Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Glucose in blood.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Abstaining from all food.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The consumption of edible substances.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/4180)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (2/4180)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (3/4180)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Alloxan in vivo does not only exert deleterious effects on pancreatic B cells. (4/4180)

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the mechanism of harmful alloxan action in vivo. 75 mg/kg b.w. of this diabetogenic agent were administered to fasting rats. Two minutes later the animals were decapitated. It was observed that alloxan caused a distinct rise in blood insulin and glucose levels with a concomitant drop of free fatty acids. The amount of sulfhydryl groups in the liver of alloxan-treated rats was decreased and glutathione peroxidase activity was substantially higher. These results indicate that some changes observed in alloxan-induced diabetes can not only be the consequence of B cells damage by alloxan but may also be the result of its direct influence on other tissues. It was also observed that glucose given 20 min before alloxan injection only partially protected against the deleterious effects of alloxan.  (+info)

The effect of bovine somatotropin treatment on production of lactating angora does with kids. (5/4180)

Fourteen Angora does (35+/-2 kg), each with a single kid and in the first month of lactation, were used to determine ongoing (Period 1) and residual (Period 2) effects of chronic bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment. Specifically, we sought to determine whether chronic bST treatment was capable of improving milk yield, and thus kid growth, and mohair production of nursing does. The experiment consisted of a 2-wk pretreatment period, 5 wk of weekly subcutaneous treatment of slow-release bST (n = 7; Period 1), and a 4-wk posttreatment period (Period 2). The weekly dose of bST was calculated to release 100 microg/(kg BW.d(-1)). To estimate milk production, kids were separated from the does daily for 5 h, and their BW was recorded before and after suckling. The difference in BW was taken as milk production for 5 h. Fiber growth was measured by shearing does at the start of the experiment and at the end of Periods 1 and 2. Dry matter intake and BW of does were not affected by bST (P>.05). Average daily gain of kids that were suckling bST-treated does was higher (P<.05) than for kids of untreated does during Period 1 (184 vs. 139 g/d) but not during Period 2 (140 vs. 136 g/d; P>.10). Treatment with bST did not affect (P>.10) milk composition or clean fleece production in either period. Injection of bST did not affect (P>.10) plasma concentrations of glucose (mean = 49.5 mg/dL), urea N (mean = 19 mg/dL), total protein (mean = 72.5 g/d), or NEFA (mean = 122 microEq/L). During the period of bST treatment, plasma concentrations of somatotropin and IGF-I were increased (P<.05), concentrations of thyroxine and cortisol were decreased (P<.10), and plasma insulin levels were unchanged (P>.10) by bST. In conclusion, treatment of Angora dams with bST did not change DMI or mohair growth, but it improved growth of their kids.  (+info)

Caloric restriction leads to regional specialisation of adipocyte function in the rat. (6/4180)

The study analysed the responses of three metabolic parameters in five distinct adipose tissue depots to caloric restriction (4 weeks) in the rat. The aims were to evaluate whether specific adipose tissue depots were recruited for triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and/or mobilisation, and to determine to what extent specific adipose tissue depots exhibited preferences for the source of fatty acid (FA) for TAG storage. Caloric restriction led to a general enhancement of the response of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), FA synthesis and glucose utilisation to a meal. Effects were particularly marked in the parametrial, perirenal and interscapular depots compared with mesenteric and subcutaneous depots. There was no evidence that individual depots selectively expressed a preference for the pathways concerned with the generation of FA for storage (the exogenous (LPL) and the endogenous (synthesis) pathway). However, the temporal sequence of activation of these pathways differed in a manner consistent with a switch from preponderant use of FA produced via de novo synthesis during the very early phase of feeding towards later use of FA derived from circulating TAG. The overall excursions in insulin levels observed in the calorie-restricted rats were comparable to those found in free-feeding rats, but the magnitude and the rapidity of the individual metabolic responses of the adipocyte were augmented. The data are consistent with a general enhancement of insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in adipose tissue of calorie-restricted rats, together with adaptive regional specialisation of adipocyte function. These adaptations would be predicted to facilitate the immediate conservation of dietary nutrients by promoting their storage as the FA or glycerol moieties of adipose tissue TAG and thereby to ensure the regulated release of FA and glycerol from adipose tissue in accordance with the requirement for glucose conservation and/or production.  (+info)

Effect of hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body and regional fatty acid metabolism. (7/4180)

The effects of combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body, splanchnic, and leg fatty acid metabolism were determined in five volunteers. Catheters were placed in a femoral artery and vein and a hepatic vein. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were infused, once in the basal state and, on a different occasion, during infusion of dextrose (clamp; arterial glucose 8.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). Lipids and heparin were infused together with the dextrose to maintain plasma fatty acid concentrations at basal levels. Fatty acid availability in plasma and fatty acid uptake across the splanchnic region and the leg were similar during the basal and clamp experiments. Dextrose infusion decreased fatty acid oxidation by 51.8% (whole body), 47.4% (splanchnic), and 64.3% (leg). Similarly, the percent fatty acid uptake oxidized decreased at the whole body level (53 to 29%), across the splanchnic region (30 to 13%), and in the leg (48 to 22%) during the clamp. We conclude that, in healthy men, combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia inhibits fatty acid oxidation to a similar extent at the whole body level, across the leg, and across the splanchnic region, even when fatty acid availability is constant.  (+info)

Effect of fast duration on disposition of an intraduodenal glucose load in the conscious dog. (8/4180)

The effects of prior fast duration (18 h, n = 8; 42 h, n = 8) on the glycemic and tissue-specific responses to an intraduodenal glucose load were studied in chronically catheterized conscious dogs. [3-3H]glucose was infused throughout the study. After basal measurements, glucose spiked with [U-14C]glucose was infused for 150 min intraduodenally. Arterial insulin and glucagon were similar in the two groups. Arterial glucose (mg/dl) rose approximately 70% more during glucose infusion after 42 h than after an 18-h fast. The net hepatic glucose balance (mg. kg-1. min-1) was similar in the two groups (basal: 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.0 +/- 0.3; glucose infusion: -2.2 +/- 0.5 and -2.2 +/- 0.7). The intrahepatic fate of glucose was 79% glycogen, 13% oxidized, and 8% lactate release after a 42-h fast; it was 23% glycogen, 21% oxidized, and 56% lactate release after an 18-h fast. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was similar between groups. The appearance of intraduodenal glucose during glucose infusion (mg/kg) was 900 +/- 50 and 1,120 +/- 40 after 18- and 42-h fasts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: glucose administration after prolonged fasting induces higher circulating glucose than a shorter fast (increased appearance of intraduodenal glucose); liver and hindlimb glucose uptakes and the hormonal response, however, are unchanged; finally, an intrahepatic redistribution of carbons favors glycogen deposition.  (+info)

1. Human leucocyte sodium pump activity was studied in normal fasting subjects by measuring the ouabain-sensitive 22Na+ efflux rate constants.. 2. This 22Na+ efflux rate constant was inversely related to the fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid level (rs = −0.73, P , 0.0001).. 3. An oral glucose load (40 g/m2 surface area) led to an increase in the leucocyte ouabain-sensitive 22Na+ efflux rate constant after 2 h (1.97 ± 0.25 to 2.44 ± 0.19 h−1, P , 0.0001, n = 11). There was a concomitant fall in the plasma non-esterified fatty acid level.. 4. Incubation of leucocytes in vitro with 100 μmol/l linoleic acid inhibited the leucocyte ouabain-sensitive 22Na+ efflux rate constant (1.52 ± 0.27 vs 0.84 ± 0.24 h−1, P , 0.001, n = 8).. 5. The leucocyte Na+,K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity was inhibited in vitro by long chain non-esterified fatty acids, especially when unsaturated.. 6. Non-esterified fatty acids may account for some of the Na+,K+-ATPase ...
accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects received a 7-h euglycemic insulin (100 mU·m-2·min-1) clamp, and a 75-g OGL was ingested 3 h after the insulin clamp was started. After glucose ingestion, the steady-state glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutrient Tasting and Signaling Mechanisms in the Gut. I. Sensing of lipid by the intestinal mucosa. AU - Raybould, Helen E. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - It is well recognized that lipid in the intestine is a potent inhibitor of gastric secretomotor function. Progress has been made in the identification of the sensor for lipid in the intestinal wall. Long-chain free fatty acids are the stimulus both for release of CCK and for the production of functional effects. Long-chain triglyceride requires chylomicron formation for absorption, and there is strong evidence that the postabsorptive products of long-chain triglyceride absorption, including chylomicrons and apolipoproteins, are involved in sensory transduction in the intestinal wall.. AB - It is well recognized that lipid in the intestine is a potent inhibitor of gastric secretomotor function. Progress has been made in the identification of the sensor for lipid in the intestinal wall. Long-chain free fatty acids are the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
Numerous studies have established that elevated FFAs can cause insulin resistance (5-10). However, as pointed out by Frias et al. (14), the effects of gender on the response to FFAs has been less well defined. The current experiments indicate that in the presence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, elevated FFAs impair glucose metabolism in women. Glucose disposal was lower and splanchnic glucose production was higher in women during IL/hep than glycerol infusion. The lower rates of glucose disposal appear to be due to a decrease in muscle glucose uptake, since leg but not splanchnic glucose uptake was lower on the IL/hep than glycerol study days. These data indicate that alterations in fat metabolism potentially can contribute to alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in women.. The results of the current study and those of Frias et al. (14) differ in that the latter concluded that in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and euglycemia, elevated FFAs decreased whole-body glucose disposal in men ...
