Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Glucose in blood.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Abstaining from all food.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/15636)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (2/15636)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (3/15636)

CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (4/15636)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Separation of molecular species of glucosylceramide by high performance liquid chromatography of their benzoyl derivatives. (5/15636)

The method of separation of glucosylceramide by HPLC was reported. Glucosylceramide was perbenzoylated and separated on a packed muBondapack C18 column, using methanol as eluting solvent. The pattern obtained by HPLC closely resembled that obtained by GLC of the TMS-glucosylceramide, and reflected the molecular species of fatty acid components. This method is reproducible, and sensitive as GLC. This method also can be used for analysis of higher glycolipids.  (+info)

Gangliosides of human kidney. (6/15636)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (7/15636)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen. (8/15636)

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

Author Summary Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, is closely related to variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox. A full understanding of the poxviral life cycle is imperative for the development of novel antiviral therapies, the design of new vaccines, and the effective and safe use of these viruses as oncolytic agents. Metabolomic studies have shed light on the novel mechanisms used by viruses to replicate efficiently within their hosts. de novo fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to be of relevance for numerous viral infections as well as for the development of cancer. Here we describe an important role for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis during vaccinia infection. Ongoing synthesis of palmitate is needed to fuel the production of energy within mitochondria. The biochemical events of viral DNA replication and protein synthesis are minimally affected by inhibition of this pathway, but viral assembly is disrupted more dramatically. Further exploration of this pathway will provide
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activity in heart failure patients with metabolic syndrome. AU - Lee, Seungmin. AU - Do, Hyun Ju. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Chung, Ji Hyung. AU - Park, Eunju. AU - Shin, Min Jeong. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Metabolic syndrome is one of the major factors to increase the incidence of heart failure. In our study, we compared plasma fatty acid compositions among heart failure patients with and without Metabolic syndrome. Fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma phospholipids was analyzed and the activities of desaturase were estimated as the ratio of substrate and product fatty acids in 85 stable heart failure patients. Fatty acid and estimated desaturase activities were further examined for their associations with Metabolic syndrome components. Heart failure patients with Metabolic syndrome showed significant changes in fatty acid composition in comparison to those without Metabolic syndrome, which had a decreased ...
The fatty acid compositions of the neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of rat lymph node lymphocytes were characterized. Stimulation of rat lymphocytes with the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of both neutral lipids and phospholipids (a decrease in the proportions of stearic, linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in the proportion of oleic acid). Membrane fluidity was measured using nitroxide spin-label e.s.r., and increased during culture with concanavalin A. Culturing the lymphocytes in the absence of mitogen did not affect fatty acid composition or membrane fluidity. The uptake and fate of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were studied in detail; there was a time-dependent incorporation of each fatty acid into all lipid classes but each fatty acid had a characteristic fate. Palmitic and arachidonic acids were incorporated principally into phospholipids whereas oleic and linoleic acids were incorporated in similar
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained ...
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
This paper describes the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of the methyl esters of saturated fatty acid with 6 to 10 carbons in the molecule chain. The fuels blend (50/50 mass%) of three saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl caproate, methyl caprylate, methyl caprate); with methyl laurate as a base fuel are tested using a DI diesel engine. From the experimental results, the blend of saturated fatty acid methyl ester with a lower carbon number has a lower kinematic viscosity, pour point and smoke emission, though having longer ignition delay, the same as long chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester ...
Nowadays the industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes as lipases are increasing its use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils have recently found applications as polymer plasticizer, agrochemical, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food additives. In this research article, grapeseed, avocado and olive oils naturally containing high percents of mono and poly unsaturations were used as starting materials for the production of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The effect of lauric acid as an active oxygen carrier was studied on epoxidation reactions where unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were converted to epoxy fatty acid methyl esters using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase type B as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor at mild temperature and pressure conditions. After this study it was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS that the addition of lauric acid to the enzymatic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. AU - Prisco, Domenico. AU - Filippini, Monica. AU - Francalanci, Isa. AU - Paniccia, Rita. AU - Gensini, Gian Franco. AU - Serneri, Gian Gastone Neri. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either four 1-g capsules of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ethyl esters or four 1-g capsules of olive oil (as placebo) for a period of 4 months, followed by a 3-month wash-out period. Fatty acids of platelet phospholipid fractions, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation were analyzed at 0, 2, and 4 months of treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months of wash-out. During n-3 PUFA supplementation, accumulations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were markedly increased after 2 months, with slight differences in further accumulation up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. AU - Mather, Kieren J.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R. PY - 2016/1/21. Y1 - 2016/1/21. N2 - Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. ...
The heart relies predominantly on a balance between fatty acids and glucose to generate its energy supply. There is an important interaction between the metabolic pathways of these two substrates in the heart. When circulating levels of fatty acids are high, fatty acid oxidation can dominate over glucose oxidation as a source of energy through feedback inhibition of the glucose oxidation pathway. Following an ischaemic episode, fatty acid oxidation rates increase further, resulting in an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation. This uncoupling results in an increased proton production, which worsens ischaemic damage. Since high rates of fatty acid oxidation can contribute to ischaemic damage by inhibiting glucose oxidation, it is important to maintain proper control of fatty acid oxidation both during and following ischaemia. An important molecule that controls myocardial fatty acid oxidation is malonyl-CoA, which inhibits uptake of fatty acids into the mitochondria. The levels of ...
This paper aims to report the authors study of the fatty acid methyl ester consisting of plant oil or animal fat in hope to improve the effectiveness and profitability of its practical application.As is known,the fatty acid methyl ester is a kind of bio-diesel that is likely to be used as fuel of diesel engine with the environment-friendly properties.The present paper has compared the properties of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel oil by conducting experiments on a four-cylinder turbo-charge direct injection diesel engine at a compression ratio of 18 and rated power of 76 kW at 3 800 r/min.When the engine is fueled with diesel oil,fatty acid methyl ester,the blended fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl ester and diesel at a ratio of 30% to 70% and 50% to 50% in weight under two working conditions.That is to say,let the engine work at its full load at the speed of 1 800 r/min and 2 200 r/min,and watch how about the engine performs its duty.While testing such behaviors as power,energy consumption
Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin |11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically,
PubMed journal article: The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on liver retinyl ester (vitamin A ester) composition in the rat. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to convey many of the beneficial effects of exercise via its inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and promotion of fatty acid oxidation. Hence, AMPK and ACC have become major drug targets for weight loss and improved insulin action. However, it remains unclear whether or how activation of the fatty acid oxidation pathway without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure could be beneficial. Here, we have used either pharmacological (administration of the AMPK agonist 5() aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside) or genetic means (mutation of the ACC2 gene in mice) to manipulate fatty acid oxidation to determine whether this is sufficient to promote leanness. Both of these strategies increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation without altering energy expenditure or adiposity. We conclude that negative energy balance is a prerequisite for weight reduction, and increased fatty acid oxidation per se has little, if any, effect to
The present study quantifies the relationships between diet fatty acid profile and fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle phospholipids. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 8 weeks, on one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) differing only in fatty acid profile. SFA content ranged from 8-88% of total fatty acids, MUFA 6-65 %, total PUFA 4-81 %, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70 %. Diet PUFA included only essential fatty acids 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3. The balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA (PUFA balance) in the diet ranged from 1 : 99 to 86 : 14% n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA. The slope of muscle phospholipid composition plotted against diet composition quantifies the response of muscle membrane composition to dietary fat (0, no response; 1, complete conformity with diet). The resulting slopes were 0·02 (SFA), 0·10 (PUFA), 0·11 (MUFA), 0·14 (n-3 PUFA) and 0·23 (n-6 PUFA). The response to PUFA balance was biphasic with a slope of 0·98 below 10% diet PUFA balance and ...
Fatty acids, more commonly called Omega 3 or Omega 6 fatty acids, are an essential part of your dogs diet. When these fatty acids are ingested, they actually become incorporated into the cell membranes throughout your dogs body. When certain types of damage occur to these membranes, the fatty acids are released in order to repair and reduce the damages. Both types of fatty acids are important for your dogs health, and each has their own particular range of benefits.. Omega 3 fatty acids benefit your dog by reducing allergies and allergic responses, preventing or softening auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and reducing inflammation such as regular arthritis. Dogs that have these conditions need more Omega 3 fatty acids than other dogs to help combat these conditions.. Omega 6 fatty acids benefit your dog by helping to reduce symptoms in certain types of chronic illnesses, such as certain cancers and kidney disease. Omega 6 fatty acids also help fight against infections and can ...
Predicting fatty acid composition of beef cattle at slaughter using weaner data would enable an early selection decision thereby saving time and costs associated with progeny testing. The aim of this study was to examine genetic and phenotypic correlations between triacylglycerol fatty acid composition at weaning and slaughter. Subcutaneous fat between the 12th and 13th rib interface was biopsied from 324 weaner calves sired by Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu. Fat from the same anatomical site was sampled from their carcasses at slaughter and analysed for fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was by Mixed Model and Maximum Likelihood procedures of Harvey (1990) after adjusting for genotype, sire nested within genotype, sex and location. Results indicated strongly positive genetic correlations between biopsy and carcass stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1n-9), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and delta-nine desaturase enzyme index ...
The general public has shown increasing interest in consuming oils that are beneficial to health. Thus, oil from corn (Zea mays L.), along with most major edible oils, has been the target of genetic alterations to improve the fatty acid composition. The fatty acid profile goals vary, depending upon the intended use for the oil. We have targeted the development of corn oil with 1) low total saturated fatty acids, 2) high total saturated fatty acids, and 3) mid-oleic acid, in each case via two different sources: exotic germplasm identified through an international program to broaden the corn germplasm base and introgression of a wild, grassy relative of corn, Tripsacum (Tripsacum dactaloides L). We have been successful at identifying corn lines with each of the noted traits.
