acetic, propionic ... The pKa of lactic acid is low, about 3.9, versus, for example, 4.8 for acetic acid; this contributes to the considerable drop ... Undissociated lactic acid can cross the rumen wall to the blood, where it dissociates, lowering blood pH. Both L and D isomers ... Acid-base disturbances such as lactic acidosis are typically first assessed using arterial blood gas tests. Testing of venous ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... and are more volatile than alcohols and carboxylic acids of comparable molecular weights. These factors relate to the ... Fatty acid synthesis proceeds via ketones. Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ...
Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap.[197] Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Organolithium compounds are electrically non-conducting volatile solids or liquids that melt at low temperatures, and tend to ... Indeed, transferring of protons between chemicals is the basis of acid-base chemistry.[10]:43 Also unique is hydrogen's ability ... Pure alkali metals are dangerously reactive with air and water and must be kept away from heat, fire, oxidising agents, acids, ...
... which can be used to selectively catalyse the esterification of fatty acids.[55] Formation of such activated carbons from ... Volatile organic compounds recovery (solvent recovery systems, SRU) from flexible packaging, converting, coating, and other ... The chemical is typically an acid, strong base,[1][2] or a salt[20] (phosphoric acid 25%, potassium hydroxide 5%, sodium ... boric acid, petroleum products, and is particularly ineffective against poisonings of strong acids or alkali, cyanide, iron, ...
The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... "Biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds by fungi: bioengineering potential". Applied Microbiology and ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ...
Typical compounds used are carboxylic acids (e.g. fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and ... Some fluxes are no-clean, as they are sufficiently volatile or undergo thermal decomposition to volatile products, that they do ... organic acids (monocarboxylic, e.g. formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ...
Sulfonic acids: Acamprosate. Religion and alcohol. *Christian views on alcohol *alcohol in the Bible ... Volatile. solvent. *SID *Sudden sniffing death syndrome (SSDS). *Toluene toxicity. *SUD *Inhalant abuse ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. *Self-medication. *Spins. *Sober companion. *Sober living houses ...
Gay-Lussac was able to prepare the very toxic and volatile pure acid.[6] Around 1832 benzonitrile, the nitrile of benzoic acid ... Barrault, J.; Pouilloux, Y. (1997). "Catalytic Amination Reactions: Synthesis of fatty amines. Selectivity control in presence ... NH2 and then carboxylic acids RCOOH. The hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids is efficient. In acid or base, the balanced ... α-Amino acids form nitriles and carbon dioxide via various means of oxidative decarboxylation.[22][23] Henry Drysdale Dakin ...
Legume fats may also have been decomposed into short chain fatty acids, and the interaction among lipid and other ... Despite a large variety of volatile and odorant compounds that have been identified in soy sauce, the food product per se does ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ... Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein[edit]. Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed ...
fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point. Total mono[23]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total ... "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070 ... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details") example: avocado oil; user can search for other oils". ...
... which leads to rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the leachate. The increased organic acid content decreases ... Long-chain volatile organic acids (VOAs) are converted to acetic acid (C2H4O2), CO2, and hydrogen gas (H2). High concentrations ... Phase III - Acid formation: Hydrolysis of the biodegradable fraction of the solid waste begins in the acid formation phase, ... The acid formation phase intermediary products (e.g. acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) are converted to CH4 and CO2 by ...
... is often "chill filtered": chilled to precipitate out fatty acid esters and then filtered to remove them. Most whiskies ... Maarse, H. (1991). Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-8247-8390-7. .. ... and esters of fatty acids.[87] The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.[88] The sulfur compounds ... including aldehydes and acids such as vanillin, vanillic acid, and syringaldehyde.[26] Distillers will sometimes age their ...
Volatile compounds[edit]. Volatile compounds of green coffee beans include short-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and nitrogen- ... palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, triglycerides, unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, esters ... fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild nut-like fatty ... Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are ...
... free fatty acids, triglycerides, lactate, ketone bodies, cortisol, and glucose in blood and urine samples.[3] ... Volatile. solvent. *Inhalant abuse: Toluene toxicity. Poly drug use. *SID *Combined drug intoxication ... increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance ... Tolfenamic acid, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, in a 1983 study reduced headache, nausea, vomiting, irritation but ...
The most important source of human exposure is fatty food of animal origin (see Human intake, above),[43] and breast milk.[67] ... Many horses and other animals were killed due to poisoning.[72] Dioxins are neither volatile nor water-soluble, and therefore ... Handling and spraying of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides may also cause quite high exposures, as clearly demonstrated by the ... Because PCBs are somewhat volatile, they have also been transported long distances by air leading to global distribution ...
During fermentation, the silage bacteria act on the cellulose and carbohydrates in the forage to produce volatile fatty acids ( ... Silage inoculants contain one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria, and the most common is Lactobacillus plantarum. Other ... The VFAs thus act as natural preservatives, in the same way that the lactic acid in yogurt and cheese increases the ... When closely packed, the supply of oxygen is limited, and the attendant acid fermentation brings about decomposition of the ...
... including free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids, pigments and volatile compounds.[46][48][49] ... fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point Total mono[7]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total poly ... Its fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids (18% monounsaturated, and 52% polyunsaturated), 26% ... saturated fatty acids.[3] When it is fully hydrogenated, its profile is 94% saturated fat and 2% unsaturated fatty acids (1.5% ...
One of its main constituents is cetyl palmitate, another ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Lanolin is a wax obtained ... LPW is unrefined and contains volatile oligomers, corrosive catalyst and may contain other foreign material and water. Refining ... They frequently contain fatty acid esters as well. Synthetic waxes are often long-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes or paraffins) ... They may also include various functional groups such as fatty acids, primary and secondary long chain alcohols, unsaturated ...
In 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, were effective against ryegrass ... Volatile herbicides have to be incorporated into the soil before planting the pasture. Agricultural crops grown in soil treated ... Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveriesEdit. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, ...
... fatty acids, fats and oils.[70] It can also tolerate high concentrations of salt and heavy metals,[71] and is being ... which may aid in attracting pollinators by increasing the evaporation of volatile organic compounds.[28][34] A black yeast has ... This is mainly because these species can grow in the presence of high sucrose, ethanol, acetic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid ... They are often used in the same way that monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used and, like MSG, often contain free glutamic acid.[92 ...