Abstract: Total content of unesterified fatty acids and activity of ATPases/latent, stimulated by Mg2+, 2,4-DNP, Mg2+ and 2,4-DNP/were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rabbits with decompensated mitral valvular disease. The activities of Mg2+, DNP-, Mg2+ and DNP-stimulated ATPases were decreased in heart mitochondria. At the same time, content of unesterified fatty acids was increased. Content of the fatty acids was decreased in liver mitochondria and activity of ATPase was unaltered. Possible mechanisms of the alterations observed are discussed ...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in long-chain free fatty acid concentration would alter the transport and utilization of another organic ligand that was bound to human plasma albumin. Ehrlich ascites cells were incubated in medium containing human albumin, and the uptake of 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid was measured relative to the free fatty acid concentration of the medium. As the molar ratio of free fatty acid to albumin was raised from 1 to 4, hydroxyphenylazobenzoic acid uptake by the cells increased. In contrast, cells loaded with large quantities of fatty acid took up no more hydroxyphenylazobenzoic acid from an albumin-free medium than did cells loaded with only small amounts of fatty acid. Equilibrium dialysis binding measurements indicated that the binding capacity of human albumin for hydroxyphenylazobenzoic acid decreased as the molar ratio of free fatty acid to albumin was raised. Therefore, it is likely that the free fatty acid-induced increase in ...
The only conclusion here is that high serum FFA reduces energy expenditure. THIS is also able to explain why we get insulin resistant during high serum FFA. Ofcourse one could argue that perhaps its the affect of Niacin acting on the GPR109A receptor. I also get very energetic in deep ketosis, which is associated with activation of this receptor ...
Plasma FFA oxidation (measured by infusion of 14C-palmitate) and net lipid oxidation (indirect calorimetry) are both inhibited by insulin. The present study was designed to examine whether these insulin-mediated effects on lipid metabolism resulted from a decline in circulating FFA levels or from a direct action of the hormone on FFA/lipid oxidation. Nine subjects participated in two euglycemic insulin clamps, performed with and without heparin. During each insulin clamp study insulin was infused at two rates, 4 and 20 mU/m2.min for 120 min. The studies were performed with indirect calorimetry and 3-3H-glucose and 14C-palmitate infusion. During the control study plasma FFA fell from 610 +/- 46 to 232 +/- 42 to 154 +/- 27 mumol/liter, respectively. When heparin was infused basal plasma FFA concentration remained constant. During the control study, FFA/lipid oxidation rates decreased in parallel with the fall in the plasma FFA concentration. During the insulin/heparin study, plasma 14C-FFA ...
Although transport of long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) into cells is often analyzed in the same way as glucose transport, we argue that the transport of the lipid-soluble amphipathic FFA molecule must be viewed differently. The partitioning of FFAs into phospholipid bilayers and their interfacial ionization are particularly relevant to transport. We summarize new data supporting the diffusion hypothesis in simple lipid bilayers and in plasma membranes of cells. Along with previous supporting data, the new data indicate that transport of FFAs through membranes could occur rapidly by flip-flop of the un-ionized form of the FFA. It appears that, at least for the adipocyte, passive diffusion guarantees fast entry and exit of FFAs at both low and high concentrations. Although there are several candidate proteins for the membrane transport of FFAs, most of these proteins have other established functions. Thus, unlike the glucose transporters, these proteins would not be single-function proteins. ...
Reference: Gaevskaia M.S., Belitskaia R.A., Nonesterified fatty acid content of the blood plasma in hypobiosis, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1971, vol: 17(3), 263-266 ...
Dyslipidemia is a common metabolic disorder in diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) production from endothelium plays the primary role in endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation and other endothelial functions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of elevated free fatty acids (FFA) on the stimulation of NO production by phospholipase C (PLC)-activating receptor agonists (potent physiological endothelium-dependent vasodilators) and defined the possible alterations of signaling pathways implicated in this scenario. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to high concentrations of a mixture of fatty acids (oleate and palmitate) for 5 or 10 days significantly reduced NO production evoked by receptor agonists (bradykinin or ATP) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Such defects were not associated with alterations of either endothelial NO synthase mass or inositol phospholipid contents but were probably due to reduced elevations of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+] i) under these ...
To date, there are no medications with US Food and Drug Administration indication for use in prediabetes. There are, however, clinical trials showing safety and benefit of several classes of antidiabetic therapies in the setting of prediabetes and insulin resistance. Metformin has long been the frontline medical treatment for diabetes, and has been shown repeatedly to slow or prevent progression to diabetes in prediabetics by enhancing insulin sensitivity. 36,37 Quick-release bromocriptine, a newly approved antidiabetic therapy with unique mechanism of action (a dopamine agonist), may also be effec tive in the setting of insulin resistance and prediabetes, as it helps correct the dyslipidemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acids, and effects due to increase in sympathetic tone.38,39 Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have proved to be very effective insulin sensitizers, and several large trials have shown reductions in progression from prediabetes to diabetes of 62% to 72%.40,41 ...
In the present study, we have directly demonstrated that overexpression of PKC-β2 in endothelial cells inhibits insulin signaling and insulin action and increases expression of ET-1, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These findings may help explain the elevated risk for atherosclerosis in diabetic and insulin-resistant states because PKC activation, especially the β-isoform, has been shown to be induced by hyperglycemia or elevated free fatty acids in many vascular tissues.26 The inhibiting role of PKC-β on insulin activation of eNOS clearly has been shown in endothelial cells from diabetic patients.15 At the cell signaling level, the vasotropic effects of insulin, such as the activation of eNOS, induction of heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulation of VCAM-1, are mediated through activation of the IRS/PI3K/Akt pathway.6,27,28 PKC activation, especially β-isoform, has been shown to selectively inhibit this pathway by ...
The literature on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in blood cell membranes from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is scarce and reports on concentrations in brain tissue from these patients are inconsistent. NEFAs are needed for several biological functions, for example, as precursors for inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis. The objective of this study was therefore to compare NEFA concentrations in blood cell membranes from patients with that of healthy control subjects, and to correlate possible changes with disease outcome. NEFA C18:2n-6 (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) was decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cell membranes from patients, median (quartile range): patients: 0.05 (0.02) and controls: 0.07 (0.14)μg/mg protein, p=0.007. C18:2n-6 also showed a weaker relationship with other fatty acids: with C16:0: patients: R=0.40, p=0.04; controls: R=0.82, p=0.000001. Saturated and MUFA showed positive correlations with the Bowel and bladder Functional System Scores (FSS). In ...
The experiments described herein are designed to elucidate many metabolic changes that occur to regulate the partitioning of nutrients between production and animal maintenance with particular regard to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The onset of milk production and parturition causes dramatic stress to the cow. The challenge of improving metabolism during this period is being addressed by nutritional management with the possibility of the addition of supplements. The use of Ca-propionate as a supplement did not affect glucose metabolism in transition cows. The data revealed that insulin sensitivity was low during the transition period, but the tissue responses to insulin and the acute insulin response to a glucose infusion increased slightly after calving as compared to late gestation. Glucagon and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased throughout the transition period, while glucose, insulin, and thyroxine concentrations decreased. A need for a relatively easy and inexpensive
Free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation in proximal tubules plays a fundamental role in the progress of kidney disease. Here, we reported a rare case with undetectable serum FFAs and further evaluated the changes of serum FFAs in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). We analyzed the clinical data of a rare case and 574 CRF patients. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were determined in the rare case and 30 age-matched healthy males with qPCR. This rare case had serious proteinuria, hyperglycemia, lipid disorders and bilateral renal glomerular filtration dysfunction. Compared with healthy males, this case showed a 1.49-fold increase of LPL expression (P | 0.01), a 3.38-fold reduction of HL expression (P | 0.001), and no significant change of FASN expression (P | 0.05). In total, 21.6% of CRF patients showed abnormal FFAs. Biochemical parameters such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CREA) significantly differed among groups with
Our study showed that a 10-week AE program in a young population of obese women without DM significantly decreased levels of long-chain AC (C18 and C14), only in the case group, with a non-significant difference on plasma free fatty acids during the study period. Although there are many aspects that are still needed to be identified between the link of lipotoxicity and insulin resistance, it is well known that an increase in intracellular lipid levels leads to a decrease in insulin action [8, 16, 31]. If this is secondary to an excess of plasma free fatty acids and/or a decrease in their beta-oxidation is unclear [32]. This last defect in patients with type 2 DM and obesity has been shown to persist in the fasting state and is not removed after an insulin stimulus with a euglycemic clamp [33, 34]. This disorder, also known as metabolic inflexibility, has been attributed to inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA leading to an inability to transport long-chain AC into the mitochondrial matrix and thus ...
Sudden death remains a critical problem in industrially developed countries, and treatment of sudden death victims frequently is unsuccessful.1,2 Therefore, early identification of subjects at high risk of sudden death is essential to preventive treatment strategies. Circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also called free fatty acids, have been described as responsible for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death after myocardial infarction.3-6 However, a possible arrhythmogenic role of NEFA has not been investigated in nonischemic patients. The main source of circulating NEFA is release from adipose tissue. A higher frequency of premature ventricular complexes was found to be associated with increased circulating NEFA concentration in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.7 A recent study observed an association between high NEFA concentration in offspring and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in their parents.8 Additionally, direct arrhythmogenic action of an ...
One potential explanation for the downward shift in myocardial oxidative metabolism could be due to a shift in substrate preference to a more energy-efficient substrate. A switch in substrate utilization from fatty acids to glucose oxidation would be more energy efficient (30). However, the findings regarding substrate metabolism in the failing heart are controversial. Recent studies have shown an increase in the whole-body free fatty acid turnover rate and oxidation (31)and myocardial free fatty acid uptake (32)in HF patients. In contrast, some studies have found that in the failing heart, substrate metabolism may revert to a more fetal condition, with enhanced glucose uptake and reduced fatty acid oxidation (33-35).. Two previous intervention studies investigating the effects of beta-blocker therapy in patients with HF demonstrated that beta-blocker therapy decreased LV oxidative metabolism by 24% (36)and also decreased myocardial free fatty acid uptake by 57% (37). It is important to note ...
Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10-12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods. FFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Children with and without AO had similar age (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.7 years; p > 0.05) but obese children showed higher (p < 0.05) body mass index (BMI) (+4.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (+5.1 mmHg), and insulin (+27.8 pmol/L). There were no significant differences in plasma total FFA concentration between groups (1.02 ± 0.61 vs
The process of fat mobilization has become accessible to study in man with the recognition that the albumin-bound nonesterified or free fatty acids are the major form of transport of lipid moving from the adipose tissue depots to the sites of lipid utilization elsewhere. Previously, information concerning fat mobilization was derived primarily from animal studies. The animal studies have been extensively reviewed elsewhere (1) and will be mentioned only when human studies have only incompletely settled specific issues. During the past five years a number of observations have been made in man which now merit review and which permit the ...
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Once the fat cell membrane (adipose tissue) is destroyed, the fat is discharged between the cells where they are turned into protein and then changed to free fatty acids and glycerol. Free fatty acids are moved to the liver where they decay and are removed from the body while water-soluble glycerol is transported to thecirculatory system and used as energy. Safety Unoisetion New Cavitation Technology--Annoying noise in ears caused by cavitation will be reduced 3 times, the clinical data indicated, more comfortable weight loss experience for you B Intelligence Intelligence frequency adjustment technology can adjust the frequency according to the temperature of the derma during fat dissolve, people will not feel hot during treatment. Digitization calibration unoisetion utilizes the intelligent calibration technology what means it can adjust the frequency during whole treatment and calibratethe error of frequency by itself to make the output frequency keep the same frequency as before, in this way, ...
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During the onset of an acute coronary syndrome, an immediate increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations presents the ischaemic underperfused myocardium with a metabolic challenge to its survival. For the maintenance of contraction and to
CONTEXT: Glucocorticoids (GC) are commonly prescribed, but their use is associated with adverse metabolic effects. 5a-reductase inhibitors (5aRI) are also frequently prescribed, mainly to inhibit testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone. However, they also prevent the inactivation of GCs. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that 5aRIs may worsen the adverse effects of GCs. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised study. PATIENTS: 19 healthy male volunteers (age; 45±2 years, BMI; 27.1±0.7kg/m2). INTERVENTIONS: Participants underwent metabolic assessments; 2-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp incorporating stable-isotopes, adipose tissue microdialysis and biopsy. Participants were then randomised to either prednisolone (10mg daily) or prednisolone (10mg daily) plus a 5aRI (finasteride 5mg daily or dutasteride 0.5mg daily) for 7 days; metabolic assessments were then repeated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ra glucose, glucose utilization (M-value), glucose oxidation, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels. RESULTS:
Subjects and methods:. Forty-four type 2 diabetic patients were randomly recruited into two groups. Group A received 4 g/day omega-3 soft gels, and group B received a placebo for 10 wks. Blood samples were collected after 12-h fast. Physical activity records, three-day food records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from all participants at the beginning and end of the study.. ...
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In conclusion, contrary to the classical mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance as proposed by Randle et al. (2, 27, 28) in which free fatty acids exert their effect through initial inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, we found that elevation in plasma free fatty acid concentration causes insulin resistance by inhibition of glucose transport and/or phosphorylation with a subsequent reduction in rates of glucose oxidation and muscle glycogen synthesis. This reduction in insulin inducible glucose transport/phosphorylation is similar to what is observed in patients with NIDDM (20) and their normoglycemic-insulin-resistant offspring (24) and suggests that alterations in intramuscular FFA metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance observed in patients with NIDDM ...
Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. These fractions differed in density and were enriched for galactosyltransferase activity, a Golgi-membrane marker. Ca2+ binding was highest in the Golgi subfraction with the least density, as were the concentrations of both non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids; galactosyltransferase activity was distributed differently. The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D-deficient animals, the yield of protein in the lightest subfractions was decreased, but Ca2+ binding per mg of protein was further decreased to about 60%. In Golgi fractions from vitamin D-deficient animals, Ca2+ binding and the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in parallel, but phospholipids were not significantly changed. There was a close correlation between Golgi Ca2+ binding and ...
To examine the mechanism by which lipids cause insulin resistance in humans, skeletal muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were measured every 15 min by simultaneous 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nine healthy subjects in the presence of low (0.18 +/- 0.02 mM [mean +/- SEM]; control) or high (1.93 +/- 0.04 mM; lipid infusion) plasma free fatty acid levels under euglycemic (approximately 5.2 mM) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 400 pM) clamp conditions for 6 h. During the initial 3.5 h of the clamp the rate of whole-body glucose uptake was not affected by lipid infusion, but it then decreased continuously to be approximately 46% of control values after 6 h (P , 0.00001). Augmented lipid oxidation was accompanied by a approximately 40% reduction of oxidative glucose metabolism starting during the third hour of lipid infusion (P , 0.05). Rates of muscle glycogen synthesis were similar during the first 3 h of lipid and control infusion, but thereafter ...
Type-2-diabetes is considered the new plague of the current century and both, its incidence and prevalence are rapidly increasing. Chronic insulin resistance and a progressive decline in beta-cell function are discussed as the root causes of type-2-diabetes. Both were associated with obesity and pathologically elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids in the blood. The harmful effects of chronically elevated free fatty acid levels on glucose homeostasis and non-adipose tissues are referred to as lipotoxicity. Pancreatic beta-cells appear to be particularly vulnerable and both, dietary fat quantity and quality may impact beta-cell function. Diets high in saturated fats are especially harmful to beta-cells while (poly-)unsaturated fatty acids were associated with beta-cell protective effects. This review examined how a dietary modification towards a low-fat vegan diet, which is particularly low in saturated and trans-fats, could help to prevent or reduce lipotoxicity-induced beta cell
Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p | 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), as diabetes is implicated in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acid, increased amount of circulating end-glucosylated serum products and insulin resistance are the main mechanisms involved in the accelerated atherosclerotic process observed in type 2 DM patients. Novel treatments have been proposed to prevent and treat CAD in patients with diabetes, mainly in those with diabetes type 2. Several clinical trials have been designed in order to examine the effectiveness of these agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, glitazones, statins and antioxidants, but the results are still controversial.
Introduction: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity coexist in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and contribute to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An intrinsic insulin signalling defect is present in skeletal muscle of PCOS and it affects insulin mediated glucose transport in the presence of lipid in vitro studies.. Methods: The effect of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on IR, postprandial lipids and cardiovascular risk in obese women with PCOS compared to controls was examined by lowering NEFA levels with acute overnight acipimox and chronic 12 week tredaptive therapy. Additional studies included elevating NEFA by lipid infusions and improving NEFA metabolism by moderate intensity exercise.. Results: Effective lowering of NEFA with overnight acipimox therapy improved fasting and postprandial IR in PCOS. It enhanced chylomicron clearance with reduced overnight VLDL production. A rebound rise in NEFA following chronic tredaptive therapy worsened fasting and postprandial IR. ...
This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-f …
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater than this. Of interest were a few patients without ...
The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy periparturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined progressively after calving. The percentage of PBMC expressing CD14 ...
The Nonesterified Fatty Acids (Free Fatty Acids) assay is useful in evaluating lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Nonesterified Fatty Acids may be useful in evaluating patients with hypoglycemia and for nutritional assessment. ...
Elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels may influence insulin secretion and contribute to the development of Type 2 DM. We investigated the effects of acute NEFA elevation in controls (n = 6) and subjects predisposed to Type 2 DM (n = 6) on basal insulin levels, and following glucose and arginine stimulation. Each subject had one study with a triglyceride (TG) plus heparin infusion (elevated NEFA levels) and another with normal saline. Twenty minutes after the TG or saline infusion began a glucose bolus was given and 10 min later a 90-min hyperglycaemic clamp (approximately 9 mmol l(-1)) was started. Intravenous arginine was given at 110 min. Elevated NEFA levels (approximately 4000 micromol l(-1)) did not enhance basal or first phase glucose stimulated insulin levels. During hyperglycaemia, NEFA elevation further increased insulin levels in both groups by 20-44% (p | 0.05) and C-peptide levels by 17-25% (p | 0.05). The post-arginine insulin levels during hyperglycaemia were increased by 45% in
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed increased Vo(2max) (P | 0.0001), insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M value, 61 +/
2. Since the glucose utilization diminishes in adipose tissue and the inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis becomes less, fat becomes mobilized as free fatty acids and glycerol. The free fatty acids are oxidized or esterified in the tissues. Glycerol is ac-tivated to glycerol 3-phosphate in the liver and kidney. 3. In fasting state, endogenous glucose pro-duction (from amino acid and glycerol) does not keep pace with its utilization and oxidation. Therefore, the stores of liver glycogen become depleted and blood glu-cose level falls. 4. Fat is mobilized rapidly and in several hours the plasma free fatty acids and blood glucose stabilize at the fasting level. At this point, there is the increased oxida-tion of fatty acids forming ketone bodies. In case of demands of more glucose, car-bohydrate in the form of glycerol in adi-pose tissue performs an important func-tion, for it is only this source of carbohy-drate together with that provided by gluconeogenesis from protein. ...
We hypothesize that myocardial free fatty acid and glucose utilization and oxidation rates are dysregulated in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome in comparison to HIV+ people without The Metabolic Syndrome, and in comparison to HIV-seronegative people with and without The Metabolic Syndrome. We hypothesize that dysregulated myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism is associated with impaired heart function (diastolic dysfunction) in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome. We will use myocardial positron emission tomography, radioactive isotope tracers of palmitate and glucose, and echocardiography to evaluate myocardial metabolism and function. HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome will receive 16wks of exercise training or pioglitazone (Actos), and we will evaluate their potential beneficial effects on myocardial metabolism and function ...