Hundreds of fatty acids synthesized by thousands of plants and their phylogenetic relationships are documented in an internet data base, PlantFAdb (https://plantfadb.org/), which can be used to search fatty acid molecules or plants producing these fatty acids.. The most documented fatty acids data collection is that of the Institute for Chemistry and Physics of Lipids in Münster growing since 1970. This electronically searchable Database SOFA (Seed Oil Fatty Acids, http://sofa.mri.bund.de/) offers a variety of search routines to browse into about 110,000 individual data relating to more than 7,000 different plant species (Aitzetmüller K et al., Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2003, 105, 92). About 500 different fatty acids are listed. The database allows to search for plant species, genera and families, for individual fatty acids (start by adding an asterisk after each entry) and combinations of fatty acids in their seed oils, and for their percentage contents. It contains literature references and ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.. Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.. In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this ...
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Suppliers US $6-8 / Kilogram. About 68% of these are plastic auxiliary agents, 43% are leather auxiliary agents, and 14% are electronics chemicals. A wide variety of fatty acid methyl ester o
Abstract: Many studies have shown that saturated fat diet increases the risk of AD. Recently saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have been found be accumulated in AD patients. The variety of saturated fatty acids are found in the diets and human bodies. However, it is not clear which one or more fatty acids are involved in AD pathogenesis. This study investigated the effects of three saturated fatty acids with different carbon chain length (C16:0, C20:0, and C26:0) on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) generation. Here, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with vehicle, C16:0, C20:0, and C26:0 (10?µmol/L, 24?h). Compared to the vehicle, C16:0 did not cause any significantly change in APP processing and Aß generation. C20:0 and C26:0 increased Aß levels and the expressions of APP, ß- and ?-secretase and decreased the expression of a-secretase, and C26:0 had the strongest effects among three fatty acids. Moreover, C20:0 and C26:0 significantly increased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage fatty acid composition and phagocytosis. T2 - Effect of unsaturation on cellular phagocytic activity. AU - Schroit, A. J.. AU - Gallily, R.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. N2 - In order to manipulate the physical properties of the macrophage membrane, methods were developed which potentiated the incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids into membrane lipids. Chromatograms of macrophages which were grown in the presence of a variety of fatty acids demonstrated that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids) were readily incorporated into the cells and selectively altered the fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Up to 38% of the total cellular phospholipids were found to be derived from the exogenously added fatty acid supplements. The incorporation of the different fatty acids into cellular phospholipids had striking effects on cellular phagocytic activity. These effects ...
In the category, there can be observed a trend for the toxicity of aquatic invertebrates. This is related to the toxicity mode of action (narcosis). Thus, a linear dependence on log Kow is expected. The highest toxicity was determined for methyl laurate (CAS 111-82-0, fatty acid chain length C12). In the GLP-study (Ministry of the Environment of Japan, 2006) according to OECD 202 the EC50 (48h) was determined as 0.255 mg/L for Daphnia magna. The toxicity decreases with shorter and longer chain length of the fatty acids. For methyl decanoate (CAS 110-42-9, fatty acid chain length C10), a lower toxicity for Daphnia magna was estimated. In one GLP-study (Bouwman, 2010) according to OECD 202 an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was determined for methyl decanoate. Two QSAR-calculations for methyl octanoate (CAS 111-11-5, fatty acid chain length C8) yielded LC50 of 5.6 mg/L (ECOSAR, 2010) and LC50 = 11.6 mg/L (von der Ohe, 2005). The more conservative of the two values was accepted as the key value, what is ...
The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL
We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated ...
Abstract: Seasonal variations of fatty acids were studied in the lipid fractions of the bivalve mollusk, Saccostrea cucullata, at the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay in the northern part of Oman Sea (Iran). Samples were collected in rocky shores between two stations. The analysis were carried by GC/MS chromatography. Thirteen fatty acids were identified, of which, the most important saturated fatty acids (SFA) were 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me- 13:0, 16:0 and 18:0, the mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) included 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were linoleic acid 9,12 18:2 , eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 20:5n-3 and arachidonic acid 20:4n-6.Variability of the fatty acid components were studied in four seasons. Maximum percentage level in Saccostrea cucullata for 14:0, 4, 8, 12 tri Me 13:0, 16:0 and 15:0 as saturated fatty acids was observed in summer, while for 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11 and 20:5n-3 (as unsaturated fatty acids) maximum concentration was observed in winter. The ...
Providing Evidence That Seafood and Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids With More Complex Carbohydrates Protect Against Coronary Artery Disease: Spotlight: Erik Berg Schmidt, MD, DMSc, FESC ...
This paper describes a method for manipulating plant membrane fatty acid compositions without altering growth temperature or other conditions. Tween-fatty acid esters carrying specific fatty acids were synthesized and applied to various organs of plants growing axenically in glass jars. Treated plan …
Structural, energetic, biochemical, and ecological information suggests that germination temperature is an important selective agent causing seed oils of higher-latitude plants to have proportionately more unsaturated fatty acids than lower-latitude plants. Germination temperature is predicted to select relative proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in seed oils that optimize the total energy stores in a seed and the rate of energy production during germination. Saturated fatty acids store more energy per carbon than unsaturated fatty acids; however, unsaturated fatty acids have much lower melting points than saturated fatty acids. Thus, seeds with lower proportions of saturated fatty acids in their oils should be able to germinate earlier and grow more rapidly at low temperatures even though they store less total energy than seeds with a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. Seeds that germinate earlier and grow more rapidly should have a competitive advantage. At higher ...
Fatty acids are a group of non-polar (non-water soluble) molecules that comprise of a carbon chain with a hydroxyl group and oxygen molecule at one end and a methyl group at the other. The chain lengths vary, but generally the shorter the chain length, the more polar (water soluble) the fatty acid becomes. Formic acid and acetic acid with 1 and 2 carbon are actually short enough to be water soluble. Nutritionally important fatty acids have even numbers of carbons in their chain, with chain lengths of common dietary fatty acids varying in chain length from short chain fatty acids with fewer than 6 carbons, to medium chain fatty acids having between 6 and 12 carbons, to long chain fatty acids having between 12 and 22 carbons and to very long chain fatty acids having more than 22 carbons in their chain. Adipose tissue is composed primarily of stearic acid, an 18 carbon saturated fatty acid, the same fatty acid that predominates in the fat tissue of most animal, which can be seen on red meat as a ...
The objective of the present study was to investigate the mobilization of individual fatty acids from human white fat cells. Mammary adipose tissue from eight healthy non-obese women in their normal dietary state was collected, and isolated adipocytes were incubated with lipolytic agents. The mobilization of 34 individual fatty acids was measured by comparing the composition of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with that of the triacylglycerols (TAG) from which they originated through lipolysis. Compared with TAG, NEFA were enriched in some polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18-20 carbon atoms. Conversely, the percentage of very-long-chain (20-22 carbon atoms) saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was approx. 2 times lower in NEFA than in TAG. The relative mobilization (% in NEFA/% in TAG) of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C20:5,n-3; 2.25) was more than 6-fold higher than that of the least readily mobilized (C22:1,n-11; 0.37). Relationships were found between the molecular structure of ...
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Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where appropriate. Study-specific results were combined using inverse-variance weighted ...
Fatty acids are the building blocks of oil. They are a valuable energy source and are required for a balanced diet. Fatty acids promote healthy, youthful skin and hair. Certain essential fatty acids have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within our bodies and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The fatty acid composition of olive oil varies widely depending on the variety, maturity of the fruit, altitude, climate, and several other factors.. Olive oil contains more oleic acid and less linoleic acid than other vegetable oils, that is, more monounsaturated than polyunsaturated fatty acids. This renders olive oil more resistant to oxidation and is more stable and resistant compared to other vegetable oils. Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid, prevent from the risk of coronary heart disease.. Olive oil contains essential fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 only when it is cold pressed and unrefined. ...
Omega-3 fatty acids are quite beneficial for human health. These play a vital role in lowering blood cholesterol, blood triglycerides and, hence, blood pressure. Omega-3 fatty acids are helpful in preventing heart diseases, skin diseases and auto immune disorders. The daily intake of 0.5 to 1.0 gram omega-3 fatty acids is recommended for an individual for a healthy life. The food industry is taking steps to return these healthful fatty acids to the human diets. In this regards, poultry meat and eggs can serve the purpose if enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Laying hens have the ability to absorb and deposit dietary fatty acids without considerable modification in the composition. Thus, the lipid metabolism in the hens permits the fortification of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation to increase the provision of these fatty acids which are appropriate for human consumption. This book provides the necessary information about the enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids by ...
Venäläinen TM. Lankinen MA. Schwab US. (2017). Odd-chain fatty acids as dietary biomarkers for fiber and fish intake. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 106 (3) , 954. 10.3945/ajcn.117.162347. ...
The major finding of the present study was that serum linoleic acid was inversely associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and more specifically lacunar infarction. These associations remained significant even after adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and the matching variables of age, sex, years of serum storage, and community. Further adjustment for other fatty acids such as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids did not materially alter the relation with risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke. Serum saturated fatty acids were positively associated with the risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and lacunar infarction, but these associations disappeared when adjusted further for linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The adjustment for these fatty acids may be unreliable because saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid were strongly correlated. However, the analysis is likely to be correct statistically because we verified that the relationship of ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P , 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P , 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after ...
Novel findings of the current study include: 1) significant increase in fractional myocardial dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals not explained by difference in age, body fat, central obesity markers, or sex; 2) an association between the latter myocardial metabolic abnormality and reduction in systolic and diastolic left ventricular functions and increased myocardial oxidative metabolism; and 3) no significant changes in liver and skeletal muscle dietary fatty acid uptake in IGT+ individuals. The present results extend the association between increased myocardial NEFA uptake and oxidation and IGT observed during fasting (16) to postprandial dietary fatty acids. In addition, we confirmed the findings of others of reduced subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue fractional uptake of dietary fatty acids in abdominally obese individuals (17,18). We furthermore found a direct association between impaired relative dietary fatty acid uptake in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue ...
