Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Glucose in blood.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Abstaining from all food.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (1/3819)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (2/3819)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (3/3819)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions. (4/3819)

To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments.  (+info)

Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (5/3819)

We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (6/3819)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

Nuclear retention of IkappaBalpha protects it from signal-induced degradation and inhibits nuclear factor kappaB transcriptional activation. (7/3819)

Transcriptional activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is mediated by signal-induced phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor, IkappaBalpha. However, NF-kappaB activation induces rapid resynthesis of IkappaBalpha, which is responsible for post-induction repression of transcription. Newly synthesized IkappaBalpha translocates to the nucleus, where it dissociates NF-kappaB from DNA and transports NF-kappaB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in a nuclear export sequence-dependent process that is sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB). In the present study, LMB was used as a tool to inhibit nuclear export sequence-mediated nuclear protein export and evaluate the consequences for regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of cells with LMB inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation mediated by interleukin 1beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. This is a consequence of the inhibition of signal-induced degradation of IkappaBalpha. Although LMB treatment does not affect the signal transduction pathway leading to IkappaBalpha degradation, it blocks IkappaBalpha nuclear export. IkappaBalpha is thus accumulated in the nucleus, and in this compartment it is resistant to signal-induced degradation. These results indicate that the signal-induced degradation of IkappaBalpha is mainly, if not exclusively, a cytoplasmic process. An efficient nuclear export of IkappaBalpha is therefore essential for maintaining a low level of IkappaBalpha in the nucleus and allowing NF-kappaB to be transcriptionally active upon cell stimulation.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthase gene by insulin/glucose, polyunsaturated fatty acid and leptin in hepatocytes and adipocytes in normal and genetically obese rats. (8/3819)

Transcriptional regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene by insulin/glucose, polyunsaturated fatty acids and leptin was investigated in hepatocytes and adipocytes of Wistar fatty rats and their lean littermates. The sequence spanning nucleotides -57 to -35 of FAS gene, which is responsive to insulin/glucose stimulation [Fukuda, H., Iritani, N. & Noguchi, T. (1997) FEBS Lett. 406, 243-248], was linked to a reporter gene containing a heterologous promoter and transfected into rat hepatocytes or adipocytes. The activity of the reporter, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, in the presence of glucose alone was similar in the primary cultured cells from the lean and obese rats. In the presence of insulin/glucose, however, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity was markedly increased in hepatocytes of lean rats, but was not significantly increased in those of obese rats. The stimulation by insulin/glucose was reduced in arachidonic acid-treated cells of lean rats. Similarly, the stimulation by insulin/glucose was reduced in leptin-treated cells and in cells from lean rats containing an expression vector encoding leptin. However, neither polyunsaturated fatty acids nor leptin-treated cells from obese rats responded to insulin-stimulation. The same effects were observed at endogenous FAS mRNA and enzyme levels. Similar results were seen in adipocytes, although the stimulation and suppression were much smaller than in hepatocytes. The insulin-binding capacities of the receptors of liver and adipose tissue were reduced in the presence of leptin or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Leptin and polyunsaturated fatty acids appeared to suppress the insulin stimulation of FAS transcription by reducing the insulin-binding capacities of receptors. Leptin converged on the insulin/glucose response element of FAS gene and suppressed the transcription.  (+info)

2019 Elsevier Ltd A statement on measuring blood omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels was developed and edited based on input from ISSFAL members and accepted by vote of the ISSFAL Board of Directors. Summary of Statement: Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) levels at baseline and post-intervention should be assessed and reported in future research to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation: b ecause; 1. there are numerous factors that affect n-3 LCPUFA levels in humans as described in the systematic literature review [1]; 2. assessing intake of n-3 LCPUFA from the diet and/or supplements is not sufficient to accurately determine n-3 LCPUFA levels in humans; 3. some studies do not provide sufficient doses of n-3 LCPUFA to produce a significant impact on bloodstream/organ content and there is substantial variability in the uptake of n-3 LPCUFA into tissues between individuals. In secondary analyses, clinical trials should consider the influence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status is associated with child growth. AU - Mulhern, Maria S.. AU - Yeates, Alison. AU - McSorley, E. M.. AU - Wallace, J. M. W. AU - Myers, G. J. AU - Davidson, P. W. AU - Thurston, S. W.. AU - Shamlaye, C. F.. AU - Henderson, J.. AU - Watson, G. E.. AU - van Wijngaarden, E.. AU - Strain, JJ. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. M3 - Article. VL - 72. SP - OCE2. JO - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.. JF - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.. SN - 0029-6651. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the peripartum and postpartum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles of lactating and nonlactating women.. AU - Otto, S.J.. AU - van Houwelingen, A.C.. AU - Badart-Smook, J.M.T.. AU - Hornstra, G.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Jun;73(6):1074-9 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comparison of the peripartum and postpartum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles of lactating and nonlactating women.Otto SJ, van Houwelingen AC, Badart-Smook A, Hornstra G.Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with increased absolute amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in plasma phospholipids. Expressed as a proportion of total fatty acids, DHA declines slightly in late pregnancy but little information is available on the normalization of DHA postpartum, which may be different in lactating and nonlactating women. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate maternal ...
This study was conducted to examine the effects of different content of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid on growth and survival in goldfish. Goldfish with initial weight 0.69±0.12 g were fed with diets having different levels of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (E100 + HUFA, E50 + HUFA, -E + HUFA, -E - HUFA) for 10 weeks. At the end of period, the final weight, specific growth rate, feed conversion ration and condition factor were measured. The result of this study showed that the difference between the final weights, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio between treatments were not significant (P>0.05) but in control group was less than other groups.           Key words: Fish growth, fish survival, vitamin E, highly unsaturated fatty acid, goldfish.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in maternal erythrocytes of japanese women during pregnancy and after childbirth. AU - Kawabata, Terue. AU - Kagawa, Yasuo. AU - Kimura, Fumiko. AU - Miyazawa, Teruo. AU - Saito, Shoji. AU - Arima, Takahiro. AU - Nakai, Kunihiko. AU - Yaegashi, Nobuo. PY - 2017/3/7. Y1 - 2017/3/7. N2 - Background: The transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n‐6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n‐3), to the fetus from maternal stores increases depending on the fetal requirements for PUFA during the last trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, maternal blood PUFA changes physiologically with gestational age. However, the changes in PUFA levels in maternal blood erythrocytes during pregnancy and after childbirth have not been fully investigated in a fish‐eating population. Objective: To examine the changes of ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes with the progress of pregnancy and the relationship between ...
Chong, Foong Foong Mary, Ong, Yi Lin, Calder, Philip C., Colega, Marjorelee, Wong, X.Y. Jocelyn, Tan, Chuen Seng, Lim, Ai Lin, Fisk, L. Helena, Cai, Shi Rong, Pang, Wei Wei, Broekman, Birit F.P., Saw, Seang Mei, Kwek, Yung Chiang Kenneth, Godfrey, Keith M, Chong, Yap Seng, Gluckman, Peter D., Meaney, Michael Joseph, Chen, Yu Helen (2015-07-01). Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy and maternal mental health in pregnancy and the postpartum period: Results from the GUSTO study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 76 (7) : e848-e856. [email protected] Repository. ...
201945DNAHomo sapiens 1atggggctcc tggactcgga gccgggtagt gtcctaaacg tagtgtccac ggcactcaac 60gacacggtag agttctaccg ctggacctgg tccatcgcag ataagcgtgt ggaaaattgg 120cctctgatgc agtctccttg gcctacacta agtataagca ctctttatct cctgtttgtg 180tggctgggtc caaaatggat gaaggaccga gaaccttttc agatgcgtct agtgctcatt 240atctataatt ttgggatggt tttgcttaac ctctttatct tcagagagtt attcatggga 300tcatataatg cgggatatag ctatatttgc cagagtgtgg attattctaa taatgttcat 360gaagtcagga tagctgctgc tctgtggtgg tactttgtat ctaaaggagt tgagtatttg 420gacacagtgt tttttattct gagaaagaaa aacaaccaag tttctttcct tcatgtgtat 480catcactgta cgatgtttac cttgtggtgg attggaatta agtgggttgc aggaggacaa 540gcattttttg gagcccagtt gaattccttt atccatgtga ttatgtactc atactatggg 600ttaactgcat ttggcccatg gattcagaaa tatctttggt ggaaacgata cctgactatg 660ttgcaactga ttcaattcca tgtgaccatt gggcacacgg cactgtctct ttacactgac 720tgccccttcc ccaaatggat gcactgggct ctaattgcct atgcaatcag cttcatattt 780ctctttctta acttctacat tcggacatac aaagagccta agaaaccaaa agctggaaaa 840acagccatga atggtatttc ...
Purpose: AMD is the primary cause of blindness in elderly individuals of industrialized countries. Clinical studies have indicated that dietary intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may have a protective effect against AMD. This study characterizes the effects of dietary intake of ω-3 and ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse model of AMD.. Methods: The present studies adhered to ARVOs Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet enriched with either ω-3 or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks prior to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induction by photocoagulation using a 532-nm laser. CNV development was evaluated by FA, SD-OCT, and choroidal flatmount (CFM). The primary eicosanoids and their downstream metabolites were analyzed by LC MS/MS lipidomics. Expression of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VEGF in the retina, choroid, or laser-captured CNV were evaluated by RTPCR and immunoblot analysis. Macrophage invasion was evaluated in Cx3cr1GFP/+ ...
The present invention includes a solid fat composition that includes an oil having saturated fat and a microbial oil having a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and an emulsifier. In particular, the solid fat composition can have high levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and low amounts of emulsifiers. In preferred embodiments, the polyunsaturated oil is an unwinterized microbial oil. The invention also relates to methods for making such compositions and food, nutritional, and pharmaceutical products comprising said compositions. The present invention also includes a microbial oil product prepared by extracting an oil-containing fraction comprising at least one LC-PUFA from a microbial biomass, and treating the fraction by a process of vacuum evaporation, wherein the oil product has not been subject to one or more of a solvent winterization step, a caustic refining process, a chill filtration process, or a bleaching process.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents is a recurrent and disabling condition globally but its pathophysiology remains poorly elucidated and there are limited effective treatments available. We performed metabolic profiling of plasma samples based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry to explore the potential biomarkers of depression in children and adolescents with MDD. We identified several perturbed pathways, including fatty acid metabolism-particularly the polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism, and purine metabolism-that were associated with MDD in these young patients. In addition, inosine was shown as a potential independent diagnostic biomarker for MDD, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.999 in discriminating drug-naive MDD patients and 0.866 in discriminating drug-treated MDD from healthy controls. Moreover, we found evidence for differences in the pathophysiology of MDD in children and adolescents
The present study, registered at with the unique registration number NCT00560014, sought to evaluate the relations between fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells or plasma and amino acid concentrations in plasma on rejection, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, and new-onset diabetes mellitus.Lipid profiles on plasma or red blood cell samples were performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 54 patients. Plasma amino acid profiles were obtained in 49 of these patients.High concentrations of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in red blood cells, and ornithine in plasma, all were associated with a significantly lower incidence of rejection, whereas high total omega-6 fatty acids were associated with a high rejection rate. Calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was associated with low levels of docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, and the omega-3 index, and high total omega-6 and omega-3/omega-6 ratios. Inhibition of new-onset diabetes mellitus was ...
PubMed journal article S-adenosylhomocysteine and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in predementia syndromes and Alzheimers diseas were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unsaturated fatty acids are inhibitors of bacterial conjugation.. AU - Fernandez-Lopez, R.. AU - Machon, C.. AU - Langshaw, C.M.. AU - Martin, S.. AU - Molin, Søren. AU - Zechner, E.L.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Journal article. SP - 3517. EP - 3526. JO - Microbiology. JF - Microbiology. SN - 1350-0872. ER - ...
Wang, Qin; Würtz, Peter; Auro, Kirsi; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Jokelainen, Jari; Santalahti, Kristiina; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ala-Korpela, Mika ...
The study was published in Journal of the American Heart Association. In the Cardiovascular Health Study in the USA, 3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants. Research shows that silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people. The study found that those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood. The study also found that people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains. Previously in this same study population, similar findings were observed when comparing those ...