... esters of fatty acids are hydrogenated to fatty alcohols. RCO2R′ + 2 H2 → RCH2OH + R′OH. A typical catalyst is copper chromite ... Many mineral and organic acids containing oxygen combine with an alcohol upon elimination of water to [form] neutral, volatile ... Sulfuric acid is a typical catalyst for this reaction. Many other acids are also used such as polymeric sulfonic acids. Since ... esters are derived from substitution reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of ...
The second chemical class is composed of the fatty acid derivatives, synthesized from acetyl-CoA, of which most of them are ... Floral scent or flower scent is composed of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), or aroma compounds, emitted by floral ... Floral scents are the only types of volatile cues that can be used to inform other plants about the mating environment. Plants ... Most commonly used solvents are very volatile molecules, such as methanol, so as to avoid co-elution with slightly heavier VOCs ...
5. Recycled less volatile components 6. Most volatile components 7. Condenser *Both columns are preheated by steam ... Sulfonic acids: Acamprosate. Religion and alcohol. *Christian views on alcohol *alcohol in the Bible ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. *Self-medication. *Spins. *Sober companion. *Sober living houses ...
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids, steroids and similar chemicals often found in the oils produced by living ... Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile.[1] They are used for food (e.g ...
... is chemically very inert, being resistant to acids and bases but is easily dissolved by many chlorinated solvents, ... there will also be leftover carbon soot and a complex mixture of volatile compounds.[66][better source needed] According to the ... for fatty foods) of styrene by weight.[74] Styrene oligomers in polystyrene containers used for food packaging have been found ...
"Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, &c. Shewing How They May be Condensed without Loss, and How ... Lean finely textured beef in the beef industry is made from fatty beef trimmings (c. 50-70% fat) by removing the fat using heat ... It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ... Like water, ammonia undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its acid and base conjugates: 2 NH. 3 (aq) ⇌ NH+. 4 (aq) + NH−. ...
This species is central to discussion of acids. Under the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, acids are proton donors, while bases ... "Chemistry: A Volatile History. 25:40 minutes in. BBC. BBC Four.. *^ "Hydrogen Basics - Production". Florida Solar Energy Center ... "The deuterium isotope effect upon the reaction of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and butyryl-CoA". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (19): 9093- ... Metal-acid. In the laboratory, H. 2 is usually prepared by the reaction of dilute non-oxidizing acids on some reactive metals ...
fatty acids. Monounsaturated. fatty acids. Polyunsaturated. fatty acids. Smoke point Total[20]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[20]. ... "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070 ... In the following content, the expressions "fatty acids" and "acid" below refer to esters rather than carboxylic acids. ... Coconut oil contains lauric acid (44.6-46.7%), myristic acid (16.2-21.4%), palmitic acid (6.8-8.3%), oleic acid (7.2-9.8%), and ...
Sapienic acid is a sebum fatty acid that is unique to humans, and is implicated in the development of acne.[14] Sebum is ... These glands secrete an oily fluid that lubricates the nipple, and also secrete volatile compounds that are thought to serve as ... Sebaceous glands secrete acids that form the acid mantle. This is a thin, slightly acidic film on the surface of the skin that ... and free fatty acids (≈16%).[6][13] The composition of sebum varies across species.[13] Wax esters and squalene are unique to ...
fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point. Total mono[8]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total ... "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.. Cite ... and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the monounsaturate oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%.[6] It also contains the saturated fatty acids ... The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, ...
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important elements in controlling the anaerobic digestion process. It has two important roles: ... Volatile fatty acids can be analyzed by titration, distillation, steam distillation, and chromatography. The acceptable level ... Water Environment Research, page 53-59, Anderson, G.K. and Yang G. (1992)) Determination of Volatile Fatty Acids in ... of volatile fatty acids in environmental waters is up to 50,000 ppm. Titration provides rough results. However, it requires ...
Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are intermediate products of anaerobic digestion and possess great potential for bio-based ... The mixed culture was bioaugmented by C. aceticum for acetic acid dominant VFA production, C. butyricum for butyric acid ... The bioaugmented mixed culture by C. aceticum increased acetic acid production as ten-fold; C. butyricum improved butyric acid ... The quantity of the selected pure cultures strongly correlated with the acid composition confirming the efficiency of the ...
Volatile Fatty Acids. Biochemistry for beginners-Wk 9. Question. Answer. Ruminant Digestion?. -cellulose, hemicellulose, starch ... acetic acid x 2 -butyric acid x 1 -propionic acid x2 -others but very small -VFA is a carbon chain with 6 or less carbons. ... goes to the GIT butyrate become beta hydroxybutyric acid 5% propionate becomes lactic acid -then goes to liver and then body ... unsaturated fatty acids (increase propionate). Energy values in VFAs and glucose in order from lowest to highest. -acetic - ...
Microbial electrosynthesis for volatile fatty acid production and conversion. *Electricity generation by Plant Microbial Full ... aims at the development of a microbial electrosynthesis system for the production and/or conversion of volatile fatty acids. ... Medium chain carboxylic acid production from agro-food residues for biomaterials. *Conversion of CO2 into methane with ... Microbial electrosynthesis for volatile fatty acid production and conversion. The need for a biobased economy is driven by the ...
... aims at the development of a microbial electrosynthesis system for the production and/or conversion of volatile fatty acids. ... Microbial electrosynthesis for volatile fatty acid production and conversion. The need for a biobased economy is driven by the ...
The degradation rate of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) produced predominantly in the acidogenesis stage is a key process parameter ... especially volatile fatty acids from acidogenesis stage [1] .. The concentration of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is one of ... The degradation of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as propionic and butyric acids require an initial biochemical energy ... by enhancing the degradation rate of high volatile fatty acids concentration (VFAs). The inorganic acids that were added as ...