In this prospective study, we examined the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in serum of 394 subjects to determine the role of different types of fatty acids in the incidence of breast cancer.. Overall, we did not find an association between individual or total MUFA or PUFA and breast cancer risk. The only systematic finding was a significant positive association between serum SFA levels and breast cancer risk after menopause.. Our investigation was based on blood samples collected at baseline in a prospective cohort study. The major strength of this approach is that it is very unlikely that the fatty acid profile we measured could be influenced by the presence of undetected cancer. A study on reliability of fatty acid composition in human serum phospholipids in the NYUWHS cohort (38) showed that fatty acid levels in a single blood sample per subject have a good correlation with repeat measurements after a 2-3-year interval. The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids can therefore ...
2015 Chen et al. Background: Identification of genetic variants that are associated with fatty acid composition in beef will enhance our understanding of host genetic influence on the trait and also allow for more effective improvement of beef fatty acid profiles through genomic selection and marker-assisted diet management. In this study, 81 and 83 fatty acid traits were measured in subcutaneous adipose (SQ) and longissimus lumborum muscle (LL), respectively, from 1366 purebred and crossbred beef steers and heifers that were genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip. The objective was to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the fatty acid traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acid composition using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian methods. Results: In total, 302 and 360 significant SNPs spanning all autosomal chromosomes were identified to be associated with fatty acid composition in SQ and LL tissues, respectively. ...
Natural-abundance 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used for determining noninvasively the relative concentration of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids of adipose tissue in two groups of volunteers. The first consisted of subjects who had followed a fat-reduced diet for at least half a year before the 13C measurements. The second were control subjects who were on a usual high-fat diet. The ratio of unsaturated to total fatty acids in adipose tissue determined by 13C MRS correlated significantly with the same ratio in fat of the diet composition estimated by a dietician according to food records. The results indicate that 13C MRS is capable of assessing the degree of unsaturation of dietary fatty acids consumed during the preceding months ...
A new cyanobacterial strain was isolated and purified from salt Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan. According to its morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, 16S rRNA sequence and the fatty acid profile, the strain has been classified as Cyanobacterium spp. and assigned as Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200. The strain is characterized by a non-temperature inducible Δ9-desaturation system, and by high relative amounts of myristic (14:0-30%) and myristoleic (14:1Δ9-10%) acids. The total amount of C14 fatty acids reaches 40%, which is unusually high for cyanobacteria, and it has never been reported before. The remaining fatty acids are represented mainly by palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) acids (the sum reaches nearly 60%). Such a fatty acid composition, together with a relatively high speed of growth, makes this newly isolated strain a prospective candidate for biodiesel production.
The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acids are elongated on the covalently bound 4-phosphopantetheine cofactor on ACP. ACP has a second essential function within the mitochondria in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Cells depleted of ACP are impaired in FeS cluster formation throughout the cell. ACP is a stable subunit of the cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) and Isd11 subcomplex that generates sulfide ions for FeS cluster formation. The FeS defect observed in cells depleted of ACP can be partially suppressed by overexpression of the mitochondrial iron transporter Mrs3. The stability of ACP is dependent of the iron status of mitochondria. Thus, the central role of Acp1 in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, lipoic acid formation and FeS cluster biogenesis suggests that these processes are tied to Fe availability within the mitochondria. ...
Abstract: Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers
Definition of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay? Meaning of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay as a legal term. What does plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay mean in law?
This paper reports the retention data of fatty acid methyl esters on a novel ionic liquid column, SLB-IL111, which has higher polarity than commercially available columns for gas chromatography (GC). The fatty acids analyzed using GC include branched-chain saturated fatty acids, C16-C22 monounsaturated fatty acid cis/trans and positional isomers, and polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in natural products. Fatty acids of sardine oil were also analyzed using GC. GC was carried out on a 100-m column under isothermal conditions within the range 120-170°C, using helium as a carrier gas. The retention data of fatty acid methyl esters were represented by equivalent chain length (ECL) values calculated from the retention times of each fatty acid related to those of saturated fatty acids with an even carbon number. This is novel information, obtained on an SLBIL111 column being operated at various temperatures with a single GC system. The results show that the column temperature greatly affected ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+−ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum Tb in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35°C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that
The effect of gamma radiation processing on the lipid content, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profile in frozen lamb meat was investigated. Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle from lambs fed lucerne basal diets either un
ylation is one of the main regulators of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase complex and stearoyl-ACP-desaturase in increasing the oleic acid level between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. Tenera) low and high oleic acid varieties. This study utilised advanced proteomic techniques to isolate, detect and identify chromoplast-based phosphorylated proteins associated with the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Sub-organelle isolation using differential centrifugation enriched the chromoplast fraction that contained the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes before their protein extraction. Gel-based and non-gel based mass spectrometry techniques were then employed to separate and improve the identification of key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. Protein expression was analysed using isobaric labelling strategy. Five key enzymes, namely the β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrogenase (EC 4.2.1.58 and 4.2.1.59), 3-enoyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.3.19), β-ketoacyl-ACP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pimozide, a novel fatty acid binding protein 4 inhibitor, promotes adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by activating PPARγ. AU - Wang, Yan. AU - Lin, Huang Quan. AU - Law, Wai Kit. AU - Liang, Wei Cheng. AU - Zhang, Jin Fang. AU - Hu, Jian Shu. AU - Ip, Tsz Ming. AU - Waye, Mary Miu Yee. AU - Wan, David Chi Cheong. PY - 2015/2/18. Y1 - 2015/2/18. N2 - Pimozide is a conventional antipsychotic of the diphenylbutylpiperidine class that has been clinically used for over 30 years. The obvious side effect of this drug is weight gain. However, the mechanism of pimozide-induced weight gain is still unknown. In the present study, we identified pimozide as a novel fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitor using molecular docking simulation as well as biochemical characterizations. BMS309403, a well-known FABP4 inhibitor, elevated the basal protein levels of PPARγ, therefore stimulating adipogenesis in adipocytes. The present study showed that the inhibitory effect of pimozide on FABP4 ...
Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval
Abstract The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components, and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties. Embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype × environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents, F1 and F2, of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin, China. The interaction effects of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects, while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content. Among all kinds of genetic main effects, the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids, while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids. ...
In veal and dairy beef production systems, Holstein bull calves experience many stressors and excessive pathogen exposure, necessitating the use of antimicrobials for welfare and production reasons. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to explore the effects of esterified fatty acids used as feed supplement on health, production and immune variables in veal calves. Different glycerol-esters of fatty acids were used: short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-based glycerol-mono- (C4) and tributyrate (C4), and medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)-based glycerol-monocaprylate/monocaprinate (C8/C10) and glycerol-monolaurate (C12) in two different doses. One hundred sixty eight calves (2-to 4-week-old) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups; tributyrate (0.5 g/animal/day); monobutyrate (1 g/animal/day); low C8/C10 (7 g/animal/day) and high C8/C10 (10 g/animal/day); low C12 (4 g/animal/day) and high C12 (6 g/animal/day) and a control group (CON). Duration of in-feed supplementation was 14 weeks. Average ...
Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Normal fatty acid concentrations in young children with phenylketonuria. AU - LaVoie, Stacey M.. AU - Harding, Cary. AU - Gillingham, Melanie. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine whether children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine-restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in 21 subjects (≤6 years of age) with PKU and 23 control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated fat intake than controls. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid of the sum of the ω-3, ω-6, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of fatty acids among subjects with PKU were lower than those among control subjects, but no subject with PKU exhibited any signs or ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major surface molecule of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of O-antigen polysaccharides, the core and the hydrophobic lipid A anchored in the outer membrane. Ca. Liberibacter spp. are uncultured, phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogens associated with plant diseases such as citrus greening (Huanglongbing) and potato zebra chip. L. crescens (Lcr) is a nonpathogenic, but cultured surrogate for functional genomic studies of pathogenic Ca. Liberibacters. The lipid A from Lcr has a traditional penta-acylated chitobiose backbone with two ester-linked C16:0 (3-OH) and two amide-linked C14:0 (3-OH) fatty acid residues. Lcr lipid A also contains a very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) C28:0 (26-OH), a unique feature of bacteria such as Sinorhizobium meliloti and Brucella abortus that form chronic intracellular infections within eukaryotic hosts. Absence of VLCFA-LPS in S. meliloti increases sensitivity to salt, detergents and pH etc. S. meliloti genes lpxXL (SMc04268) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incorporation and washout of orally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions. AU - van Zuijdgeest Leeuwen, S.D.. AU - Dagnelie, P.C.. AU - Rietveld, T.. AU - van den Berg, J.W.O.. AU - Wilson, J.H.P.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The aim of the present study was to quantify the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha) into plasma lipids after oral administration of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters, since little is known about the rate and pattern of incorporation into plasma lipid fractions. In addition, we aimed to obtain preliminary information regarding epa half-life, which is needed to establish an optimal dosing schedule. Five healthy volunteers ingested two 8·5 g doses of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters daily for 7 d, supplying 6·0 g epa/d and 5·3 g dha/d. The fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids (pl), cholesteryl esters (ce) and triacylglycerols (tag) were determined during supplementation and during ...
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.. ...
