Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Fatty Acid Desaturases
Fatty Acid Synthases
Fatty Acids, Omega-6
Fatty Acids, Essential
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Trans Fatty Acids
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Fatty Acids, Volatile
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Acyl Coenzyme A
Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Malonyl Coenzyme A
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Acyl Carrier Protein
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Fatty Liver, Alcoholic
3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Acetyl Coenzyme A
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Body Mass Index
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Amino Acid Sequence
Gene Expression Regulation
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (1/1157)The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method. (+info)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. (2/1157)Fluvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was metabolized by human liver microsomes to 5-hydroxy-, 6-hydroxy-, and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. Total metabolite formation was biphasic with apparent Km values of 0.2 to 0.7 and 7.9 to 50 microM and intrinsic metabolic clearance rates of 1.4 to 4 and 0.3 to 1.5 ml/h/mg microsomal protein for the high and low Km components, respectively. Several enzymes, but mainly CYP2C9, catalyzed fluvastatin metabolism. Only CYP2C9 inhibitors such as sulfaphenazole inhibited the formation of both 6-hydroxy- and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. 5-Hydroxy-fluvastatin formation was reduced by compounds that are inhibitors of CYP2C9, CYP3A, or CYP2C8. Fluvastatin in turn inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed tolbutamide and diclofenac hydroxylation with Ki values of 0.3 and 0.5 microM, respectively. For CYP2C8-catalyzed 6alpha-hydroxy-paclitaxel formation the IC50 was 20 microM and for CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A catalyzed reactions, no IC50 could be determined up to 100 microM fluvastatin. All three fluvastatin metabolites were also formed by recombinant CYP2C9, whereas CYP1A1, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 produced only 5-hydroxy-fluvastatin. Km values were approximately 1, 2.8, and 7.1 microM for CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP3A, respectively. No difference in fluvastatin metabolism was found between the CYP2C9R144 and CYP2C9C144 alleles, suggesting the absence of polymorphic fluvastatin metabolism by these alleles. CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 did not produce detectable amounts of any metabolite. This data indicates that several human cytochrome P-450 enzymes metabolize fluvastatin with CYP2C9 contributing 50-80%. Any coadministered drug would therefore only partially reduce the metabolic clearance of fluvastatin; therefore, the likelihood for serious metabolic drug interactions is expected to be minimal. (+info)
Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (3/1157)We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems. (+info)
Effects of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid on phagocytosis and cytokines production of peritoneal macrophages in vitro. (4/1157)AIM: To study the effect of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (HDA) on the macrophages activity of rats in vitro. METHODS: To measure the effects of HDA on phagocytosis, the production of antitumor cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vitro. RESULTS: HDA 50, 100 mg.L-1 promoted phagocytic activity from 0.353 +/- 0.017 to 0.39 +/- 0.04 and 0.382 +/- 0.017 A, increased TNF and IL-1 production from 0.23 +/- 0.07% to 0.43 +/- 0.04%, 0.47 +/- 0.04% and from 2384 +/- 180 to 2943 +/- 295, 3825 +/- 450 dpm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The upregulating effects of HDA on phagocytosis of PMO and production of TNF, IL-1 contribute to the host antitumor and immunomodulating mechanism. (+info)
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluvastatin for prevention of restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty; final results of the fluvastatin angiographic restenosis (FLARE) trial. (5/1157)BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors competitively inhibit biosynthesis of mevalonate, a precursor of non-sterol compounds involved in cell proliferation. Experimental evidence suggests that fluvastatin may, independent of any lipid lowering action, exert a greater direct inhibitory effect on proliferating vascular myocytes than other statins. The FLARE (Fluvastatin Angioplasty Restenosis) Trial was conceived to evaluate the ability of fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily to reduce restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either placebo or fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily beginning 2-4 weeks prior to planned PTCA and continuing after a successful PTCA (without the use of a stent), to follow-up angiography at 26+/-2 weeks. Clinical follow-up was completed at 40 weeks. The primary end-point was angiographic restenosis, measured by quantitative coronary angiography at a core laboratory, as the loss in minimal luminal diameter during follow-up. Clinical end-points were death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery or re-intervention, up to 40 weeks after PTCA. RESULTS: Of 1054 patients randomized, 526 were allocated to fluvastatin and 528 to placebo. Among these, 409 in the fluvastatin group and 427 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, having undergone a successful PTCA after a minimum of 2 weeks of pre-treatment. At the time of PTCA, fluvastatin had reduced LDL cholesterol by 37% and