Background Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. Methods From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n = 794), we selected cases with atopic eczema (n = 37) or respiratory allergy (n = 44), as well as non-allergic non-sensitized controls (n = 48) based on diagnosis at 13 years of age. Cord and maternal sera obtained at delivery from cases and controls were analysed for proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids among serum phospholipids. Results The cord serum phospholipids from subject who later developed either respiratory allergy or atopic eczema had significantly higher proportions of 5/8 LCPUFA species, as
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with rumen protected n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the quantity and quality of semen from young post-pubertal dairy bulls. Pubertal Holstein-Friesian (n=43) and Jersey (n=7) bulls with a mean±s.e.m. age and bodyweight of 420.1±5.86 days and 382±8.94kg, respectively, were blocked on breed, weight, age and semen quality (based on the outcomes of two pre-trial ejaculates) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (i) a non-supplemented control (CTL, n=15), (ii) rumen-protected safflower (SO, n=15), (iii) rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (FO, n=20). Bulls were fed their respective diets,ad libitumfor 12 weeks; individual intakes were recorded using an electronic feeding system for the initial 6 weeks of the feeding period. Semen was collected via electro-ejaculation at weeks−2,−1, 0, 7, 10, 11 and 12 relative to the beginning of the trial period (week 0). On collection, semen ...
Scientists at the University of Bristol have taken the first steps towards producing a sustainable and pure source of the healthy fats found in oily fish.. Eating such fish is encouraged as part of a healthy diet as their oils are rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs). However, views on the health-promoting nature of VLCPUFAs have to be balanced against the marine pollution that can cause fish, and the oils extracted from them, to be contaminated with heavy metals and dioxins, and the fact that fish stocks are in global decline.. In work published in Nature Biotechnology in June, University of Bristol scientists and collaborators describe the first steps towards producing VLCPUFAs in the form of oilseed crop plants. By adding three genes to the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (the roadside weed known as thale cress) the researcher produced plants with a substantial content of the valuable VLCPUFAs arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both of which are ...
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Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPs) are produced by the conversion of Alpha-linolenic acids (ALAs) and linoleic acids in the...
Background: The incidence of allergic diseases in industrialized countries has increased, and a relation between allergy and dietary fatty acids has been proposed. Modulation of the maternal immune function during pregnancy may have an impact on future clinical outcome in the child.Aim: The aim of this thesis was to add knowledge on the relationship between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, sensitization and allergic disease and possible immunological events regulating this.Subjects: The thesis is based on results obtained from two cohorts. The first, including 300 cord blood samples collected from 1985-2005. The second, a double-blind placebo controlled multi-centre study comprising 145 families with allergic disease.Methods: Phospholipid fatty acids and total IgE antibodies were analyzed in cord blood samples with gas chromatography and Uni-CAP™, respectively.The families participating in the double-blind placebo controlled multi-centre study were recruited at antenatal units in ...
BACKGROUND: The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI, body weight, fat mass in offspring. METHODS: Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WHOs International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaborations risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supplementation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were ...
Historical Perspectives -- Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the 21st Century -- Inflammatory Mechanisms of Pathogenesis -- Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase Interactions in Cartilage and Meniscus -- Obesity, Inflammation, and Vascular Disease -- Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the Inflammogenesis of Cancer -- Role of COX-2 in Inflammatory and Degenerative Brain Diseases -- Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease: The Coxib Controversy -- Cardiovascular Effects of the Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors -- COX-2 Inhibitors And Cardiovascular Risk -- A Biological Rationale for the Cardiotoxic Effects of Rofecoxib -- Cox-2 Blockade in Cancer Prevention and Therapy -- Cancer Chemoprevention by Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) Blockade -- Strategies for Colon Cancer Prevention -- Inflammation and Neurodegenerative Disease -- NSAIDs for the Chemoprevention of Alzheimer?셲 Disease -- Inflammation in parkinson?셲 disease -- Nutrition, Inflammation and Chronic Disease -- Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, ...
Research published in The Journal of Nutrition found that higher amounts of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally beneficial to cognitive health during the aging process while increased levels of n-3 fatty acids might only be helpful when someone has a sufficient amount of antioxidants. The study looked at a population of middle-aged French adults and examined their intake of unsaturated fatty acids and cognitive performance 13 years later, and tested for a modulating effect of antioxidant supplementation. In testing, total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were positively associated with overall cognitive function, while n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids only showed positive associations among supplemented participants, according to the study. Researchers said that it is important going forward to consider the interaction between these consumed nutrients, not just focus on specific nutrients meant for maintaining cognitive health or combating ...
Background : The last trimester of pregnancy is a period of rapid accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, both in the central nervous system and the body as a whole. Human milk contains these fatty acids, whereas some preterm infant formulas do not. Infants fed formulas without these fatty acids have lower plasma and erythrocyte...
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This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines fo …
The phospholipids of mammalian spermatozoa possess a distinctive fatty acid composition with high proportion of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition is a major determinant of the membrane flexibility and sperm motility required for proper fertilization. It also influences the sperm plasma membranes fluidity, chilling sensitivity and thermotropic lipid phase transition (LPT) and these parameters determine our ability to cryopreserve these cells. Our hypotheses is that by providing dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids an improvement of sperm parameters (number, motility, viability) can be achieved. We also expect alteration spermatozoal plasma membrane fatty acid composition, making it more chilling resistant.. Experimental methodology: 1) Characterize fatty acid composition of the spermatozoa of normal and abnormal spermatozoa by gas chromatography. 2) Characterize sperm plasma membrane LPT by FTIR spectrometer. 3) Run a randomized double-blind, ...
Many patients suffering from exercise-induced asthma (EIA) have normal lung function at rest and show symptoms and a decline in FEV1 when they do sports or during exercise-challenge. It has been described that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) could exert a protective effect on EIA. In this study the protective effect of supplementation with a special combination of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA (sc-LCPUFA) (total 1.19 g/ day) were investigated in an EIA cold air provocation model. Primary outcome measure: Decrease in FEV1 after exercise challenge and secondary outcome measure: anti-inflammatory effects monitored by exhaled NO (eNO) before and after sc-LCPUFA supplementation versus placebo. Ninety-nine patients with exercise-induced symptoms aged 10 to 45 were screened by a standardized exercise challenge in a cold air chamber at 4 °C. Seventy-three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria of a FEV1 decrease | 15% and were treated double-blind placebo-controlled for 4 weeks either with sc-LCPUFA or
PubMed journal article The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Involved in the biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) from the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3n-3) precursors, acting as a fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase that introduces a cis double bond at carbon 6 of the fatty acyl chain. Catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in this pathway which is the desaturation of LA (18:2n-6) and ALA (18:3n-3) into gamma-linoleate (GLA) (18:3n-6) and stearidonate (18:4n-3), respectively (PubMed:12713571). Subsequently, in the biosynthetic pathway of HUFA n-3 series, it desaturates tetracosapentaenoate (24:5n-3) to tetracosahexaenoate (24:6n-3), which is then converted to docosahexaenoate (DHA)(22:6n-3), an important lipid for nervous system function (By similarity). Desaturates hexadecanate (palmitate) to produce 6Z-hexadecenoate (sapienate), a fatty acid unique to humans and major component of human sebum, that has been implicated in the development of acne and may have
XIANG, M., HARBIGE, L. S. and ZETTERSTRÖM, R. (2005), Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in Chinese and Swedish mothers: Diet, breast milk and infant growth. Acta Paediatrica, 94: 1543-1549. doi: 10.1080/08035250500251601 ...
Harden, Charlotte Jane (2012) n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Appetite Control and Weight Management. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield. ...
The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable capacity, and it is therefore imperative to develop alternative n-3 LC-PUFA sources for both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Genera of algae such as Nannochloropsis, Schizochytrium, Isochrysis and Phaedactylum within the kingdom Chromista have received attention due to their ability to produce n-3 LC-PUFAs. Knowledge of LC-PUFA synthesis and its regulation in algae at the molecular level is fragmentary and represents a bottleneck for attempts to enhance the n-3 LC-PUFA levels for industrial production. In the present review, Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used to exemplify the synthesis and compartmentalization of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Based on recent transcriptome data a co-expression network of 106
Free radical damage is currently considered a main determinant of the rate of aging. Unsaturated fatty acids are the tissue macromolecules most sensitive to oxidative damage. Therefore, the presence of relatively low degrees of fatty acid unsaturation is expected in the tissues of longevous animals. In agreement with this prediction, fatty acid analyses of heart phospholipids in eight mammals ranging in maximum life span (MLSP) from 3.5 to 46 years showed that their total number of double bonds is negatively correlated with MLSP (r = -0.78, P , 0.02). The low double content of longevous mammals was not due to a low polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Instead, it was mainly due to a redistribution between types of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the highly unsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) to the less unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in longevous animals (r = -0.89, P , 0.003 for 22:6n-3 and r = 0.91, P , 0.002 for 18:2n-6 versus MLSP), where n = number of different animals in each ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do fatty acids influence functions of intestinal dendritic cells?. AU - Kanai, Takanori. AU - Watanabe, Mamoru. PY - 2006/3. Y1 - 2006/3. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/s00535-006-1779-0. DO - 10.1007/s00535-006-1779-0. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 16699866. AN - SCOPUS:39049192870. VL - 41. SP - 288. EP - 289. JO - Journal of Gastroenterology. JF - Journal of Gastroenterology. SN - 0944-1174. IS - 3. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arachidonic acid increases intracellular calcium in erythrocytes. AU - Soldati, Laura. AU - Lombardi, Cinzia. AU - Adamo, Donatella. AU - Terranegra, Annalisa. AU - Bianchin, Cristiana. AU - Bianchi, Giuseppe. AU - Vezzoli, Giuseppe. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Recently, we have measured in erythrocytes a voltage-modulated and dihydropyridine-inhibited calcium influx. Since arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids influence the activities of most ion channels, we studied their effects on the erythrocyte Ca2+ influx. It was measured on fresh erythrocytes, isolated from healthy donors, using the fluorescent dye Fura 2 as indicator of [Ca2+]i. AA (5-50 μM) and EPA (20-30 μM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i, deriving from extracellular calcium (1 mM), without affecting the intra- and extracellular pH and membrane voltage. The Ca2+ influx rate varied from 0.5 to 3 nM Ca2+/s in the presence of AA and from 0.9 to 1.7 nM Ca2+/s with EPA. The Ca2+ ...
Background: There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results: Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose ...
This topic has 14 study abstracts on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Cognitive Decline/Dysfunction, Alzheimers Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
This topic has 14 study abstracts on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Cognitive Decline/Dysfunction, Alzheimers Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
In view of the reported potential anti-inflammatory activity of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (NZGLM), we aimed to compare the effect of low dose marine oil supplementation, from mussels and fish, in reducing blood markers of inflammation. Thirty apparently healthy males and females were recruited from the general public in Melbourne, Australia to participate in a double blind, randomised, parallel intervention study. Subjects were consuming approximately 73 mg of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) daily in their background diet prior to the commencement of the intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 2 mL/day of the NZGLM oil preparation (mixed with olive oil and dl-alpha-tocopherol) or fish oil preparation (also mixed with olive oil and dl-alpha-tocopherol) for six weeks. Two mL of the oils contained 241 mg and 181 mg of n-3 LCPUFA, respectively. Neutrophil phospholipid fatty acids, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2), stimulated monocyte ...
There are many brands and forms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available. Not all brands are listed on this leaflet. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are used together with diet and exercise to help lower triglyceride levels in the blood. It is not known if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids will prevent a...
Healthy African American and Caucasian persons will be screened for specific differences in genes that control how fats are processed in the body. Persons with the needed genotypes will be added to a database of healthy persons who may be asked to join a larger study comparing differences in diet on lipid metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers as well as future studies. A key hypothesis for the larger study is that variations in genes involved in lipid metabolism play a role in determining levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs ...
Examples of unsaturated fatty acids are oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. They are present in both plant and animal sources of food.
Ruxton, C.H.S., Calder, P.C., Reed, Stephen C. and Simpson, J.A. (2005) The impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. Nutrition Research Reviews, 18 (1). pp. 113-129. ISSN 0954-4224 Full text not available from this repository ...
