Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.TriglyceridesEicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.EstersLinoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lauric Acids: 12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coenzyme ASoybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Arachidonic AcidsGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.AmidohydrolasesMyristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.CyclopropanesTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Cerebrosides: Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Long-Chain: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.MalonatesLipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)IodobenzenesEating: The consumption of edible substances.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.DiglyceridesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TritiumStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/15636)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (2/15636)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (3/15636)

CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (4/15636)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Separation of molecular species of glucosylceramide by high performance liquid chromatography of their benzoyl derivatives. (5/15636)

The method of separation of glucosylceramide by HPLC was reported. Glucosylceramide was perbenzoylated and separated on a packed muBondapack C18 column, using methanol as eluting solvent. The pattern obtained by HPLC closely resembled that obtained by GLC of the TMS-glucosylceramide, and reflected the molecular species of fatty acid components. This method is reproducible, and sensitive as GLC. This method also can be used for analysis of higher glycolipids.  (+info)

Gangliosides of human kidney. (6/15636)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (7/15636)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen. (8/15636)

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but viral assembly is disrupted more dramatically. Further exploration of this pathway will provide
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The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...
Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. AU - Prisco, Domenico. AU - Filippini, Monica. AU - Francalanci, Isa. AU - Paniccia, Rita. AU - Gensini, Gian Franco. AU - Serneri, Gian Gastone Neri. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either four 1-g capsules of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ethyl esters or four 1-g capsules of olive oil (as placebo) for a period of 4 months, followed by a 3-month wash-out period. Fatty acids of platelet phospholipid fractions, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation were analyzed at 0, 2, and 4 months of treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months of wash-out. During n-3 PUFA supplementation, accumulations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were markedly increased after 2 months, with slight differences in further accumulation up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. AU - Mather, Kieren J.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R. PY - 2016/1/21. Y1 - 2016/1/21. N2 - Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. ...
The heart relies predominantly on a balance between fatty acids and glucose to generate its energy supply. There is an important interaction between the metabolic pathways of these two substrates in the heart. When circulating levels of fatty acids are high, fatty acid oxidation can dominate over glucose oxidation as a source of energy through feedback inhibition of the glucose oxidation pathway. Following an ischaemic episode, fatty acid oxidation rates increase further, resulting in an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation. This uncoupling results in an increased proton production, which worsens ischaemic damage. Since high rates of fatty acid oxidation can contribute to ischaemic damage by inhibiting glucose oxidation, it is important to maintain proper control of fatty acid oxidation both during and following ischaemia. An important molecule that controls myocardial fatty acid oxidation is malonyl-CoA, which inhibits uptake of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The levels of ...
This paper aims to report the authors study of the fatty acid methyl ester consisting of plant oil or animal fat in hope to improve the effectiveness and profitability of its practical application.As is known,the fatty acid methyl ester is a kind of bio-diesel that is likely to be used as fuel of diesel engine with the environment-friendly properties.The present paper has compared the properties of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel oil by conducting experiments on a four-cylinder turbo-charge direct injection diesel engine at a compression ratio of 18 and rated power of 76 kW at 3 800 r/min.When the engine is fueled with diesel oil,fatty acid methyl ester,the blended fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel at a ratio of 30% to 70% and 50% to 50% in weight under two working conditions.That is to say,let the engine work at its full load at the speed of 1 800 r/min and 2 200 r/min,and watch how about the engine performs its duty.While testing such behaviors as power,energy consumption
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically,
The present study quantifies the relationships between diet fatty acid profile and fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle phospholipids. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 8 weeks, on one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) differing only in fatty acid profile. SFA content ranged from 8-88% of total fatty acids, MUFA 6-65 %, total PUFA 4-81 %, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70 %. Diet PUFA included only essential fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3. The balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA (PUFA balance) in the diet ranged from 1 : 99 to 86 : 14% n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA. The slope of muscle phospholipid composition plotted against diet composition quantifies the response of muscle membrane composition to dietary fat (0, no response; 1, complete conformity with diet). The resulting slopes were 0·02 (SFA), 0·10 (PUFA), 0·11 (MUFA), 0·14 (n-3 PUFA) and 0·23 (n-6 PUFA). The response to PUFA balance was biphasic with a slope of 0·98 below 10% diet PUFA balance and ...
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations between biopsy and carcass stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1n-9), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and delta-nine desaturase enzyme index ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.. In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this ...
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Suppliers US $6-8 / Kilogram. About 68% of these are plastic auxiliary agents, 43% are leather auxiliary agents, and 14% are electronics chemicals. A wide variety of fatty acid methyl ester o
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage fatty acid composition and phagocytosis. T2 - Effect of unsaturation on cellular phagocytic activity. AU - Schroit, A. J.. AU - Gallily, R.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. N2 - In order to manipulate the physical properties of the macrophage membrane, methods were developed which potentiated the incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids into membrane lipids. Chromatograms of macrophages which were grown in the presence of a variety of fatty acids demonstrated that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids) were readily incorporated into the cells and selectively altered the fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Up to 38% of the total cellular phospholipids were found to be derived from the exogenously added fatty acid supplements. The incorporation of the different fatty acids into cellular phospholipids had striking effects on cellular phagocytic activity. These effects were found ...
In the category, there can be observed a trend for the toxicity of aquatic invertebrates. This is related to the toxicity mode of action (narcosis). Thus, a linear dependence on log Kow is expected. The highest toxicity was determined for methyl laurate (CAS 111-82-0, fatty acid chain length C12). In the GLP-study (Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 2006) according to OECD 202 the EC50 (48h) was determined as 0.255 mg/L for Daphnia magna. The toxicity decreases with shorter and longer chain length of the fatty acids. For methyl decanoate (CAS 110-42-9, fatty acid chain length C10), a lower toxicity for Daphnia magna was estimated. In one GLP-study (Bouwman, 2010) according to OECD 202 an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was determined for methyl decanoate. Two QSAR-calculations for methyl octanoate (CAS 111-11-5, fatty acid chain length C8) yielded LC50 of 5.6 mg/L (ECOSAR, 2010) and LC50 = 11.6 mg/L (von der Ohe, 2005). The more conservative of the two values was accepted as the key value, what is ...
The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL
We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated ...