Flavour and flavour thresholds of lactones, fatty acids, phenols, indole and skatole in deodorized synthetic butter - Volume 39 ... Volatile compounds in butter oil: II. Flavour and flavour thresholds of lactones, fatty acids, phenols, indole and skatole in ... C6, 8, 10 δ-lactones, C2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14n-alkanoic acids, phenol, m- and p-cresols, o-methoxyphenol and volatile fractions ... None of the compounds listed constitute basic butter flavour on their own, but C8, 10 δ-lactones, C10 acid, phenol, p-cresol, ...
The highest production of volatile fatty acids was obtained using five days of cycle period which is 441 mg/L as acetic acid ( ... Sludge digestions produce volatile fatty acid (VFAs) which are essential in the production of biodiesel. Therefore, ... The objective of this study is to optimize the anaerobic sludge digestion for the production of volatile fatty acids. The ... The production of the volatile fatty acids was optimized by varying the cycle period of the digestion process and maintaining ...
... the importance of the leachate flush both on extracting volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at the beginning of newly-started batches ... The injection in mature reactors of leachate with an acetic acid concentration of 5 or 10 g L−1 showed that for an optimized ... Leachate flush strategies for managing volatile fatty acids accumulation in leach-bed reactors Silvio Riggio 1, 2, 3 Michel ... Keywords : dry anaerobic digestion leach-bed reactor leachate management VFA extraction VFA consumption volatile fatty acid ...
... grass-fed livestock produce milk with higher levels of n-3 fatty acids, vitamins A, E, carotenoids, and phenols. The effect is ... products from grazing ruminant have numerous positive effects on human health thanks to their higher content essential fatty ... acids, vitamins, and polyphenols. Compared to livestock fed a conventional maize silage- and/or grain-based diet, ... fatty acids; phenols dairy products quality; grazing ruminants; pasture; volatile compounds; fatty acids; phenols ...
... and volatile fatty acids (VFA) is crucial for the control of anaerobic digestion. In case of unstable process conditions, an ... and volatile fatty acids (VFA) is crucial for the control of anaerobic digestion. In case of unstable process conditions, an ... In combination with typically monitored parameters, such as gas quality, pH and FOS/TAC (volatile organic acids/total anorganic ... In combination with typically monitored parameters, such as gas quality, pH and FOS/TAC (volatile organic acids/total anorganic ...
In order to determine volatile fatty acids (short chain monocarboxylic acids with 2 to 6 carbon... ... Article Development of headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection procedure to determine volatile fatty acids in ... In order to determine volatile fatty acids (short chain monocarboxylic acids with 2 to 6 carbon atoms in a molecule) in ... Development of headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection procedure to determine volatile fatty acids in zoo ...
Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44, 1768-1771. [ Links ]. ... The effects of sodium monensin and protein supplements on volatile fatty acid production were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin Square ... Sodium monensin increased the concentration of propionic acid in the rumen. Protein supplements increased fatty acid ... propionic and butyric acids) to 52 : 40 : 8 of 5.6% in crude energy in the form of fatty acids, since the theoretical ...
VFA [volatile fatty acid] molar proportions and concentrations in digestion tract and blood of different mammalian species. ... Estimates of contributions of VFA [volatile fatty acids] produced in different segments of digestive tract of various species ... Bergman EN, Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiol Rev. 1990 ...
... and of combined fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. Volatile organic compound compositions were used as well. Fatty ... Prediction of the identity of fats and oils by their fatty acid, triacylglycerol and volatile compositions using PLS-DA. ... rate was obtained for the absolute combined fatty acid/triacylglycerol dataset. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry ... absolute and relative measurements of fatty acid compositions, of triacylglycerol compositions, ...
An indicator of the measure of volatile soluble fatty acids Explanation of volatile fatty acid number ... Find out information about volatile fatty acid number. ... Volatile fatty acid number , Article about volatile fatty acid ... redirected from volatile fatty acid number). Also found in: Medical. Reichert-Meissl number. [′rī·kərt ′mīs·əl ‚nəm·bər] ( ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/volatile+fatty+acid+number,Reichert-Meissl number,/a,. *Facebook ...
Feeds rich in growth stimulating factors for rumen organisms and certain volatile fatty acids as supplements for rations for ...
In a 5.4 l baffled reactor, containing three equal compartments, a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture (acetate:propionate: ... The effect of staging the sludge bed on volatile fatty acid degradation by sulfidogenic reactors was evaluated in a baffled ... The effect of staging the sludge bed on volatile fatty acid degradation by sulfidogenic reactors was evaluated in a baffled ... Sulfidogenic volatile fatty acid degradation in a baffled reactor.. @article{Vallero2003SulfidogenicVF, title={Sulfidogenic ...
... and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from both synthetic and real pig manure hydrolysate for the first time. Synthetic hydrolysate ... After 5.5 h of operation, 52% of NH4+ migrated to the base compartment, and 98% of PO43− and 95% of VFAs migrated to the acid ... It substantiated that the low recovery efficiencies of NH4+ and the impurity of acid solution were primarily caused by the ... in the acid compartment. Finally, real pig manure hydrolysate was tested and the variations of ions in the BMED were consistent ...
In order to determine volatile fatty acids (short chain monocarboxylic acids with 2 to 6 carbon atoms in a molecule) in ... Development of headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection procedure to determine volatile fatty acids in zoo ... Volatile Fatty Acids) at a concentration ranging from 5.5 mg/L to 0.88 g/L and from below LOD to 10.1 mg/L for pool water at ... Development of headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection procedure to determine volatile fatty acids in zoo ...
... in order to track relevant process parameters like total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetic acid and propionic acid was ... Use of near infrared spectroscopy in monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion H. Fabian Jacobi; H. Fabian ... Use of near infrared spectroscopy in monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2009; ... Use of near infrared spectroscopy in monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2009; ...
Characterization and modulation of volatile fatty acid transport in the gastrointestinal tract of an herbivorous teleost. File ... Transport pathways for the volatile fatty acids (VFA) were investigated at the subcellular level, i.e. the brush border and ... Characterization and modulation of volatile fatty acid transport in the gastrointestinal tract of an herbivorous teleost. ... Characterization and modulation of volatile fatty acid transport in the gastrointestinal tract of an herbivorous teleost ...
... the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid. A. T. James, A. J. P. Martin ... the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid ... the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid ... the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid ...