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My research interests are in the area lipid metabolism. I am currently involved in a project where we investigate if supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can reduce frequency and severity of the eye disease Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very preterm infants. My role in the project is to analyze the composition of fatty acids and other lipids in serum from the preterm infants. I am also involved in a metabolomics study aimed at identifying molecular markers associated with ROP. More information on our research can be found here
My research interests are in the area lipid metabolism. I am currently involved in a project where we investigate if supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can reduce frequency and severity of the eye disease Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very preterm infants. My role in the project is to analyze the composition of fatty acids and other lipids in serum from the preterm infants. I am also involved in a metabolomics study aimed at identifying molecular markers associated with ROP ...
Elecare Lcp Pwd 400gm 100% Free L-Amino Acids 1/3 Of Fat Blend As Medium Chain Triglycerides (Mct) To Aid Fat Absorption With Lcp* To Support Healthy Brain And Eye Development Hypoallergenic Supports Normal Growth And Improves Iron Status Pbs Listed (Authority Required. See Pbs Schedule For Full Criteria) *Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids In The Form Of Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) And Arachidonic Acid (Ara). ...
TREK‐1 is a member of the 2P domain family of K+ channels (Fink et al., 1996; Patel et al., 1999, 2001; Lesage and Lazdunski, 2000; Patel and Honoré, 2001a,b). The biophysical and pharmacological properties of TREK‐1 are similar to those described for the serotonin‐sensitive K+ channel (S channel), which underlies presynaptic sensitization, a simple form of learning, in Aplysia (Belardetti and Siegelbaum, 1988; Hawkins et al., 1993).. A variety of chemical factors stimulate TREK‐1 activity. These include diverse cellular lipids such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids (Patel et al., 1998; Maingret et al., 2000b). In particular, TREK‐1 is opened by arachidonic acid (AA) (Fink et al., 1996; Patel et al., 1998; Maingret et al., 2000b). Since this activation occurs in excised patches, the effect of AA is believed to be either direct or via an interaction with the membrane bilayer (Patel et al., 1998, 2001; Maingret et al., 2000b). Inhalational anaesthetics ...
This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. Kepler CR, Tove SB (1967). "Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. ... This enzyme is also called linoleic acid isomerase. ...
Fat and free fatty acids in cheese. Fat in meat. Non-sulfonatable components in petroleum products. Unsaturated hydrocarbons in ... Meena Iyer, T. Richardson, C. H. Amundson, and A. Boudreau (1967): "Improved Technique for Analysis of Free Fatty Acids in ... A Babcock bottle with different dimensions (165 mm high, 10 mL capacity) is used to determine the amount of unsaturated ...
Most of the fatty acids are unsaturated. The most common fatty acids are oleic acid and its isomers (18:1 carbon chains). Whale ... Whale oil is mainly composed of triglycerides (molecules of fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule). Oil sourced from ...
"Studies on the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. IX. Stereochemical studies of the reaction catalyzed by trans-2-enoyl- ... This enzyme participates in fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Mizugaki M, ...
"Studies on the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. IX. Stereochemical studies of the reaction catalyzed by trans-2-enoyl- ...
DECR is one of three auxiliary enzymes involved in a rate-limiting step of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. In ... such as oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid). Mutant subjects were also found to have poor ... 4-dienoyl CoA reductase shed new light on peroxisomal β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (34): 28956- ... "Studies on the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. XII. Reaction catalyzed by 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase of Escherichia coli ...
The lipids consist mainly of unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike quinoa, cañihua contains a lower amount of the bitter tasting ... Cañihua can be grown on any kind of moderately fertile soil, including shallow, acid, alkaline or saline soils. As an annual ...
Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linolenic acids, as well as the phytosterol, ... High in tocopherol, carotenoides and unsaturated fatty acids. Used medicinally. Tall oil, produced as a byproduct of wood pulp ... Fatty acid composition is similar to that of olive oil. Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty ... A further byproduct called tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) is a cheap source of oleic acid. Tamanu or foraha oil from the ...
This work resulted in the publication on methods to easily catalyze the insertion of deuterium into unsaturated fatty acids, ... "A facile catalytic deuteration of unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids." (1993) Microchem. J. 47:224. Kuby Immunology, 6th ... August first worked in the catalytic synthesis of fatty acids and other lipids as an undergraduate student in Prof. Dea's ...
These include carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins. First identified in 1905 by the Bulgarian ... It is defined as homofermentive lactic acid bacteria due to lactic acid being the single end product of its carbohydrate ... The two species work in synergy, with L. d. bulgaricus producing amino acids from milk proteins, which are then used by S. ... It has also been considered a contaminant of beer due to its homofermentative production of lactic acid, an off-flavor in many ...
The loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5-7%. Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability; ... which are mainly fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and transesterified with methanol. It can be produced from many types of oils ... As biodiesel contains low levels of sulfur, the emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates, major components of acid rain, are low ... Poor quality diesel fuel has been used as an extraction agent for liquid-liquid extraction of palladium from nitric acid ...
Rich presence of Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFAs) when fed microalgae. This HUFA content can be maintained even after the ... The copepod's diet of phytoplankton who are rich in Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFAs) allow them to synthesise this ... Copepods are rich in Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFAs) which are essential for optimal fish larvae growth and development ...
... of the fatty acids were saturated and 70% were unsaturated. The biodiesel produced from alligator oil was found to meet the ... The fatty acid profile of the lipid showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and oleic acid (C18:1) were ... the dominant fatty acids accounting for 89-92% of all lipids by mass; 30% ... and acid number. The head of the research team Brahal Bajpai and his crew assessed that a large crocodile farm would produce ...
The fatty acids in the fruit are 30% saturated and 70% unsaturated. The saturated fats include myristic acid (14.49%), ... and lauric acid (1.31%). Unsaturated fats include oleic acid (22.18%), palmitoleic acid (13.55%), linolelaidic acid (12.39%), γ ... arachidic acid (7.08%), pentadecanoic acid (3.61%), heptadecanoic acid (2.2%), decanoic acid (1.62%), ... acid (12.23%), linoleic acid (4.95%), elaidic acid (2.50%), and myristoleic acid (1.89%). The fruit's pulp is typically eaten ...
Different oilseed species possess unique fatty acid profiles. This same principle applies to the oil contents of various ... Particularly, vegetable oils are composed mainly of unsaturated fats (EUFIC, 2014; Indiana University 2014; Zambiazi et al., ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Zambiazi, R; Pryzbylski, R; Zambiazi, M; Mendonca, C (2007). "Fatty Acid Composition of ... 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animal-based fats, in contrast, contain saturated fats, which are linked to cardiovascular ...
Protectins are signaling molecules that are produced enzymatically from unsaturated fatty acids. Their molecular structure is ... PD1, like other protectins, is produced by the oxygenation of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... While the omega oxidation of many bioactive fatty acid metabolites such as leukotriene B4, 5-HETE, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid ... Like other members of this class of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, it possesses strong anti-inflammatory, anti- ...
Euphorbia jolkinii Fatty acids: The relative inhibitory potencies of unsaturated fatty acids are, in decreasing order: Gamma- ... alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, and myristoleic acid. Medium chain fatty acids such as those ... Liang T, Liao S (July 1992). "Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids". The ... Raynaud JP, Cousse H, Martin PM (October 2002). "Inhibition of type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity by free fatty acids ...
... is formed through the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids with oxygen. It is a dangerous substance, since it causes ... When during food processing, oil is used that contains unsaturated fatty acids, the amount of glycidamide formed is much higher ... Saturated fatty acids protect the acrylamide from forming glycidamide. ... The mercapturic acids that can be formed are N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2- ...
Boissevain, Charles H. "The Action of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Tubercle Bacilli." American Review of Tuberculosis 13 (1926): ...
"Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Sterically Controlled Carbonyl Olefination". Angew. Chem. 3 (4): ... Ordinarily, the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction provides the (E)-enoate (α,β-unsaturated ester), just as the Wittig reaction ... propenoic Acid, Diethyl Ester: Tandem Oxidation Procedure (TOP) using MnO2 Oxidation-Stabilized Phosphorane Trapping" (PDF). ...
... are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human ... alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA ... Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ... Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans ...
... polyesters based on saturated or unsaturated oils or fatty acids, polybasic acids and alcohols) modified to confer water ... With alkyds typical methods include maleinization of unsaturated fatty acids with maleic anhydride. This involves making a ... Polyaminoamides are made by reacting ethylene amines with dimerized fatty acids to give a species with amide links but still ... Typical components are vegetable oils or fatty acids such as linseed, soyabean, castor, dehydrated castor, safflower, tung, ...
Lee, Joon No; Zhang Xiangyu; Feramisco Jamison D; Gong Yi; Ye Jin (Nov 2008). "Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit proteasomal ...
This is because, although the tree swallow can convert the precursor α-Linolenic acid into high unsaturated fatty acids like ... "Conversion efficiency of α-linolenic acid to omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in aerial insectivore chicks". The Journal ... the former is an important source of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. ... Louis, Vincent L.; Breebaart, Loes (1991). "Calcium supplements in the diet of nestling tree swallows near acid sensitive lakes ...
"Efficacy of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of depression". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 209 (3 ... There is some evidence that omega-3 fatty acids fish oil supplements containing high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to ... Appleton KM, Sallis HM, Perry R, Ness AR, Churchill R (November 2015). "Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults". The ... However, a Cochrane review determined there was insufficient high quality evidence to suggest omega-3 fatty acids were ...
Various poly-unsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid are produced by Mortierella alpina. Poly-unsaturated fatty ... an important poly-unsaturated fatty acid. It was re-classified as belonging to the genus Umbelopsis in part based on its fatty ... Today, long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids are regarded as substances with beneficial potential in pharmaceutic and ... Fatty acids are normally produced in submerged culture with high carbon source supply, although this technique has drawbacks ...
"Efficacy of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of depression". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 209 (3 ... Appleton KM, Sallis HM, Perry R, Ness AR, Churchill R (November 2015). "Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults". The ...
... has the ability to transform unsaturated fatty acids into hydroxy fatty acids. Hydroxy acids ... 2008). "Substrate specificity of Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens in the hydroxylation of unsaturated fatty acid". Applied ... nitritireducens for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and its Application in the Conversion of Plant Oils to 10-Hydroxy Fatty Acids ... "Substrate specificity of Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens in the hydroxylation of unsaturated fatty acid". Applied Microbiology ...
"COFACTOR REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FORMATION OF DELTA-9-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN MYCOBACTERIUM PHLEI". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 993-7. ... is an enzyme used to produce the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid from the saturated fatty acid stearic acid. It catalyzes ... Cyclopropene acid Fatty acid desaturase Fatty acid synthesis FULCO AJ, BLOCH K (1964). " ... Oshino N, Imai Y, Sato R (January 1971). "A function of cytochrome b5 in fatty acid desaturation by rat liver microsomes". J. ...
"Sources of saturated fat should be replaced with unsaturated fat, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids." A meta-analysis in ... 2014). "Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta- ... notably confounding with trans-fatty acids. Ahrens found separately with Margaret Albrink that triglycerides mattered in ... evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Hydrolysis of unsaturated secondary amides,[20] β-Keto acid esters,[11] or β-diketones. ... Fatty acid synthesis proceeds via ketones. Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars ... Unsaturated ketonesEdit. Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones. The most widely used ...
"FATTY ALCOHOLS: Unsaturated alcohols". Cyberlipid Center. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-12-29. *↑ "Notes on poisoning: avocado". Canadian ... "Monounsaturated fatty acid (avocado) rich diet for mild hypercholesterolemia", Arch-Med-Res. 27 (4): 519-23, http://grande.nal. ...
1980). Use of the conjugated polyene fatty-acid parinaric-acid in assaying fatty-acids in serum or plasma. Clinical Chemistry ... Tsujimoto M, Koyanagi H. (1933). New unsaturated acid in the kernel oil of "akarittom", "Parinarium laurinum". I. Kogyo Kagaku ... Conjugated polyene fatty acids as membrane probes: preliminary characterization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1975, 72. vsk, ... Gunstone F.D. (1996). Fatty Acid and Lipid Chemistry. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 10. ISBN 0-8342-1342-7.. ...
"Fatty Acids used as Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Thermal Energy Storage in Building Material Applications" (PDF). ... ω−9 Unsaturated. *Oleic (18:1). *Elaidic (trans-18:1). *Gondoic (20:1) ... "MYRISTIC ACID". AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ...