Expression of the gene encoding medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD), a nuclearly encoded mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme, is regulated in parallel with fatty acid oxidation rates among tissues and during development. We have shown previously that the human MCAD gene promoter contains a pleiotropic element (nuclear receptor response element [NRRE-1]) that confers transcriptional activation or repression by members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Mice transgenic for human MCAD gene promoter fragments fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene reporter were produced and characterized to evaluate the role of NRRE-1 and other promoter elements in the transcriptional control of the MCAD gene in vivo. Expression of the full-length MCAD promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transgene (MCADCAT.371) paralleled the known tissue-specific differences in mitochondrial beta-oxidation rates and MCAD expression. MCADCAT.371 transcripts were abundant in heart tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids. AU - Ravn, Helle Christine. AU - Damstrup, Marianne L.. AU - Meyer, Anne S.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE produced the highest yields of 94-95% (w/w) conversion yield at 1:3 glycerol:FAE, 25h, 66°C, enzyme dosage 3.1%w/w.. AB - Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: Time for a new approach?. AU - Astrup, Arne. AU - Bertram, Hanne C.S.. AU - Bonjour, Jean Philippe. AU - De Groot, Lisette C.P.. AU - De Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.. AU - Feeney, Emma L.. AU - Garg, Manohar L.. AU - Givens, Ian. AU - Kok, Frans J.. AU - Krauss, Ronald M.. AU - Lamarche, Benoît. AU - Lecerf, Jean Michel. AU - Legrand, Philippe. AU - McKinley, Michelle. AU - Micha, Renata. AU - Michalski, Marie Caroline. AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush. AU - Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.. PY - 2019/7/3. Y1 - 2019/7/3. N2 - The 2018 WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids recommend reducing total intake of saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The recommendations fail to take into account considerable evidence that the health effects of saturated fat varies depending on the specific fatty acid and on the specific food source. Maintaining general ...
Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1). Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These ...
The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition of microorganisms in podzolic soils of pine forests was studied in Central Siberia. The live microbial biomass in the 1-m mineral soil layer was found to gradually decrease with depth. Although the biomass decreased by half in the lower horizons, its content remained sufficiently high (12-14 nmol FAs/g soil). The coefficient of similarity in the fatty acid composition between the soils of forest and open (unforested) sites was 0.85. The coefficient of fatty acid richness in the mineral soil layer decreased with depth, while differences in fatty acid profiles increased.. ...
Fatty acid biomarkers were used to examine the diet of deep-sea holothurians. We collected 3 species from the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE Atlantic, between 800 and 4850 m in August 2001 (summer), March 2002 (pre-spring bloom), and October 2002 (autumn). Of these, 2 species, the abyssal Amperima rosea and the bathyal Bathyplotes natans, showed significant variations in fatty acid compositions. These are likely to be seasonal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were dominant within muscle tissue of both species during August 2001 and October 2002, in particular 20:4 (n-6), 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). During March 2002, prior to the spring bloom, there were substantially lower proportions of PUFAs in both species, and increased amounts of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (monoenes), particularly the bacterially-derived biomarkers 18:1 (n-7) and non-methyl uninterrupted dienes (NMIDs). In contrast, the fatty acid composition of the third species, the abyssal Deima validum, ...
The FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene of Arabidopsis is required for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids in the seed. The product of the FAE1 gene is presumed to be a condensing enzyme that extends the chain length of fatty acids from C18 to C20 and C22. We report here the cloning of FAE1 by directed transposon tagging with the maize element Activator (Ac). An unstable fae1 mutant was isolated in a line carrying Ac linked to the FAE1 locus on chromosome 4. Cosegregation and reversion analyses established that the new mutant was tagged by Ac. A DNA fragment flanking Ac was cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate FAE1 genomic clones and a cDNA clone from a library made from immature siliques. The predicted amino acid sequence of the FAE1 protein shares homology with those of other condensing enzymes (chalcone synthase, stilbene synthases, and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III), supporting the notion that FAE1 is the structural gene for a synthase or ...
Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate encouraging trends, but offer evidence that current dietary recommendations for fatty acid intake are not being met in this population. In both men and women, mean intake of total fat as a percent of energy was within recommended intake levels, as of the 2007-2009 survey. However, mean intakes of trans and SFA are higher than recommended levels, and mean intakes of DHA and EPA are lower than recommended levels.. Trans fatty acid intake, as a percent of energy, decreased by ,30% in men and women. This represents a greater decline than was observed in total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids. Similar results have been reported previously, with downward trends in intake of trans fatty acids and plasma trans fatty acid concentrations observed over time in US population groups.12-13,19 This is, however, the longest population-based survey reporting trends in trans fatty acid intake, spanning nearly 30 years. Levels of trans fatty acid ...
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFA, vitamin F) Two fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be provided by the diet. The essential fatty acids LINOLEIC ACID and ALPHA LINOLENIC ACID are polyunsaturated FATTY ACIDS, that is, they possess two or more double bonds and lack several hydrogen atoms found in saturated fatty acids. They differ in their location of double bonds, that is, bonds between carbon atoms that are deficient in hydrogen atoms. This small chemical difference has a huge nutritional impact. Linoleic acid contains 18 carbon atoms and belongs to the omega-6 family of fatty acids, in which the first double bond occurs at the sixth carbon atom of the molecular chain. Linoleic acid serves as the parent of a large polyunsaturated fatty acid, called ARACHIDONIC ACID. Arachidonic acid in turn forms PROSTAGLANDINS (PGE2) and thromboxanes (TXA,), hormone-like lipids that tend to promote blood clotting, induce pain and inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. Another ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
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Short chain fatty acids C6, C8 and C10 are used as a raw material for the production of surfactants, acid chlorides, flavor and fragrances, lubricants, biocides, coating resins and solvents. Radiacid® and Nouracid® fractionated long chain fatty acids contain a high percentage of C22 fatty acids. The Radiacid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of behenic (C22) acid in the range of 85%. Main applications are detergents and surfactants, wax emulsifiers and foam control additives, high melting esters and soaps. The Nouracid® long chain fatty acid product range contain high levels of erucic (C22:1) acid in the range of 90%. Main applications are lubricants, erucamide, surfactants, oil & gas field chemicals and long chain alcohols (see also section long chain fatty acids ...
Ethynyl-estradiol was shown to decrease the rate of biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraenic fatty acids in liver tissue and to increase the esterification of the newly synthesized fatty acids into triglycerides and phospholipids. The most distinct activation of esterification was found, if newly synthesized saturated fatty acids changed to triglycerides and tetraenic acids--into phospholipids. Ethynyl-estradiol stimulated also in liver tissue the esterification of exogenous saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into triglycerides and phospholipids, while relative esterification of unsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids tended to increase. The data obtained suggest that stimulation of endo- and exogenous fatty acids esterification into triglycerides and phospholipids of liver tissue may be important in pathogenesis of estrogen-induced hypertriglyceridemia ...
Sunflower is an important oilseed crop domesticated in North America approximately 4000 years ago. During the last century, oil content in sunflower was under strong selection. Further improvement of oil properties achieved by modulating its fatty acid composition is one of the main directions in modern oilseed crop breeding. We searched for the genetic basis of fatty acid content variation by genotyping 601 inbred sunflower lines and assessing their lipid and fatty acid composition. Our genome-wide association analysis based on the genotypes for 15,483 SNPs and the concentrations of 23 fatty acids, including minor fatty acids, revealed significant genetic associations for eleven of them. Identified genomic regions included the loci involved in rare fatty acids variation on chromosomes 3 and 14, explaining up to 34.5% of the total variation of docosanoic acid (22:0) in sunflower oil. This is the first large scale implementation of high-throughput lipidomic profiling to sunflower germplasm
Essential fatty acids are necessary to make cell membranes and for many of the important hormones and other chemical messengers that tell your body what to do. There are twenty different needed fatty acids in your body These are all made from two linoleic acid linolenic acid. Another name for linoleic fatty acid family is omega-6 fatty acids The linolenic fatty acids are often called omega-3 fatty acids. USE : Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids are especially important for making prostaglandins in your body. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that regulate many activities in your body including inflammation, pain, and swelling (some cause swelling and others relieve it). They also play a role in controlling your blood pressure, your heart, your kidneys, your digestive system, and body temperature. They are important for allergic reactions, blood clotting and making other hormones. Reference: http://www.mcvitamins.com/essential%20fatty%20acids.htm With Regards Amol Dhiman ...
We investigated the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction of the shoulder muscle (triceps brachii) from Jersey and Limousin yearling steers, yearling heifers, and non-lactating cows. The aim was to study breed, sex, and age differences. Significant breed differences in some individual fatty acids were apparent between Jersey and Limousin cows. Limousin cows had more palmitate, vaccenate, arachidonate, and less gamma-linolenate and eicosapentanoate than Jersey cows. Age differences were significant: proportions of palmitate, stearate, and oleate decreased and linoleate, arachidonate, and total polyunsaturates increased with age. Most of the breed x age interactions were not significant. Also, phospholipids of Jersey and Limousin cows did not differ in total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Yearling data revealed significant sex differences in most of the fatty acids, including total monounsaturates and polyunsaturates. Yearling steers had more myristate, ...
Fatty Acids meaning in Roman Urdu. Fatty Acids Roman Urdu meaning along with definition. Roman Urdu meaning of word Fatty Acids. Roman Urdu translation of Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids in Roman Urdu. Fatty Acids Synonyms. Fatty Acids nearby words. Fatty Acids meaning in other languages. English to Roman Urdu Dictionary gives you the best and accurate Roman Urdu meanings of Fatty Acids
Radiacid® and Nouracid® long chain fatty acids contain a high percentage of C20 and C22 fatty acids. The Radiacid® long chain fatty acid product range contains high levels of behenic (C22) acid ranging from 50 to 90%. Main applications are detergents and surfactants, wax emulsifiers and foam control additives, high melting esters and soaps. The Nouracid® long chain fatty acid product range contains high levels of gadoleic (C20:1) and erucic (C22:1) acid ranging from 10 to 90%. Main applications are lubricants, erucamide, surfactants, oil & gas field chemicals and long chain alcohols ...
