Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Glucose in blood.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Abstaining from all food.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The consumption of edible substances.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is used in folk medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.

Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (1/1157)

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. (2/1157)

Fluvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was metabolized by human liver microsomes to 5-hydroxy-, 6-hydroxy-, and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. Total metabolite formation was biphasic with apparent Km values of 0.2 to 0.7 and 7.9 to 50 microM and intrinsic metabolic clearance rates of 1.4 to 4 and 0.3 to 1.5 ml/h/mg microsomal protein for the high and low Km components, respectively. Several enzymes, but mainly CYP2C9, catalyzed fluvastatin metabolism. Only CYP2C9 inhibitors such as sulfaphenazole inhibited the formation of both 6-hydroxy- and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. 5-Hydroxy-fluvastatin formation was reduced by compounds that are inhibitors of CYP2C9, CYP3A, or CYP2C8. Fluvastatin in turn inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed tolbutamide and diclofenac hydroxylation with Ki values of 0.3 and 0.5 microM, respectively. For CYP2C8-catalyzed 6alpha-hydroxy-paclitaxel formation the IC50 was 20 microM and for CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A catalyzed reactions, no IC50 could be determined up to 100 microM fluvastatin. All three fluvastatin metabolites were also formed by recombinant CYP2C9, whereas CYP1A1, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 produced only 5-hydroxy-fluvastatin. Km values were approximately 1, 2.8, and 7.1 microM for CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP3A, respectively. No difference in fluvastatin metabolism was found between the CYP2C9R144 and CYP2C9C144 alleles, suggesting the absence of polymorphic fluvastatin metabolism by these alleles. CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 did not produce detectable amounts of any metabolite. This data indicates that several human cytochrome P-450 enzymes metabolize fluvastatin with CYP2C9 contributing 50-80%. Any coadministered drug would therefore only partially reduce the metabolic clearance of fluvastatin; therefore, the likelihood for serious metabolic drug interactions is expected to be minimal.  (+info)

Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (3/1157)

We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems.  (+info)

Effects of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid on phagocytosis and cytokines production of peritoneal macrophages in vitro. (4/1157)

AIM: To study the effect of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (HDA) on the macrophages activity of rats in vitro. METHODS: To measure the effects of HDA on phagocytosis, the production of antitumor cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in vitro. RESULTS: HDA 50, 100 mg.L-1 promoted phagocytic activity from 0.353 +/- 0.017 to 0.39 +/- 0.04 and 0.382 +/- 0.017 A, increased TNF and IL-1 production from 0.23 +/- 0.07% to 0.43 +/- 0.04%, 0.47 +/- 0.04% and from 2384 +/- 180 to 2943 +/- 295, 3825 +/- 450 dpm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The upregulating effects of HDA on phagocytosis of PMO and production of TNF, IL-1 contribute to the host antitumor and immunomodulating mechanism.  (+info)

A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluvastatin for prevention of restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty; final results of the fluvastatin angiographic restenosis (FLARE) trial. (5/1157)

BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors competitively inhibit biosynthesis of mevalonate, a precursor of non-sterol compounds involved in cell proliferation. Experimental evidence suggests that fluvastatin may, independent of any lipid lowering action, exert a greater direct inhibitory effect on proliferating vascular myocytes than other statins. The FLARE (Fluvastatin Angioplasty Restenosis) Trial was conceived to evaluate the ability of fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily to reduce restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either placebo or fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily beginning 2-4 weeks prior to planned PTCA and continuing after a successful PTCA (without the use of a stent), to follow-up angiography at 26+/-2 weeks. Clinical follow-up was completed at 40 weeks. The primary end-point was angiographic restenosis, measured by quantitative coronary angiography at a core laboratory, as the loss in minimal luminal diameter during follow-up. Clinical end-points were death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery or re-intervention, up to 40 weeks after PTCA. RESULTS: Of 1054 patients randomized, 526 were allocated to fluvastatin and 528 to placebo. Among these, 409 in the fluvastatin group and 427 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, having undergone a successful PTCA after a minimum of 2 weeks of pre-treatment. At the time of PTCA, fluvastatin had reduced LDL cholesterol by 37% and this was maintained at 33% at 26 weeks. There was no difference in the primary end-point between the treatment groups (fluvastatin 0.23+/-0.49 mm vs placebo 0.23+/-0.52 mm, P=0.95) or in the angiographic restenosis rate (fluvastatin 28%, placebo 31%, chi-square P=0.42), or in the incidence of the composite clinical end-point at 40 weeks (22.4% vs 23.3%; logrank P=0.74). However, a significantly lower incidence of total death and myocardial infarction was observed in six patients (1.4%) in the fluvastatin group and 17 (4.0%) in the placebo group (log rank P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Treatment with fluvastatin 80 mg daily did not affect the process of restenosis and is therefore not indicated for this purpose. However, the observed reduction in mortality and myocardial infarction 40 weeks after PTCA in the fluvastatin treated group has not been previously reported with statin therapy. Accordingly, a priori investigation of this finding is indicated and a new clinical trial with this intention is already underway.  (+info)

Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. (6/1157)

Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C.  (+info)

The identification of myriocin-binding proteins. (7/1157)

BACKGROUND: Myriocin is a natural product that potently induces apoptosis of a murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell line (CTLL-2) and inhibits a serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity that has been detected in cell extracts and is thought to initiate sphingolipid biosynthesis. Because SPT has never been biochemically purified and a comprehensive appraisal of myriocin-binding proteins has not been conducted, we isolated specific targets using myriocin-based affinity chromatography. RESULTS: Myriocin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated using CTLL-2 proliferation and SPT activity assays. Guided by these results, affinity chromatography matrices were prepared and two specific myriocin-binding proteins were isolated from CTLL-2 lysates. Analyses of these polypeptides establish conclusively that they are murine LCB1 and LCB2, mammalian homologs of two yeast proteins that have been genetically linked to sphingolipid biosynthesis. CONCLUSION: The ability of myriocin-containing matrices to bind factors that have SPT activity and the exclusive isolation of LCB1 and LCB2 as myriocin-binding proteins demonstrates that the two proteins are directly responsible for SPT activity and that myriocin acts directly upon these polypeptides.  (+info)

Lipopolyamines: novel antiendotoxin compounds that reduce mortality in experimental sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/1157)

The interactions of lipopolyamines, a class of structurally unique compounds currently being used as transfection (lipofection) agents, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. Our studies have demonstrated that 1,3-di-oleoyloxy-2-(6-carboxyspermyl)-propylamide), available commercially as DOSPER, binds to purified LPS with an affinity of about 1/10 that of polymyxin B. This essentially nontoxic compound inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, LPS-induced activation of the Limulus clotting cascade and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide from LPS-stimulated J774.A1 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Cytokine inhibition is paralleled by decreased steady-state levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA and inhibits the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. These findings suggest that the lipopolyamine compound sequesters LPS, thereby blocking downstream cellular activation events that lead to the production of proinflammatory mediators. Administration of DOSPER to D-galactosamine-sensitized mice challenged either with LPS or with Escherichia coli organisms provided significant protection against lethality both with and without antibiotic chemotherapy. Partial protection is evident in LPS-challenged mice treated with DOSPER as late as 2 to 4 h following the endotoxin challenge. A greater degree of protection is observed in E. coli-challenged animals receiving ceftazidime than in those receiving imipenem, which is probably attributable to the higher levels of LPS released in vivo by the former antibiotic. Potent antiendotoxic activity, low toxicity, and ease of synthesis render the lipopolyamines candidate endotoxin-sequestering agents of potential significant therapeutic value.  (+info)