Iodine numbers are often used to determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids. This unsaturation is in the form of ... On the other hand, linseed oil is highly unsaturated, which makes it a drying oil, well suited for making oil paints. ... In a typical procedure, the fatty acid is treated with an excess of the Hanuš or Wijs solution, which are, respectively, ... Thomas, Alfred (2002). "Fats and Fatty Oils". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... a severe fatty acid oxidation disorder with cardiac and neurologic involvement". The Journal of Pediatrics. 142 (6): 684-9. doi ... "Combined enzyme defect of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 90 (4): 1219-25. doi: ... a catalyst of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. The HADHB protein catalyzes the final step of beta- ...
Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability; they react with oxygen and form peroxides and result ... Biodiesel is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats (biolipids) which are mainly Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and ... that in presence of water rapidly convert to sulfuric acid, one of the chemical processes that results in acid rain. However, ... As biodiesel contains low levels of sulfur, the emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates, major components of acid rain, are low ...
Any free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified ( ... This could be because of enhanced corrosion over time due to oxidation of the unsaturated molecules or increased water content ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters (commonly referred to as Fatty Acid ...
He and his colleagues isolated a new unsaturated fatty acid from the seeds, which they named 'chaulmoogric acid'. They also ... hydnocarpus acid'. They also investigated Gynocardia odorata and found that it produced neither of these acids. Later ... The rods were not soluble in potassium lye, and they were acid- and alcohol-fast. In 1879, he stained these organisms with ... they isolated both chaulmoogric acid and a closely related compound, ' ...
... of which is unsaturated, and 286 mg of cholesterol.[81] Among the fatty acids, palmitoleic, oleic and linolenic acids were ... Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Contents and Nutritional Value of Protein". College of Foods and Agricultural Science. King Saud ...
... a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon ... Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule each of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two ... and local concentrations of activated fatty acids. This suggests that the various acyltransferases present in mammalian and ... "Modulation of membrane curvature by phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid". Traffic. 4 (3): 162-74. doi:10.1034/j.1600- ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. ... One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA ... TTA acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation ... possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism ...
... unsaturated fatty acids) އެކުލެވިގެންވާ ފެޓް އެވެ. މިއީ ފެޓް އުފެދިފައިވާ ގޮތަށް ބަލައިގެން ފެޓް ބަހާލާއިރު އޭގައި ހިމެނޭ ... މިފަދަ އެސިޑް އަށް ކިޔަނީ މުހިއްމު ފެޓީ އެސިޑް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: essential fatty acids) އެވެ. އެއީ މިބާވަތްތައް ފުދޭވަރަށް ލިބޭ ... ފެޓް އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ފެޓީއެސިޑް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: fatty acid) ތަކެއް އެކުވެގެންނެވެ. ޓްރިގްލިސެރައިޑް އަކީ 3 ފެޓީއެސިޑް މޮލާރި( ... ފެޓީއެސިޑް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Fatty acids) ޗޭނުބުރިއެއްގައި އެންމެ ޑަބަލް ގުޅުމެއްވާނަމަ، މޮނޮއަންސެޗުރޭޓެޑް ފެޓް އެވެ. ...
... is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along ... Total unsaturated. , 85%. Monounsaturated. Oleic acid: 70.0%. Palmitoleic acid: 0.3-3.5%. Polyunsaturated. Linoleic acid: 15.0% ... It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to 83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid (up to 21%) and ... U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8 g per 100 g ...
... oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids.[16] ... of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[19] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, ... oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[20]. Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, ... products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method". Journal of Agricultural and Food ...
... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ... fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Smoke point. Total mono[23]. Oleic acid. (ω-9). Total ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details") example: avocado oil; user can search for other oils". ... Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor ...
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Tridecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... ω−9 Unsaturated. *Oleic (18:1). *Elaidic (trans-18:1). *Gondoic (20:1) ... 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Tridecanoic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-17. ... "MSDS of n-Tridecanoic acid". Fisher Scientific. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.. External link in ,website=. ( ...
Sources of lower saturated fat but higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids include olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, ... including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol" ... Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat[10] Food. Lauric acid. Myristic acid. Palmitic acid. Stearic acid ... suggest that replacing saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids rather than monounsaturated fatty acids or ...
2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171 ... n-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid, Dodecoic acid, Laurostearic acid, Vulvic acid, 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid, Duodecylic acid, ... Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... 0.1748 W/m·K (106 °C) G., Chuah T.; D., Rozanna; A., Salmiah; Y., Thomas Choong S.; M., Sa'ari (2006). "Fatty acids used as ...
1-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is attached to a primary alcohol, or a 2-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is ... Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage ... are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond.[1] As glycerol ... Unsaturated fat. *Monounsaturated fat. *Polyunsaturated fat. *Essential fatty acid. *Other: Fat. *Oil ...
Uric acid[edit]. Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant in human blood. Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant ... Even less fatty foods such as fruits are sprayed with sulfurous antioxidants prior to air drying. Oxidation is often catalyzed ... The most common molecules attacked by oxidation are unsaturated fats; oxidation causes them to turn rancid.[180] Since oxidized ... Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ...
Kunau, W.-H. & Dommes, P. (1978). „Degradation of unsaturated fatty acids. Identification of intermediates in the degradation ...
This nomenclature can be useful in describing unsaturated fatty acids.. See alsoEdit. *Blackboard bold letters used in ... In organic chemistry the α-carbon is the backbone carbon next to the carbonyl carbon, most often for amino acids ...
... palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, diterpenes, triglycerides, unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, esters ... fatty-rancid odor), heptanoic acid (fatty odor), octanoic acid (repulsive oily rancid odor); nonanoic acid (mild nut-like fatty ... On the surface, they include derivatives of carboxylic acid-5-hydroxytryptamides with an amide bond to fatty acids (unsaturated ... Chlorogenic acids are homologous compounds comprising caffeic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, which are ...
The γ- and δ-lactones are intramolecular esters of the corresponding hydroxy fatty acids. They contribute to the aroma of ... Naturally occurring lactones are mainly saturated and unsaturated γ- and δ-lactones, and to a lesser extent macrocyclic ... which is formed from the dehydration of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid) CH3-CH(OH)-COOH. Lactic acid, in turn, derives ... γ-lactones are so stable that, in the presence of dilute acids at room temperature, 4-hydroxy acids (R-CH(OH)-(CH2)2-COOH) ...
... partial hydrogenation results in the transformation of unsaturated cis fatty acids to unsaturated trans fatty acids in the oil ... fatty acids. Monounsaturated. fatty acids. Polyunsaturated. fatty acids. Smoke point Total[27]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[27]. ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". ... The steam strips the free fatty acids out of the oil. The ]:,roccss is used somewhat in Europe but not often in the United ...
... it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ... General chemical structures of 1,2-diacylglycerols (top) and 1,3-diacylglycerols (bottom), where R1 and R2 are fatty acid side ...
Omega-3 fatty acids have a double bond three carbons away from the methyl carbon, whereas omega-6 fatty acids have a double ... In general, this means that the melting points of fats increase from cis to trans unsaturated and then to saturated. See the ... "Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid". Mayo Clinic. 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.. ... The illustration below shows the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid. While it is the nutritional aspects of polyunsaturated fats ...
"Genetic regulation of unsaturated fatty acid composition in C. elegans". PLoS Genet 2 (7): e108. PMC 1500810. PMID 16839188. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 33 (Web Server issue): W589-91. PMC 1160180. PMID 15980542. doi:10.1093/nar/gki419.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 32 (Web Server issue): W113-20. PMC 441546. PMID 15215362. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh408.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 32 (Web Server issue): W124-9. PMC 441580. PMID 15215364. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh442.. ...
Unsaturated wax esters have a lower melting point and are more likely to be liquid at room temperature. Both fatty acids and ... Wax esters are formed by combining one fatty acid with one fatty alcohol:. RCOOH. +. R. ′. OH. ↽. −. −. ⇀. RCOOR. ′. +. H. 2. O ... The chain lengths of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in naturally occurring wax esters vary. The fatty acids in wax esters ... Wax esters of sperm whales contain C12 fatty acids and C14 fatty acid and alcohols. Monounsaturated C18 is the dominant fatty ...
Cervonic acid (or docosahexaenoic acid) has 22 carbons, is found in fish oil, is a 4,7,10,13,16,19-hexa unsaturated fatty acid ... CAS Registry Number 6217-54-5. Herring acid (Herrings, Nisinic acid) is a 6,9,12,15,18,21-hexa unsaturated fatty acid with 24 ... List of saturated fatty acids Carboxylic acid List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Simopoulos, Artemis P. (2002). "Omega‐ ... Elaidic acid has 18 carbons and is a trans-9-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. It is also a trans isomer of oleic acid. C17H33CO2H, ...
... chain fatty acids [1] containing two or more double bonds, separated by methylene bridges: -CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-. [1] https ... ... polyunsaturated fatty acids Long‐chain fatty acids containing two or more double bonds, separated by methylene bridges: -CH2-CH ... unsaturated fatty acids A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by ...
Sources of Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Two vegetable sources of unsaturated fatty acids: virgin olive oil (premium extravirgin ... Unsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exerted the beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and vascular ... Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats. Anna Skoczyńska,1 Anna Wojakowska,1 Dorian Nowacki,2 ... The Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Serum Lipids and Lipid Transfer Proteins. In groups of rats that drank water without ...
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Unveiling the nasty action of trans-fatty acids in blood. Tohoku University researchers have found that trans-fatty acids ... Unsaturated fatty acids play a role in winter hibernation. The duration of the periods for which animals hibernate in winter is ... Diverse natural fatty acids follow Golden Mean. Bioinformatics scientists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) ... affected by the quantity of unsaturated fatty acids that they absorb from their food. How animals react to an excess - or a ...
Summary: The synergistic effects of rising sea temperature and reduced omega-3 food content impair cardiac function of a key ecological fish species, at individual, cellular and individual levels. ...
61788-89-4), Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, hydrogenated (CAS No. 68783-41-5) and Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., trimers (CAS No ... Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, trimers, hydrogenated is poorly soluble in water, has high adsorption potential and has a low ... Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, trimers, hydrogenated is expected to be hydrolytically stable under environmental conditions, and ... However, due to its low water solubility, Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, trimers, hydrogenated is expected to be removed in the ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
... beta oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids ppt, lean mean fighting machine stripes, la weight loss take off juice recipe ... In the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, most of the reactions are the same as those for saturated fatty acids, only two ... thus when fatty acid synthesis is active, fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. Shred diet recipes pinterest. Healthy eating ... Beta oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids ppt,need to lose weight in 4 weeks,paleo diet what foods to eat - Reviews. admin, ...
Unsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Gag Partitioning to Rafts.. We have shown that exogenous addition of unsaturated fatty acids can ... Of the several classes of fatty acids tested, including saturated fatty acids of varying chain length, and unsaturated fatty ... VLP production after treatment with the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (18:0) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid ... Common dietary unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (18:1n-9) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) can be retroconverted to 14:1n- ...
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) found in bile inhibit the activity of ToxT. Crystal structures of inhibited ToxT bound to UFA or ... Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) present in bile reduce the expression of virulence genes in V. cholerae without affecting the ... Structural basis for virulence regulation in Vibrio cholerae by unsaturated fatty acid components of bile. *Justin T. Cruite1,2 ... Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) found in bile inhibit the activity of ToxT. Crystal structures of inhibited ToxT bound to UFA or ...
Home,Product Types,Biochemicals & Reagents,Lipids,Fatty Acids,. Unsaturated Fatty Acids & Derivatives ... Amino Acids and Enzymes Buffers & Salts Nucleosides and Nucleotides Specialty Chemicals >> View All Empowered Products. New ... Amino Acids and Enzymes Buffers and Salts Nucleosides and Nucleotides Specialty Chemicals >> View All Empowered Products ... Fatty Acids*Saturated Fatty Acids & Derivatives*Anhydrides. *Branched Fatty Acids. *Dicarboxylic Acids ...