The absorption of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) depends on the solubility of these components in the gastric fluid. Parameters such as the total MCFA concentration, carboxyl ionization level, and carbon chain length affect the solubility of these molecules. Moreover, the enzymatic lipolysis of solubilized triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules may depend on the carbon chain length of the fatty acids (FAs) components and their positions on the glycerol backbone. This present study aimed at investigating the effect of electrolyte usually formed during the gastric digestion phase on the solubility of MCFA, and evaluating the influence of the FA carbon chain length on the lipolysis rate during the in vitro digestion simulation. The results obtained here showed that the increasing of electrolyte concentrations tend to decrease the mutual solubility of systems composed by the caproic and caprylic fatty acids + sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride solutions. We also observed that a
Fatty acids are a widely studied group of lipids of sufficient taxonomic diversity to be useful in defining microbial community structure. The extraordinary resolution of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography can be utilized to separate and tentatively identify large numbers of fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids of estuarine detritus and marine benthic microbiota without the bias of selective methods requiring culture or recovery of the microbes. The gas-liquid chromatographic analyses are both reproducible and highly sensitive, and the recovery of fatty acids is quantitative. The analyses can be automated, and the diagnostic technique of mass spectral fragmentation analysis can be readily applied. Splitless injection on glass capillary gas chromatographic columns detected by mass spectral selective ion monitoring provides an ultrasensitive and definitive monitoring system. Reciprocal mixtures of bacteria and fungi, when extracted and analyzed, showed progressive changes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid effects on the atrial myocardium. T2 - Membrane ionic currents are remodeled by the disruption of T-tubular architecture. AU - OConnell, Ryan P.. AU - Musa, Hassan. AU - Gomez, Mario San Martin. AU - Avula, Uma Mahesh. AU - Herron, Todd J.. AU - Kalifa, Jerome. AU - Anumonwo, Justus M.B.. AU - Talkachova, Alena. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - Background: Epicardial adiposity and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are elevated in atrial fibrillation, heart failure and obesity, with potentially detrimental effects on myocardial function. As major components of epicardial fat, FFAs may be abnormally regulated, with a potential to detrimentally modulate electro-mechanical function. The cellular mechanisms underlying such effects of FFAs are unknown. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying electrophysiological effects of palmitic (PA), stearic (SA) and oleic (OA) FFAs on sheep atrial myocytes. Methods: We used electrophysiological techniques, ...
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as important pharmacological agents for improving insulin action. A major mechanism of action of PPAR agonists is thought to involve the alteration of the tissue distribution of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) uptake and utilization. To test this hypothesis directly, we examined the effect of the novel PPARalpha/gamma agonist tesaglitazar on whole-body insulin sensitivity and NEFA clearance into epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), red gastrocnemius muscle, and liver in rats with dietary-induced insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (59% of calories as fat) for 3 wk with or without treatment with tesaglitazar (1 micromol.kg(-1).d(-1), 7 d). NEFA clearance was measured using the partially metabolizable NEFA tracer, (3)H-R-bromopalmitate, administered under conditions of basal or elevated NEFA availability. Tesaglitazar improved the insulin sensitivity of high-fat-fed rats, indicated by an increase in the
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of dietary n-3 and antioxidant supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity in exercising horses. AU - PORTIER, K.. AU - DE MOFFARTS, B.. AU - FELLMAN, N.. AU - Kirschvink, Nathalie. AU - MOTTA, C.. AU - LETELLIER, C.. AU - RUELLAND, A.. AU - VAN ERCK, E.. AU - LEKEUX, P.. AU - COUDERT, J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - Suppl. 36. SP - 279. EP - 284. JO - Equine Veterinary Journal. JF - Equine Veterinary Journal. SN - 0425-1644. ER - ...
The study was published in Journal of the American Heart Association. In the Cardiovascular Health Study in the USA, 3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants. Research shows that silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people. The study found that those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood. The study also found that people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains. Previously in this same study population, similar findings were observed when comparing those ...
Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these ...
0040]In further detail, when adding the water-soluble dietary fatty acid gel formulation to water, the formulation should be added at a rate not to exceed 5 mL per second to a volume of water of 100 mL, or not more than 5 vol % of the water per second of the volume of water it is being added to. The rate of addition depends on the volume of water. Further, the water can be stirred continuously while the addition of the dietary fatty acid gel is being slowly added. The solution may be heated to increase solubility, if desired or necessary. That being said, the heating temperature is typically selected to avoid chemical breakdown of the dietary fatty acid and/or non-ionic surfactant. The temperature of the dietary fatty acid gel (dietary fatty acid/non-ionic surfactant) should not typically exceed 200° F., and the water temperature should also not typically exceed 200° F. Ideally, the temperature of both should be maintained at from 100 to 150° F., and in one embodiment, the water can ...
Medium-chain triglyceride[ Medium-chain triglyceride, MCT ] Triglycerides in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids are medium-chain fatty acids (i.e., ranging in length from 6 to 12 carbon atoms). More, MCT[ Medium-chain triglyceride, MCT ] Triglycerides in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids are medium-chain fatty acids (i.e., ranging in length from 6 to 12 carbon atoms). More ]. Triglycerides[ Triglyceride ] An ester comprising of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid molecules. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils and act as transports for fatty acids in the blood. More in which 2 or 3 of its fatty acids[ Fatty_Acid ] A carboxylic acid with a hydrocarbon chain, usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fats, oils and esters are comprised of fatty acids. In the body, fatty acids function as the building blocks of cell membranes and signalling molecules. As fuel, they have a high-energy yield (9 kcal/gram) and are the primary means of energy storage in the More ...
Study on biotransformation of �-fatty acid from fish oil was carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been chosen to be the biocatalyst for biotransformation of w fatty acids extracted from Malaysian catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The lipid from freeze-dried catfish flesh was extracted using a modified Folch method and the mixture of chloroform and methanol was used as a solvent. The crude lipid substrate was added to the bacterial culture and incubated for 4 days. After conversion, the products were analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical result showed that several fatty acids and cholesterol were found in the product. However, the fatty acids and cholesterol contents before and after biotransformation were different. The cholesterol content increased while �-fatty acid contents decreased after biotransformation process. It can be concluded that the bacterial cells had oxidized the �-fatty acids to yield precursors which can be utilized as starting ...
In order to define the substrate requirements, regiochemistry and cryptoregiochemistry of the ω-3 fatty acid desaturases involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid formation, the genes Fad3 and fat-1 from Brassica napus and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans respectively were expressed in bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Various fatty acids, including deuterium-labelled thia-fatty acids, were supplied to growing cultures of transformed yeast. The results from GC-MS analysis of the desaturated products indicate that both the plant and animal desaturases act on unsaturated substrates of 16-20 carbons with a preference for ω-6-unsaturated fatty acids. The regioselectivities of both enzymes were confirmed to be that of ω-3 desaturases. The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects at C-15 and C-16 of a C18 fatty acid analogue were measured via competitive incubation experiments. Whereas kH/kD at the ω-3 position was shown to be large, essentially no kinetic isotope effect at the ω-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of saturated fatty acids on the mutagenicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine. AU - Negishi, Tomoe. AU - Hayatsu, Hikoya. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Saturated fatty acids, C5C12, inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in E. coli WP2 uvrA/pKM101. The inhibition by laurate (C12) was due to the suppression of the enzymatic demethylation of NDMA, whereas that by caprate (C10) was simply due to the bactericidal effect of the fatty acid. Caproate (C6) did not affect the NDMA-demethylase, and evidence is presented to show that the inhibition of mutagenesis by caproate was a result of its interference with the uptake of NDMA metabolites into bacterial cells. Possible biological significance of the inhibition is discussed.. AB - Saturated fatty acids, C5C12, inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in E. coli WP2 uvrA/pKM101. The inhibition by laurate (C12) was due to the suppression of the enzymatic demethylation of NDMA, ...
Physical symptoms of fatty acid deficiency unreliable in ADHD, Sinn N, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Aug;77(2):109-15. Details. Two studies were conducted to determine whether physical signs of fatty acid deficiencies such as dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination were a good indicator of whether fatty acid supplementation could potentially improve ADHD symptoms in children both with ADHD and those without the disorder. It was found that the physical symptoms of deficiency did not reliably predict which children would have behavioural benefits from supplementation.. Sinn N. Physical fatty acid deficiency signs in children with ADHD symptoms. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Aug;77(2):109-15. Click here for the abstract. ...
The fatty acid (FA) composition of Phyllidia varicosa and Phyllidiella pustulosa (notum and viscera) was investigated. Samples were collected from coastal water of Balok - Pahang - Malaysia. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that nudibranchs species host symbiotic bacteria by using fatty acids as biological markers. A high level of fatty acids group specific to the bacteria were detected in the selected species that called odd- branched chain fatty acids. Among them, high levels of iso- anteiso-C15:0, C15:0, iso-C16:0, C17:0, iso-C17:0, iso C17:1(n-5), iso C18:0, 14-methyl-C18:0 and iso-C18:0) were found and their percentages in the notum are significantly different compared to viscera. The total odd- branched chain fatty acids were 29.64% in P. varicosa and 30.66% in P. pustulosa compared to another group of fatty acids such as saturated FA, monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA. The present study deals with the identification of cyclopropane FA in the nudibranch tissue for ...
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. Appears to be the principal fatty acid transporter in small intestinal enterocytes. Plays a role in the formation of the epidermal barrier. Required for fat absorption in early embryogenesis. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Indirectly inhibits RPE65 via substrate competition and via production of VLCFA derivatives like lignoceroyl-CoA. Prevents light-induced degeneration of rods and cones.