"Continuous liquid fermentation of pretreated waste activated sludge for high rate volatile fatty acids production and online ... Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: alkaline or neutral pH? ... High-rate volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by a granular sludge process at low pH ... Continuous liquid fermentation of pretreated waste activated sludge for high rate volatile fatty acids production and online ...
"Concurrent Lactic and Volatile Fatty Acid Analysis of Microbial Fermentation Samples by Gas Chromatography with Heat Pre- ... which detects volatile organic acids. However, lactic acid, a key fermentation acid is non-volatile and can hence not be ... which detects volatile organic acids. However, lactic acid, a key fermentation acid is non-volatile and can hence not be ... As lactic acid is a non-volatile compound, lactic acid analysis using GC must be accomplished by oxidizing it to a volatile ...
The same volatile fatty acid profiles were obtained in both media, although the concentration of acids was lower in blood agar ... Volatile fatty acids produced in Robertsons cooked meat medium by a range of clinically relevant anaerobes were compared by ... We conclude that detection of volatile fatty acids from a pure culture of an organism on solid medium is practicable and offers ... Analysis by gas liquid chromatography of production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic bacteria grown on solid medium. ...
Methods of analysis of fats and fatty oils. Other methods. Determination of volatile acids (Reichert, Polenske and Kirschner ... Methods of analysis of fats and fatty oils. Other methods. Determination of volatile acids (Reichert, Polenske and Kirschner ... Fats, Food testing, Animal fats, Vegetable fats, Animal oils, Vegetable oils, Volatile matter determination, Fatty acids, ... BS 684-2.42:1989 Methods of analysis of fats and fatty oils. Other methods. Determination of 1-monoglycerides and free glycerol ...
ANIONS, WATER, biorefinery, esterification, ionic liquids, sustainable chemistry, volatile fatty acids. Downloads. * Download ... Extraction and esterification of low-titer short-chain volatile fatty acids from anaerobic fermentation with ionic liquids. ... Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate ... "Extraction and Esterification of Low-titer Short-chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids." ...
... acetate utilization rate and volatile fatty acids in sediment core GT04-308GC. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.327778 ... Cragg, Barry A (2005): Acetate methanogenesis rate, acetate utilization rate and volatile fatty acids in sediment core GT04- ...
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important elements in controlling the anaerobic digestion process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degradation rate of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) produced predominantly in the acidogenesis stage is a key process parameter to be optimised to ensure a successful Anaerobic digestion (AD). (scirp.org)
  • The concentration of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is one of the most important parameters in the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process. (scirp.org)
  • Sludge digestions produce volatile fatty acid (VFAs) which are essential in the production of biodiesel. (witpress.com)
  • In anaerobic leach-bed reactors (LBRs) co-digesting an easily- and a slowly-degradable substrate, the importance of the leachate flush both on extracting volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at the beginning of newly-started batches and on their consumption in mature reactors was tested. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The injection in mature reactors of leachate with an acetic acid concentration of 5 or 10 g L−1 showed that for an optimized VFA consumption in LBRs, VFAs should be provided straight after the methane production peak in order to profit from a higher methanogenic activity, and every 6-7 h to maintain a high biogas production rate. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Using flame ionization detection LODs were of the order of 0.02- 0.37 mg/L. The analyzed leachate collecting on and close to a zoo organic waste pile contained VFAs (Volatile Fatty Acids) at a concentration ranging from 5.5 mg/L to 0.88 g/L and from below LOD to 10.1 mg/L for pool water at some distance from the pile, respectively. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this study, a laboratory-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) system was set up to assess the recovery of ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from both synthetic and real pig manure hydrolysate for the first time. (edu.au)
  • After 5.5 h of operation, 52% of NH 4 + migrated to the base compartment, and 98% of PO 4 3− and 95% of VFAs migrated to the acid compartment. (edu.au)
  • Subsequently, a novel two-stage BMED operation based on the "inflection point" of voltage was developed to minimize the NH 4 + loss and separate PO 4 3− and VFAs from the acid compartment. (edu.au)
  • Through this operation, the recovery efficiency of NH 4 + increased to 78%, and 75% of PO 4 3− and 87% of VFAs were separated from Cl − and SO 4 2− in the acid compartment. (edu.au)
  • This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • This study investigated the degradation and production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the acidogenic phase reactor of a two-phase anaerobic system. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 20 mmol/L bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA) was used to inhibit acidogenic methanogens (which were present in the acidogenic phase reactor) from degrading VFAs. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The impact of undissociated volatile fatty acids (unVFAs) on "net" VFAs production in the acidogenic phase reactor was then evaluated, with the exclusion of concurrent VFAs degradation. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Net" VFAs production from glucose degradation was partially inhibited at high unVFAs concentrations, with 59%, 37% and 60% reduction in production rates at 2190 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L undissociated acetic acid (unHAc), 2130 mg COD/L undissociated propionic acid (unHPr) and 2280 mg COD/L undissociated n-butyric acid (unHBu), respectively. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) are short chained aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with two to seven carbon atoms in the molecule. (socotec.co.uk)
  • Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important building blocks for the chemical industry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Flyktiga fettsyror (VFAs) är en viktig byggsten inom den globala kemiindustrin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Högst koncentration av VFAs nåddes vid pH 10 på dag 11 när matavfall och avloppsslam användes tillsammans som substrat till ett värde på 15 g/L, vilket motsvarar en avkastning på 0.77 g VFAs / g VSin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Högst VFAs-koncentration när koavföring användes som substrat nåddes på dag 10 med ett värde på 10 g/L, motsvarande en avkastning på 0.51 g VFA/ g VSin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), easily produced using acid fermentation of biomass, were used to generate hydrogen via steam reforming. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • Three short-chain carboxylic acids (C-2-C-4) acetic, propionic and butyric acids were used as model compounds in addition to VFAs produced in a typical anaerobic batch reactor. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • Separation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermented wastewater is challenging, due to low VFA concentrations in mineral-rich streams. (utwente.nl)