This effect is saturable with a low proportion of fatty acid to substrate. The overall angle of the fatty acid, the position of ... cis-unsaturated fatty acids increase porcine pancreatic lipase activity 15-fold at pH 7.5. ... This effect is saturable with a low proportion of fatty acid to substrate. The overall angle of the fatty acid, the position of ... The activation of porcine pancreatic lipase by cis-unsaturated fatty acids Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Sep 15;1214(2):148-60. ...
The paper then considers intakes of unsaturated fatty acids in the UK, their sources and the unsaturated fatty acid composition ... The paper begins by introducing fatty acids, with more detail on unsaturated fatty acids; their structure and configurations, ... In September 2006 BNF published a new Briefing Paper on The health effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids. ... The paper summarises the evidence for the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids, health and disease. The diseases ...
Fatty acids, C18 unsaturated, reaction product with ammonia-ethanolamine reaction by-products. ...
T 0343/01 (Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids/MARTEK) of 12.5.2005. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2005: ... Process for the heterotrophic production of products with high concentrations of Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. ...
Fatty acids, C18-(unsaturated) dimers and their monoesters and diesters with 2-ethylhexanol. ...
... means the sales value of Unsaturated Fatty AcidsThis report studies Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Global market, especially in ... 1 Unsaturated Fatty Acids Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Unsaturated Fatty Acids. 1.2 Unsaturated Fatty ... 5.2 Global Unsaturated Fatty Acids Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016). 5.3 Global Unsaturated Fatty Acids Price by ... 2.5.1 Unsaturated Fatty Acids Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 Unsaturated Fatty Acids Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 ...
Unsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations and saturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, stearic acid, and ... Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, ... Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations but not saturated fatty acids induced intra-acinar cell trypsin activation and ... unsaturated fatty acids were able to induce acinar cells injury and promote the development of pancreatitis. Unsaturated fatty ...
Get Unsaturated Higher Fatty Acids at Spectrum Chemical. carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab ... Unsaturated Higher Fatty Acids Unsaturated Higher Fatty Acids. Spectrum Chemical offers a wide selection of unsaturated higher ... Linolenic Acid TCI-L0050 , 463-40-1 , C18H30O2 , TCI America Linolenic Acid, a type of fatty acid and an octadecatrienoic acid ... gamma-Linolenic Acid, also known as gamolenic acid or GLA, is a carbolic acid and a fatty acid found in vegetable oils which ...
1. unsaturated fatty acid (n.). a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms ... 6. acid (n.). any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a ... 3. unsaturated (adj.). used of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond ...
... calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, with 3 % calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids inclusion on diet DM basis, ... and two unsaturated fatty acid sources protected or complexed; C3= whole soybean versus calcium salts of unsaturated fatty ... but mainly to the type of fatty acid present in the supplement. In this way, lipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids trend to ... Animals fed unsaturated fatty acids supplementation had higher DM and EE digestibility, when compared to cows fed CO. Fatty ...
... such as docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA, EPA) exert ischemic anti-arrhythmic effects. However, their mechanism ... Direct protective effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, DHA and EPA, against activation of cardiac late sodium current. A ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA, EPA) exert ischemic anti- ... Na+ channels fatty acids ischemia long QT syndrome persistent sodium current This is a preview of subscription content, log in ...
Crystal structure of unsaturated fatty acid bound ToxT K231A from Vibrio cholerae strain SCE256. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6PB9/pdb ... Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) found in bile inhibit the activity of ToxT. Crystal structures of inhibited ToxT bound to UFA or ... Structural basis for virulence regulation inVibrio choleraeby unsaturated fatty acid components of bile.. Cruite, J.T., ... PALMITOLEIC ACID. C16 H30 O2. SECPZKHBENQXJG-FPLPWBNLSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
... of energy from trans unsaturated fatty acids with saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty ... including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. ... Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 ... Validation of fatty acid intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire using erythrocyte fatty acid profiling in the ...
cis-unsaturated fatty acids specifically inhibit a signal-transducing protein kinase required for initiation of sporulation in ... The results suggest that the concentration of a specific unsaturated fatty acid may act as a signal linking the initiation of ... was found to be inhibited in vitro by certain fatty acids. The most potent inhibitors have at least one unsaturated double bond ... B. subtilis phospholipids were found to contain at least one as yet unidentified type of fatty acid that, when present in an ...
B. Effects of V. cholerae fabR on production of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in E. coli. Fatty acid composition was determined ... in vivo experiments in which unsaturated fatty acid synthesis was blocked in the absence of exogenous unsaturated fatty acids ... saturated fatty acids; Δ11 C18:1, cis-vaccenic acid; Δ9 C16:1, palmitoleic acid. C. qPCR analyses of fabA and fabB expression ... required for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis and has been reported to require the presence of an unsaturated thioester (of ...
Although Canadian Inuit have a traditional diet rich in heme iron and long chain n-3 fatty acids, recent literature has also ... Impaired fatty acid synthesis was noted in iron deficient animal models. Human data, however, are scarce. ... Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was utilized as an indicator of fatty acid status and serum ferritin and ... Future studies are recommended to evaluate iron status in relation to highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis and status ...
Pathway:Rat:Unsaturated Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation BiGCaT]] moved to [[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Unsaturated Fatty Acid Beta ... gpml file for [[Rat:Unsaturated_Fatty_Acid_Beta_Oxidation_BiGCaT]]. External references DataNodes. View all...", "View last 5 ... Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Unsaturated Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation BiGCaT]] moved to [[Pathway:WP418]]: Moved to stable identifier ... Ontology Term : fatty acid beta degradation pathway added !. 41696. view. 02:37, 2 March 2011. MaintBot. Removed redundant ...
Novasep proposes unique cGMP manufacturing services for omega-3 and other poly-unsaturated fatty acids from pilot- to very ... Omega 3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and other PUFAs for pharmaceutical applications. Novasep proposes unique cGMP ... Novasep operates the largest cGMP purification plant of omega-3 and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the world, based on ... According to the amount of unsaturated fatty acid you would like to produce, we operate several manufacturing facilities with ...
  • Novasep proposes unique cGMP manufacturing services for omega-3 and other poly-unsaturated fatty acids from pilot- to very large-scale. (
  • Novasep operates the largest cGMP purification plant of omega-3 and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the world , based on Novasep's Varicol® continuous chromatography and other proprietary single-column chromatography technologies. (
  • The samples were immediately packed in dry ice and stored at -80 °C. The samples were analyzed in a masked fashion for the presence of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Amino acid and Unsaturated Fatty Acid (UFA) contents of long tail tuna ( Thunnus tonggol ) roe and their changes were investigated during 9 months of frozen storage at -18°C. These analyses were performed immediately after the freezing, then after 3rd, 6th and 9th months of cold storage at -18°C. Numbers 10 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and 8 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were identified. (
  • If there are more than one double bond, it is termed as poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). (
  • Poly-unsaturated fatty acids include omega−3, omega−6, and omega−9 fatty acids. (
  • It has also been attempted to 30 incorporate (poly)unsaturated fatty acids in reconstitutable powders. (
  • The authors hypothesized that a role for peroxisomes might be to chain shorten fatty acids but that the products would be transported to the endoplasmic reticulum where they would be esterified into lipids. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether lipids derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are present in human aqueous humor. (
  • The omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, is highest in concentration of the lipids we identified. (
  • The omega-6 metabolic pathway gives rise to arachidonic acid pro-inflammatory bioactive lipids. (
  • Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. (
  • Highly unsaturated lipids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are particularly susceptible to oxidation due to their degree of unsaturation. (
  • The oxidation of unsaturated lipids generates malodorous compounds and leads to off-flavours and the loss of bioactivity of the original lipid structures. (
  • The ability of vitamin E to prevent the oxidative degradation of the unsaturated lipids DHA and ALA was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments at elevated temperature. (
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 4 constitutes monoxygenases responsible for hydroxylation of fatty acids and other lipids. (
  • Mammals of different species provide milk lipids with a wide variety of fatty acid composition yet with common stereospecific features. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the extraction of lipids, for example, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as carotenoids, from wet microalgae biomass using pressurized subcritical extraction solvents, which meet the requirements of food and feed applications. (
  • Results indicated that the concentration of oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2 n -6) and linolenic acid (C18:3 n -3) in the plasma and oleic acid and linolenic acid in erythrocyte lipids were higher in lambs fed diets containing oil seeds or a combination of the oil seeds compared to those receiving the control diet. (
  • The supplementation of 6% and 12% ECAS increased the linoleic acid concentration in the liver lipids significantly compared to those fed the diets containing ECOS. (
  • The products of SCD enzymes, oleic and palmitoleic acids, are the most abundant MUFAs and represent important precursors for the formation of complex lipids including phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, wax esters, and diacylglycerols. (
  • In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus ). (
  • Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. (
  • Unstimulated T and B cells incorporated identical amounts of stearic acid into six different phospholipids and four neutral lipids. (
  • After mitogen stimulation, fatty acid uptake was increased in both lymphocyte types, but cell-specific differences were seen in the distribution of stearic acid among the various cellular lipids. (
  • In conclusion, fatty acids and toxicants can cause sublethal effects by altering the resource allocation of lipids and in turn perturbing starvation survival, reproduction, and juvenile development. (
  • Palmitic acid is the commonest saturated fatty acid in plant and animal lipids , but generally it is not present in very large proportions because it may be undergo into several metabolic pathways. (
  • Between 54 and 65% of the fatty-acid residues in lipids extracted from organisms were the same as the fatty acid supplied in the medium. (
  • Fatty acids are key constituent of lipids. (
  • These lipids possess their Hydrophobicity because of their fatty acids. (
  • Although biological lipids are not large macromolecular polymers (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides), many are formed by the chemical linking of several small constituent molecules. (
  • The homologies allow lipids to be classified into a few major groups: fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, cholesterol and its derivatives, and lipoproteins. (
  • of lipids and at least 3% of unsaturated fatty acids by weight of the granulate. (
  • Vitamin E can improve feed quality, production and nutrition in poultry diets containing highly unsaturated fatty acids, according to Ronald Holser of the USDA/ARS Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit in Athens, Georgia, USA, writing for DSM Nutritional Products. (
  • 1997). Fish oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially of the more highly unsaturated fatty acids such as DHA. (
  • The physiological roles of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), mainly arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4ω6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), are not completely understood. (
  • Enzymatic synthesis of ethyl ester of highly unsaturated fatty acids from fish oils using immobilized lipase. (
  • Oleic acid has 18 carbons, is found in most animal fats and olive oil, and is a cis-9-monounsaturated fatty acid. (
  • It seems that a low content of 18:0 and 18:1, and a high content of saturated short- to medium-length fatty acids prevent the formation of the high and low temperature melting isotherms, between 35 and 42 °C, and between -45 and -10 °C, respectively, which are normally observed for milk fats. (
  • Achieving a better balance of fatty acids in the diet, by decreasing intakes of cholesterol and saturated fats, is therefore seen as an important and effective strategy by which to reduce the incidence of these diseases. (
  • When excess calories are consumed from carbohydrates or proteins, such surplus is used to synthesize fatty acids and then triacylglycerols, while it doesn't occur if the excess come from fats . (
  • In everyday language, saturated fatty acids are known as 'bad' fats, while unsaturated fatty acids are called 'good' fats. (
  • By contrast, the consumption of unsaturated, "good" fats can reduce the harmful cholesterol effect of saturated fatty acids. (
  • Unsaturated fats -- monounsaturated and polyunsaturated -- should be the dominant type of fat in a balanced diet, because they reduce the risk of clogged arteries. (
  • Linoleic acid is the most common polyene acid because it is used as a prototype for other polyene acids and it is found in most vegetable fats. (
  • The component building blocks of the lipid s found in storage fats, in lipoproteins (combinations of lipid and protein), and in the membranes of cells and organelles are glycerol, the fatty acids, and a number of other compounds (e.g., serine, inositol). (
  • Fatty acids rarely occur as free molecules in nature but are usually found as components of many complex lipid molecules such as fats (energy-storage compounds) and phospholipids (the primary lipid components of cellular membranes). (