Abstract: Seasonal variations of fatty acids were studied in the lipid fractions of the bivalve mollusk, Saccostrea cucullata, at the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay in the northern part of Oman Sea (Iran). Samples were collected in rocky shores between two stations. The analysis were carried by GC/MS chromatography. Thirteen fatty acids were identified, of which, the most important saturated fatty acids (SFA) were 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me- 13:0, 16:0 and 18:0, the mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) included 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were linoleic acid 9,12 18:2 , eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 20:5n-3 and arachidonic acid 20:4n-6.Variability of the fatty acid components were studied in four seasons. Maximum percentage level in Saccostrea cucullata for 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me 13:0, 16:0 and 15:0 as saturated fatty acids was observed in summer, while for 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11 and 20:5n-3 (as unsaturated fatty acids) maximum concentration was observed in winter. The ...
Providing Evidence That Seafood and Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids With More Complex Carbohydrates Protect Against Coronary Artery Disease: Spotlight: Erik Berg Schmidt, MD, DMSc, FESC ...
This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plan …
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated fatty acids in their oils should be able to germinate earlier and grow more rapidly at low temperatures even though they store less total energy than seeds with a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. Seeds that germinate earlier and grow more rapidly should have a competitive advantage. At higher ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mobilization of individual fatty acids from human white fat cells. Mammary adipose tissue from eight healthy non-obese women in their normal dietary state was collected, and isolated adipocytes were incubated with lipolytic agents. The mobilization of 34 individual fatty acids was measured by comparing the composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with that of the triacylglycerols (TAG) from which they originated through lipolysis. Compared with TAG, NEFA were enriched in some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18-20 carbon atoms. Conversely, the percentage of very-long-chain (20-22 carbon atoms) saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was approx. 2 times lower in NEFA than in TAG. The relative mobilization (% in NEFA/% in TAG) of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C20:5,n-3; 2.25) was more than 6-fold higher than that of the least readily mobilized (C22:1,n-11; 0.37). Relationships were found between the molecular structure of ...
Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where appropriate. Study-specific results were combined using inverse-variance weighted ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are quite beneficial for human health. These play a vital role in lowering blood cholesterol, blood triglycerides and, hence, blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids are helpful in preventing heart diseases, skin diseases and auto immune disorders. The daily intake of 0.5 to 1.0 gram omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for an individual for a healthy life. The food industry is taking steps to return these healthful fatty acids to the human diets. In this regards, poultry meat and eggs can serve the purpose if enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Laying hens have the ability to absorb and deposit dietary fatty acids without considerable modification in the composition. Thus, the lipid metabolism in the hens permits the fortification of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation to increase the provision of these fatty acids which are appropriate for human consumption. This book provides the necessary information about the enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by ...
Venäläinen TM. Lankinen MA. Schwab US. (2017). Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106 (3) , 954. 10.3945/ajcn.117.162347. ...
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid were strongly correlated. However, the analysis is likely to be correct statistically because we verified that the relationship of ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P , 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P , 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after ...
Novel findings of the current study include: 1) significant increase in fractional myocardial dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals not explained by difference in age, body fat, central obesity markers, or sex; 2) an association between the latter myocardial metabolic abnormality and reduction in systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions and increased myocardial oxidative metabolism; and 3) no significant changes in liver and skeletal muscle dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals. The present results extend the association between increased myocardial NEFA uptake and oxidation and IGT observed during fasting (16) to postprandial dietary fatty acids. In addition, we confirmed the findings of others of reduced subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue fractional uptake of dietary fatty acids in abdominally obese individuals (17,18). We furthermore found a direct association between impaired relative dietary fatty acid uptake in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
In this prospective study, we examined the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in serum of 394 subjects to determine the role of different types of fatty acids in the incidence of breast cancer.. Overall, we did not find an association between individual or total MUFA or PUFA and breast cancer risk. The only systematic finding was a significant positive association between serum SFA levels and breast cancer risk after menopause.. Our investigation was based on blood samples collected at baseline in a prospective cohort study. The major strength of this approach is that it is very unlikely that the fatty acid profile we measured could be influenced by the presence of undetected cancer. A study on reliability of fatty acid composition in human serum phospholipids in the NYUWHS cohort (38) showed that fatty acid levels in a single blood sample per subject have a good correlation with repeat measurements after a 2-3-year interval. The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids can therefore ...
A new cyanobacterial strain was isolated and purified from salt Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan. According to its morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, 16S rRNA sequence and the fatty acid profile, the strain has been classified as Cyanobacterium spp. and assigned as Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200. The strain is characterized by a non-temperature inducible Δ9-desaturation system, and by high relative amounts of myristic (14:0-30%) and myristoleic (14:1Δ9-10%) acids. The total amount of C14 fatty acids reaches 40%, which is unusually high for cyanobacteria, and it has never been reported before. The remaining fatty acids are represented mainly by palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) acids (the sum reaches nearly 60%). Such a fatty acid composition, together with a relatively high speed of growth, makes this newly isolated strain a prospective candidate for biodiesel production.
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
Abstract: Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers
The function of fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria has remained an enigma. In eukaryotic plants, synthesis of fatty acids occurs primarily in plastids such as chloroplasts, and products of this pathway supply acyl precursors for mitochondrial and other extraplastidial membranes. The discovery of ACP in plant mitochondria (4, 5) has raised the possibility that these organelles also participate in de novo fatty acid synthesis. However, ACP has been considered to have several other functions in metabolism, and, in mitochondria, ACP is reported to be one component of the respiratory electron transport chain (14). Thus, whether ACP participates in fatty acid synthesis in plant mitochondria and what function this pathway might have in any eukaryotic organism has been unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that the de novo synthesis of fatty acids does occur in pea mitochondria, indicating that these organelles possess the complete set of enzymes needed to assemble fatty acids. The analysis ...