... contain a fatty acid chemically combined with a doubly unsaturated carbon chain linked by an oxygen ... Etheroleic acid has systematic name 12-[1′E-hexenyloxy]-9Z,11Z-dodecadienoic acid. Etherolenic acid has systematic name (9Z,11E ... These compounds, named colneleic acid (from linoleic acid) and colnelenicacid (from linolenic acid), could be also produced in ... Fatty acid hydroperoxides generated by plant lipoxygenases from linoleic and linolenic acids are known to serve as substrates ...
Carboxy-substituted furan fatty acids are known as urofuran acids. Urofuran fatty acids are metabolic products of furan fatty ... Furan fatty acids are a group of fatty acids that contain a furan ring. To this furan ring, an unbranched carboxylic acid and, ... Natural furan fatty acids are mono- or di-methylated on the furan ring. Furan fatty acids can be found in a variety of plant ... Furan fatty acids in animals are based on the uptake and accumulation of furan fatty acids from plant constituents. In human ...
... (BCFA) are usually saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches on the carbon chain. BCFAs ... Branched chain fatty acids are synthesized by the Branch-chain fatty acid synthesizing system. Ran-Ressler RR, Devapatla S, ... Branched-chain fatty acid content of foods and estimated intake in the USA. Br J Nutr. 2014;112(4):565‐572. doi:10.1017/ ... The content of branched chain fatty acids is considered to be responsible for the smell of mutton and higher content causes ...
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are important elements in controlling the anaerobic digestion process. It has two important roles: ... Volatile fatty acids can be analyzed by titration, distillation, steam distillation, and chromatography. The acceptable level ... Water Environment Research, page 53-59, Anderson, G.K. and Yang G. (1992)) Determination of Volatile Fatty Acids in ... of volatile fatty acids in environmental waters is up to 50,000 ppm. Titration provides rough results. However, it requires ...
The polyunsaturated fatty acid, 18:2 ω6c (linoleic acid), is found in soil fungi, whereas the monounsaturated fatty acid, 16:1 ... Monounsaturated fatty acids (particularly at the omega-7 position), odd-chain saturated fatty acids (e.g. 15:0), branched-chain ... Saturated fatty acids (SAFA) • 15:0 (Pentadecanoic acid) - Bacteria • Other straight chain (e.g. 16:0, Palmitic acid) - ... the fatty acid side chains between differing life forms can be quite unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:3 ω3c) are ...
List of saturated fatty acids Carboxylic acid List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Simopoulos, Artemis P. (2002). "Omega‐ ... Cervonic acid (or docosahexaenoic acid) has 22 carbons, is found in fish oil, is a 4,7,10,13,16,19-hexa unsaturated fatty acid ... CAS Registry Number 6217-54-5. Herring acid (Herring's, Nisinic acid) is a 6,9,12,15,18,21-hexa unsaturated fatty acid with 24 ... is a pentaunsaturated fatty acid. It is one of the essential fatty acids. The recommendation of ingesting fish oil supplements ...
... synthase Fatty acid synthesis Fatty aldehyde List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids List of ... plasma fatty acids), not in their ester, fatty acids are known as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) or free fatty acids (FFAs ... Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Saturated fatty acids have no C ... Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These fatty acids are widely distributed in ...
Chemically the fatty acids from animal or plant origin are identical. Therefore the origin is of no importance for the function ... The fatty acids from each source are chemically identical. The Vegan Society, which discourages eating animal-based foods, ... Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E471) refers to a naturally occurring class of food additive composed of diglycerides ... Fatty acid esters, E-number additives, Glycerol esters). ...
Omega-3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Omega−3 fatty ... Fatty acid Essential fatty acid Essential nutrient "Omega−3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid: Related terms". Omega− ... 3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved June 20, 2014. "Omega−3 Fatty Acids and Health: Fact ... Mammals are unable to synthesize omega−3 fatty acids, but can obtain the shorter-chain omega−3 fatty acid ALA (18 carbons and 3 ...
... s (FAAs) are amides formed from a fatty acid and an amine. In nature, many FAAs have ethanolamine as the amine ... Other fatty acid amides are fatty acid primary amides (FAPAs). They contain the functionality RC(O)NH2). Oleamide is an example ... Fatty acid ester McKinney, Michele K.; Cravatt, Benjamin F. (2005). "Structure and Function of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase". ... The signalling is controlled in part by fatty acid amide hydrolases, which convert the amide to the parent fatty acid. One ...
... is a conjugated trans fatty acid. Studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acids, an isomer of conjugated fatty acids, ... Conjugated fatty acids is jargon for polyunsaturated fatty acids containing at least one pair of conjugated double bonds. An ... Most unsaturated fatty acids that are doubly unsaturated do not feature conjugation, e.g., linoleic acid and linoelaidic acid. ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John (26 March 2012). "Conjugated Fatty Acid ...
... results in 10-methylstearic acid Essential fatty acid Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid synthase ThYme (database) (2010) The ... "Branched-chain Fatty Acids, Phytanic Acid, Tuberculostearic Acid Iso/anteiso- Fatty Acids". lipidlibrary.aocs.org. Lipid ... fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid ... The fatty acid synthetase used to produce omega-alicyclic fatty acids is also used to produce membrane branched-chain fatty ...
Cyclopropene fatty acids are even rarer than CPAs. The best-known examples are malvalic acid and sterculic acid. Sterculic acid ... Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are a subgroup of fatty acids that contain a cyclopropane group. Although they are usually rare ... "Carbocyclic fatty acids in plants: Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis of ... L. O. Hanus, P. Goldshlag, V. M. Dembitsky (2008). IDENTIFICATION OF CYCLOPROPYL FATTY ACIDS IN WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.) OIL. ...
... s (FAEs) are a type of ester that result from the combination of a fatty acid with an alcohol. When the alcohol ... Fatty acid ethyl esters are biomarkers for the consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages). Fatty acid amide Pragst, F; Yegles ... The most commonly used alcohol is methanol, producing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). When ethanol is used fatty acid ethyl ... Esters of fatty acids are colorless, although degraded samples are sometime appear to be yellow or even brown. The ...
A fatty acid desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from a fatty acid, creating a carbon/carbon double bond. ... This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of vegetable ... Δ9 desaturase produces oleic acid (C18H34O2; 18:1-n9) by desaturating stearic acid (SA: C18H36O2; 18:0), a saturated fatty acid ... and arachidonic acid (AA: C20H32O2; 20:4-n6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20H30O2; 20:5-n3), respectively. Fatty acids with ...
... ω-3 fatty acid: α-linolenic acid or ALA (18:3n-3) ω-6 fatty acid: linoleic acid or LA (18:2n-6) These two fatty acids cannot be ... including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids and cholesterol". ... Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid synthase Krill oil Nonclassic eicosanoid Oily fish Omega-3 fatty acid Omega-6 fatty acid ... an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). These are supplied to the body both as the free fatty acid or ...
... (FAP) is an enzyme able to decarboxylate saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids into alkane ... FAP's catalytic activity is proportional to the length of the fatty acid chain due to the number of hydrophobic chains present ... FAP preference to long-chain fatty acid produces higher turnover rate for hydrocarbons, which can then, in principle, be ... v t e (Orphaned articles from June 2018, All orphaned articles, Fatty acids, Biofuels, Enzymes, All stub articles, Biochemistry ...
... cancer cells can display irregular fatty acid metabolism with regard to both fatty acid synthesis and mitochondrial fatty acid ... "Fatty Acid Biosynthesis." Trans Fatty Acids. Oxford: Blackwell Pub., 2008. 12. Print. "MetaCyc pathway: superpathway of fatty ... The fatty acids in the fats obtained from land animals tend to be saturated, whereas the fatty acids in the triglycerides of ... Fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA by means of beta oxidation inside the mitochondria, whereas fatty acids are ...
The essential fatty acids are all omega-3 and -6 methylene-interrupted fatty acids. See more at Essential fatty acids- ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class ... Fatty acid Essential fatty acid Saturated fat Unsaturated fat Monounsaturated fat Polyunsaturated fat Buckley MT, et al. (2017 ... short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (SC-PUFA), with 18 carbon atoms long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) with ...
... (EC 1.11.2.4, fatty acid hydroxylase (ambiguous), P450 peroxygenase, CYP152A1, P450BS, P450SPalpha) is ... or 2-hydroxy fatty acid + H2O Fatty-acid peroxygenase is a cytosolic heme-thiolate protein. Matsunaga I, Yamada M, Kusunose E, ... Fatty-acid+peroxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 1.11.2). ... novel fatty acid beta-hydroxylating cytochrome P450". Lipids. 34 (8): 841-6. doi:10.1007/s11745-999-0431-3. PMID 10529095. Imai ...
... is the process in which fatty acids are broken down into their metabolites, in the end generating acetyl ... Fatty acids must be activated before they can be carried into the mitochondria, where fatty acid oxidation occurs. This process ... The mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids takes place in three major steps: β-oxidation occurs to convert fatty acids into 2- ... During the breakdown of triacylglycerols into fatty acids, more than 75% of the fatty acids are converted back into ...
Fatty acid synthesis Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid degradation Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase List of fatty acid ... Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene. Fatty acid synthase is a multi-enzyme ... Biology portal Fatty+Acid+Synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Fatty Acid Synthesis ... Jayakumar A, Chirala SS, Wakil SJ (1997). "Human fatty acid synthase: assembling recombinant halves of the fatty acid synthase ...
... may refer to: Omega-3 fatty acid Omega-6 fatty acid Omega-7 fatty acid Omega-9 fatty acid This disambiguation ... page lists articles associated with the title Omega fatty acid. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
In enzymology, a fatty-acid peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction palmitate + 2 H2O2 ⇌ {\ ... alpha-Oxidation of long chain fatty acids". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2548-54. PMID 14421733. Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.11.1, ... This enzyme is also called long chain fatty acid peroxidase. MARTIN RO, STUMPF PK (1959). "Fat metabolism in higher plants. XII ...