  • It also explains how living organisms obtain fatty acids, both from their diets and through metabolic breakdown of stored fats. (
  • Saturated fats are useful in processed foods because saturated fats are less vulnerable to rancidity and usually more solid at room temperature than unsaturated fats. (
  • Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet, trans unsaturated fats should not. (
  • Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood . (
  • [1] Trans unsaturated fats are an exception because the double bond stereochemistry predisposes the carbon chains to assume a linear conformation , which conforms to rigid packing as in plaque formation. (
  • Foods containing unsaturated fats include avocado , nuts , olive oils , and vegetable oils such as canola . (
  • Meat products contain both saturated and unsaturated fats. (
  • Although unsaturated fats are conventionally regarded as 'healthier' than saturated fats, [4] the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation stated that the amount of unsaturated fat consumed should not exceed 30% of one's daily caloric intake. (
  • [ citation needed ] Most foods contain both unsaturated and saturated fats. (
  • Animal fats contain a high proportion of glyc-erides of saturated fatty acids and tend to be solids, whilst those from plants and fish contain predominantly unsaturated fatty acid esters and tend to be liquids. (
  • In colder climates, a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids is produced, so that the plant can maintain the fluidity of its storage fats and membranes. (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid, induced a persistent rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations in acinar cells. (
  • Saturated and unsaturated (including arachidonic acid) non-esterified fatty acid modulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. (
  • In the present review, we focus on exogenous and endogenous effects of NEFAs, including the polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (or its metabolites generated from cyclo-oxygenase activity), on beta-cell metabolism, and have explored the outcomes with respect to beta-cell insulin secretion. (
  • Consequently, fatty acids that are essential for the brain are arachidonic acid and cervonic acid, derived from the diet, unless they are synthesized by the liver from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. (
  • These enzymes appear to constitute a pathway producing hydroperoxides and epoxyalcohols from arachidonic acid. (
  • The 12 R -hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid (12 R -HPETE) was prepared by autoxidation and separated from other hydroperoxides by chiral HPLC. (
  • Three unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and arachidonic) accounted for about 50% of the total inhibiting activity of the serum extract. (
  • Linoleic ( LA 18:2 n-6), gamma-linolenic (GLA, 18:3 n-6) and arachidonic (AA, 20:4 n-6) acids are examples of common omega-6 FAs. (
  • between omega-6 and omega-3 families, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), that differ only by an additional double bond in EPA, have a metabolic antagonistic relationship. (
  • Examples of unsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid , oleic acid , myristoleic acid , linoleic acid , and arachidonic acid . (
  • PUFA can be a source of arachidonic acid, which is partly converted into prostanoids. (
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA, EPA) exert ischemic anti-arrhythmic effects. (
  • Deuterium-labeled prostglandin D2 (PGD2-d4) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-d5) were added to each sample as the internal standard for quantification. (
  • The results of tissue fatty acid analysis showed that the brain contained more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) than flesh, liver and intestine. (
  • Rates and recoveries of docosahexaenoic acid given as monoacylglycerol in lymph was higher than those of triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol or ethyl esters. (
  • When docosahexaenoic acid was given to rats at a 1% level in the diet for 1 week, triacylglycerol type-docosahexaenoic acid reduced plasm and liver triacylglycerol more effectively than monoacylglycerol and ethyl ester-type docosahexaenoic acid. (
  • Lymphatic absorption and effects on lipid metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid given in the form of different molecular structure. (
  • Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3 fatty acid). (
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. (
  • Alpha-linolenic (ALA, 18:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acids are the common examples of omega-3 FAs. (
  • Typical fatty acids in fish oils have high unsaturation and also long chain lengths, e.g. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6) in cod liver oil. (
  • The interaction between PUFA and lead affecting liver and serum fatty acid profiles was also shown in animal studies [ 12 ]. (
  • On the other hand, many experimental studies very well documented that omega-3 PUFA, such as DHA and EPA, contained in marine algae, fatty fish, and fish oils, exert many positive effects on the circulatory system. (
  • To evaluate the effects of a trans fat-free monounsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oil (NuSun sunflower oil, National Sunflower Association, Bismark, ND) that is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and low in saturated fatty acids on lipid and lipoprotein levels and oxidative stress. (
  • Experimental diets provided 30% fat (olive oil or NuSun sunflower oil contributed one half of the total fat), 8.3% vs 7.9% saturated fatty acid, 17.2% vs 14.2% monounsaturated fatty acid, and 4.3% vs. 7.7% PUFA (olive oil and NuSun sunflower oil, respectively), and 294 mg cholesterol. (
  • The control diet was an average American diet (34% fat, 11.2% saturated fatty acid, 14.9% monounsaturated fatty acid, 7.8% PUFA). (
  • Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to play a beneficial role in hibernating mammals. (
  • In contrast to earlier studies, we were interested in whether the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA affects torpor expression, and in comparison with a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). (
  • Mammals have to ingest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as LA (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), because desaturation enzymes for their synthesis are lacking. (
  • This, in turn, corresponds to the finding that the fatty acid composition of brown fat reflected that of dietary fatty acids in Djungarian hamsters ( Geiser and Heldmaier, 1995 ), and is also in line with increased dietary PUFA intake before hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels ( Spermophilus lateralis ) ( Frank, 1994 ). (
  • 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in benign and malignant pathologic stage pT2a radical prostatectomy specimens. (
  • Alpha-linolenic (ALA, 18:3 n-3), linoleic (18:2 n-6) and oleic (18:1 n-9) acids and are examples of PUFA. (
  • US 2005/018019 describes the encapsulation of a polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as ω-3 and/or ω-6 PUFA, by spray drying an emulsion containing a carrier to form a powder, followed by encapsulation in a fluid bed dryer. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. (
  • Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. (
  • Antioxidant compounds such as vitamin E are needed to protect unsaturated lipid compounds from oxidation. (
  • Mixtures that contained 5 mg vitamin E/mg lipid retained 55.9 per cent DHA and 77.0 per cent ALA. Control samples without vitamin E retained 43 per cent DHA and 52.6 per cent ALA. These results show that vitamin E acted as an antioxidant to limit the degradation of these polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • This study provides evidence that dietary oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid might escape biohydrogenation in the rumen and showed that the type of dietary fat has a marked impact on lipid metabolism in the liver. (
  • Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. (
  • Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. (
  • The reporters can induce the formation of lipid droplets and be incorporated site-specifically onto known fatty-acylated proteins and label many proteins in mammalian cells. (
  • The greater the degree of unsaturation in a fatty acid (i.e., the more double bonds in the fatty acid) the more vulnerable it is to lipid peroxidation ( rancidity ). (
  • Antioxidants can protect unsaturated fat from lipid peroxidation. (
  • Since PUFAs are important for cholesterol lowering, foods that replace saturated fatty acids should include a balance of unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • The n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to modify central serotonergic parameters relevant to ingestive behavior. (
  • In triacylglycerols, MUFAs (or long chain saturated fatty acids ) tend to be in sn -1 and sn -3 positions, whereas PUFAs in sn -2 position. (
  • α-linolenic acid (alpha-linolenic's) has 18 carbons, is found in linseed oil and drying oil, and is a 9,12,15-tri-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • γ-linolenic acid (gamma-linolenic's) has 18 carbons, the structural isomers of α- linolenic acid. (
  • In our earlier study, we observed a decrease in blood cadmium level associated with increased urinary N-acetyl- β -glucosaminidase activity in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with evening primrose oil, rich in omega-6 fatty acids (FA) especially in γ -linolenic acid [ 10 ]. (
  • gamma-Linolenic Acid, also known as gamolenic acid or GLA, is a carbolic acid and a fatty acid found in vegetable oils which has applications as a dietary supplement. (
  • Linolenic Acid, Practical, a type of fatty acid, is usually found in vegetable oils. (
  • Linolenic Acid, a type of fatty acid and an octadecatrienoic acid, is usually found in vegetable oils and is an omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • The analysis of ten samples of aqueous humor demonstrated the presence of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA), the omega-3 fatty acid-alpha linolenic acid (ALA), with its metabolites DHA and EPA. (
  • Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. (
  • First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). (
  • It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). (
  • Recent results have shown that dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency induces more marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures than in others, as the frontal cortex and pituitary gland are more severely affected. (
  • A dose-effect study showed that animal phospholipids are more effective than plant phospholipids to reverse the consequences of alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, partly because they provide very long preformed chains. (
  • Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency decreases the perception of pleasure, by slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by affecting certain cerebral structures. (
  • For example, a given level of perception of a sweet taste requires a larger quantity of sugar in subjects with alpha-linolenic acid deficiency. (
  • In the case of an unsaturated fatty acid such as linolenic acid that undergoes oxidation by a peroxyl radical intermediate, the vitamin E can interact with this structure to prevent oxidation of the fatty acid by deactivating the intermediate fatty acid peroxyl radical. (
  • Similar studies with flaxseed as a source of linolenic acid (ALA) have shown that the polyunsaturated fatty acids do accumulate in the eggs, however, there are anti-nutritional compounds in the flaxseed that have negative effects on production (Bean and Leeson. (
  • To increase the fundamental understanding of the influence of the degree of fatty acid unsaturation the three fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid, have been studied. (
  • Some QTLs reported previously were confirmed, and seven new QTLs (two for oleic acid, two for linoleic acid and three for linolenic acid) were identified in this study. (
  • D6D is a key enzyme in synthesizing HUFA from the precursor dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2ω6) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω3). (
  • In media containing ergosterol and either oleic acid, linoleic or γ-linolenic acid, organisms grew at about the same rate, although the duration of the lag phase of growth was extended as the degree of unsaturation in the exogenous fatty acid was increased. (
  • Sphaeroplasts could be obtained from organisms grown in the presence of linolenic acid if spermine was included in the glucanase digest. (
  • Your body is incapable of producing the EFAs, known as linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, so it must derive them from food," explains Wahida Karmally DrPH, RD, professor of nutrition at Columbia Universityand director of nutrition at The Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. (
  • The two major groups of these methylene-interrupted polyene acids are the n-6 acids based on linoleic acid and the n-3 acids based on alpha-linolenic acid. (
  • The oil contains two important Omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids: linolenic (alpha-linolenic), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). (
  • The adsorption of the unsaturated fatty acids oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid on steel surfaces has been investigated by means of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). (
  • At the same concentration, the adsorbed amount of linoleic acid and linolenic acid indicates that they adsorb in multilayers. (
  • In the case of linolenic acid, it was found that the presence of water significantly alters the adsorption, most likely because of the precipitation of fatty acid/water aggregates. (
  • Furthermore, static SIMS results indicate that the amount of water used here inhibits the chemisorption of linolenic acid. (
  • Palmitoleic acid has 16 carbons, is found in cod liver oil, sardine oil, and herring oil, and is a cis9-monounsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Ruminant trans -palmitoleic acid was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (0.58, 0.46 to 0.74). (
  • Saturated fatty acids , and unsaturated fatty acids of the omega-9 series, usually oleic acid (but also palmitoleic acid and other omega-7 fatty acids ) are the only fatty acids produced de novo in mammal systems. (
  • Is iron status associated with highly unsaturated fatty acid status among Canadian Arctic Inuit? (
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the unsaturated fatty acid has 4 to 22 carbons and degree of unsaturation of 1 to 3. (
  • In the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, most of the reactions are the same as those for saturated fatty acids, only two additional enzymes an isomerase and a reductase are needed to degrade a wide range of unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Although it is known that the rate of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids may be reduced through the addition of anti¬oxidants, the application of such anti-oxidants at best delays the formation of unacceptable off-flavour. (
  • Despite the fact that the present granulate contains a substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids as well as a high level of iron and/or copper, said granulate is nonetheless very stable against oxidation. (
  • Malonyl-CoA, the initial intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis (Figure-4), formed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the fed state, is a potent inhibitor of CPT-I. Thus,В ОІ -oxidation from free fatty acids is controlled by the CPT-I gateway into the mitochondria, and the balance of the free fatty acid uptake not oxidized is esterified. (