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in the retina of obese (fa/fa) and lean (FA/FA) Zucker rats.: We have compared the fatty acid compositi
One pathway by which endotoxemia and lipid peroxidation act in concert to promote alcoholic liver injury is via NF-κB. NF-κB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that is implicated in the activation of many genes, including those involved in alcoholic liver injury (May and Ghosh, 1997; Nanji et al., 1999). The results of this study confirm our previous finding that activation of NF-κB occurs in association with development of necroinflammatory changes in the liver (Nanji et al., 1999). In addition, we show that the reduction in necrosis and inflammation induced by treatment with saturated fatty acid is accompanied by a marked reduction of NF-κB activation. The saturated fatty acid-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation was accompanied by increased amounts of IκBα. The mechanism by which saturated fatty acids stabilize IκBα and suppress NF-κB activation remains to be elucidated, but a role for decreased levels of endotoxin and lipid peroxidation is likely. Although we did not, in the ...
How much of 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid is present in McDONALDS, Apple Dippers with Low Fat Caramel Sauce in details, quantity how high or low 17:0 heptadecanoic, margaric fatty acid nutrient content it has.
1. The highest surface pressure of phosphatidylcholine monolayers allowing penetration of delipidated serum albumin decreased in the order dibehenoyl,distearoyl,dipalmitoyl=dimyristoyl. This pressure was not related to the area occupied or to the space available between the phospholipid molecules at the interface. 2. Penetration of albumin into yeast phosphatidylcholine monolayers was increased by adding a small percentage of long-chain anions (phosphatidic acid, dicetylphosphoric acid) to the film but only when the protein was below its isoelectric point (i.e. positively charged). 3. Stearylamine added to phosphatidylcholine monolayers had no effect on albumin penetration even when the protein was oppositely charged to that of the phospholipid/water interface. 4. The results are discussed in relation to the activation of certain phospholipases by anionic amphipathic substances.. ...
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are triglycerides whose fatty acids have an aliphatic tail of 6-12 carbon atoms. The fatty acids found in MCTs are called medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Like all triglycerides, MCTs are composed of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids. In the case of MCTs, 2 or 3 of the fatty acid chains attached to glycerol are of medium length. Rich sources for commercial extraction of beneficial MCTs include palm kernel oil and coconut oil. With regard to MCFAs, apart from the above listed straight chain (unbranched chain) fatty acids, side chain (branched chain) fatty acids also exist. Molecular weight analysis of milk from different species showed that while milk fats from all studied species were primarily composed of long-chain fatty acid (16 and 18 carbons long), approximately 10-20% of the fatty acids in milk from horses, cows, sheep, and goats were medium-chain fatty acids. Some studies have shown that MCTs can help in the process of excess calorie burning, ...
Beef semitendinosus muscles were collected from ten bulls carcasses and used to determine fatty acids changes with different thermal treatment, boiling or microwave cooking. The results obtained show variabilities of fatty acids profiles in neutral lipid (NL), polar lipid (PL) and total lipid (TL) fraction under different internal temperature (60°C, 70°C or 80°C). Generally, in NL fraction (mainly beef intramuscular fat), content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (P | 0.05) significantly with boiling compared with raw beef, however, content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA unchanged (P | 0.05) with the method of microwave cooking. On considering health benefit, it is proposed that beef with abundant intramuscular fat were more suitable for being treated with boiling, not microwave cooking. In PL and TL fraction, content of PUFA decreased (P | 0.05) with boiling and microwave cooking comparing with raw beef. Ratios of P/S (PUFA to saturated fatty acid (SFA)) decreased in
Read "Effect of Wheatgrass on Membrane Fatty Acid Composition During Hepatotoxicity Induced by Alcohol and Heated PUFA, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Omega-3 fatty acids provide many health benefits, from reducing cardiovascular disease to improving mental health, and consumer interest in foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is increasing. Formulating a product enriched with these fatty acids that is stable and has an acceptable flavour is challenging. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids provides an overview of key topics in this area. Part one, an introductory section, reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits. Chapters in part two explore the stabilisation of both fish oil itself and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Part three focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids, including meat products, by the modification of animal diets and other methods, infant formula and baked goods. Finally, part four highlights new directions in the field and discusses algal oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids and labelling and claims in foods containing omega-3 ...
Dairy cows with greater subcutaneous fat stores release greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) into the blood during the periparturient period. Large quantities of circulating NEFA alter circulating phospholipids (PL) fatty acid (FA) profile. Modified cellular FA profile effects immune cell function. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated lipid mobilization during the periparturient period on serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) NEFA and PL fraction and milk fatty acid (FA) profile, PBMC and PMN gene expression of selected markers of inflammation and production measures. Thirty-four cows were blocked by parity; treatment group received a high-energy prepartum ration. Control group received a normal-energy ration and monensin. In summary, increased subcutaneous fat stores altered the FA profile of serum, PBMC and PMN NEFA and PL fractions and milk as well as gene expression of PBMC in periparturient ...
In order to predict omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of humans, seventy-three pork back fat adipose tissue samples were measured with Raman spectroscopy directly on adipose tissue and on melted fat. Melted fat samples were, in addition, measured with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Gas chromatography analyses were conducted as the reference analysis. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to calibrate and validate all models predicting omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents from spectra. Omega-6 fatty acids in melted fat measured with FT-IR was predicted with a correlation coefficient (,i,R,/i,) of 0.93 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.61% of the total amount of fatty acids. Raman spectra measured on melted fat gave a prediction of omega-6 fatty acids with ,i,R,/i, = 0.97, and RMSECV = 0.99% of total amount of fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids were predicted with ,i,R,/i, = 0.94, and RMSECV = 1.50% of the total amount of fatty ...
Abstract Background Porcine fatty acid composition is a key factor for quality and nutritive value of pork. Several QTLs for fatty acid composition have been reported in diverse fat tissues. The results obtained so far seem to point out different genetic control of fatty acid composition conditional on the fat deposits. Those studies have been conducted using simple approaches and most of them focused on one single tissue. The first objective of the present study was to identify tissue-specific and tissue-consistent QTLs for fatty acid composition in backfat and intramuscular fat, combining linkage mapping and GWAS approaches and conducted under single and multitrait models. A second aim was to identify powerful candidate genes for these tissue-consistent QTLs, using microarray gene expression data and following a targeted genetical genomics approach. Results The single model analyses, linkage and GWAS, revealed over 30 and 20 chromosomal regions, 24 of them identified here for the first time, ...