In enzymology, a Delta12-fatty acid dehydrogenase (EC 1.14.99.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction linoleate ... "Biosynthesis of an Acetylenic Fatty Acid in Microsomal Preparations from Developing Seeds of Crepis Alpina.". In Williams JP, ... Other names in common use include crepenynate synthase and linoleate Delta12-fatty acid acetylenase (desaturase). Banas A, ... This enzyme participates in linoleic acid metabolism. The systematic name of this enzyme class is linoleate, hydrogen-donor: ...
... fatty-acid O-methyltransferase. Other names in common use include fatty acid methyltransferase, and fatty acid O- ... a fatty acid methyl ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and fatty acid, whereas its two ... In enzymology, a fatty-acid O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Akamatsu Y, Law JH (1970). "The enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by carboxyl group alkylation". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... inhibitors directly inhibits fatty acid beta-oxidation. pFOX directly inhibits fatty acid beta-oxidation. Liepinsh, E; ... Fatty acid oxidation inhibitors are a new potent class of drugs used in treatment of stable angina pectoris and an addition in ... Partial fatty acid oxidation inhibitors: a potentially new class of drugs for heart failure; European Journal of Heart Failure ... CPT-I inhibitors: Etomoxir, Oxfenicine, Perhexiline CPT-I (carnitine palmitoyl transferase) converts fatty acyl-CoA to fatty ...
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that ... Olive oil regulation and adulteration Omega-3 fatty acid Omega-7 fatty acid Omega-9 fatty acid Ratio of fatty acids in ... Biology portal Medicine portal Cattle feeding Essential fatty acid interactions Essential nutrients Inflammation Linolenic acid ... Fatty acids, Essential nutrients, Treatment of bipolar disorder, Alkenoic acids). ...
... (EC 1.14.19.5, Delta11 desaturase, fatty acid Delta11-desaturase, TpDESN, Cro-PG, Delta11 fatty ... Delta11-fatty-acid+desaturase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (EC ... Tonon T, Harvey D, Qing R, Li Y, Larson TR, Graham IA (April 2004). "Identification of a fatty acid Delta11-desaturase from the ... 2 H2O The enzyme from the marine microalga Thalassiosira pseudonana desaturates palmitic acid 16:0 to 16:1Delta11, whereas that ...
The free fatty acid receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor which binds free fatty acids. There are four variants of the ... "Free Fatty Acid Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... "FFAR2-FFAR3 receptor heteromerization modulates short-chain fatty acid sensing". The FASEB Journal. 32 (1): -201700252RR. doi: ...
Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ... Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, folic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity ... Acetic acid - acidity regulator Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Acetone Acetylated ... and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Lactitol - humectant Lactose - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and ...
Hossen, M.S. (2014). "Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on gonadal maturation and spawning of striped gourami, ...
While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic ... Fatty Acids. 73 (3-4): 141-62. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2005.05.002. PMID 16005201. Wang Q1, He Y, Shen Y, Zhang Q, Chen D, Zuo C, ... Fatty Acids. 66 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1054/plef.2001.0335. PMID 12051953. Saukkonen K, Rintahaka J, Sivula A, Buskens CJ, Van Rees ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ...
"Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid ...
328 Nylon intermediates TiPure Titanium dioxide process Ink jet ink technology H2SO4 process New Harvest omega-3 fatty acid ... Diamine dicarboxylic acid salt' issued and U.S. Patent 2,130,948 'Synthetic fibers', all issued 20 September 1938 D. Tanner, J ... 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides Sulfonylurea herbicides and preemergent herbicides Ludox colloidal silica Vazo free ... Pedersen Plenish high oleic acid soybean oil Building 356 Potassium titanyl phosphate frequency doubling crystals for eye and ...
Stokes, A; and Duda K. Comparison of Fatty Acid Ligands in Human HNF4-α Activity and its Role in Diabetes [Abstract]. Ga. J. ... "Crystal structure of the HNF4 alpha ligand binding domain in complex with endogenous fatty acid ligand". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (41 ...
Fatty acids, for example, are the primary macromolecules for energy storage in cnidarians, and mainly are obtained from their ...
Harlow, H.J.; Frank, C.L. (2001). "The role of dietary fatty acids in the evolution of spontaneous and facultative hibernation ... They also increase the availability of certain essential amino acids in the muscle, as well as regulate the transcription of a ...
June 2017). "Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors produce rapid anti-anxiety responses through amygdala long-term depression ... PF-3845 is a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. It results in increased levels of anandamide and results in ... of FAAH produces antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effect mediated by endocannabinoids and cannabinoid-like fatty acid amides ...
"Complete genome sequence and identification of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis genes of the myxobacterium Minicystis ... Myxobacteria are also known to produce gephyronic acid, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis and a potential agent for ... Sasse F, Steinmetz H, Höfle G, Reichenbach H (January 1995). "Gephyronic acid, a novel inhibitor of eukaryotic protein ...
Vreeland, H; Rosenzweig, W D; Lowenstein, T; Satterfield, C; Ventosa, A (December 2006). "Fatty acid and DNA analyses of ... Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... Kozlowski, LP (26 October 2016). "Proteome-pI: proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112- ... to metabolize other amino acids, as well. H. salinarum have been reported to be unable to grow on sugars, and therefore need to ...
The oil's fatty acid composition is dominated by linoleic acid (64.5%) and oleic acid (17.1%). "Squashes, Gourds and Pumpkins ...
Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups: in animals and fungi, all these fatty acid synthase ... Fats are catabolized by hydrolysis to free fatty acids and glycerol. The glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids are ... The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty ...
... oral ursodeoxycholic acid can alleviate the condition. A trial of bile acid sequestrant therapy is recommended for bile acid ... Thus, it may be insufficient for the digestion of fatty foods. Postcholecystectomy syndrome treatment depends on the identified ... Chronic diarrhea in postcholecystectomy syndrome is a type of bile acid diarrhea (type 3). This can be treated with a bile acid ... Okoro N, Patel A, Goldstein M, Narahari N, Cai Q (July 2008). "Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment for patients with ...
... produces edible seeds high in protein and in the omega-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). Salvia involucrata: roseleaf sage ...
... fatty acid transporter), member 2". Perez VM, Gabell J, Behrens M, Wase N, DiRusso CD, Black PN (2020). "Deletion of fatty acid ... initial characterization and relationship to fatty acid transport protein". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6 ... all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in ... The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ...
... is an oil-soluble compound structurally similar to a fatty acid, and it leaches into the body of the fruit from the ...
... is a saturated fatty acid produced by Actinomycetales bacteria. The name 'Tuberculostearic acid' was ... Fatty acids, Alkanoic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... "Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by detection of tuberculostearic acid in cerebrospinal fluid". The Lancet. 330 (8551): 117- ...
... initial characterization and relationship to fatty acid transport protein". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 60 (5-6 ... Long-chain fatty acid transport protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC27A6 gene. This gene encodes a ... member of the fatty acid transport protein family (FATP). FATPs are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and have ... Hirsch D, Stahl A, Lodish HF (1998). "A family of fatty acid transporters conserved from mycobacterium to man". Proc. Natl. ...
"Structural basis of the binding of fatty acids to peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP-S through second binding site". ... He had developed the rules of peptide design with alpha, beta - dehydro - amino acids through extensive studies using syntheses ... structure of the ternary complex of PGRP-S with lipopolysaccharide and stearic acid". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e53756. Bibcode: ...
Sea cucumbers have high amounts of health benefits to humans, they provide high amounts of protein and fatty acids. They are ... Holothuria tubulosa has been investigated as a new source for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and the production of bioactive ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium ...
White, Stephen W.; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O. (2005). "The Structural Biology of Type II Fatty Acid ...
According to The Atlantic, "they have the rare ability to transform vegetarian feed into sought-after omega-3 fatty acids. ...
Her research interests have included trans fatty acids; soy protein and isoflavones; sterol and stanol esters; modified ... be a shame if people overconsumed grass-fed beef in the false hope that it contains a generous amount of omega-3 fatty acids ... vegetable oils with different fatty acid profiles, glycemic indexes and biomarkers of nutrient and food intake. Investigations ...
The free fatty acid content of dried fruit bodies was 4.5%, slightly more than the common button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), ... which had 3.5%. The majority of this total was oleic acid (1.95%), followed by linoleic acid (1.68%) and palmitic acid (1.69 ... and free fatty acid contents of some wild edible mushrooms from Querétaro, México". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ... 121-2. ISBN 978-0-472-03126-9. León-Guzmán MF, Silva I, López MG (1997). "Proximate chemical composition, free amino acid ...
Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic (PDF). World Rev Nutr Diet. World Review of ... 19 February 2019). "Exceptionally high δ15N values in collagen single amino acids confirm Neandertals as high-trophic level ... Isotope analyses performed on single amino acids in Neanderthals' collagen samples shed new light on their debated diet". ...
When lipase activity is blocked, triglycerides from the diet are not hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids, and instead ... Orlistat was also found to inhibit the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase (FAS), an enzyme involved in the ... "Crystal structure of the thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase inhibited by Orlistat". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14 (8 ... Devarajan U (1 March 2009). "Fatty issues". The Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 26 ...
... also referred to as undecylenic acid and undecenoic acid, is a type of unsaturated fatty acid that inhibits fungal growth on ... Salts of undecylenic acid such as zinc undecenoate and calcium undecenoate are commonly formulated into antifungal creams, ... Undecenoic acid and its salt forms are applied topically to treat superficial dermatophytosis, in particular tinea corporis ( ... It appears that the medication works by causing depletion of important substrates such as amino acids and/or ions within fungal ...
Astaxanthin is an extremely valuable poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is valued for its use as a pigment, nutritional ...