  • In this chapter, the impact of metals on the degradation of substrate at different stages of fermentation process, as indicated by variations of lignocelluloses, chemical oxygen demands (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), etc., will be summarized. (intechopen.com)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are favorable potential substrates for producing R. oligosporus biomass due to their capacity to be synthesized from a wide range of low-value organic solid wastes via anaerobic digestion. (chalmers.se)
  • The VOLATILE team found a way to separate the VFAs and microorganisms using a membrane with minuscule openings, which allows only the VFAs to pass. (aclima.eus)
  • This study was a pen trial in which the effects of adding different rates of liquid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on litter pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and ammonia (NH3) fluxes was evaluated. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The volatile fatty acids (VFAs), including acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, which play an important role in ruminant fermentation, account for 95% of the total production of volatile fatty acids. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ≥60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. (nih.gov)
  • This study compares the effects of pre- and post-hydrothermal treatment of source- separated organics (SSO) on solubilization of particulate organics and acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of the study was to make comparison of atriplex, plantago and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) herbages in terms of nutrient matter content, gas kinetics, methane production, estimated digestion parameters, ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total bacteria count and numbers of protozoa. (sdu.edu.tr)
  • In this study, we consider the reforming of VFAs obtained from acid fermentation of food-wastes on the alumina-supported various catalysts. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • The steam reforming of a few different short chain carboxylic acids typically found in VFAs (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) were studied. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • Recent advances in membrane-bioreactor-based open mixed microbial cultures, enable robust conversion of fluctuating streams of food residues to a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). (springeropen.com)
  • In this study, such a mixed stream of VFAs was investigated as a substrate for Escherichia coli , a well-studied organism suitable for application in further conversion of the acids into compounds of higher value, and/or that are easier to separate from the aqueous medium. (springeropen.com)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are carboxylic acids with between two and six carbon atoms, produced as intermediates during digestion of organic material and have higher-value applications than the otherwise produced biogas. (springeropen.com)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) via alkaline fermentation have been shown to provide an effective alternative carbon source for biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that promotes the subsequent release of phosphorus (P) and refractory dissolved organic matter. (njnu.edu.cn)
  • Volatile compounds in butter oil: II. (cambridge.org)
  • None of the compounds listed constitute basic butter flavour on their own, but C 8, 10 δ-lactones, C 10 acid, phenol, p -cresol, indole and skatole contribute to butter flavour. (cambridge.org)
  • This paper updates the knowledge on the effects of grazing ruminants on milk quality and cheese with emphasis on unsaturated fatty acids, volatile compounds antioxidant protection degree and phenols. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, this paper highlights that milk and cheese sourced from grazed herbage is characterized by a higher content of volatile compounds compared to cheese made from sheep fed at stall. (mdpi.com)
  • The volatile compounds, besides giving a characteristic flavor to the cheese, can also be used as biomarkers because they can be transferred from herbage to the milk. (mdpi.com)
  • Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). (iastate.edu)
  • They are capable of catabolizing aromatic, branched chain, and sulfur amino acids to flavor compounds. (usu.edu)
  • Abstract: Textured peanut (TP) may have potential as a meat substitute because its low level of volatile flavor compounds would give rise to an overall bland taste with no off-flavors. (crsps.net)
  • larvae attack all three species, and in N. attenuata attack is recognized when larval oral secretions are introduced to wounds during feeding, resulting in a jasmonate burst, a systemic amplification of trypsin inhibitor accumulation, and a release of volatile organic compounds, which function as a coordinated defense response that slows caterpillar growth and increases the probability of their being attacked. (pnas.org)
  • Differences between diploid and tetraploid species were apparent in delays (maximum 1 and 0.5 h, respectively) in the jasmonate burst, the elicitation of trypsin inhibitors and release of volatile organic compounds, and the constitutive levels of nicotine, trypsin inhibitors, diterpene glycosides, rutin, and caffeoylputrescine in the leaves. (pnas.org)
  • The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. (environmental-expert.com)
  • One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (hindawi.com)
  • One of the most promising metabolomic approaches is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which could potentially serve as a safe, noninvasive (at least for breath and some biofluid samples), and specific test for the early detection of different types of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • FA and volatile compounds of yoghurt were studied. (rroij.com)
  • and to contemplate the impact of including these materials on amino acids and fatty acids, volatile compounds and minerals of produced yoghurt. (rroij.com)
  • Crude oil yield, fatty acid composition, volatile compounds, antioxidant activity and some characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca seeds collected from different locations in Turkey were studied. (csic.es)
  • A total of 30 different volatile compounds were identified in the samples, mostly consisting of alcohols and aldehydes. (csic.es)
  • The aim of this work was to produce sour cassava starch in a pilot-scale fermentation process with Lactobacillus plantarum as a single culture and in co-culture with Pichia scutulata and to determine the fatty acids and volatile compounds profile. (cetjournal.it)
  • A greater variety of desirable volatile compounds was a differential of the product obtained with the mixed culture. (cetjournal.it)
  • article{8504338, abstract = {Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2. (ugent.be)
  • In order to determine volatile fatty acids (short chain monocarboxylic acids with 2 to 6 carbon atoms in a molecule) in leachates formed in organic waste piles a procedure based on static headspace (HS) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) have been proposed and optimized. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were determined by gas chromatography. (wur.nl)
  • Analysis by gas liquid chromatography of production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic bacteria grown on solid medium. (bmj.com)
  • Volatile fatty acids produced in Robertson's cooked meat medium by a range of clinically relevant anaerobes were compared by gas liquid chromatography with those produced in blood agar. (bmj.com)
  • The lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles were determined by using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) techniques. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Zygmunt B., Banel A.: Determination of volatile fatty acids in municipal wastewater and leachates from sewage sludge allotments and compost piles using direct aqueous injection gas chromatography preceded by distillation based sample cleanup// Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology : proceedings, Bangkok, Thailand, 23-25 April 2010/ ed. eds. (mostwiedzy.pl)