Ever since the emergence of the hypothesis that linked the aetiology of schizophrenia with abnormal membrane phospholipids composition, an increasing number of evidences have suggested reduced membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with schizophrenia. This has led to a conduct of several studies to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplement in the modification of membrane phospholipids and treatment of schizophrenia. The two main omega-3 fatty acid classes, EPA and DHA, play a vital role in membranes. This project work reviews omega-3 fatty acid studies and summarizes their outcomes. Eight original articles (nine studies) were reviewed. Six out of nine studies measured RBC membrane fatty acids levels and all six studies reported a significant increase in EPA after EPA supplement. Two studies reported increased DHA post omega-3 fatty acid and DHA supplement, respectively. One study observed a dose-dependent increment in DHA after EPA supplement. Improved symptoms were ...
The main findings in the present study were the differences in the fatty acid profiles of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triglycerides between the TRA group and the UNT group despite their similar dietary fatty acid composition. The fatty acid pattern in muscle phospholipids is probably partly genetically determined (4) but has also been shown to be influenced by environmental factors such as diet (2, 3) and physical activity (1, 19, 35). In the present study, the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle was determined after 8 wk of diet with a controlled fatty acid composition. According to the food records, the study groups had similar proportions of fatty acids in the diet both at baseline and during the standardized period. The compliance to the controlled diet was verified by the similarity between TRA and UNT groups regarding the fatty acid compositions of serum cholesterol esters and serum phospholipids. Thus the observed dissimilarity in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle was ...
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Fatty acids[edit]. Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, ... linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA). ... Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA ... Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12.[66] ...
"Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances". Nutrients. 8 (1): 23. doi: ... Arachidonic acid is an omega 6, making it pro-inflammatory. Though not always the case, omega 6 fatty acids promote ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Further information: Coat (dog). Many canine skin disorders can have a basis in poor nutrition. ... A group of dogs supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids (660 mg/kg [300 mg/lb] of body weight/d) not only improved the condition ...
fatty acids. Monounsaturated. fatty acids. Polyunsaturated. fatty acids. Smoke point Total[15]. Oleic. acid. (ω-9). Total[15]. ... Fatty acids[edit]. Main article: Fatty acid. Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol. ... specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also ... "Oil, vegetable, palm per 100 g; Fats and fatty acids". Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Release SR-21. 2014 ...
... of the fatty acid composition is stearic and oleic acids. The relative proportion of these two fatty acids affects shea butter ... Shea butter fatty acid profiles[edit]. Shea butter is composed of five principal fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, ... The fatty acid proportion of West African shea butter is much more variable than Ugandan shea butter, with an oleic content of ... Nuts are gathered from a wide area for local production, so shea butter consistency is determined by the average fatty acid ...
... "very long chain fatty acids", i.e. fatty acids that are 28 or more carbons long. The ω-hydroxylation of these special fatty ... arachidonic acid or fatty acid metabolism. 6 subfamilies, 12 genes, 10 pseudogenes. CYP4A11, CYP4A22, CYP4B1, CYP4F2, CYP4F3, ... eicosapentaenoic acid (i.e. EPA) to epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (i.e. EEQs); and docosahexaenoic acid (i.e. DHA) to ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids[edit]. Certain cytochrome P450 enzymes are critical in metabolizing polyunsaturated ...
... fatty acid thioester coenzyme A derivatives, fatty acid thioester ACP derivatives and fatty acid carnitines. The fatty amides ... such as linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) because they cannot be ... Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... Other major lipid classes in the fatty acid category are the fatty esters and fatty amides. Fatty esters include important ...
Relatively high amount of fatty acids[edit]. "also including a relatively high amount (5%) of fatty acids." - relative to what ... It has a vaguely acidic, strong flavour, behind which it reminds that of beeswax (possibly because it contains stearic acid). ...
Omega-3 fatty acids[edit]. Omega-3 fatty acids may also be used as a treatment for bipolar disorder, particularly as a ... It was hypothesized that the therapeutic ingredient in omega-3 fatty acid preparations is eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and that ... Omega-3 fatty acids may be found in fish, fish oils, algae, and to a lesser degree in other foods such as flaxseed, flaxseed ... Montgomery, P; Richardson, AJ; Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (2008). "Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder". ...
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), i.e.i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid is an ω-3 fatty acid with five cis double bonds ... Arachidonic acid (AA), i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid is ω-6 fatty acid, with four double bonds in the cis ... Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each ... Mead acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid, is an ω-9 fatty acid containing three cis double bonds, each located between ...
... is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ... The most common fatty acid is the monounsaturated oleic acid. See: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/965#section=Top ...
Arachidonic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... Eicosapentaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Docosahexaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i ... Mead acid[edit]. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ...
... adipic acid (polymers), citric acid (beverages), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (chelating agent), fatty acids (coatings), ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ... Undecylic acid. Undecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)9COOH. 12. Lauric acid. Dodecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)10COOH. Coconut oil and hand wash ...
While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic ... Allosteric subunit binds a non-substrate, activating FA (e.g., palmitic acid). The allosteric subunit with bound fatty acid ... response to fatty acid. • response to vitamin D. • cellular response to UV. • positive regulation of fever generation. • ... fatty acid metabolic process. • positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor production. • decidualization. • regulation of ...
Two other acids are named after goats: caproic (a C6:0 fatty acid) and caprylic (a C8:0 fatty acid). Along with decanoic acid, ... Decanoic acid (capric acid, C10:0) is a saturated fatty acid. Its formula is CH3(CH2)8COOH. Salts and esters of decanoic acid ... Nonanoic acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, also with antiseizure activity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d n-Decanoic acid in ... Capric acid,[1] n-Capric acid, n-Decanoic acid, Decylic acid, n-Decylic acid, C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ...
Palmitic acid and oleic acid were two of the main fatty acids found in both cow and sheep ghee. The saturated fatty acid ... the unsaturated fatty acid profile was 22.8 to 38.0 and the other fatty acids was 3.5 to 10.4.[18] Cholesterol amounts ranged ... The main flavor components of ghee are carbonyls, free fatty acids, lactones, and alcohols.[7] Along with the flavor of milk ... "Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method". J Ayurveda Integr ...