The Business Research Company offers tall oil fatty acid market research report 2022 with industry size, share, segments and ... The main product types of tall oil fatty acid are oleic acid, linoleic acid, and others. Oleic acid is a type of fatty acid ... The different applications of tall oil fatty acid include dimer acid, alkyd resin, fatty acid ester, and others and are ... Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Other Products), By Application (Dimer Acid, Alkyd Resin, Fatty Acid Ester, Other Applications), By ...
... including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. ... Linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, and α-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, are considered essential fatty ... Table 1. Names and Abbreviations of the Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Omega-3 Fatty Acids. ... The parent fatty acid of the omega-6 series is linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and the parent fatty acid of the omega-3 series is ...
Impact of a municipal policy restricting trans fatty acid use in New York City restaurants on serum trans fatty acid levels in ... Suggested citation for this article: Li C, Cobb LK, Vesper HW, Asma S. Global Surveillance of trans-Fatty Acids. Prev Chronic ... Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2006;354(15):1601-13. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal icon ... Trans-fatty acid (TFA) intake increases the risk of morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease and all-cause ...
They have no proven health benefits and are different than omega-3 fatty acids. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats found in some plant oils and seeds. ... Adding the omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid to infant formula, along with an omega-3 fatty acid called ... Impact of enteral supplements enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-6 fatty acids, arginine and ribonucleic acid ...
Lipid fractionation studies showed that by 10 min these two beta-hydroxy fatty acids were distributed approximately as 60% ... free fatty acids. All three chemical forms of beta-hydroxypalmitate were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. After ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ...
What causes cellular inflammation is an increase in the omega-6 fatty acid known as arachidonic acid (AA). From this fatty acid ... There are two omega-3 fatty acids in the brain. The first is called docosahexaenoic acid or DHA. This is primarily a structural ... The other is called eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA. This is the primary anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acid for the brain. So if ... "A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression." ...
Global protocol for measuring fatty acid profiles of foods, with emphasis on monitoring trans-fatty acids originating from ... Trans-fatty acids (‎TFAs)‎, or trans-fats, are an important public health problem that has many negative consequences for human ... Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis  ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, mental health, and ...
ACIDS, TALLOW, FATTY ACIDS, TALLOW, TALLOW ACID, TALLOW ACIDS, TALLOW FATTY ACID, and TALLOW FATTY ACIDS This ingredient is not ... Tallow Acid is a mixture of fatty acids derived from Tallow (q.v.). ...
Short-chain fatty acids feature a regulatory function in the cell metabolism of fatty acids, glucose and cholesterol in various ... are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Although these acids are known to be absorbed ... which greatly involves the SCFA-specific receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3). ... saturated fatty acids. Brit J Nutr 2002; Suppl 1: S95S99.. Bornet FR, Brouns F, Tashiro Y, Duvillier V. Nutritional aspects of ...
This page contains information about the effects of Omega-3 fatty acids on Diabetic Neuropathy Updated 5-04-2018 http://www. ... and Omega-3 Fatty Acids This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: [email protected] ... Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and Visual Loss in Infant Rhesus Monkeys. J Clin Invest 1984 (Jan); 73 (1): 272 6. These ... Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy with Gamma-linolenic Acid.. The Gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group. Diabetes Care ...
Yeast cell modified to overproduce fatty acid and fatty acid-derived compounds Patent Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D. ... Microorganisms and methods for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derived products Patent Lynch, Michael; Louie, ... Microorganisms and methods for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derived products Patent Liao, Hans; Spindler, ... Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives Patent Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Abidi, Syed ...
The recommendations of The Netherlands Health Council are: saturated fatty acids ,10% energy intake; trans-fatty acids ,1% ... fatty acids adversely affect the lipoprotein profile relative to specific saturated fatty acids in humans. Journal of Nutrition ... gain that can be achieved if the fatty acid composition of the current Dutch diet is replaced by the recommended fatty acid ... Pietinen, P, Ascherio, A, Korhonen, P, Hartman, AM, Willett, WC, Albanes, D & Virtamo, J (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk ...
Preterm infants may benefit from fatty acids 10-May-2005. Feeding formulas containing fatty acids such as docosahexanoic acid ( ... Arachidonic acid developed to sidestep patent 15-May-2002. Spanish fatty acids company Brudy said it has launched a ... Increased intakes of omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid may double the risk of ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel ... Supplements of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) boosted the AA content in the breast milk of lactating mothers, ...
During the nocturnal fast or longer starvation periods, this protects the brain, which cannot oxidize fatty acids. In 1977, we ... the liver generates ketones by breaking down fatty acids. ... Malonyl-CoA: the regulator of fatty acid synthesis and ... the substrate of fatty acid synthesis, was also an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. Subsequent experiments have borne out ... In the catabolic state with no food intake, the liver generates ketones by breaking down fatty acids. During the nocturnal fast ...
... arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator ... PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, ... precursor to the n-6 series of fatty acids) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) (precursor to the n-3 series of fatty acids) ... The n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been shown to be more potent as in vivo activators of PPARα than the n-6 fatty acids [59- ...
Determination of the fatty acid composition of nuts using established methods for GC analysis on capillary columns of 3 ... Both ALA and linoleic acid are the predominant essential fatty acids in humans2. For peanuts, the most abundant fatty acid was ... The relative percentages of the fatty acids detected in the extracts were calculated as percent of total fatty acid methyl ... For example, α-linolenic acid, or "ALA", is an unsaturated fatty acid found in flax seeds and walnuts1. ALA is a precursor to ...
Fatty acids are divided into two categories: essential and non-essential. The human body can produce non-essential fatty acids ... Linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid […] Continue reading → ... There are two main types of essential fatty acids (also known as Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids or PUFA for short). They are the ... Essential Fatty Acids. Evening Primrose Oil: An Essential Fatty Acid with Benefits. ...
Omega-3 fatty acids (image) Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s ( ... acids, so you must get them from food. Omega-3 fatty acids are good for your heart in several ways. ... ... Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for ... have heart disease ... oil is one of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Eating flaxseeds can help boost your omega-3s. However, the main type of ...
... ... LONG-CHAIN-FATTY-ACID--COA LIGASE (FADD-1) ...
As sum of total glycerol esters of fatty acids and acetic, citric, lactic and tartaric acids, provided that the total food ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (WHO Food Additives Series 5) ... LACTIC AND FATTY ACID ESTERS OF GLYCEROL. Synonyms:. LACTIC ACID ESTERS OF MONO- AND DIGLYCERIDES; LACTOGLYCERIDES. ...
Omega-3 fatty acids. Class Summary. When used at high dose, omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to inhibit the production of ... or omega-3 fatty acids); antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine); and, if needed, infrequent oral or intra-articular corticosteroid ... Inhibits gastric acid secretion by inhibition of the H+/K+ -ATPase enzyme system in gastric parietal cells. May be effective to ...
Omega-3 fatty acids reverse nerve and spine damage ... Omega-3 fatty acids reverse nerve and spine damage. Reprinting ... Four research-proven ways omega-3 fatty acids treat depression. Omega-3 fatty acid intake banishes inflammation and changes ... Omega-3 fatty acids reverse nerve and spine damage. Saturday, September 14, 2013 by: Raw Michelle. Tags: omega-3, nerve damage ... DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is beneficial in the repartition of damaged cells. All of the rats suffered from spinal cord injury ...
Oils Fatty Acids flax seed oil omega3 omega6 margarine ... Oils that contain Essential Fatty Acids Fatty acid composition ... Healing fats are oils that contain Essential Fatty Acids.. What Are Essential Fatty Acids?. Word Essential is used in ... This process destroys the essential fatty acids in the oil and replaces them with deformed trans fatty acids. These trans fats ... Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) Chemical Formulas. This EFA is called Linoleic Acid (LA) and is poly-unsaturated. LA is an 18 ...
Carboxylic acid metabolism * Fatty acid synthesis and degradation * RM018 Beta oxidation in acyl-CoA degradation ... Fatty acid metabolism - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Image file , Help ] ... M00082 Fatty acid biosynthesis, initiation * M00083 Fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation * M00873 Fatty acid biosynthesis in ... RM020 Fatty acid synthesis using acetyl-CoA (reversal of RM018) * RM021 Fatty acid synthesis using malonyl-CoA ...
Essential fatty acid (EFA), also known as polyunsaturated fat, is not made by the body, so it is essential to get EFA from food ... Another type of omega-3 fatty acid is found in fatty fish and shellfish as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ... Essential fatty acid (EFA), also known as polyunsaturated fat, is not made by the body, so it is essential to get EFA from food ... Omega-6 fatty acids, which are found mostly in liquid vegetable oils like soybean oil, corn oil, and safflower oil. ...
Fatty acid 102 results for Fatty acid Sort by. Relevance. Customer reviews. Number of references. Recently added. Alphabetical ... Free Fatty Acid Uptake Assay Kit (Fluorometric) (ab176768) Reviews (1) Specific References (17) ... Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody [EPR7465] (ab128856) Reviews (5) Specific References (12) ... Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody [EPR7465] - BSA and Azide free (ab227083) Specific References (1) ...
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Omega-3 fatty acids. Class Summary. When used at high dose, omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to inhibit the production of ... or omega-3 fatty acids); antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine); and, if needed, infrequent oral or intra-articular corticosteroid ... Inhibits gastric acid secretion by inhibition of the H+/K+ -ATPase enzyme system in gastric parietal cells. May be effective to ...
Omega Fatty Acids: Trends in the Worldwide Food and Beverage Markets, 2nd Edition, market research publisher Packaged Facts ... estimates that the omega fatty acid global market grew 36% between 2007 and 2008. ... Packaged Facts estimates that the omega fatty acid global market grew 36% between 2007 and 2008.. The market for omega-3 fatty ... "The upsurge of products enriched with omega fatty acids began in earnest in 2006 and the market is believed to be many years ...

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