  • We aimed to explore whether the presence of iron deficiency would affect fatty acid status and an estimate of the activity of desaturase 5 (Δ5), which is crucial in the biosynthesis of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids among Canadian Inuit. (
  • 0001). Although the current study only demonstrated a weak link between ferritin and Δ5, the latter association underscores a possible health risk caused by a nutrient interaction related to reduced iron intake and decreased highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis. (
  • Future studies are recommended to evaluate iron status in relation to highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis and status among indigenous people undergoing rapid dietary transitions. (
  • 1994. The role played by beta-oxidation in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. (
  • In parallel to UFA starvation, a net accumulation of SFA (saturated fatty acids) is observed as a consequence of haem biosynthesis preclusion. (
  • Leaver M, Villeneuve L, Obach A, Jensen L, Bron J, Tocher DR & Taggart J (2008) Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), BMC Genomics, 9 (1), p. 299. (
  • This has some value in relating structures when an unsaturated fatty acid is biosynthetically elongated from the carboxyl end as during prostaglandin biosynthesis (see page 45). (
  • their structure and configurations, focusing on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and their metabolism pathways. (
  • The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of different unsaturated fatty acids supplementation sources on digestive metabolism, including nutrient intake and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows. (
  • Diets with whole raw soybeans and soybean oil improved digestive metabolism and increased the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk. (
  • Dietary fatty acid serves a number of physiological functions in lactating dairy cows and has a large effect on the digestive metabolism. (
  • These data point to a novel mechanism for the reduction in low density lipoprotein produced by unsaturated fatty acids that involves their physical effects on cell membranes as it relates to metabolism of the lipoprotein. (
  • We have investigated essential fatty acid metabolism in this species, focusing on the endogenous highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis pathway using both biochemical and molecular biological approaches. (
  • Understanding how HUFA maintain tissue homeostasis will help in the development of treatments for diseases that result from an altered essential fatty acid metabolism. (
  • In cellular metabolism , unsaturated fat molecules contain somewhat less energy (i.e., fewer calories ) than an equivalent amount of saturated fat. (
  • Rice, HB & Corwin, RL 2002, ' mCPP-induced hypophagia in rats is unaffected by the profile of dietary unsaturated fatty acids ', Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior , vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 545-550. (
  • The paper then considers intakes of unsaturated fatty acids in the UK, their sources and the unsaturated fatty acid composition of a number of commonly eaten food products. (
  • To investigate how the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition influences the susceptibility of developing acute pancreatitis. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was utilized as an indicator of fatty acid status and serum ferritin and circulating hemoglobin level were measured as the indicators of iron status. (
  • In summary, the present data strongly indicate that the dietary composition of unsaturated fatty acids plays a minor role in the occurrence of spontaneous daily torpor in Djungarian hamsters. (
  • For instance, proper functioning of the heart at low T b is likely to be dependent on appropriate membrane fatty acid composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Fatty acid composition showed that, DHA and EPA contents of moist pellet are higher than those of imported and locally dry pellets. (
  • The quality of soybean oil is determined by its fatty acid composition. (
  • Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. (
  • The structures of triacylglycerols consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid and palmitic acid did not give any effect on the isomeric composition of monohydroperoxides derived from eicosapentaenoic acid formed by autoxidation Comparing the oxidative stabilities of tri-, di- and monoacylglycerols of eicosapentaenoic acid, triacylglycerol was more susceptible for autoxidation than others. (
  • The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. (
  • Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. (
  • Although the present results lend further support to a large body of evidence demonstrating the ability of mCPP to reduce food intake, they do not support the idea that the essential fatty acid composition of the diet can differentially modulate mCPP-induced hypophagia. (
  • The most common saturated fatty acids are Lauric Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 COOH, Palmitic Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH, and Stearic Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH. (
  • The duration of the periods for which animals hibernate in winter is affected by the quantity of unsaturated fatty acids that they absorb from their food. (
  • 10 Furthermore, in some product applications, e.g. in reconstitutable powders, it is extremely difficult to produce bland tasting products if these products contain a significant quantity of unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Figure-4- CPT-1 (Carnitine palmitoyl Transferase -1) is inhibited by malonyl co A, the product of first step of fatty acid synthesis. (
  • Active fatty acid synthesis takes place in the well fed state under the effect of insulin, thus when fatty acid synthesis is active, fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. (
  • Intermediates of fatty acids (FA) biohydrogenation are biologically active and modify reproductive efficiency, milk fat synthesis, ruminal fermentation, nutrient intake and digestibility of cows (Havartine and Allen, 2006). (
  • The results suggest that the concentration of a specific unsaturated fatty acid may act as a signal linking the initiation of sporulation to the status of membrane synthesis and septation or some other specific membrane-associated activity. (
  • Impaired fatty acid synthesis was noted in iron deficient animal models. (
  • The enzymatic activities of sytivities of synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are very limited in the brain: this organ therefore depends on an exogenous supply. (
  • Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. (
  • These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. (
  • This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. (
  • Absence of unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in murine T lymphocytes. (
  • Collectively, our data indicate that murine T cells are deficient in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. (
  • De novo fatty acid synthesis is largely similar among plants and animals . (
  • However, adipose tissue is a major organ system in which fatty acid synthesis occurs, though in humans it is less active than in many other animal species. (
  • Of course, in plants and animals there are fatty acids longer and/or more unsaturated than these just seen thanks to modification systems (again desaturation and elongation) that catalyze reactions of fatty acid synthesis that are organism- tissue- and cell- specific. (
  • Oleic acid is the start point for the synthesis of many other unsaturated fatty acids by reactions of elongation and/or desaturation. (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations and saturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, stearic acid, and triglycerides, at low and high concentrations were unable to induce a rise in Ca(2+) concentrations in acinar cells. (
  • Saturated fatty acids present in rat serum (palmitic and stearic) did not inhibit [3H]tamoxifen binding. (
  • Although myristic , lauric and a trace of stearic acids may also be produced, in animals and plants the main product of these reactions is palmitic acid . (
  • Cells were incubated with 100 μM palmitic acid (PA), 100 μM oleic acid (OA), a combination of both, or 100 μM gondoic acid (GA) or without NEFAs (Con) for 24 h. (
  • Under these conditions, free fatty acids enter the liver cell in low concentrations and are nearly all esterified to acylglycerols and transported out of the liver in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). (
  • Primary pancreatic acinar cells were treated with low and high concentrations of different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and changes in the cytosolic Ca(2+) signal and the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) were measured after treatment. (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids at high concentrations but not saturated fatty acids induced intra-acinar cell trypsin activation and cell damage and increased PKC expression. (
  • At sufficiently high concentrations, unsaturated fatty acids were able to induce acinar cells injury and promote the development of pancreatitis. (
  • Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hip bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. (
  • The concentrations of these fatty acids required to inhibit [3H]tamoxifen binding were in the range of 10-100 μM, comparable with those found in the rat circulation under physiological conditions. (
  • A characteristic feature of olive oil is its very high oleic acid (18:1) content, whilst rapeseed oil possesses high concentrations of long chain C20 and C22 fatty acids, e.g. erucic acid (22:1). (
  • This demonstrates that unsaturated fatty acids can directly modify many proteins to exert their unique and often beneficial physiological effects in vivo. (
  • This does not mean that all the fatty acids of a ω-family have the same physiological functions. (
  • Fatty acids are referred to according to their carboxylate form because they are ionized at physiological pH. (
  • In addition to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the ethanolic extracts contained exceptional amounts of fucoxanthin (up to 26.1 mg/g d. w.), which can be beneficial to protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation processes and in terms of human nutrition. (
  • Judging from the volatile aldehyde generation, the flavor stability of eicosapentaenoic acid-containing triacylglycerols was dependent on the number of eicosapentaenoic acid in a triacylglycerol molecule, i.e., trieicosapentaenoylglycerol gave the largest quantity of volatile aldehydes among all triacylglycerols. (
  • Production of eicosapentaenoic acid-riched triacylglycerol by Mucor hiemalis HA-30. (
  • Fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongase (Elovl) cDNAs were cloned and functional characterization identified them as ∆6 Fad and Elovl5 elongase enzymes, respectively. (
  • Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes catalyze the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to Δ-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). (
  • The predicted protein sequence is identical to that reported for the yeast OLE1 gene encoding fatty acid desaturase. (
  • The deficiency of stearoyl- CoA desaturase in T cells may represent the basis for the differing sensitivities of T and B lymphocytes to inhibition by saturated fatty acids. (
  • desaturated, as seen, to oleic acid , an omega-9 or n-9 fatty acid , in a reaction catalyzed by Δ9-desaturase. (
  • fatty acid desaturase 1 [Source:HGNC Symbo. (
  • Most eukaryotic organisms possess a A9-desaturase that introduces a cis double bond into a saturated fatty acid, requiring O2 and NADPH or NADH cofactors. (
  • A comprehensive review of recent existing methods of epoxidation of vegetable oils, unsaturated fatty acids and alkyl esters of unsaturated fatty acids has been presented. (
  • Fatty acids are structurally simple and even with their derivatives can be subdivided into well-defined families. (
  • In addition, many fish oil supplements contain abnormally high levels of the essential fatty acid derivatives EPA and DHA, as a result of processing by very-high-temperature distillation. (
  • An alternative strategy for perturbing the function of N-myristoylated proteins derives from the observation that a subset of retinal N-terminal fatty acylated proteins are modified specifically by lauric acid (12:0), 5- cis -tetradecenoic acid (14:1 n -9), or 5- cis ,8- cis -tetradecadienoic acid (14:2 n -6) in place of 14:0 ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Palm kernel and coconut oils are both semi-solids having a high concentration of the saturated Ci2 acid lauric acid. (
  • Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (
  • Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. (
  • This fatty acid is therefore not synthesized in sufficient quantities, at least during pregnancy-lactation, implying a need for dietary intake. (
  • However, intake of fatty acids and proportions in triglycerides and membranes cannot be entirely uncoupled. (
  • The study looked at a population of middle-aged French adults and examined their intake of unsaturated fatty acids and cognitive performance 13 years later, and tested for a modulating effect of antioxidant supplementation. (
  • Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline, and dietary fat intake and its sub-types were calculated, using Australian nutrient databases for fatty acids and expressed as percent contribution of total energy. (
  • Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and possibly the incidence of some cancers, asthma and diabetes among other conditions. (
  • The present research sought to examine the role of the 5-HT 2C receptor subtype on food intake when diets with different fatty acid compositions are consumed. (
  • A high intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids could lower the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, according to researchers in the Netherlands. (
  • The intake of the appropriate omega-3 fatty acid helps the proper growth of the fetus and the development of cognitive functions during pregnancy and breastfeeding. (
  • Contains large amounts of essential fatty acids: Omega 6 and Omega 3, which are an important part of food intake and the prevention of various diseases - cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, arthritis, asthma, autoimmune disorders. (
  • Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are oxidized by the pathway of ОІ-oxidation, producing acetyl-CoA, until a three-carbon (propionyl-CoA) residue remains. (
  • Spectrum Chemical offers a wide selection of unsaturated higher fatty acids which have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms and a lower melting point. (
  • The most potent inhibitors have at least one unsaturated double bond in the cis configuration and a chain length of 16-20 carbon atoms. (
  • Generally, unsaturated fatty acids into membranes are confined to the sn -2 position of phospholipids, and have 18 to 20 carbon atoms (in sn -1 position there are saturated 16-18 C fatty acids). (
  • To number the carbon atoms within a fatty acid, you start at the carboxyl terminus. (
  • In nature, most fatty acids exist as straight-chain hydrocarbons that attach to a carboxylic acid with the most frequent and even number of carbon atoms. (
  • The carbon atoms connected to each other by the double bond are unsaturated with hydrogen. (
  • Most biological fatty acids contain an even number of carbon atoms because the biosynthetic pathway common to all organisms involves chemically linking two-carbon units together (although relatively small amounts of odd-number fatty acids do occur in some organisms). (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids conatins double bounded atoms of carbon where as, saturated acids contains hydrogen atoms. (
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. (
  • The term "unsaturated" means more hydrogen atoms may be added to the hydrocarbon to make it saturated (i.e. consisting all single bonds). (