While the original oilseed was high in linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acid, a premium high oleic acid strain was ... High oleic sunflower oil has at least 82% oleic acid. Variation in unsaturated fatty acids profile is strongly influenced by ... The British Pharmacopoeia lists the following profile: Palmitic acid (saturated): 5% Stearic acid (saturated): 6% Oleic acid ( ... Because sunflower oil is primarily composed of less-stable polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, it can be ...
The composition (by weight) of the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk typically is:[8] ... as well as all of the essential fatty acids. ... Unsaturated fatty acids: *Oleic acid, 47%. *Linoleic acid, 16% ... and pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K in the egg, ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ... Lamotrigine is inactivated by glucuronidation in the liver.[72] Lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release.[45] ... Early studies of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and ... Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids *Studies have shown that adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids counteracts the effects of arachidonic ... Simopoulos, Artemis (2002). "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases". Journal of the American College of ... This may be due to the fact that an imbalance in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have opposing effects, is instrumental ... acids, which contribute to symptoms of autoimmune diseases. Human and animal trials suggest that omega-3 is an effective ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ...
Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14 minimal ... Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03 22-55 ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.16 0.18 0.63 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 0.08 1.37 0.07 13-19 ... Pantothenic acid (B5) (mg) 0.42 1.01 0.95 0.30 0.11 0.15 0.80 0.31 - 0.26 5 ...
Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Valproic acid and valnoctamide both inhibit microsomal epoxide hydrolase (MEH), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of ... and valproic acid.[12] Drugs that decrease the metabolism of carbamazepine or otherwise increase its levels include ...
At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... where the fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides, the major fuel reservoir of most animals. Fatty acids ... Fatty acid metabolism *Acetyl-CoA is produced by the breakdown of both carbohydrates (by glycolysis) and lipids (by β-oxidation ... "Fatty Acids -- Structure of Acetyl CoA". library.med.utah.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-02.. ...
Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in apopotosis of the beta cells.[52] ... with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk. ...
... plasma fatty acids) are not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids ( ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Main article: Essential fatty acid. Fatty acids that are required for good health but cannot be ... Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids. ... fatty acids yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Fatty acids ...
... chain fatty acids [1] containing two or more double bonds, separated by methylene bridges: -CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-. [1] https ... www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/fatty-acids#1O39fattyacids ... polyunsaturated fatty acids Long‐chain fatty acids containing two or more double bonds, separated by methylene bridges: -CH2-CH ... unsaturated fatty acids A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by ...
Some saturated fatty acids may present a bigger risk to diabetes than others 06 Aug 2014 The relationship between saturated fat ... New evidence raises questions about the link between fatty acids and heart disease. 18 Mar 2014 Study finds that the current ... The study found that saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the ... depending on the type of fatty acids present in the blood. ... not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid ...
Essential fatty acids are extremely important nutrients for health. ... Essential fatty acids Description Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are fats that are essential to the diet because the body cannot ... Scientists classify essential fatty acids into two types, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids , depending on their ... essential fatty acids See fatty acids, essential. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography ...
... add a slight excess of acid, heat with gentle stirring until the fatty acid layer separates. Transfer the fatty acids into a ... where R1 and R2 represent one fatty acid moiety and hydrogen in the case of mono-esters and two fatty acid moieties in the case ... Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, INS No. 477. DEFINITION. Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids are mixtures of ... Periodic Acid solution: Dissolve 5.4 g of periodic acid, H5IO6 in 100 ml of water, add 1900 ml of glacial acetic acid, and mix ...
Omega-6 Fatty Acids: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Adding the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid along with an omega-3 fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to infant ... N-6 Essential Fatty Acids, Omega 6, Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Omega 6 Oils, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, PUFAs.. ... on omega-6 fatty acid supplements comes from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids ...
There is no known toxicity risk consistently associated with diets high in omega-3 fatty acids. Like any fatty acids, omega-3s ... Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: Benefits for human health and a role in maintaining ... The cardiovascular effects of flaxseed and its omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid. Can J Cardiol 2010; 26:489-96. * ... of alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Am J Clin Nutr ...
... are small organic acids with less than six carbons, which are produced by fermentation of unabsorbed and undigested components ... Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are small organic acids with less than six carbons, which are produced by fermentation of ... Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). News-Medical. 16 October 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Short-Chain-Fatty-Acids-( ... Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Short-Chain-Fatty-Acids-(SCFAs).aspx. ( ...
Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Omega-6 fatty acids, also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFAs, omega-6 oils, or simply omega-6 is ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids Foods List. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids. Since our body cannot produce them, we are ... Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Omega-6 and omega-3 are essential fatty acids that are essential for the healthy functioning of the human ... Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency. Did you know that the deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) can make us vulnerable to ...
essential fatty acid (plural essential fatty acids) *(biochemistry) any fatty acid required for human metabolism that cannot be ... any fatty acid required for human metabolism that cannot be synthesized. *Chinese: Cantonese: 必需脂肪酸 (bit1 seoi1 zi1 fong1 syun1 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=essential_fatty_acid&oldid=53790424" ...
... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxa fatty acid (CHEBI:61410) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxo fatty acid (CHEBI:59644) is a fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thia fatty acid (CHEBI:59643) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thio-fatty acid (CHEBI:59913) is a fatty ... long-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:15904) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). medium-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:59554) is a fatty acid (CHEBI ... 2,3-saturated fatty acid (CHEBI:76929) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). branched-chain fatty acid (CHEBI:35819) is a fatty acid ( ...
fatty acid 7:0 (CHEBI:141070) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). fatty acid 8:0 (CHEBI:141071) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxa fatty acid (CHEBI:61410) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). oxo fatty acid (CHEBI:59644) is a fatty ... fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thia fatty acid (CHEBI:59643) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). thio-fatty acid (CHEBI:59913) is a fatty ... fatty acid 20:3-ω−3ω−6 (CHEBI:140954) is a fatty acid (CHEBI:35366). fatty acid 20:3-ω−9 (CHEBI:140955) is a fatty acid (CHEBI: ...