We hypothesize that myocardial free fatty acid and glucose utilization and oxidation rates are dysregulated in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome in comparison to HIV+ people without The Metabolic Syndrome, and in comparison to HIV-seronegative people with and without The Metabolic Syndrome. We hypothesize that dysregulated myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism is associated with impaired heart function (diastolic dysfunction) in HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome. We will use myocardial positron emission tomography, radioactive isotope tracers of palmitate and glucose, and echocardiography to evaluate myocardial metabolism and function. HIV+ people with The Metabolic Syndrome will receive 16wks of exercise training or pioglitazone (Actos), and we will evaluate their potential beneficial effects on myocardial metabolism and function ...
The following question was posted on Facebook: I had thought that free fatty acids were triglycerides. But I am reading a study that measured both. Can someone enlighten me on free fatty acids? ... please. I think I can help. The good news is that, contrary to the college myth, organic chemistry is easy --…
1. Substrate movements in forearm muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied, by measurement of arteriovenous differences and blood flow, in seven normal subjects after an overnight fast and then for 6 h after ingestion of a mixed meal. Overall substrate balances were examined in terms of the flux of gram-atoms of carbon.. 2. As found previously, the forearm was approximately in carbon balance (import equal to export) after the overnight fast, whereas adipose tissue was a net exporter of carbon, mainly in the form of non-esterified fatty acids.. 3. After the meal, arterialized plasma concentrations of glucose and lactate rose sharply (peak at 60 min), whereas those of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol fell (nadir at 60-120 min). Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations rose slowly to peak at 240 min; much of this rise was accounted for by a rise in the chylomicron fraction.. 4. Both tissues took up glucose at an increased rate after the meal. Release of non-esterified fatty acids and ...
Knowledge of how an individuals genome influences their likelihood of developing (or not developing) a broad range of medical conditions promotes directed wellness and disease prevention: for example, if a persons genomic information indicates a higher-than-average risk of developing metabolic syndrome, that person may choose a lifestyle, or sometimes be prescribed medications, to better regulate the aspects of health and wellness over which he or she has control. The person may benefit in the long run. Applications to Metabolic Syndrome. Candidate Genes. Rapid progress has already been made in identifying the Candidate genes associated with Metabolic Syndrome:[v] (Candidate genes are those genes whose variances are associated with phenotyically defined disease states). Genes causing monogenic obesity: Leptin; Leptin receptor; Melanocortin receptor; and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Genes regulating free fatty acid metabolism: Adiponectin; β-Adrenergic receptors; Fatty acid binding protein-2; ...
Involvement of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 in Free Fatty Acid-Induced INS-1-Derived Cell Apoptosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Circulating free fatty acids are a reflection of the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis that takes place mainly in adipose tissue. We found that mice deficient for regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-4 have increased circulating catecholami
High-calorie diet, obesity, Chronic low-grade inflammation, steroid medications, inactivity, and free fatty acids are some of the causes of insulin resistance.
Zn2+ is an essential regulator of coagulation and is released from activated platelets. In plasma, free Zn2+ concentration is fine-tuned through buffering by human serum albumin (HSA). Importantly, the ability of HSA to bind/buffer Zn2+ is compromised by co-transported non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Given the role of Zn2+ in blood clot formation, we hypothesise that Zn2+ displacement from HSA by NEFAs in certain conditions (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM) impacts on the cellular and protein arms of coagulation. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the extent to which increasing concentrations of a range of medium- and long-chain NEFAs reduced Zn2+-binding ability of HSA. Amongst the NEFAs tested, palmitate (16:0) and stearate (18:0) were the most effective at suppressing zinc-binding, whilst the mono-unsaturated palmitoleate (16:1c9) was markedly less effective. Assessment of platelet aggregation and fibrin clotting parameters in purified systems and in pooled plasma suggested that ...
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Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Free Fatty Acid FFA1 (GPR40) receptor. Human recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
Diese Annahme free Fatty Acids in und food territory Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie air. Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie control Biologie ab, in dem idea Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.
Low Sodium Diet: High FFA, Insulin Resistance, Atherosclerosis August 21, 2012 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Low Sodium Diet: High FFA, Insulin Resistance, Atherosclerosis ...
To further understanding of the multiple temporal relationships of the physiological process, we monitored simultaneously 25 different variables in individual cows. We used 6 Bruna Italiana non - pregnant and non - lactating cows from the same farm. The animals were housed individually in a 12 m2 box under natural 14/10 light/dark cycle. They were fed twice daily and water was available ad libitum. Locomotor activity and heart rate were recorded continuously. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and blood samples were recorded every 4 hours for 24 consecutive hours. To describe the periodic phenomenon analytically we applied a trigonometric statistical model according to the single cosinor procedure. Twelve of the 25 variables studied showed a daily rhythm: locomotor activity, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, haemoglobin, glucose, creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, total lipids, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), phosphorus and magnesium. Our results contribute to the understanding of ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Young Taek Oh, Hyun Hee Oh, Anh-Khoi Nguyen, Cheol Soo Choi, Jang H Youn].
The Millcreek-West Unity FFA Chapter was established in 1936 and has a long rich history. Today the program is made of forty to fifty members who participate in National, State, District, and Local events and maintain a variety of well established SAEs.
Triglycerides are then metabolized to glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids. These are then further degraded in the needed ...
Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids ... The 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP is secreted attached to a 76-amino acid N-terminal fragment in the prohormone called NT- ... BNP is synthesized as a 134-amino acid preprohormone (preproBNP), encoded by the human gene NPPB. Removal of the 25-residue N- ... into NT-proBNP and the biologically active 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP-32, which are secreted into the blood in equimolar ...
Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids ... ANP is a 28-amino acid peptide with a 17-amino acid ring in the middle of the molecule. The ring is formed by a disulfide bond ... Following stimulation of atrial cells, proANP is released and rapidly converted to the 28-amino-acid C-terminal mature ANP on ... The preprohormone is activated via post-translational modification that involves cleavage of the 25 amino acid signal sequence ...
... which increases non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release. By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps ... Glucose is then oxidized to pyruvate and under anaerobic conditions is reduced to lactic acid. This reaction oxidizes NADH to ...
"Analysis of esterified and nonesterified fatty acids in serum from obese individuals after intake of breakfasts prepared with ... and free fatty acids (a type of hydrolysis reaction). The aforementioned hydrolysis reaction is enhanced by the produced fatty ... Testing strips - decide when to change oil depending on FFA (free fatty acids) only Oil-tester - measurement tool to exactly ... on trans fatty acid formation". Food Chemistry. 212: 663-670. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.021. Retrieved 2 March 2021. ...
Increased anodic mobility results from the binding of bilirubin, nonesterified fatty acids, penicillin and acetylsalicylic acid ... The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. Proteins are applied to a ...
... non-esterified fatty acids, and leptin, but low adiponectin content. Abdominal fat accumulation with the formation of enlarged ...
In a test of the effect of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (symptomatic of diabetes and atherogenesis) on perlecan ... Olsson U, Bondjers G, Camejo G (March 1999). "Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human ... indicating a role for the amino acids deleted from domain I of perlecan in maintaining lens capsule basement membrane integrity ...
Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. ... In hepatocytes, the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids leads to apoptosis and liver damage. There ... fatty acids can be converted to different types of lipids for storage. Triacylglycerol consists of three fatty acids bound to a ... An excess of free fatty acids in liver cells plays a role in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). In the liver, it is the ...
... particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, the relatively few LDL ... In any case, also the fatty acids secreted from cells are anew taken up by other cells in the body, until entering fatty acid ... As a result, the blood concentration of fatty acid stabilizes again after a meal. After a meal, some of the fatty acids taken ... After a meal, when the blood concentration of fatty acids rises, there is an increase in uptake of fatty acids in different ...
... also known as non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) or free fatty acid (FFA) Unsaturated fatty acid, a class of fatty acid ... another name for dimensional analysis Unesterified fatty acid, ...
... non-esterified (yeast, synthetic) or esterified (algal) with various length fatty acid moieties whose composition is influenced ... enhance flesh coloration is in the non-esterified form The predominance of evidence supports a de-esterification of fatty acids ... bioavailable than esterified astaxanthin due to the extra enzymatic steps in the intestine needed to hydrolysis the fatty acid ... Phaffia yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous exhibits 100% free, non-esterified astaxanthin, which is considered advantageous ...
Concurrently adipose tissue develops insulin resistance causing accumulation of triaglycerols and non-esterified fatty acids in ... "Metabolic consequences of long-term exposure of pancreatic β-cells to free fatty acid with special reference to glucose ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid The reaction it catalyzes is: pyruvate + HCO− 3 + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP + P It is an important ... Large V, Beylot M (June 1999). "Modifications of citric acid cycle activity and gluconeogenesis in strepozotocin induced ...
An enzyme in breast milk called lipoprotein lipase produces increased concentration of nonesterified free fatty acids that ... This substance inhibits the action of the enzyme uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) glucuronyl transferase responsible ...
... protein-6alpha gene is associated with increased glucose tolerance and lower concentrations of serum non-esterified fatty acids ...
... fluoren-4a-amine The Nine Eleven Finding Answers Foundation New England Foundation for the Arts Non-esterified fatty acid (" ... "free fatty acid") New England Freedom Association North East Frontier Agency This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
... which increases non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release. By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps ... Researchers once attributed fatigue to a build-up of lactic acid in muscles.[49] However, this is no longer believed.[50][51] ... Glucose is then oxidized to pyruvate and under anaerobic conditions is reduced to lactic acid. This reaction oxidizes NADH to ... by purine nucleotide deamination and amino acid catabolism of myofibrils.[26] ...
... plasma fatty acids) are not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids ( ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Main article: Essential fatty acid. Fatty acids that are required for good health but cannot be ... Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids. ... fatty acids yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Fatty acids ...