this was maintained at 33% at 26 weeks. There was no difference in the primary end-point between the treatment groups (fluvastatin 0.23+/-0.49 mm vs placebo 0.23+/-0.52 mm, P=0.95) or in the angiographic restenosis rate (fluvastatin 28%, placebo 31%, chi-square P=0.42), or in the incidence of the composite clinical end-point at 40 weeks (22.4% vs 23.3%; logrank P=0.74). However, a significantly lower incidence of total death and myocardial infarction was observed in six patients (1.4%) in the fluvastatin group and 17 (4.0%) in the placebo group (log rank P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Treatment with fluvastatin 80 mg daily did not affect the process of restenosis and is therefore not indicated for this purpose. However, the observed reduction in mortality and myocardial infarction 40 weeks after PTCA in the fluvastatin treated group has not been previously reported with statin therapy. Accordingly, a priori investigation of this finding is indicated and a new clinical trial with this intention is already underway. (+info)
Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. (6/1157)Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C. (+info)
The identification of myriocin-binding proteins. (7/1157)BACKGROUND: Myriocin is a natural product that potently induces apoptosis of a murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell line (CTLL-2) and inhibits a serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity that has been detected in cell extracts and is thought to initiate sphingolipid biosynthesis. Because SPT has never been biochemically purified and a comprehensive appraisal of myriocin-binding proteins has not been conducted, we isolated specific targets using myriocin-based affinity chromatography. RESULTS: Myriocin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated using CTLL-2 proliferation and SPT activity assays. Guided by these results, affinity chromatography matrices were prepared and two specific myriocin-binding proteins were isolated from CTLL-2 lysates. Analyses of these polypeptides establish conclusively that they are murine LCB1 and LCB2, mammalian homologs of two yeast proteins that have been genetically linked to sphingolipid biosynthesis. CONCLUSION: The ability of myriocin-containing matrices to bind factors that have SPT activity and the exclusive isolation of LCB1 and LCB2 as myriocin-binding proteins demonstrates that the two proteins are directly responsible for SPT activity and that myriocin acts directly upon these polypeptides. (+info)
Lipopolyamines: novel antiendotoxin compounds that reduce mortality in experimental sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/1157)The interactions of lipopolyamines, a class of structurally unique compounds currently being used as transfection (lipofection) agents, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. Our studies have demonstrated that 1,3-di-oleoyloxy-2-(6-carboxyspermyl)-propylamide), available commercially as DOSPER, binds to purified LPS with an affinity of about 1/10 that of polymyxin B. This essentially nontoxic compound inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, LPS-induced activation of the Limulus clotting cascade and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide from LPS-stimulated J774.A1 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Cytokine inhibition is paralleled by decreased steady-state levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA and inhibits the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. These findings suggest that the lipopolyamine compound sequesters LPS, thereby blocking downstream cellular activation events that lead to the production of proinflammatory mediators. Administration of DOSPER to D-galactosamine-sensitized mice challenged either with LPS or with Escherichia coli organisms provided significant protection against lethality both with and without antibiotic chemotherapy. Partial protection is evident in LPS-challenged mice treated with DOSPER as late as 2 to 4 h following the endotoxin challenge. A greater degree of protection is observed in E. coli-challenged animals receiving ceftazidime than in those receiving imipenem, which is probably attributable to the higher levels of LPS released in vivo by the former antibiotic. Potent antiendotoxic activity, low toxicity, and ease of synthesis render the lipopolyamines candidate endotoxin-sequestering agents of potential significant therapeutic value. (+info)
42nd week of 2012 patent applcation highlights part 46
AGENT HAVING NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR-LIKE ACTIVITY - The present invention provides a pharmaceutical agent having high safety and a neurotrophic factor-like activity, which contains, as an active ingredient, any one compound included in fatty acids each having 8 carbon atoms (C8) or having 10 carbon atoms (C10) to 12 carbon atoms (C12) or fatty acid esters thereof, such as 3,7-dimethyloctanoic acid ethyl ester, geranic acid ethyl ester, and the like, each of which has 8 carbon atoms (C8), decanoic acid methyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid methyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid-2-decenyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid cyclohexyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid isopropyl ester, trans-3-decenoic acid methyl ester, trans-9-decenoic acid methyl ester, and the like, each of which has 10 carbon atoms (C10), trans-10-undecenoic acid methyl ester, trans-10-undecenoic acid ethyl ester, and the like, each of which has 11 carbon atoms (C11), and dodecanoic acid, ...
CAS 15790-91-7 (Z)-2-decenoic acid - BOC Sciences
Boc Sciences offers cas 15790-91-7 (Z)-2-decenoic acid in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 15790-91-7 (Z)-2-decenoic acid.