  • Protein supplementation increased the concentration of acetic acid and sodium monensin reduced the concentrations of acetic and butyric acids and the acetic : proprionic ratio, both with and without protein supplements, except for the material collected at 8 h. (scielo.org.za)
  • Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. (iastate.edu)
  • An alternative approach was suggested earlier, consisting of predicting the VFA proportions from measured odd- and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations in the milk with a linear model. (ugent.be)
  • Our results demonstrate the potential of using milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations to predict rumen VFA proportions. (ugent.be)
  • In this work we developed a mathematical model for the production of volatile fatty acids from wastes featuring high concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins. (usc.es)
  • We hypothesized that alterations in gut microbiota might be accompanied by altered concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), one main metabolic product of gut bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The methane yield obtained in low VFA loading (0.9 and 1.8 g/L) was 15-20% times greater than that of high VFA loading (3.6 and 4.7 g/L). Butyric acid at high concentrations (8 g/L) has the individual significantly negative effect the methane production process (P b 0.05). (bvsalud.org)
  • Further, our results indicated that the fecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were significantly related to presence of some certain species of Bacteroidete s and Firmicute s in the feces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.01) concentrations of lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) in ileum compared to CTR. (ajas.info)
  • Faecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and the molar proportions of propionic and acetic acids also increased. (nih.gov)
  • This project aims at the development of a microbial electrosynthesis system for the production and/or conversion of volatile fatty acids. (wur.nl)
  • Herbivorous and omnivorous fish consume large quantities of vegetative matter high in structural polysaccharides which undergo microbial fermentative catabolism to form nutritive volatile fatty acids. (hawaii.edu)
  • As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis. (ugent.be)
  • A first aim of this batch in vitro experiment (21 h) was to use changes in odd and branched chain fatty acid (OBCFA) patterns to suggest shifts in microbial populations, associated with four types of incubated whole dairy cow diets. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM) in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Excessive acetic acid production is usually an indicator of microbial spoilage by Acetobacter and Gluconobacter (Boulton et al . (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Acetic acid from microbial sources is derived through various pathways. (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Microorganisms use the ammonia nitrogen, amino acids and peptides produced by decomposition to synthesise microbial proteins, which are used by animals. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Evidence suggests that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from microbial metabolism in the gut play a central role in host homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • SARA can result in increased flow of fermentable substrates to the hindgut, which can increase the production of volatile fatty acids, alter the structure of the microbial community, and have a negative effect on animal health and productivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, little is known about changes in the structure of the microbial community and its relationship with fatty acids during SARA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In combination with typically monitored parameters, such as gas quality, pH and FOS/TAC (volatile organic acids/total anorganic carbonate), the amperometric measurements of OA and VFA concentration could enhance the understanding of ongoing fermentation processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Continuous liquid fermentation of pretreated waste activated sludge for high rate volatile fatty. (deepdyve.com)
  • Andersen S, Berton J, Naert P, Gildemyn S, Rabaey K, Stevens C. Extraction and esterification of low-titer short-chain volatile fatty acids from anaerobic fermentation with ionic liquids. (ugent.be)
  • Volatile fatty acids can be found in the reactor influent or be generated during fermentation, that takes place directly in the reactor stirring phase. (media.pl)
  • Yeast produce acetic acid during fermentation within the range of 100 mg/ℓ - 200 mg/ℓ, depending on the yeast strain and vigour of fermentation (e.g. temperature and juice nutrient status) (Boulton et al . (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Anaerobic fermentation of organic municipal solid waste was investigated using a leach-bed reactor (LBR) to assess the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production efficiency. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Hydrogen generated from the applied current shifted the fermentation outcome from predominantly C2 and C3 VFA (64 ± 3 % of the total VFA present in the control) to majority of C4 to C6 (70 ± 12 % in the experiment), with identical proportions in the VFA acid extract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two-stage in vitro fermentation was used to screen five amino acids and three branched-chain volatile fatty acids as potential additions to a grain urea supplement for cows grazing dormant winter range. (sdstate.edu)
  • Compared to urea addition, the branched-chain volatile fatty acids did not increase dry matter or fiber disappearance or improve rate of fermentation of dormant range grasses. (sdstate.edu)
  • and Johnson, B. J., "Effects of Amino Acid and Branched-Chain Volatile Fatty Acid Additions on in Vitro Fermentation of Dormant Range Grasses" (1989). (sdstate.edu)
  • The possibility to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in order to track relevant process parameters like total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetic acid and propionic acid was investigated in the present research project. (iwaponline.com)
  • Birds fed T4 and T6 had higher faecal acetic acid and propionic acid respectively, and both had higher total VFA and lactic acid bacteria but lower pH and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) counts compared to other treatments. (upm.edu.my)
  • However, it is known that the metabolism of bacteria in the rumen is affected by its toxic effect on microorganisms, resulting in alterations in the molar concentration of fatty acids. (scielo.org.za)
  • Lactic acid bacteria are essential as flavor producers of cheese and fermented products. (usu.edu)
  • This prompted an investigation into possible mechanisms of catabolism of branched chain amino acids into branched chain fatty acids and the physiological relevance of amino acid catabolism to the bacteria. (usu.edu)
  • Effect of chestnut and quebracho tannins on fatty acid profile in rumen liquid- and solid-associated bacteria: an in vitro study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Identification of Bacteria by Their Volatile Fatty Acid Profiles. (chromatography-online.org)
  • An example of the fatty acid profiles for three different types of bacteria are shown in figure 40, two of which are clostridium. (chromatography-online.org)
  • The three different types of bacteria gave quite different volatile fatty acid profiles. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Figure 40 Volatile Fatty Acid Profiles from Different Bacteria. (chromatography-online.org)
  • One mode is through the degradation of sugars by lactic acid bacteria via the phosphoketolase process (the way in which bacteria can break down residual sugar). (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Yeavita R can also promote the proliferation of lactic acid utilisation bacteria, effectively prevent rumen dysfunction and acidosis caused by lactic acid accumulation. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with or without probiotic on rumen fluid pH, protozoa, bacteria, volatile fatty acids and ammonia in ram lambs. (onljvetres.com)