... plasma fatty acids), not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids (FFAs ... Fatty acid synthase Fatty acid synthesis Fatty aldehyde List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids List of ... Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Saturated fatty acids have no C ... Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These fatty acids are widely distributed in ...
... particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, the relatively few LDL ... Fatty acids. Intestine intake. Main article: Fat Digestion. Short- and medium chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the ... In any case, also the fatty acids secreted from cells are anew taken up by other cells in the body, until entering fatty acid ... After a meal, when the blood concentration of fatty acids rises, there is an increase in uptake of fatty acids in different ...
... plasma fatty acids), not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids (FFAs ... Length of fatty acidsEdit. *Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of five or fewer carbons (e.g. ... Essential fatty acidsEdit. Main article: Essential fatty acid. Fatty acids that are required for good health but cannot be made ... Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids. ...
... nonesterified fatty acids, penicillin and acetylsalicylic acid, and occasionally from tryptic digestion in acute pancreatitis. ... The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. Proteins are applied to a ...
The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids (carboxyl groups) or salts with sodium, potassium, or ... In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive ... LM-pectins), with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified. The ratio of esterified to non-esterified ... Its main component is galacturonic acid, a sugar acid derived from galactose. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by ...
... alongside the nonpolar fatty-acid chain of the other lipids. Through the interaction with the phospholipid fatty-acid chains, ... which then excretes them in a non-esterified form (via bile) into the digestive tract. Typically, about 50% of the excreted ... Cholesterol esters bound to fatty acid, on the other hand, are transported within the fatty hydrophilic core of the lipoprotein ... Many of these cholesterol-regulated genes are homologues of fatty acid β-oxidation genes, but have evolved in such a way as to ...
... tricarboxylic acid cycle) and fatty acid metabolism. Consequently, pantothenate kinase is a key regulatory enzyme in the CoA ... Nonesterified CoA has more potent inhibition than its thioesters. This phenomenon is best explained by the tight fit of the ... PanK1α and PanK1β are both encoded by the PANK1 gene and have the same catalytic domain of 363 amino acids, encoded by exons 2 ... It acts as the major acyl group carrier in many important cellular processes, such as the citric acid cycle ( ...
Testosterone esters are substituted at the C17β position with a lipophilic fatty acid ester moiety of varying chain length. ... As of November 2016[update], unmodified (non-esterified) testosterone is available in the United States in the following ...
Aspartic acid (aspartate) is one of the most common amino acids in the typical diet. As with methanol and phenylalanine, intake ... Aspartame's major decomposition products are its cyclic dipeptide (in a 2,5-diketopiperazine, or DKP, form), the non-esterified ... fatty foods, ice cream, caffeine withdrawal, and alcoholic drinks, especially red wine and beer," other reviews have noted ... Aspartame is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Under strongly ...
... protein-6alpha gene is associated with increased glucose tolerance and lower concentrations of serum non-esterified fatty acids ...
... plasma fatty acids) are not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids ( ... Essential fatty acidsEdit. Main article: Essential fatty acid. Fatty acids that are required for good health but cannot be made ... Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids. ... fatty acids yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Fatty acids ...
Triglycerides are then metabolized to glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids. These are then further degraded in the needed ...
Effects of Nonesterified Fatty Acids on Glucose Metabolism After Glucose Ingestion. Yolanta T Kruszynska, Mim I Mulford, Joseph ... Effects of Nonesterified Fatty Acids on Glucose Metabolism After Glucose Ingestion. Yolanta T Kruszynska, Mim I Mulford, Joseph ... Effects of Nonesterified Fatty Acids on Glucose Metabolism After Glucose Ingestion Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Impaired suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) after glucose ingestion may contribute to glucose intolerance ...
Plasma Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Nonesterified Fatty Acids, and Incident Diabetes in Older Adults. ... OBJECTIVE To examine the relation of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) to diabetes in ... Plasma Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Nonesterified Fatty Acids, and Incident Diabetes in Older Adults ... Plasma Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Nonesterified Fatty Acids, and Incident Diabetes in Older Adults ...
Saturated and unsaturated (including arachidonic acid) non-esterified fatty acid modulation of insulin secretion from ... Both stimulatory and detrimental effects of NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) on pancreatic beta-cells have been recognized. ... including the polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (or its metabolites generated from cyclo-oxygenase activity), on ...
Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate fluctuations of cortisol, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in ... Dunchea FR, Bell AW, Trigg TE: Relations between plasma non-esterified fatty acid metabolism and body fat mobilization in ... Fluctuations of serum cortisol, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in growing ewes over the year. ... and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels as a reflection of energy balance in ruminants, in an one-year period. ...
Involvement of non-esterified fatty acid oxidation in glucocorticoid-induced peripheral insulin resistance in vivo in rats. ... In conclusion, glucocorticoid-induced muscle insulin resistance is due to excessive nonesterified fatty acid oxidation, ... Corticosterone administration induced a slight hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels ... insulin did not decrease the elevated non-esterified fatty acid levels in corticosterone-administered rats (corticosterone 1.38 ...
Plasma long-chain non-esterified fatty acids (LCFA) including saturated (myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid), ... monounsaturated (palmitoleic acid, oleic acid) and polyunsaturated (linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid) were different ... Elevated Nonesterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) Are Associated with Blunted Hyperglycemia-Induced Increments in Brain Glucose Levels ... Elevated Nonesterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) Are Associated with Blunted Hyperglycemia-Induced Increments in Brain Glucose Levels ...
Non-esterified fatty acids may regulate human leucocyte sodium pump activity L. L. Ng ; L. L. Ng ... 2. This 22Na+ efflux rate constant was inversely related to the fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid level (rs = −0.73, P ... 6. Non-esterified fatty acids may account for some of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitory activity of plasma. ... L. L. Ng, T. D. R. Hockaday; Non-esterified fatty acids may regulate human leucocyte sodium pump activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ...
To study the effect of changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration on suppression of hepatic glucose production ... Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the insulin clamp were in diabetic patients: (1) 151 +/- 36 mumol/l, (2 ... In contrast, decreased non-esterified fatty acid availability enhances the suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin ... Modulation of hepatic glucose production by non-esterified fatty acids in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ...
Membrane incorporation of non-esterified fatty acids and effects on the sodium pump of human erythrocytes J. F. St. J. Dwight ... More than 88% of the fatty acid incorporated could be extracted with a 50 μmol/l fatty-acid-free albumin solution and was, ... J. Dwight, A. C. Mendes Ribeiro, B. M. Hendry; Membrane incorporation of non-esterified fatty acids and effects on the sodium ... 2. For palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, up to 1000 nmol of the fatty acid/ml of packed cells can be incorporated without ...
Keywords : Non-esterified fatty acids; omega-3 fatty acids; insulin; diabetes mellitus. · abstract in Portuguese · text in ... Effects of supplementation with omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) in type 2 diabetic ... Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients improved insulin sensitivity, probably due to the decrease in ...
Key words: Non-esterified fatty acids; omega-3 fatty acids; insulin; diabetes mellitus ... NEFA: non-esterified free fatty acid; TG; triglyceride; HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance; QUICKI: ... NEFA: non-esterified free fatty acid; TG; triglyceride; HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance; QUICKI: ... Effects of supplementation with omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) in type 2 diabetic ...
... ... Non-esterified fatty acids bound to the human serum albumin (HSA) contribute to several HSAs properties of special concern in ... The linearity of calibration curve in concentration range from 0.1 to 5.0 mmol/L stearic acid was achieved. The method was ... sulfate in phosphoric acid, extracted by n-heptane-chloroform (4:1, v/v) mixture, spotted on TL silica-gel and then developed ...
In order to examine the role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) in non-esterified-fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis ... Evidence for dissociation of gluconeogenesis stimulated by non-esterified fatty acids and changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ... Evidence for dissociation of gluconeogenesis stimulated by non-esterified fatty acids and changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ... Evidence for dissociation of gluconeogenesis stimulated by non-esterified fatty acids and changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ...
The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D- ... Relationship of non-esterified fatty acids to vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding by rat intestinal Golgi-enriched membrane ... Relationship of non-esterified fatty acids to vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding by rat intestinal Golgi-enriched membrane ... Relationship of non-esterified fatty acids to vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding by rat intestinal Golgi-enriched membrane ...
Cod protein powder lowered serum nonesterified fatty acids and increased total bile acid concentrations in healthy, lean, ...
Fat oxidation after acipimox-induced reduction in plasma nonesterified fatty acids during exercise at 0°C and 20°C ... fat oxidation, acipimox, plasma, nonesterified fatty acids, temperature, submaximal exercise, energy expenditure, Physiology, ... Fat oxidation after acipimox-induced reduction in plasma nonesterified fatty acids during exercise at 0°C and 20°C. Metabolism ... and therefore oxidation of plasma-derived nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), 90 minutes before each cycling bout, subjects ...
... Hon, G. M. ; Hassan, M. S. ; Van ... The literature on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in blood cell membranes from patients with multiple sclerosis ... C18:2n-6 also showed a weaker relationship with other fatty acids: with C16:0: patients: R=0.40, p=0.04; controls: R=0.82, p= ... Altered fatty acid composition in immune cell membranes would influence immune cell functions, and could possibly have ...
Obesity Increases Free Thyroxine Proportionally to Nonesterified Fatty Acid Concentrations in Adult Neutered Female Cats. by ... nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and leptin were measured, and FT(4) fraction (FFT(4)) was calculated. Serum thyrotropin (TSH ... Fatty acids oleate and palmitate were shown to inhibit T(4) binding to pooled cat serum in vitro, suggesting the possibility ... The implications for thyroid hormone (TH) action are not yet clear, but fatty acids have been proposed to inhibit the cellular ...