AGENT HAVING NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR-LIKE ACTIVITY - The present invention provides a pharmaceutical agent having high safety and a neurotrophic factor-like activity, which contains, as an active ingredient, any one compound included in fatty acids each having 8 carbon atoms (C8) or having 10 carbon atoms (C10) to 12 carbon atoms (C12) or fatty acid esters thereof, such as 3,7-dimethyloctanoic acid ethyl ester, geranic acid ethyl ester, and the like, each of which has 8 carbon atoms (C8), decanoic acid methyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid methyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid-2-decenyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid cyclohexyl ester, trans-2-decenoic acid isopropyl ester, trans-3-decenoic acid methyl ester, trans-9-decenoic acid methyl ester, and the like, each of which has 10 carbon atoms (C10), trans-10-undecenoic acid methyl ester, trans-10-undecenoic acid ethyl ester, and the like, each of which has 11 carbon atoms (C11), and dodecanoic acid, ...
Boc Sciences offers cas 15790-91-7 (Z)-2-decenoic acid in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 15790-91-7 (Z)-2-decenoic acid.
This study reported a simple and inexpensive method for determination of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and free amino acids in different royal jelly based dietary supplement samples using a purpose-made dual-channeled capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). The objective of the work is to propose a tool for food / quality cont...
5&6-Decenoic Acid(Milk Lactone), CAS 72881-27-7, Aromatic Chemical, , China, Manufacturer, China supplier of Aromatic Chemicals, Essential Oils, Food Additive, Food Ingredients, Forest Chemicals, Natural Aromatic Chemicals, and more.
Otherwise known as massoi lactone-the key flavor component of massoi bark oil-5-hydroxy 2-decenoic acid delta lactone is known for adding a creamy note in more than just dairy flavors.
The appropriate pattern of macronutrient distribution for dietary protocols aimed at treating or preventing obesity and its associated cardiovascular diseases is still a controversial topic of discussion. Recommendations considering a specific percentage or range for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUF …
Peterson, D.G. 2005. Recovery and purification of 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid enzymatically produced using ... and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a crude homogenate of Agaricus bisporus: Reaction Scale Up. J. ... 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a mushroom homogenate. Optimization of the reaction, part I: kinetic factors. Process .... ...
Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). ...
This study suggests that dietary fat intake is associated with the risk for allergic sensitisation and disease manifestation, with somewhat different findings in males and females. In both males and females, there were indications for an increased risk with a high intake of omega‐6 and a low intake of omega‐3 fatty acids. In females, total fat and high monounsaturated fatty acids intake were also associated with an increased risk of suffering atopic manifestations. This data adds to the limited epidemiological evidence available on associations between dietary habits and atopic disease prevalence. Most of the published studies were conducted in children, and dietary intake was assessed using simple food item lists, not always well validated. Previous epidemiological studies in Germany used data on the preferred type of spreadable fats on bread as a surrogate for the type of consumed fat and without specific fatty acid determination. The authors did not consider that the total fat intake from ...
Morawicki, R.O., Beelman, R.B., Peterson, D.G. 2005. Recovery and purification of 10-oxo- trans ... and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using a crude homogenate of Agaricus bisporus: Reaction Scale Up. J. ... Peterson, D.G. and Ziegler, G. 2005. Biosynthesis of 1-octen-3-ol and 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid using .... ...
Monounsaturated fat is an essential nutrient in a heart-healthy diet. Find foods at your grocery store that will add more monounsaturated fats to your meals.
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been viewed as either beneficial or neutral with respect to health; however, recent evidence suggests that MUFA may be associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in MUFA composition have been reported in both rats and humans that may be mediated by sex hormones. Therefore, differences in fatty acid and enzyme expression were examined in male and female rats. HepG2 cells treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone (0, 10, 30 and 100 nM), and ovariectomized female rats with hormone implants (sham, no treatment, estradiol, progesterone, and estradiol plus progesterone) examined the role of sex hormones in MUFA metabolism. MUFA concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The mRNA and protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and elongase 6, key enzymes involved in MUFA biosynthesis, were measured by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Elongase 6 protein expression was higher in females as ...
In the present meta-analysis, comparison of the top versus the bottom third of combined MUFA subgroups (MUFA, olive oil, oleic acid, and MUFA:SFA) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (11%), cardiovascular mortality (12%), combined cardiovascular events (9%), and stroke (17%). In the ensuing subgroup analyses, this significant correlation could only be observed between higher intakes of olive oil and reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke, respectively. In contrast, monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin did not result in any significant effects with respect to these outcome parameters. Thus, it seems possible that olive oil represents the crucial factor of influence for the protective health effects observed in the primary analysis. However, one has to keep in mind the limitations of the present systematic review and meta-analysis summarized at the end of this section, especially the fact that the specific sources of MUFA ...
(HealthDay)-Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) may reduce inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, according to research published online Jan. 27 in Diabetes.