... but the fatty acids always benefit the cardiovascular system, a U.S. doctor says. ... Omega-3 fatty acids may sometimes result in fishy burp, ... Omega-3 fatty acids get FDA health claim *Omega 6 fats and bad ... KANSAS CITY, Mo., March 12 (UPI) -- Omega-3 fatty acids may sometimes result in "fishy burp," but the fatty acids always ... by omega-3 fatty acids comes from three large controlled trials of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid ...
fatty acyl methylase. Fatty acids have crucial, yet diverse, roles in biology. In cells and organelles, fatty acids maintain ... Increased σE Activity Alters Cellular Fatty-Acid Composition.. Fatty acids are targets for direct or indirect damage by ROS (1 ... 2005) Furan fatty acids: Occurrence, synthesis, and reactions. Are furan fatty acids responsible for the cardioprotective ... we prepared fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to compare the fatty acid content of wild-type cells and mutant cells (ΔChrR; see ...
Buy Fatty and Amino Acids by Nil Sen (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and ... www.lulu.com/shop/nil-sen/fatty-and-amino-acids/ebook/product-15258894.html. ...
Non-esterified fatty acid levels increase long before hyperglycaemia becomes present. Raised non-esterified fatty acids impair ... Free fatty acids (FFA) and endothelial dysfunction; role of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. --to: Steinberg et al ... Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids.. Steinberg HO1, Baron AD. ...
Organic milk contains a healthier balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids compared with milk from cows raised on ... The lab results showed that organic milk had an average ratio of omega-6 fatty acid to omega-3 fatty acid of 2.3, whereas ... A high ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in peoples diets has been linked to a higher risk of health ... The healthier fatty acid profile of organic milk is likely a result of cows foraging on grass, the researchers said. ...
the omega-3 fatty acid epa is primarily found in: *fish *fortified foods, such as some brands of eggs and orange juice *fish ... there are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids. ... The omega-3 fatty acid EPA is primarily found in:. EPA helps ... What are sources of EPA omega-3 fatty acids?. ANSWER There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids. ... Harvard School of Public Health: "Ask the Expert: Omega-3 Fatty Acids." ...
The authors assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on 1) tumor incidence 2) clinical outcomes after cancer treatment, and 3) ... the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone could be ascertained from six studies; the effect of omega-3 fatty acids given in ... We did not identify any studies that assessed the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on clinical outcomes after chemotherapy or ... Relative to a standard enteral diet, omega-3 fatty acids in combination with arginine and RNA were associated with a reduced ...
Omega 3 fatty acids come from fish oil and Omega 3 eggs. For full effects Omega 3 has to be eaten almost everyday.Some people ... Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids. fatlossdietsolutionsforyou.com provides information on what Omega 3 Fatty Acids are and the ... Individuals who ate fatty fish at least 3 times a month, or were supplementing their diet with omega 3 fatty acids, or had a ... To eat more foods with Omega 3 fatty acids, it helps to know what the rewards are. One of the rewards of consuming Omega 3 ...
We have demonstrated that physiological elevations in plasma free fatty acid concentrations inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose ...
Omega-3 fatty acids can boost your brainpower and protect your ticker. But what exactly are these fats, and whats their big ... Youve heard us tout the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids for years, from their ability to boost your brainpower to their knack ... Eat fatty fish regularly. "You can get the amount of recommended EPA and DHA if you have 3 to 6 ounces of fatty fish at least 3 ... "Our bodies cant make polyunsaturated fatty acids," says Stephen Smith, Ph.D, a professor of meat science at Texas A&M; ...
... nutritionists are now saying the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids could outweigh the risks of mercury... ... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6 omega 3 is derived from the essential fatty acid Alpha-linolenic Acid (LNA) 18:3 omega 3 The ... We need a daily intake of essential fatty acids which is 15 to 20% of our total caloric intake. We need that intake in a ratio ... Except seafood also is a rich source of omega-3s, and nutritionists now say that the fatty-acid benefits, especially for ...
The Chemical Sciences Division is working to develop natural-matrix and solution-based SRMs that are characterized for fatty ... acid composition. The natural-matrix SRMs are intended primarily for use as control materials, but other uses include method ... When this conversion is required, the fatty acids are reported as the triglycerides. Free fatty acids do not require ... For value assignment of fatty acid levels in SRMs, two independent methods are utilized. Multiple deuterated fatty acids are ...
Mobilization of fatty acids: In times of stress when the body requires energy, fatty acids are released from adipose cells and ... Other articles where Fatty acid mobilization is discussed: lipid: ... In lipid: Mobilization of fatty acids. In times of stress when the body requires energy, fatty acids are released from adipose ... molecules in a process called fatty acid mobilization. The fatty acids are broken down into smaller molecules that can enter ...