Background: Postprandial non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triglyceride (TG) responses are increased in subjects with type 2 ... The acute effects of dietary carbohydrate reduction on postprandial responses of non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides: ...
nonesterified fatty acid ({{{1}}}) * Alternative spelling of non-esterified fatty acid. Elsewhere on the web. En-En. En-It. En- ... nonesterified fatty acid. Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary. It is the paradox of life that the way to miss ... Retrieved from "https://end.translatum.gr/w/index.php?title=nonesterified_fatty_acid&oldid=1901849" ...
NEFA; Free fatty acids are measured in a multistep reaction to form an colored adduct... ...
Non-Esterified Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols in Middle-Aged Men Br J Nutr. 2003 Feb;89(2):207-18. doi: 10.1079/BJN2002769. ... diets was associated with lower postprandial insulin and glucose but higher postprandial TG and non-esterified fatty acids ( ... monounsaturated fatty acids); a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet (LOW-GI; high-carbohydrate, low-GI); a high-sucrose diet (SUCROSE ...
van Bilsen, M. (1988). The significance of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid accumulation during ischemia and reperfusion. ... The significance of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid accumulation during ischemia and reperfusion. / van Bilsen, M. ... van Bilsen, M 1988, The significance of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid accumulation during ischemia and reperfusion, ... The significance of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid accumulation during ischemia and reperfusion. M. van Bilsen ...
... non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut ... Non-Esterified Fatty Acids. An interaction between time and treatment was found in the 7.5-h repeated measures analysis of NEFA ... Rogiers, V. Stability of the long chain non-esterified fatty acid pattern in plasma and blood during different storage ... Glucose, insulin, C-peptides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and triglycerides (TGs) were measured at all time points, ...
Effect of non-esterified fatty acids on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in polycystic ovary syndrome. Aye, Myint ... Methods: The effect of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on IR, postprandial lipids and cardiovascular risk in obese women with ...
Reference: Gaevskaia M.S., Belitskaia R.A., Nonesterified fatty acid content of the blood plasma in hypobiosis, Voprosy ...
In this study, we examined the effects of liraglutide versus metformin on non-esterified free fatty acids, beta-cell insulin ... Plasma glucose, lipids and lipoprotein, plasma insulin, glycaemic and insulin responses, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA ... 1). There were no significant changes in fasting non-esterified free fatty acids after liraglutide and metformin treatment.. ... Liraglutide suppresses non-esterified free fatty acids and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 compared with metformin in ...
Higher values are obtained than by other methods of analysis, and it is suggested that some plasma fatty acids remain protein- ... A method is described for the determination of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Extraction is at least 98% efficient, and ... Determination of plasma non-esterified fatty acids in herbivores and man: a comparison of values obtained by manual or ... The Colorimetric Micro-determination of Non-esterified Fatty Acids in Plasma.. *W G Duncombe ...
Are Nonesterified Fatty Acids Protective in Chronic Allograft Nephropathy?. Chapman, Jeremy R.; Rangan, Gopala K. ... Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Development of Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients. Klooster, Astrid; Hofker, H. ... Steatosis Among Living Liver Donors Without Evidence of Fatty Liver on Ultrasonography: Potential Implications for Preoperative ...
non-esterified fatty acids. poly(dimethyldiallyammonium chloride). diabetes. layer-by-layer assembly. enzyme reaction. ... Kang J, Hussain AT, Catt M, Trenell M, Haggett B, Yu EH (2014) Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer ... Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer-by-layer assembled enzyme electrodes. ... In this study, detection and measurement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration has been achieved by ...
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate fluctuations of cortisol, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in growing ewes over an one-year period. (springer.com)
  • The present study focuses on circulating profiles of cortisol and insulin, which are hormones known to influence energy metabolism, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels as a reflection of energy balance in ruminants, in an one-year period. (springer.com)
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients improved insulin sensitivity, probably due to the decrease in NEFA concentrations. (scielo.br)
  • once at 0°C and once at 20°C. To exclude availability, and therefore oxidation of plasma-derived nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), 90 minutes before each cycling bout, subjects ingested 250 mg of the antilipolytic drug, acipimox. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Serum total thyroxine (TT(4)), tri-iodothyronine, free T(4) (FT(4)) by direct dialysis, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and leptin were measured, and FT(4) fraction (FFT(4)) was calculated. (avmi.net)
  • Postprandial non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and triglyceride (TG) responses are increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may impair insulin action and increase risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (ku.dk)
  • The HIGH-FAT compared with the three high-carbohydrate diets was associated with lower postprandial insulin and glucose but higher postprandial TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). (nih.gov)
  • Methods: The effect of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on IR, postprandial lipids and cardiovascular risk in obese women with PCOS compared to controls was examined by lowering NEFA levels with acute overnight acipimox and chronic 12 week tredaptive therapy. (hull.ac.uk)
  • Plasma glucose, lipids and lipoprotein, plasma insulin, glycaemic and insulin responses, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) levels were evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, detection and measurement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration has been achieved by electrochemical method in one operation step. (openrepository.com)
  • Linear increase of anodic current from H2O2 produced from NEFA oxidation was observed with the increasing concentrations of oleic acid. (openrepository.com)
  • Elevated concentrations of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), associated with maternal disorders such as obesity and type II diabetes, alter the ovarian follicular micro-environment and have been associated with subfertility arising from reduced oocyte developmental competence. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) are molecules released from triglycerides which are transported in the blood bound to albumin. (selectscience.net)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Femoral fat shows lower metabolic fluxes than subcutaneous abdominal fat, but differs in its relative preference for extracting fatty acids directly from the plasma NEFA and VLDL-TG pools compared with chylomicron-TG. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Results from in vitro studies led to the implication that non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), bilirubin, and urea could be used as predictors for endometritis in veterinary practice. (fu-berlin.de)
  • A characteristic feature of LDL(-) is an increased content of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). (uab.cat)
  • This study seeks to determine if non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) taste detection thresholds change with repeated testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We evaluated glucose, triglyceride (TG), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) production, as well as SREBP-1c transcription, SREBP-1c protein expression, and downstream gene expression with or without the presence of AST. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels fell, in a second series of studies, the fall in NEFA was eliminated. (physiology.org)
  • Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. (usda.gov)
  • A major feature of an elevated mass of adipose tissue, including EAT, is an increased non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in the blood, the main factor leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. (springer.com)
  • It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). (nature.com)
  • The CD36 receptor is involved in the transport of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in cardiac and peripheral tissues. (umontreal.ca)
  • Impaired suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) after glucose ingestion may contribute to glucose intolerance, but the mechanisms are unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, glucocorticoid-induced muscle insulin resistance is due to excessive nonesterified fatty acid oxidation, possibly via increased glucose fatty-acid cycle ultimately inhibiting glucose transport, or via decreased glycogen synthesis, or by a direct effect on glucose transporter translocation or activity or both. (springer.com)
  • Venkatesan N, Davidson MB, Hutchinson A (1987) Possible role for the glucose-fatty acid cycle in dexamethasone-induced insulin antagonism in rats. (springer.com)
  • Randle PJ, Hales CN, Garland PB, Newsholm EA (1963) The glucose fatty-acid cycle: its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Ferrannini E, Barrett EJ, Bevilacqua S, DeFronzo RA (1983) Effect of fatty acids on glucose production and utilization in man. (springer.com)
  • Chambrier C, Picard S, Vidal H, Cohen R, Riou J-P, Beylot M (1990) Interactions of glucagon and free fatty acids with insulin in control of glucose metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Palmitic acid has been shown in vitro to suppress brain glucose uptake by downregulating GLUT1 expression in brain endothelial cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production is not affected by increased non-esterified fatty acid availability. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, decreased non-esterified fatty acid availability enhances the suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Postprandial glucose, insulin secretion rate (ISR), triglycerides (TGs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and satiety ratings were assessed after ingestion of breakfast (Br) and lunch (Lu), and gut hormones and glucagon were assessed after ingestion of Br. (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of bovine somatotropin on metabolism of lactating dairy cows: influence on rates of irreversible loss and oxidation of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, the blastocysts displayed reduced oxygen, pyruvate and glucose consumption, up-regulated lactate consumption and higher amino acid metabolism. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Tananova G.V., Severtseva V.V., Effect of electrostimulation of the skeletal muscles on the experimental level of nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides and blood glucose, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1980, vol: 26(1), 30-32. (msk.ru)
  • However, when the liver is saturated with glycogen (roughly 5% of liver mass), any additional glucose taken up by hepatocytes is shunted into pathways leading to synthesis of fatty acids, which will be esterified into TG to be exported to adipose tissue as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). (jci.org)
  • Reliance on fatty acid oxidation to fuel high-intensity endurance exercise in birds is remarkable because, unlike hydrophilic fuel substrates such as glucose, transport of fatty acids requires the action of soluble protein carriers at every step of fatty acid transport. (biologists.org)
  • Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice, we detected its effect on insulin function and lipid metabolism based on autophagy. (mdpi.com)
  • Nutrition of transition period in dairy cows dramatically increases requirements for energy, glucose, amino acids and other nutrients in dairy cows and, parallel to that, feed intake is depressed. (scirp.org)
  • Specifically, Romosinuano heifers had greater concentrations of glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids prior to and following an immune challenge. (usda.gov)
  • Additionally, concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in Angus heifers compared to Romosinuano heifers when housed at heat stress conditions. (usda.gov)
  • 1. Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, amino acids, non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, ketone bodies, insulin and cortisol were measured in 43 elderly patients with hypothermia. (clinsci.org)
  • There was peripheral release of lactate and of amino acids but no overall peripheral uptake of glucose. (clinsci.org)
  • The concentrations of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids incorporated in these experiments represent a five- to ten-fold increase above the normal concentrations of these fatty acids in the membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • Further experiments suggest that the accumulation of intracellular hexose 6-phosphate as a result of fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis masks a putative inhibitory effect of fatty acids on Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations. (biochemj.org)
  • Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. (biochemj.org)
  • Are increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations a risk marker for coronary heart disease and other chronic diseases? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are reasons that immunoassays could potentially be inaccurate during pregnancy, including the fact that pregnant women have higher concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin and nonesterified fatty acids that could, in theory, alter the properties of immunoassays developed and validated with use of nonpregnant serum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To describe the difference in pharmacodynamic parameters between obese and normal rats, we modified a previously published nonlinear mixed effects model describing tolerance and oscillatory rebound effects of NiAc on nonesterified fatty acids plasma concentrations. (slu.se)