  • protozoa , bacteria, volatile fatty acids and ammonia in ram lambs. (onljvetres.com)
  • We describe effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) with or without probiotic supplement on rumen pH, protozoa, bacteria, volatile fatty acids and ammonia in ram lambs. (onljvetres.com)
  • 0.05) number of bacteria and higher volatile fatty acid values than other lambs. (onljvetres.com)
  • The biggest group of probiotic strains in the intestine is lactic acid bacteria, of which Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. (rroij.com)
  • Background: Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. (upm.edu.my)
  • SAID decreased ruminal and fecal pH and increased the propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration in feces when compared with the COD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration in wastewater from different sections of the dairy industry. (media.pl)
  • Quality research of wastewater revealed that independently on the sources of VFA, acetic acid was the most abundant. (media.pl)
  • dairy wastewater, volatile fatty acids (VFA), cheese whey. (media.pl)
  • During stirring stage in SBR reactor volatile fatty acids (VFA), presented in wastewater, are used at nitrate reduction to gas nitrogen under anoxic conditions, but also at metabolic processes of polyphosphate-accumulated microorganisms under anaerobic conditions [10, 11, 12, 13]. (media.pl)
  • Because of that, nitrates and orthophosphates removal is more effective if wastewater contained higher amount of volatile fatty acids. (media.pl)
  • Determination of volatile fatty acids in municipal wastewater and leachates from sewage sludge allot. (mostwiedzy.pl)
  • Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are intermediate products of anaerobic digestion and possess great potential for bio-based production from waste streams. (kth.se)
  • The objective of this study is to optimize the anaerobic sludge digestion for the production of volatile fatty acids. (witpress.com)
  • The production of the volatile fatty acids was optimized by varying the cycle period of the digestion process and maintaining the concentration of MLSS to 8000 mg/L for each cycle. (witpress.com)
  • Keywords: volatile fatty acids, anaerobic digestion, sludge. (witpress.com)
  • Monitoring of organic acids (OA) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) is crucial for the control of anaerobic digestion. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study was initiated to demonstrate the application of thermophilic aerobic digestion pre-treatment as a method of producing volatile fatty acids (VFA) for potential use as a denitrification carbon source. (umanitoba.ca)
  • These acids can be produced through environmentally friendly processes from a variety of wastes, such as food waste, sludge and cow manure, through anaerobic digestion (AD). (diva-portal.org)
  • The digestion and absorption of nutrients in rumen and the growth and metabolism of rumen microorganisms can produce a large number of volatile fatty acids, and a large part of the energy needed for rumen digestion and absorption comes from the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Enhanced volatile fatty acid degradation and methane production efficiency by biochar addition in food waste-sludge co-digestion: A step towards increased organic loading efficiency in co-digestion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid , and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production . (bvsalud.org)
  • Lactic acid was the major acidic compound consistently found in the vaginal secretion of all subjects near the time of ovulation. (springer.com)
  • 10 %), enabling chain elongation of VFA through lactic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The quantity of the selected pure cultures strongly correlated with the acid composition confirming the efficiency of the bioaugmentation strategy. (kth.se)
  • Caecum odd-numbered and branched-chain fatty acid composition in response to dietary changes in fattening rabbits. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Optimum OLR and pH values were determined as 15 g volatile solid (VS)/L . day and 5.5 +/- 0.1, respectively, for the MSW composition investigated. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate effects of mixed organic acids (MOA) on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acids composition and intestinal microbiota in growing-finishing pigs fed high wheat bran diet. (ajas.info)
  • In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. (edu.au)
  • The effects of sodium monensin and protein supplements on volatile fatty acid production were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design, using four female bovines equipped with rumen fistulae and fed Brachiaria brizantha Marandu cultivar hay. (scielo.org.za)
  • Used together, they increased the molar concentration of propionate in the rumen fluid, without decreasing the total concentration of fatty acids. (scielo.org.za)
  • The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the rumen and the proportions in which they are produced are important determinants of a ruminant's metabolism, but their monitoring requires rumen-fistulated animals, which is not feasible under practical conditions or in experimental setups at herd level. (ugent.be)
  • Rumen odd and branched chain fatty acids in relation to in vitro rumen volatile fatty acid productions and dietary characteristics of incubated substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The biggest difference in nitrogen metabolism between ruminant and monogastric animals is that rumen microorganisms can ferment part of feed protein or other nitrogen-containing substances into ammonia nitrogen, while part of feed protein is degraded into amino acids and polypeptides. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In addition, volatile fatty acids can also maintain an ideal acid environment in rumen, which is suitable for the reproduction and colonisation of microorganisms. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The mixed culture was bioaugmented by C. aceticum for acetic acid dominant VFA production, C. butyricum for butyric acid dominant VFA production and P. acidipropionici for propionic acid dominant VFA production, respectively. (kth.se)
  • The highest production of volatile fatty acids was obtained using five days of cycle period which is 441 mg/L as acetic acid (HOAC). (witpress.com)
  • Mantec's Porous Ceramic Technology is benefiting the Fertilizer Industry in the efficient production of Nitric Acid. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The production process produces two bleed streams that require treatment: a weak acid from the wash tower and an electrolyses bleed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In order to achieve this goal, volatile fatty acid production and nitrogen release were examined under two oxygenation states with detention times ranging from 6 to 24 hours at 55$\sp\circ$C. The semi-continuous laboratory scale reactors, with 3 L operating volumes, were fed primary solids obtained from the City of Winnipeg's North End Water Pollution Control Centre. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Assessment of Fatty Acids Profile and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Production by the Oleaginous Marine Thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. (ltu.se)
  • The solution developed by the VOLATILE project team was to optimise volatile fatty acid (VFA) production under anaerobic conditions. (aclima.eus)
  • Volatile Fatty Acid Production from Orga. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Various types of organic acids were produced in the reactors and the selective production of organic acids in the anaerobic acidogenesis process was possible by controlling the organic loading rate and pH. (metu.edu.tr)