  • It also provides evidence that furan-containing fatty acids scavenge toxic reactive oxygen species, suggesting a previously unnoticed role for this class of compounds in bacteria and other cells. (pnas.org)
  • We propose that furan-containing fatty acids like 19Fu-FA can act as a membrane-bound scavenger of 1 O 2 , which is naturally produced by integral membrane enzymes of the R. sphaeroides photosynthetic apparatus. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate a previously unreported ability of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides to produce furan-containing fatty acids (Fu-FAs), an important, yet poorly understood, class of compounds. (pnas.org)
  • says several trials demonstrate the positive benefits of ingesting omega-3 fatty acids. (upi.com)
  • So, you must include foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids in your diet, along with those rich in other. (buzzle.com)
  • In our earlier study, we observed a decrease in blood cadmium level associated with increased urinary N-acetyl- β -glucosaminidase activity in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with evening primrose oil, rich in omega-6 fatty acids (FA) especially in γ -linolenic acid [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The differences in geometry between the various types of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, play an important role in biological processes, and in the construction of biological structures (such as cell membranes). (wikipedia.org)
  • But after reaching that milestone, the acids appear to skip the last two steps of the four-step cycle, twice cutting short the routine to accelerate the addition of the 11th and 12th carbon pairs. (nsf.gov)
  • Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of five or fewer carbons (e.g. butyric acid ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6 to 12 carbons , which can form medium-chain triglycerides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are small organic acids with less than six carbons, which are produced by fermentation of unabsorbed and undigested components of food in the large intestine, by the gut microbiota. (news-medical.net)
  • Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons (usually unbranched and even-numbered), which may be saturated or unsaturated. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The only difference is that the last double bond is six carbons from the omega end of the fatty acid molecule. (healthline.com)
  • It is said that a fatty acid will usually have an even number of carbons. (wikibooks.org)
  • By contrast, Nebraskanic and Wuhanic rank among a class of "unusual" fatty acids that contain fewer or more carbon atoms -- both have 24 -- and uncommon molecular branches that stem from those carbons. (nsf.gov)
  • α-Linolenic acid , with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is found in some seeds and evening primrose oil . (encyclopedia.com)
  • See the separate listings for gamma linolenic acid, as well as evening primrose, borage, and black currant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Delta-6-desaturase first converts LA to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3n-6). (sourcewatch.org)
  • The second study, published in the Journal of Human Hypertension in 1989, found similar beneficial results from a different fat, gamma linolenic acid (GLA). (chiro.org)
  • S eries 1 PG's are formed from Gamma linolenic acid (GLA), (Which is converted from LA). Series 1 PG's are labeled as "Good" prostagladins. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Within the human body, omega-3s and omega-6 fatty acids essentially "compete" with one another for a limited amount of enzymes available to desaturate and elongate them into the long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids the body needs. (sourcewatch.org)
  • According to another source, author Susan Allport, reducing our omega-6:omega-3 ratio in our diets to 4:1 "produces a 1:1 ratio of HUFAs [highly unsaturated fatty acids] in cell membranes. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In the following table, SIM masses are grouped by the internal standard that was used to normalize recovery for the group of fatty acids. (cdc.gov)
  • Furan fatty acids are a group of fatty acids that contain a furan ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the individual fatty acid profiles tend to be more instructive than broad lipid classifications with respect to subsequent impacts on serum cholesterol, and should therefore be considered when making dietary recommendations for the prevention of CVD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A significant body of research worked on the relationship between membrane lipid and fatty acid composition and ability of cell to tolerate adverse change in temperature. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability to produce a highly concentrated form of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that is free from lipid peroxides, heavy metals, environmental contaminants, and other harmful compounds. (iherb.com)
  • N-3 vs. n-6 fatty acids differentially influence calcium signalling and adhesion of inflammatory activated monocytes: impact of lipid rafts. (cambridge.org)
  • I missed the answers and I would like to know about the detergent to solubilize the fatty acids (with oleic, palmitoleic, palmitic and stearic acids). (bio.net)
  • For instance, lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), have a greater total cholesterol raising effect than palmitic acid (C16:0), whereas stearic acid (C18:0) has a neutral effect on the concentration of total serum cholesterol, including no apparent impact on either LDL or HDL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common saturated fatty acids are Lauric Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 COOH, Palmitic Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH, and Stearic Acid with the chemical composition CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Nebraskanic and Wuhanic acids appear to follow the traditional script until adding their 10th pair of carbon atoms, said Nebraska s Ed Cahoon, a George Holmes University Professor of biochemistry who co-authored a published paper on the study. (nsf.gov)
  • Abstract We will evaluate four photoactivatable fatty acid analogs and three photoactivatable C16 alkylchain derivatives for their ability to derivatize to four representative biomaterials and subsequently adsorbhuman albumin. (sbir.gov)
  • fatlossdietsolutionsforyou.com provides information on what Omega 3 Fatty Acids are and the benefits of including them in weight loss and diet plans to achieve lean mass and decrease fat mass for good health. (webwire.com)
  • Individuals who ate fatty fish at least 3 times a month, or were supplementing their diet with omega 3 fatty acids, or had a known metabolic or endocrine disorder were excluded. (webwire.com)
  • A diet enriched in Omega 3 fatty acids prevents the signs of aging. (webwire.com)
  • A diet consisting of Omega 3 fatty acids and regular exercise will keep you on track of your weight loss goals and keep you healthier. (webwire.com)
  • It is important to pick a weight loss program that incorporates Omega 3 fatty acids into diet. (webwire.com)
  • Another study compared neurons of embryonic rat hippocampi under conditions of maternal dietary deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids (fed with 0.09 wt% of LA) versus an omega-3 fatty acid adequate diet (2.5 wt% LA plus 0.9 wt% DHA). (medscape.com)
  • The ratio of 2.3:1 translates to 6.7g n-6 fatty acids and 2.9g n-3 fatty acids in a 8360 kJ (2000 kcal) diet. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The difficulty in meeting the recommended ratio is that many foods typically consumed in the American diet simply have a ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids far above 2.3:1. (sourcewatch.org)
  • These fatty acids cannot be synthesised by the body and hence, have to be taken through diet. (folkd.com)
  • Adopting a healthy diet is considered a key factor in reducing the risk of heart attack, and many studies have suggested that including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as part of such a diet is particularly beneficial for heart health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, it's important to get the right balance of omega-3, -6 and -9 fatty acids in your diet. (healthline.com)
  • ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is 4:1 or less. (healthline.com)
  • A six-month study of children from Baltimore City by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers has added to evidence that having more omega-3 fatty acids in the diet results in fewer asthma symptoms triggered by indoor air pollution. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This is a topic that has attracted considerable scientific interest, 1 2 3 in large part because of uncertainty regarding whether MUFA or carbohydrate should be substituted for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the desirable quantity of MUFA to include in the diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • AA is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid prevalent in the human diet. (news-medical.net)