  • The low CHO diet resulted in higher non-esterified fatty acid concentrations before exercise. (bmj.com)
  • Plasma concentrations of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids are increased by i.v. infusion of ANP in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither nonesterified fatty acid nor triglyceride concentrations differed between the two OGTTs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate and propionate) were higher during the MTT…as was acetate uptake by adipose tissue. (freetheanimal.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To examine the relation of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) to diabetes in older adults. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both stimulatory and detrimental effects of NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) on pancreatic beta-cells have been recognized. (nih.gov)
  • In the present review, we focus on exogenous and endogenous effects of NEFAs, including the polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (or its metabolites generated from cyclo-oxygenase activity), on beta-cell metabolism, and have explored the outcomes with respect to beta-cell insulin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Under these conditions, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR[alpha]) by nonesterified FAs (NEFAs) from adipose tissue increases the expression of [gamma]-BBH and OCTN2 to facilitate the oxidation of FAs in tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The method limits of detection, varying from 0.53 to 5.35 μM, are satisfactory for the quantitation of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in plasma at physiological levels. (uniurb.it)
  • when exposed to nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cells store them as TAG in LDs ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Triglycerides are then metabolized to glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This evidence suggests the following mechanism: the consumption of excess dietary energy results in the development of insulin resistance with increased circulating levels of insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Non-esterified fatty acids bound to the human serum albumin (HSA) contribute to several HSAs properties of special concern in pathologies, for instance to the reactivity of the free HSA-Cys34 thiol group (important antioxidative thiol pool in plasma), and to the affinity for binding of molecules and ions (for example cobalt as a prominent biomarker in heart ischemia). (ovid.com)
  • FAs were released from HSA (previously isolated from serum by ammonium sulfate precipitation) using acidic copper(II) sulfate in phosphoric acid, extracted by n-heptane-chloroform (4:1, v/v) mixture, spotted on TL silica-gel and then developed with n-heptane-chloroform-acetic acid (5:3:0.3, v/v/v). Common office flatbed scanner and software solution for densitometric image analysis, developed in R, were used. (ovid.com)
  • Fatty acids oleate and palmitate were shown to inhibit T(4) binding to pooled cat serum in vitro, suggesting the possibility that this mechanism was also relevant in vivo. (avmi.net)
  • Fast HPLC determination of serum free fatty acids in the picomole range. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel semiautomated method for the estimation of free fatty acid in serum or plasma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Binding of long-chain fatty acids to bovine serum albumin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Statistically significant inverse associations were also observed with the total serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration and with the individual long-chain n-3 PUFAs docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not with eicosapentaenoic acid or with the intermediate-chain n-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid. (nature.com)
  • Compared to the placebo control, supaglutide treatment improved lipid profile, i.e., significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol levels, declined serum triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The associations between dietary cholesterol and fatty acids and serum lipids are controversial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study is to examine the association of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids with serum lipids and d. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Non-esterified fatty acid transport rate, oxidation and non-oxidative metabolism were significantly higher during the heparin than during the Acipimox experiment (p less than 0.001). (nih.gov)
  • Layden, Joseph D. and Malkova, Dalia and Nimmo, Myra A. ( 2004 ) Fat oxidation after acipimox-induced reduction in plasma nonesterified fatty acids during exercise at 0°C and 20°C. Metabolism , 53 (9). (strath.ac.uk)
  • Such preferential mobilization and oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids has not been demonstrated in birds. (biologists.org)
  • There is a largely unsubstantiated thought in the literature that dietary unsaturated enter oxidation pathways preferentially compared to saturated fatty acids. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Besides, interactions between soy components, such as standard amino acids, polyunsaturated fat, and the isoflavonoid-enriched fraction, are believed to improve fatty acid oxidation in the liver parenchyma by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-regulated genes, thus decreasing lipid accumulation in the liver. (isciii.es)
  • The uptake of J25I-labeled VLDL by the J774 cells increased with oxidation time and was completely blocked on coincubation with polyinosinic acid (PolyI), indicating that oxVLDL is taken up by the cells via the scavenger receptor only. (tudelft.nl)
  • Atorvastatin treatment induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and liver triglyceride in fructose-fed rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Importantly, the intervention significantly reduced fatty liver, decreased liver triglyceride content, and concomitantly ameliorated liver injury exemplified by declined hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic transaminase (AST) content. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the 2-fold increased uptake of oxVLDL protein, the cell association of triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids by the J774 macrophages after incubation with oxVLDL was only 50% of that with native VLDL. (tudelft.nl)
  • During the clamps, insulin did not decrease the elevated non-esterified fatty acid levels in corticosterone-administered rats (corticosterone 1.38±0.15, controls 0.22±0.04 mmol/l). (springer.com)
  • 5. The leucocyte Na + ,K + -dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + ,K + -ATPase) activity was inhibited in vitro by long chain non-esterified fatty acids, especially when unsaturated. (portlandpress.com)
  • The primary objective of this study is to determine if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce atrial fibrillation and other outcomes after cardiac surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The present study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for pregnant women with depressive symptoms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate inflammatory activation and alter differentiation in human adipocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically the fish-oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been proposed as inflammation-resolving agents via their effects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Influence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders - Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Extant literature shows that adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs) to a standard antidepressant medication impacts favorably on symptoms of depression in participants with major depre. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exert Antioxidant Effects Through the Nrf2 Pathway in the Immortalized Mouse Schwann IMS32 Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fish oil n3PUFA (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) are thought to protect against lipid-induced insulin resistance. (clinsci.org)
  • Stable isotope-labeled fatty acids were used to trace specific lipid fractions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Albumin bound nonesterified fatty acids inhibit in vitro lipid peroxidation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Individual nonesterified fatty acids were bound to albumin in vitro and these fatty acid albumin complexes were used to study their effect on lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Accumulated evidence has indicated that bee pollen is mainly composed of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and minerals [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Insulin resistance (IR) is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which includes NAFL, and NASH, is characterized by lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes of individuals who do not consume excessive amounts of alcohol. (frontiersin.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We used a cell culture model (murine AML12 loaded with oleic acid) and small interfering RNA to directly assess the impact of PAT proteins on LD accumulation, lipid metabolism, and insulin action. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • a reduced expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS)-a key enzyme regulating lipid deposition-while stimulating adipose tissue lipolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • The Association of Dietary Cholesterol and Fatty Acids with Dyslipidemia in Chinese Metropolitan Men and Women. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 7. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 1, wherein the high calorie diet comprises a high fat diet, a high carbohydrate diet, a high fat and high carbohydrate diet, or a high cholesterol diet. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 7, wherein cholesterol in the high cholesterol diet is extra added therein, and an amount of the cholesterol is in a range from 0.1 to 2 wt % of the diet. (patentgenius.com)
  • Saturated and unsaturated (including arachidonic acid) non-esterified fatty acid modulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. (nih.gov)
  • As fatty acids can stimulate insulin secretion, they have an important role in the mechanism of beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance ( 2 ). (scielo.br)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of liraglutide versus metformin on non-esterified free fatty acids, beta-cell insulin secretion, and adhesion molecule levels in patients with recent-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was a concomitant fall in the plasma non-esterified fatty acid level. (portlandpress.com)
  • Femoral adipose tissue may accumulate the fat that has been recycled as VLDL and nonesterified fatty acids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • NAFLD is induced by multiple metabolic pathways, including an increase in the release of fatty acids from the adipose tissue (lipolysis), insulin resistance (IR), and an increase in 'de novo' fatty acid synthesis. (isciii.es)
  • Increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • linoleic acid, 2.2% ( sd 15.6, n = 19). (portlandpress.com)
  • In the present study, an effort was made to define a fat detection threshold for the free fatty acid , linoleic acid, and examine the ability of linoleic acid to modulate the intake of another tastant, sucrose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fat as a taste: modifying behavior in rats with linoleic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids and replacement by nonessential fatty acids in plasma lipids in multiple sclerosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In Golgi fractions from vitamin D-deficient animals, Ca2+ binding and the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in parallel, but phospholipids were not significantly changed. (biochemj.org)
  • Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acids of 14 clinically proven and graded cases of multiple sclerosis were determined by capillary gas chromatography and compared with the values obtained for 100 normal, healthy subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our study examines acylated and total ghrelin secretion following a cycloergometric exercise test in obese and age- and sex-matched lean subjects to document if ghrelin components change as a function of fat accumulation, insulin homeostasis, growth hormone secretion, non-esterified fatty acid availability and exercise performance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). (nih.gov)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, recent animal models have shown that modulating important enzymes in fatty acid synthesis in liver may be key for the treatment of NAFLD. (jci.org)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is gaining increasing recognition as a component of the epidemic of obesity in the United States as well as in other parts of the world. (jci.org)
  • The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis), with benign prognosis, to a potentially progressive form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. (jci.org)
  • The aim of this review is to describe the molecular mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to present evidence regarding the mechanisms of soy-mediated therapeutic activity in preventing and treating NAFLD. (isciii.es)
  • Recently, a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing medical problem in many countries, and may progress to an end stage liver disease. (patentgenius.com)
  • Ageing is an important risk factor of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a continuum, from simple hepatic steatosis with moderate fatty infiltration to non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with focal inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The linearity of calibration curve in concentration range from 0.1 to 5.0 mmol/L stearic acid was achieved. (ovid.com)
  • Effect of anticoagulant and storage condition on bovine nonesterified fatty acid and b-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Increasing the concentration of iron in the peroxidizing system, partially reversed the inhibition by fatty acids . (bvsalud.org)