  • These fatty acids are less hydrophobic than 14:0 either because of a shorter hydrocarbon chain or the presence of cis double bonds. (
  • The level of being unsaturated differs among the unsaturated fatty acids, depending upon the number of double bonds present. (
  • Carbon-carbon double bonds are the most common multiple bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Some fatty acids have double bonds, which changes the structure. (
  • When double bonds are present, fatty acids are said to be unsaturated, monounsaturated if only one double bond is present and polyenoic if they have two or more double bonds generally separated by a single methylene group in the carbon backbone. (
  • Polyene acids that have a methylene-interrupted pattern of unsaturation with 2-6 double bonds and cis configurations are the most important. (
  • In addition to straight-chain hydrocarbons, fatty acids may also contain pairs of carbons linked by one or more double bonds, methyl branches, or a three-carbon cyclopropane ring near the centre of the carbon chain. (
  • A convenient shorthand representation for fatty acids indicating chain length with number, position and stereochemistry of double bonds is also presented in Table 3.1. (
  • The precise mechanism by which unsaturated fatty acids lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol is not known. (
  • The present invention provides a method for manufacturing fat-soluble phytosterol or phytostanol ester of unsaturated fatty acid for inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol and foodstuffs containing the same. (
  • short fatty acid chains long fatty acid chains unsaturated FAs saturated FAs *low cholesterol high cholesterol * Cholesterol content increases membrane toughness and decreases permeability * Cholesterol tends to broaden the range of the transition temperature. (
  • Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. (
  • Quantitative trait locus analysis of unsaturated fatty acids in a rec" by Xianzhi Wang, Guo-Liang Jiang et al. (
  • Stearic acid is toxic for T lymphocytes in vitro but has little effect on B lymphocytes. (
  • To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, purified murine T and B lymphocytes were compared for their abilities to incorporate and metabolize stearic acid. (
  • Doses of stearic acid that selectively inhibited T-cell proliferation resulted in a 5-fold greater accumulation of distearoylphosphatidylcholine in T cells than in B cells. (
  • Whereas T cells did not desaturate the exogenously derived stearic acid, up to 25% of the saturated fatty acid was converted to oleic acid in B cells. (
  • if the substrate is stearic acid , the double bond will appear between n-9 and n-10 position of the chain and oleic acid will be produced. (
  • Several researchers have postulated that the reason for which stearic acid is not hypercholesterolemic is its rapid conversion to oleic acid . (
  • Structural formula of stearic acid. (
  • This paper updates the knowledge on the effects of grazing ruminants on milk quality and cheese with emphasis on unsaturated fatty acids, volatile compounds antioxidant protection degree and phenols. (
  • Unsaturated compounds can undergo addition reactions as well as substitution. (
  • Biological fatty acids, members of the class of compounds known as carboxylic acids , are composed of a hydrocarbon chain with one terminal carboxyl group (COOH). (
  • The configuration of an unsaturated carbons include straight chain, such as alkenes and alkynes, as well as branched chains and aromatic compounds. (
  • Except for aromatic compounds, unsaturated hydrocarbons are mostly reactive and undergo multiple reactions to their multiple bonds. (
  • Crotonic acid has 4 carbons, is included in croton oil, and is a trans-2-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Myristoleic acid has 14 carbons, is found in whale blubber, and is a cis-9-monounsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Sapienic acid has 16 carbons, is found in the skin, and is a cis6-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Elaidic acid has 18 carbons and is a trans-9-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Vaccenic acid has 18 carbons, is found in beef tallow, mutton, and butter, and is a trans11-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Gadoleic acid has 20 carbons, is found in cod liver oil and other marine animal oils, and is a cis9-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Eicosenoic acid has 20 carbons, is found in a wide variety of plant oils, and is a cis11-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Erucic acid has 22 carbons, is found in rapeseed oil and mustard oil, and is a cis13-monounsaturated is a fatty acid. (
  • Nervonic acid has 24 carbons, is found in brain glycolipids (Nervon) and sphingomyelin, and is a cis15-mono-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Linoleate has 18 carbons, is contained in many vegetable oils, particularly semi-drying oils, and is a cis-9-cis- 12-di-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Eicosadienoic acid (eicosadienoic's) has 20 carbons and is a cis-11-cis14-di-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • Docosadienoic acid (docosadienoic's) has 22 carbons and is a cis-13-cis16-di-unsaturated fatty acid. (
  • It is said that a fatty acid will usually have an even number of carbons. (
  • The double bond between carbons in a hydrocarbon chain invites the formation of a fatty acid radical which can react with oxygen in the process known as rancidification. (
  • Major groups of fatty acids are designated m-3 (omega-3), m-6 (omega-6), m-9 (omega-9), etc (or sometimes n-3, n-6, n-9), if there is a double bond that number of carbons from the methyl terminus. (
  • This only accumulates in tissues when the animals are suffering from essential fatty acid deficiency (see below). (
  • Although Canadian Inuit have a traditional diet rich in heme iron and long chain n-3 fatty acids, recent literature has also indicated the presence of prevalent iron deficiency. (
  • In view of occidental eating habits, as omega-6 fatty acid deficiency has never been observed, its impact on the brain has not been studied. (
  • In contrast, omega-9 fatty acid deficiency, specifically oleic acid deficiency, induces a reduction of this fatty acid in many tissues, except the brain (but the sciatic nerve is affected). (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are carboxylic acids with long aliphatic chain. (
  • The overall structure of fatty acids is long hydrocarbon chains of various lengths and degrees of unsaturation terminated with carboxylic acid groups. (
  • This is referred to as a carboxylic acid functional group . (
  • The term fatty acid refers to the fact that this is a carboxylic acid of a long chain hydrocarbon which is fat soluble. (
  • The fragment of a carboxylic acid not including the hydroxyl (OH) group is called an acyl group. (
  • The simplest fatty acids are unbranched, linear chains of CH 2 groups linked by carbon-carbon single bonds with one terminal carboxylic acid group. (
  • The influence of process variables such as temperature, stirring speed, the molar ratio of carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide to the amount of ethylenic unsaturation, amount of catalyst and reaction time on the course of epoxidation has been investigated. (
  • unsaturated Denoting a compound having double or triple bonds in its molecules. (
  • It is thought that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their physiologic effects through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from modulating membrane structure to acting as precursors for signal molecules, e.g. eicosanoids. (
  • This methyl terminal carbon is numbered omega 1 when identifying the carbon molecules in the fatty acid chain. (
  • Unsaturated chains have a lower melting point, hence these molecules increase the fluidity of cell membranes . (
  • 15 problems are associated with the oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids, leading to the formation of volatile, potent flavour molecules, such as unsaturated aldehydes. (
  • Some standard steps to follow when naming unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules with IUPAC nomenclature are elaborated below. (
  • These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C 18 substrates. (
  • There is regulation at the level of entry of fatty acids into the oxidative pathway byВ carnitine palmitoyl transferase-IВ (CPT-I), CPT-I activity is low in the fed state, leading to depression of fatty acid oxidation, and high in starvation, allowing fatty acid oxidation to increase. (
  • When the vitamin E radical interacts with another unsaturated fatty acid the oxidative degradation process of the fatty acid can be initiated. (
  • Endothelial cell fatty acid unsaturation mediates cold-induced oxidative stress. (
  • Elaidic acid is an example of trans unsaturated fatty acid often found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. (
  • Most commonly, unsaturated fatty acids are from vegetable origin. (
  • Vegetable oils are composed of mostly unsaturated fatty acids and are liquid at room temperature. (
  • These hydrogenated fatty acids from vegetable sources are are used in cooking as shortening and margarine. (
  • Thus, various unsaturated fat vegetable oils, such as olive oils, also contain saturated fat. (
  • When an unsaturated fatty acid is hydrogenated, the double bond is broken and the fatty acid becomes saturated with hydrogen. (
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variants associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease interact with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate plasma homocysteine in puerto rican adults. (
  • Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Moreover, the amino acid compositions for fresh roe showed a relatively higher ratio of EAA/NE in comparison to frozen samples after 9 months of cold storage. (
  • TPN solutions with various fatty acid compositions were administered. (
  • The molecular mechanisms and biological processes that occur in the cell following dietary supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), resulting in the expression of genes or sets of genes that are co-expressed and eventually direct the expression of phenotypes (blood and milk metabolites) are not fully understood. (
  • Therefore, I investigated the associations between SNPs on genes that were differentially expressed as a result of dietary supplementation with USFA with de novo synthesized fatty acid profiles of Canadian Holstein cows as the fourth part of my Ph.D. studies. (
  • Lu J, Jilling T, Li D, Caplan MS. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alters proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to investigate the influence of fatty acid unsaturation on the adsorption from alkane solution and the tribological properties, such as friction and wear scar characterization, of such systems. (
  • Next, the influence of fatty acid unsaturation on the friction and wear was determined. (
  • The melting points of these materials depend on the relative proportions of the various fatty acids, reflecting primarily the chain length and the amount of unsaturation in the chain. (
  • We recently showed that exogenous treatment of cells with unsaturated 14-carbon fatty acids, 5- cis -tetradecenoic acid (14:1 n -9) and 5- cis ,8- cis -tetradecadienoic acid (14:2 n -6), reduces the affinity of some myristoylated proteins for plasma membrane rafts, membrane subdomains that have been shown to be required for efficient assembly of HIV. (
  • In addition, heteroatom-substituted myristic acid analogs such as 12-methoxydodecanoic acid can be used by NMT as alternative substrates for covalent attachment to proteins. (
  • Attachment of unsaturated fatty acids has been proposed to increase the on/off rate of N-terminal fatty acylated proteins from membranes, with the potential to regulate the extremely rapid process of visual transduction ( 9 ). (
  • This sequestration can be bypassed by exogenous treatment of cells with 14:1 n -9 or 14:2 n -6, resulting in the modification of N-terminal fatty acylated proteins with these unsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Dietary unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, have been shown to be covalently incorporated into a small subset of proteins, but the generality and diversity of this protein modification has not been studied. (
  • Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids modify similar protein targets to saturated fatty acids, including several immunity-associated proteins. (
  • B. subtilis phospholipids were found to contain at least one as yet unidentified type of fatty acid that, when present in an unesterified form, inhibited KinA. (
  • This also prevents overdosing on any one class or type of fatty acids. (
  • C3H5 CO2H, IUPAC organization name (E)-but-2-enoic acid, trans -but-2-enoic acid, numerical representation 4: 1, n-1, molecular weight 86.09, melting point 72-74 °C, boiling point 180-181 °C, specific gravity 1.027. (
  • It is also a trans isomer of oleic acid. (
  • Tohoku University researchers have found that trans-fatty acids promote cell death in a more direct manner than previously thought, leading to the development of atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. (
  • The signal intensities increased about two orders of magnitude by raising the isolation width of A(-) from 1.5 amu to 5 or 10 amu for cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids, and one order of magnitude of more for non-conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids. (
  • The S enantiomer of 8-, 9-, 10-, and 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids and the S enantiomer of cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids eluted before the corresponding R enantiomer with two exceptions (11-hydroperoxylinoleic acid and 8-hydroperoxyeicosa-5Z,9E,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid). (
  • Distinct bands for trans-MUFA (1674 cm(-1)) and CLA (1653 cm(-1)) from the trans isolated and cis,trans conjugated C=C bonds were identified, as well as original evidence for the temperature effect (new bands, peak shifts, and higher intensities) on the Raman spectra of fatty acid methyl ester and triacylglyceride standards, are supplied. (
  • Determining milk isolated and conjugated trans-unsaturated fatty acids using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy," JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY , vol. 59, no. 24, pp. 12771-12783, 2011. (
  • Examples are sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) and trans -2-cis-4-decadienoic acid, a known flavor component present in Williams pears, (Bartlett pears in the U.S. and Canada). (
  • This is the trans isomer of oleic acid, omega 9- trans-oleic acid . (
  • This trans-oleic acid can result from incomplete hydrogenation. (
  • Palmitoleic (16:1 n−7), cis-vaccenic (18:1 n−7) and oleic acids (18:1 n−9) are the examples of the most common mono-saturated FAs. (
  • FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds. (
  • If the UFA has a single double bond in the carbon chain, it is known as mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). (
  • Further, unsaturated FAs are termed omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9 depending upon the placement of double bond in the carbon chain. (
  • We aimed to examine the effect of differential components of unsaturated dietary fatty acids on the incidence of ARM from a population-based cohort study. (
  • Linoleic Acid, High Purity, is an omega-6 fatty acid that is unsaturated, uncolored and liquid at room temperature. (
  • Saturated fatty acids tend to be solid at room temperature and their melting points increase with increasing chain length. (
  • Unsaturated fatty acids are those which are in liquid state at room temperature. (
  • Saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature. (
  • Saturation, and increasing chain length in the fatty acids gives a more solid fat at room temperature. (