  • White rot fungi using P. sajor-caju and T. versicolor was examined to pretreat raw champost (lignin-rich) and oyster champost (cellulose-rich) for enhancement of fermentative volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. (tudelft.nl)
  • Directives Techniques Relative À La Certification En… Global production from aquaculture is growing substantially and provides increasingly significant volumes of fish and other aquatic food for human consumption, a trend that is projected to continue. (descargargratislibros.com)
  • Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR), concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA) production at 8 and 24 hours (h) using in vitro gas production technique in cattle . (bvsalud.org)
  • Organic acids (OA), as a alternative to antibiotics, have been widely applied in all phases of pig production. (ajas.info)
  • 2019 ). However, the total VFA concentration in the effluent remains low, and thus distillation or extraction of the individual acids cannot compete with current, fossil-based production methods (Kleerebezem et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The effect of selenate, sulfate and thiosulfate on methanol utilization for volatile fatty acids (VFA) production was individually examined in batch systems. (routledge.com)
  • 1999). Other organic acids, excepting acetic acid, are of little consequence to wine flavour and aroma. (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • We hypothesized that lactococci catabolize branched chain amino acids to branched chain fatty acids during nonculturability. (usu.edu)
  • Lactococci, lactobacilli, and brevibacteria catabolized both branched chain amino acids and keto acids into branched chain fatty acids. (usu.edu)
  • Assays conducted with NMR spectroscopy coupled with in silico analysis showed that branched chain substrates are catabolized via keto acids, HMG-CoA, and acetyl-CoA to branched chain fatty acids. (usu.edu)
  • This verified that catabolism of branched chain amino acids to branched chain fatty acids occurred during the nonculturable state only and in conditions of carbohydrate deprivation. (usu.edu)
  • We accepted the hypothesis that nonculturable lactococci catabolized branched chain amino acids to branched chain fatty acids during starvation. (usu.edu)
  • The volatile fatty acids found in wine consist primarily of short-chain fatty acids (tails of less than 6 carbons) and medium-chain fatty acids (tails with 6 - 12 carbons). (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • The short and medium-chain fatty acids are the most studied fatty acids in wine and are responsible for what is known as volatile acidity (VA). (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Short chain fatty acids and gut microbiota differ between patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. (nih.gov)
  • Degradation of propionic acid and long-chain fatty acids such as valeric, caproic and isovaleric acids was observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dietary OA supplementation improvement of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), calcium, and phosphorus has been documented in previous studies in short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-fed and medium chain fatty acids (MCFA)-fed piglets [ 6 ]. (ajas.info)
  • Sulfidogenic volatile fatty acid degradation in a baffled reactor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effect of staging the sludge bed on volatile fatty acid degradation by sulfidogenic reactors was evaluated in a baffled reactor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens. (upm.edu.my)
  • Characterization of acetate transport across the brush border membrane revealed that there is an apparent anion exchange mechanism which is independent of sodium and specific for volatile fatty acids and bicarbonate. (hawaii.edu)
  • In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. (ugent.be)
  • Around 90% of all the volatile acidity in wine comes from acetic acid, which, in conjunction with ethyl acetate, possesses a vinegar-like aroma (Pretorius & Lambrechts, 2000). (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Acetobacter and Gluconobacter can oxidise ethanol to acetic acid enzymatically with alcohol dehydrogenase (first oxidised to acetaldehyde then to acetate with aldehyde dehydrogenase) (Swiegers et al . (newworldwinemaker.com)
  • Determination of fatty acids content, global antioxidant activity and energy value of weed seeds from agricultural fields in France. (csic.es)
  • Their survival was represented by maintaining intracellular ATP, enzyme activity, membrane integrity, capability of ATP- and PMF-dependent substrate transport, transcription, and catabolism of amino acids to fatty acids. (usu.edu)
  • We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH 4 ) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. (iastate.edu)
  • Valorization of volatile fatty acids derived from low-cost organic waste for lipogenesis in oleaginous microorganisms-A review. (illumina.com)
  • Bhagwat A, De Baets B, Steen A, Vlaeminck B, Fievez V. Prediction of ruminal volatile fatty acid proportions of lactating dairy cows based on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid profiles: new models, better predictions. (ugent.be)
  • In the bubble-column bioreactors, the complete uptake of acetic acid was observed, while the consumptions of caproic and butyric acids reached up to 97.64% and 26.13%, respectively. (chalmers.se)
  • Hydrolysis process involves the conversion of macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, and fats that compose the cellular mass of the excess sludge into water-soluble molecules with a relatively small molecule (e.g., peptides, saccharides, and fatty acids) [ 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Comparison of lipids, fatty acids and vo. (cu.edu.tr)
  • were compared based on their lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles. (cu.edu.tr)
  • Biohydrogen effluent contains a high concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) mainly as butyric, acetic, lactic and propionic acids . (bvsalud.org)
  • Alcohol, Volatile Fatty Acid, Phenol, and Methane Emissions from Dairy" by Huawei Sun, Steven L. Trabue et al. (iastate.edu)
  • An experiment was aimed to assess the use of the legumes as a source of protein feedstuff and levels of protein-energy synchronization (PES) index in the diet of dairy cattles on volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane (CH 4 ) profile. (ugm.ac.id)
  • The individual molar proportions of propionic acid of alfalfa herbage were higher than those of the other forages (p (sdu.edu.tr)
  • The contribution of the other acids, as iso-butyric, valeric, iso-valeric and caproic, did not exceed 7 % of the total VFA concentration. (media.pl)
  • At a dilution rate of 0.1 h −1 , mainly acetic-, propionic- and caproic acid were consumed, while consumption of all the provided acids were observed at 0.05 h −1 . (springeropen.com)
  • 0.05) content of formic acid in feces compared to CTR. (ajas.info)
  • Recovery of nutrients and volatile fatty acids from pig manure hydroly" by Lin Shi, Yuansheng Hu et al. (edu.au)
  • The study in the model system showed that isovaleric acid was the predominant volatile compound after 7 d of ripening. (ucp.pt)
  • Interestingly, also the branched isovaleric acid was consumed through a hitherto unknown mechanism. (springeropen.com)
  • It also summarises complementary in vivo , ex vivo , and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Determinar el efecto de los suplementos de algunos extractos de plantas a Ración Total Mezclada (TMR), concentrado y heno sobre los ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV) a las 8 y 24 horas (h) utilizando la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en el ganado bovino. (bvsalud.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: The effect of steam-volatile fatty acids on calcium metabolism in normal growing rats. (who.int)
  • 0.05) concentration of TVFA and butyric acid in feces. (ajas.info)