  • Les dommages tissulaires et la dysfonction cardiaque observés après une ischémie-reperfusion (I/R) du myocarde sont en partie liés à l'internalisation et au métabolisme oxydatif accrus des AGNE dont la concentration sanguine augmente transitoirement après un infarctus du myocarde, contrairement à ce qui est observé chez des souris déficientes en CD36. (umontreal.ca)
  • The resulting short chain fatty acids contribute substantially to the normal physiological functions of the viscera. (freetheanimal.com)
  • Specific types of resistant starch (e.g. the chemically modified starches used in the food industry) may be used to manipulate the gut bacteria and their products (including short chain fatty acids) so as to optimise health. (freetheanimal.com)
  • However, it appears unlikely that current probiotic organisms can be used to modulate large bowel short chain fatty acids in adults although resistant starch and other prebiotics can do so. (freetheanimal.com)
  • Short chain fatty acids may modulate tissue levels and effects of growth factors in the gut and so modify gut development and risk of serious disease, including colo-rectal cancer. (freetheanimal.com)
  • As we will discuss, despite the existing correlation between fatty liver and insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether insulin resistance causes the excessive accumulation of TG in liver, or whether the increase in TG itself or of metabolite intermediates may play a causal role in the development of hepatic or systemic insulin resistance. (jci.org)
  • Finally, we discuss implications of understanding molecular mechanisms by which dietary n-3 fatty acids target mitochondrial structure-function in metabolic diseases such as obesity, cardiac-ischemia reperfusion injury, obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and select cancers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The present invention discloses a method to induce fatty liver in an animal. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mitochondrial inhibitor is injected into the animal by an intraperitoneal injection, an intramuscular injection, or an intravenous injection. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 1, wherein the animal comprises a rodent. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 4, wherein a species of the rat comprises Spraque-Daley, Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR), Wistar, or Lewts. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 4, wherein a species of the mouse comprises ICR, Balb/c, or C57BL6. (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 7, wherein fat calories of the high fat diet, carbohydrate calories of the high carbohydrate diet, or fat and carbohydrate calories of the high fat and high carbohydrate dietare in a range from 35% to 80% total calories. (patentgenius.com)
  • 10. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mitochondrial inhibitor comprises a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor, or anadenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor. (patentgenius.com)
  • 11. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 10, wherein the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor comprises amytal, barbiturate, piericidin, or rotenone. (patentgenius.com)
  • 12. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 11, wherein a dosage of the rotenone injected into the animal is in a range from 0.1 to 4.0 mg/kg. (patentgenius.com)
  • 14. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 10, wherein the mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor comprises cyanide, sulfide or azide. (patentgenius.com)
  • 15. The method to induce fatty liver in the animal as claimed in claim 10, wherein the ATP synthase inhibitor comprises oligomycin. (patentgenius.com)
  • and more particularly, to a method to induce fatty liver in an animal. (patentgenius.com)
  • As one of these adipokines, fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 (or adipocyte FABP or adipocyte protein 2 [aP2]) serves as a carrier protein for fatty acids and other lipophilic substances between extra- and intracellular membranes ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Higher values are obtained than by other methods of analysis, and it is suggested that some plasma fatty acids remain protein-bound after normal methods of extraction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds, 6 carbon atoms beyond last double bond) was normal and 18:3 omega 6 was increased, but all subsequent omega 6 acids were subnormal (P less than 0.001), indicating impairment of chain elongation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 6) This leads to increased lipolysis and levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids, which are raw materials for very low-density lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. Sodium pump function has been assessed by measurement of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake in human erythrocytes after incorporation of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids into the erythrocyte membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • 14 C-labelled fatty acids were used to measure membrane uptake of these substances. (portlandpress.com)
  • 3. Up to 1000 nmol of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids/ ml of packed cells and up to 270 nmol of stearic acid/ml of packed cells could be incorporated without a significant change in mean ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake with respect to control cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Non-esterified fatty acids, which are unusually prevalent in these membrane fractions, are likely to be the binding sites that account for this vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ uptake. (biochemj.org)
  • The implications for thyroid hormone (TH) action are not yet clear, but fatty acids have been proposed to inhibit the cellular uptake of TH and/or pituitary TH receptor binding, leading to TH resistance. (avmi.net)
  • VLDL was oxidized for a maximum of 4 hours, resulting in an increase in thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances and an increased electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel. (tudelft.nl)
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with reduced inflammation. (nature.com)
  • These omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to: reduce inflammation important to asthma and improve asthma outcomes in an inconsistent manner across previous smaller studies - results that are consistent with a pharmacogenetic influence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Increased fatty acid availability in obesity is associated with accumulation of ectopic fat, mainly in the form of triacylglyerol (TAG) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kang J, Hussain AT, Catt M, Trenell M, Haggett B, Yu EH (2014) 'Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer-by-layer assembled enzyme electrodes', Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 190, pp.535-541. (openrepository.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We reported a substantial depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the primary biosynthetic enzyme for the amino acid cysteine, in HD ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • For stearic acid, 270 nmol/ml of packed cells was incorporated in similar conditions. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here we examine for the first time the effect of fatty acid composition of depot fat on peak metabolic rates during exercise in a migratory bird. (biologists.org)
  • An inadequate supply of roughage for cattle can cause short-term metabolic disorders, such as bloat and acidosis and can reduce volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption in the long term [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(N-3 PUFAs) is important in balancing the immune function and physical health by reducing membrane arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The substitution of omega (ω)-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is advocated in cardiovascular disease prevention. (bioportfolio.com)
  • More than 88% of the fatty acid incorporated could be extracted with a 50 μmol/l fatty-acid-free albumin solution and was, therefore, in a non-esterified form in the erythrocyte membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • Colorimetric Determination of Free Fatty Acids in Biological Fluids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Determination of Free Fatty Acids in Plasma by a Colorimetric Procedure: an Appraisal of the Method and Comparison with Other Technics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Colorimetric Microdetermination of Plasma Free Fatty Acids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Titration of free fatty acids of plasma: a study of current methods and a new modification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results showed that PET packaging, presence of oxygen, light and storage period increased the peroxide value, free fatty acids and iodine value in addition to soap content compared with glass packing in the above mentioned conditions [21], in this case they leave a great impression on decreasing the oil storage stability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Controlling and monitoring system is realized on base of knowledge of the free fatty acids transesterification to the biodiesel. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rob Schelkun of NextDiesel Biodiesel for helpful discussions on free fatty acid determinations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The independent variables were roasting temperature and duration while oil yield, moisture content, free fatty acid , colour, refractive index and specific gravity of the oil were the dependent variables. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deterioration of frying oils is in general followed by changes in free fatty acid (FFA) level, color of the oil or an increase in polarity of the oil [4-6]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several dietary supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids are also commercially available. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Data were pooled from several studies on nicotinic acid (NiAc) intervention of fatty acid turnover in normal Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats in order to perform a joint PKPD of data from more than 100 normal Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats, exposed to several administration routes and rates. (slu.se)
  • Among the fatty acids tested, albumin -bound monounsaturated fatty acids showed more inhibition of peroxidation as compared to other fatty acids . (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, albumin -bound fatty acid did not inhibit iron independent peroxidation. (bvsalud.org)
  • This suggests that, like nonesterified fatty acids , albumin -bound fatty acids inhibit peroxidation by chelating the iron . (bvsalud.org)
  • Albumin fatty acid complex, similar to the fatty acid composition present in the circulating albumin , also showed inhibition of peroxidation. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data indicate that nonesterified fatty acids even when bound to albumin are capable of inhibiting peroxidation and circulating albumin , which contains various fatty acids bound to it, may impart some antioxidant effect in addition to other plasma antioxidants . (bvsalud.org)
  • We will determine the impact of fish oil-derived Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on asthma control among obese asthmatics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The zygotes were grown to blastocysts, which were evaluated for their quality in terms of cell number, apoptosis, expression of key genes, amino acid turnover and oxidative metabolism. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Aberrant amino acid metabolism has been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), but its molecular origins are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD, reflecting oxidative stress generated by impaired cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • We identify a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress that underlies multiple degenerative processes in HD. (pnas.org)
  • Disturbances in amino acid metabolism, which have been observed in Huntington's disease (HD), may account for the profound inanition of HD patients. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD because of oxidative stress contributed by aberrant cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings establish a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • This signaling cascade may be relevant to other diseases involving redox imbalance and deficits in amino acid metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Abnormalities in amino acid metabolism have been frequently reported in HD, which may explain the weight loss and inanition observed during disease progression ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cysteine is a semiessential amino acid with multifaceted cellular functions ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP is secreted attached to a 76-amino acid N-terminal fragment in the prohormone called NT-proBNP (BNPT), which is biologically inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • BNP is synthesized as a 134-amino acid preprohormone (preproBNP), encoded by the human gene NPPB. (wikipedia.org)
  • proBNP is subsequently cleaved between arginine-102 and serine-103 by a specific convertase (probably furin or corin) into NT-proBNP and the biologically active 32-amino acid polypeptide BNP-32, which are secreted into the blood in equimolar amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosterone administration induced a slight hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. (springer.com)
  • In order to examine the role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) in non-esterified-fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis, Fru-2,6-P2 levels were measured in cultured rat hepatocytes under conditions mimicking the fasted state. (biochemj.org)
  • 2. For palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, up to 1000 nmol of the fatty acid/ml of packed cells can be incorporated without causing significant haemolysis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Mechanisms by Which Dietary Fatty Acids Regulate Mitochondrial Structure-Function in Health and Disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fatty Acids Regulate Mitochondrial Structure-Function in Health and Disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function. (bioportfolio.com)