  • As per the study published in the journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, adding fatty fish, or Omega-3 fatty acids, to our diet for at least four times a week may help in preventing the risk of heart diseases by increasing the amount of good cholesterol in our body. (ndtv.com)
  • The study found that saturated fatty acids can be associated with both an increased and decreased risk of developing the disease, depending on the type of fatty acids present in the blood. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Stearidonic acid is found in rarer types of seeds and nuts, including black currant seeds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, and evening primrose oils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids are found everywhere in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The team also compared the fatty acids in dairy products to those in fish, and found that recommended intakes of full-fat milk products supply more of the major omega-3 fatty acid, ALA, than do recommended servings of fish. (livescience.com)
  • Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, primarily found in fish and seafood, may have a role in colorectal cancer prevention, according to results presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, held Dec. 6-9, 2009, in Houston. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists just announced the discovery of two entirely new fatty acids found in the Chinese violet cress. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids, such as those found in sunflower oil, and Omega-3 fatty acids, oils from fish, aid by creating a proper moisture balance. (vetinfo.com)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids are found naturally in foods such as fish, canola oiland walnuts. (nutraingredients.com)
  • We found a type of ruler which measures the length of the fatty acid", explains Martin Grininger. (eurekalert.org)
  • Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • The therapeutic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in certain fish oils, have long been known, dating back to at least the 1950s, when cod liver oil was found to be effective in treating ailments like eczema and arthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • Saturated fatty acids are most commonly found in animals. (wikibooks.org)
  • The acids -- named for the sites of the two leading institutions, Nebraskanic acid and Wuhanic acid, make up nearly half of the seed oil found in the Chinese violet cress, a flowering plant native to central China. (nsf.gov)
  • Furan fatty acids are can be found in a variety of plant and animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furan fatty acids are found mainly in the liver fat of fish, in crustaceans and horn corals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chickens were found to have no adverse effects on feeding, fertility, egg weight, eggshell thickness and other reproductive parameters after the intake of furan fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following base hydrolysis, the samples were re-acidified and total fatty acids were hexane-extracted from the matrix along with internal standards. (cdc.gov)
  • Instead, it was formed during the sample preparation used by Morries and colleagues for the argentation chromatography by oxidation of hydroxyfatty acids, in a base-catalyzed transesterification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tan Y. (2018) Analysis of Fatty Acids in Yersinia pestis by Gas Chromatography. (springer.com)
  • John Wenz, Popular Mechanics , "This Purple Plant Has a Secret That Could Replace Synthetic Engine Oil," 27 Aug. 2018 Side effects from omega 3 fatty acids can include burping up a fishy taste, stomach distress, and heartburn. (merriam-webster.com)
  • With a chain length from 2 to 6, they are called short-chain, from 8 to 10 they are called medium-chain, and 12 up to 24 called long-chain fatty acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids are generally known for their health-beneficial properties. (folkd.com)
  • An increase in dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, which mainly come from fish and seafood, may be beneficial in the prevention of distal large bowel cancer," Kim said. (redorbit.com)
  • Omega fatty acids prove beneficial in helping reduce canine dry skin . (vetinfo.com)
  • Most capsules and liquids include at least 45 milligrams of the beneficial omega-6 fatty acids, and some specifically formulated for dry skin go as high as 2,000 milligrams. (vetinfo.com)
  • however, scientific evidence indicates that these fatty acids may be very beneficial in reducing Coronary Heart Disease among other things. (novapublishers.com)
  • Short-chain omega-3 fatty acids can potentially be converted to the beneficial long-chain omega-3s in the body, but that conversion is not very efficient. (akc.org)
  • Studies in larger cohorts with mild cognitive impairment, including those at risk for Alzheimer's disease, are needed to further explore the possibility that omega-3 fatty acids might be beneficial in halting initial progression of the disease. (scienceblog.com)
  • That might be because the researchers used seafood-derived fatty acids, while Fitzgerald observed plant-made versions were most beneficial, Wills speculated. (alzforum.org)
  • Salmon oil has a greater amount of omega 3 fatty acid than the fish oil. (buzzle.com)
  • American Heart Association: "Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. (webmd.com)
  • UpToDate: Omega-3-acid ethyl esters (fish oil). (webmd.com)
  • Rockville, MD, USA -- Omega 3 fatty acids come from fish oil and Omega 3 eggs. (webwire.com)
  • One of the rewards of consuming Omega 3 fatty acids especially from fish oil is that it increases lean mass and decreases fat mass as shown from a study. (webwire.com)
  • A study in Diabetes Care showed that men with the highest blood levels of EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), another fish omega-3, had a 33 percent lower risk of diabetes than those with the lowest levels. (menshealth.com)
  • Eat fatty fish regularly. (menshealth.com)
  • You can get the amount of recommended EPA and DHA if you have 3 to 6 ounces of fatty fish at least 3 times a week," says Alan Aragon, M.S., a Men's Health nutrition advisor. (menshealth.com)
  • So yes, flaxseed oil is good, but the fish oil give more bang for the buck when it comes to omega 3 fatty acids. (healingwell.com)
  • Most existing studies on F-acids are related to either fish or other marine animals. (springer.com)
  • Although the body can convert alphalinolenic acid, a short-chain omega-3 fatty acid , from flaxseed oil it is much more efficient to get them from fish oils . (iherb.com)
  • EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids are contained in oily fish, such as salmon, lake trout, tuna and herring. (novapublishers.com)
  • Try this recipe for fatty-fish hit. (menshealth.com)
  • fish, walnuts, and flaxseeds are all rich in a type of fat you can feel good about eating: omega 3-fatty acids. (smore.com)
  • These participants were randomly divided into four groups for a 12-week intervention: the camelina oil group, the fatty fish group, the lean fish group, and the control group. (ndtv.com)
  • While people in the camelina oil group, fatty fish group, showed much higher HDL and lower IDL cholesterol levels. (ndtv.com)
  • Eating fatty fish will increase the amount of vital nutrients such as vitamin D and protein in our body. (ndtv.com)
  • Moreover, fatty fish is one of the natural food sources of vitamin D other than sun's exposure. (ndtv.com)
  • Eating fatty fish may protect our brain from age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia. (ndtv.com)
  • Fatty fish have the feel-good factor which usually keeps us happy and content. (ndtv.com)
  • There are various studies that prove that the people who consume fatty fish or Omega-3 fatty acids on a regular basis are less likely to get depressed. (ndtv.com)
  • Given the solid body of research supporting the numerous health and muscle-building benefits it offers, there is no reason that Omega-3 fatty acid from fish oil should not be a daily staple for everybody-especially bodybuilders and guys looking to build muscle and burn fat. (criticalbench.com)
  • In fish, the concentration of furan fatty acids is particularly high in the liver after hunger periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally it is speculated that the health-promoting properties originally attributed to omega-3 fatty acids may not be based on themself, but on the furan fatty acids also present in the fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Audrey Noble, Harper's BAZAAR , "The Beauty Benefits of Rosehip Oil," 2 May 2019 The tiny black olives make a beautiful golden oil rich in fatty acids and renowned for its fruity aroma. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jennifer Goldstein, Marie Claire , "Davines' Newest Shampoo Took 203 Years to Make," 8 May 2019 The crucial factor here is the size of the fatty acid molecules that make up the oil. (merriam-webster.com)