Determination of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid and free amino acids in royal jelly supplements with purpose-made capillary...
This study reported a simple and inexpensive method for determination of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and free amino acids in different royal jelly based dietary supplement samples using a purpose-made dual-channeled capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). The objective of the work is to propose a tool for food / quality cont...
5&6-Decenoic Acid(Milk Lactone), CAS 72881-27-7, Aromatic Chemical, , China, Manufacturer | Zhejiang Newfine
5&6-Decenoic Acid(Milk Lactone), CAS 72881-27-7, Aromatic Chemical, , China, Manufacturer, China supplier of Aromatic Chemicals, Essential Oils, Food Additive, Food Ingredients, Forest Chemicals, Natural Aromatic Chemicals, and more.
Flavor Bites: 5-Hydroxy 2-decenoic acid delta lactone
Otherwise known as massoi lactone-the key flavor component of massoi bark oil-5-hydroxy 2-decenoic acid delta lactone is known for adding a creamy note in more than just dairy flavors.
Effects of monounsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The appropriate pattern of macronutrient distribution for dietary protocols aimed at treating or preventing obesity and its associated cardiovascular diseases is still a controversial topic of discussion. Recommendations considering a specific percentage or range for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUF …
Site | Integrated Pest Management
Peterson, D.G. 2005. Recovery and purification of 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid enzymatically produced using ... and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a crude homogenate of Agaricus bisporus: Reaction Scale Up. J. ... 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a mushroom homogenate. Optimization of the reaction, part I: kinetic factors. Process .... ...
Adding monounsaturated fatty acids to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia | CMAJ
Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). ...
This study suggests that dietary fat intake is associated with the risk for allergic sensitisation and disease manifestation, with somewhat different findings in males and females. In both males and females, there were indications for an increased risk with a high intake of omega‐6 and a low intake of omega‐3 fatty acids. In females, total fat and high monounsaturated fatty acids intake were also associated with an increased risk of suffering atopic manifestations. This data adds to the limited epidemiological evidence available on associations between dietary habits and atopic disease prevalence. Most of the published studies were conducted in children, and dietary intake was assessed using simple food item lists, not always well validated. Previous epidemiological studies in Germany used data on the preferred type of spreadable fats on bread as a surrogate for the type of consumed fat and without specific fatty acid determination. The authors did not consider that the total fat intake from ...
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Morawicki, R.O., Beelman, R.B., Peterson, D.G. 2005. Recovery and purification of 10-oxo- trans ... and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a crude homogenate of Agaricus bisporus: Reaction Scale Up. J. ... Peterson, D.G. and Ziegler, G. 2005. Biosynthesis of 1-octen-3-ol and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using .... ...
Top Heart-Healthy High Monounsaturated Fat Foods
Monounsaturated fat is an essential nutrient in a heart-healthy diet. Find foods at your grocery store that will add more monounsaturated fats to your meals.
Examination of the Effects of Sex and Sex Hormones on Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been viewed as either beneficial or neutral with respect to health; however, recent evidence suggests that MUFA may be associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in MUFA composition have been reported in both rats and humans that may be mediated by sex hormones. Therefore, differences in fatty acid and enzyme expression were examined in male and female rats. HepG2 cells treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone (0, 10, 30 and 100 nM), and ovariectomized female rats with hormone implants (sham, no treatment, estradiol, progesterone, and estradiol plus progesterone) examined the role of sex hormones in MUFA metabolism. MUFA concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The mRNA and protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and elongase 6, key enzymes involved in MUFA biosynthesis, were measured by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Elongase 6 protein expression was higher in females as ...
Monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies | Lipids in...
In the present meta-analysis, comparison of the top versus the bottom third of combined MUFA subgroups (MUFA, olive oil, oleic acid, and MUFA:SFA) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (11%), cardiovascular mortality (12%), combined cardiovascular events (9%), and stroke (17%). In the ensuing subgroup analyses, this significant correlation could only be observed between higher intakes of olive oil and reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke, respectively. In contrast, monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin did not result in any significant effects with respect to these outcome parameters. Thus, it seems possible that olive oil represents the crucial factor of influence for the protective health effects observed in the primary analysis. However, one has to keep in mind the limitations of the present systematic review and meta-analysis summarized at the end of this section, especially the fact that the specific sources of MUFA ...
Monounsaturated fatty acids may improve adipose dysfunction
(HealthDay)-Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) may reduce inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, according to research published online Jan. 27 in Diabetes.