Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.GeeseFatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.TriglyceridesAcyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Thiolester HydrolasesStearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Coenzyme AChromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Mycolic AcidsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thymidylate Synthase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase: A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedStarvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)CyclopropanesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.EstersNevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell: A benign compound nevus occurring most often in children before puberty, composed of spindle and epithelioid cells located mainly in the dermis, sometimes in association with large atypical cells and multinucleate cells, and having a close histopathological resemblance to malignant melanoma. The tumor presents as a smooth to slightly scaly, round to oval, raised, firm papule or nodule, ranging in color from pink-tan to purplish red, often with surface telangiectasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseArachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.DucksSulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Lauric Acids: 12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Neoplasms, Mesothelial: Neoplasms composed of tissue of the mesothelium, the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, which lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous epithelium which covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura). The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in these organs. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
... morin was found to be a weak inhibitor of fatty acid synthase with an IC50 of 2.33 μM. Morin was also found to inhibit amyloid ... "Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase by Polyphenols". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (8): 967-977. doi:10.2174/092986706776361012 ...
Fako, V.E., J.-T. Zhang, and J.-Y. Liu, Mechanism of Orlistat Hydrolysis by the Thioesterase of Human Fatty Acid Synthase. ACS ... 49(12): 755-9. Flavin, R., et al., Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in cancer. Future Oncol, 2010. 6(4): p ... R. Pandey, P., et al., Anti-Cancer Drugs Targeting Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS). Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, ... Orlistat is also a potent thioesterase inhibitor and therefore inhibits fatty acid synthase (FAS). Since FAS is essential for ...
Fatty acid biosynthesis is carried out by the ubiquitous Fatty Acid Synthase. Fatty acid synthase pathways are divided into two ... fatty acid biosynthesis yields the most energy dense products. As a result, microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as a ... In Type I, Fatty Acid Synthase (found in humans and other mammals) is a single large polypeptide composed of several distinct ... Yu X, Liu T, Zhu F, Khosla C (Nov 2011). "In vitro reconstitution and steady-state analysis of the fatty acid synthase from ...
... s acylated derivatives have a fatty acid synthase inhibitory activity. It has the A03AX12 code in the A03AX Other ... "Fatty acid synthase inhibitory activity of acylphloroglucinols isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma". Bioorganic & Medicinal ... The anthelmintic activity of the root of Dryopteris filix-mas has been claimed to be due to flavaspidic acid, a phloroglucinol ... A solution of hydrochloric acid and phloroglucinol is also used for the detection of lignin (Wiesner test). A brilliant red ...
Tian, WX (February 2006). "Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase by Polyphenols". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (8): 967-977. doi ... morin was found to be a weak inhibitor of fatty acid synthase with an IC50 of 2.33 μM.[2] Morin was also found to inhibit ...
Allene oxide synthase (CYP74A; EC 4.2.1.92), fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (CYP74B), prostacyclin synthase (CYP8; EC 5.3.99.4 ... Fatty acid β-hydroxylase P450BSβ from Bacillus subtilis (CYP152A1) and fatty acid α-hydroxylase P450SPα from Pseudomonas ... Substrates for all these enzymes are fatty acid derivatives containing partially reduced dioxygen (either hydroperoxy or ... catalyse the hydroxylation reaction of long-chain fatty acids using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidant. These enzymes do ...
Lee, JS; Sul, JY; Park, JB; Lee, MS; Cha, EY; Song, IS; Kim, JR; Chang, ES (2013). "Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibition by ... be mediated by its inhibition of fatty acid synthase), and antagonist activity at the κ-opioid receptor (Ke = 490 nmol L−1) as ... "Fatty acid synthase inhibition by amentoflavone induces apoptosis and antiproliferation in human breast cancer cells" (PDF). ... "Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by amentoflavone reduces coxsackievirus B3 replication". Arch. Virol. 157 (2): 259-269. doi: ...
The acylphloroglucinols (flavaspidic acids) isolated from D. crassirhizoma show in vitro antibacterial and fatty acid synthase ... Na, M; Jang, J; Min, BS; Lee, SJ; Lee, MS; Kim, BY; Oh, WK; Ahn, JS (2006). "Fatty acid synthase inhibitory activity of ... Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, Jin Cheol; Lee, Sang Myung (2009). "Antibacterial activity of two phloroglucinols, flavaspidic acids AB ...
Fatty acid synthase Pantothenic acid Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein ... First, the intermediates remain covalently linked to the synthases (or synthetases) in an energy-rich thiol ester linkage. ...
He has studied numerous enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase. He has written several books, ...
Fatty acid synthase from yeast at 0.59 nanometer resolution. This huge enzyme complex is responsible for building the long ... "Direct structural insight into the substrate-shuttling mechanism of yeast fatty acid synthase by electron cryomicroscopy". ... chain fatty acids essential for cellular life. A 0.33 nanometer reconstruction of Aquareovirus. These viruses infect fish and ... The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side chain densities easily visible. EM Data Bank (EM Data ...
"Arabidopsis Peroxisomal Citrate Synthase Is Required for Fatty Acid Respiration and Seed Germination". The Plant Cell. 17 (7): ... Smith was also instrumental in defining pathways of energy metabolism involving peroxisomes, particularly fatty acid beta- ... Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, Ian Alexander (1989). Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant ...
... was also recently found to inhibit the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase (FAS), an enzyme involved in the ... "Crystal structure of the thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase inhibited by Orlistat". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14 (8 ... When lipase activity is blocked, triglycerides from the diet are not hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids, and instead ... Devarajan, Uma (1 March 2009). "Fatty issues". The Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 26 November 2009. Jeanne Whalen (20 April 2012 ...
2004). "The isopeptidase USP2a regulates the stability of fatty acid synthase in prostate cancer". Cancer Cell. 5 (3): 253-61. ...
The encoded protein may be part of a fatty acid synthase complex that is more like the type II prokaryotic and plastid ... and interaction of two components of a human mitochondrial fatty acid synthase. Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". ...
... and expression of human myocardial fatty acid ethyl ester synthase-III cDNA". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (25): 16774-7. PMID 1885604. ...
2004). "C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, reduces food intake via hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem ... 2004). "C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, modulates AMP-activated protein kinase to alter neuronal energy metabolism". J. ... key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator ... Pilon G, Dallaire P, Marette A (2004). "Inhibition of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by activators of AMP-activated protein ...
... it has been reported to bind in equimolar ratio to b-keto-acyl-ACP synthase, one of the seven moieties of fatty acid synthase, ... Cerulenin is an antifungal antibiotic that inhibits fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis. In fatty acid synthesis, ... July 2004). "Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) suppresses HER2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene overexpression in cancer cells". ... and targeting of fatty acid synthase by related drugs has been suggested as a possible treatment. Antiproliferative and pro- ...
"Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Polyketide Synthases in Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes". Science. 293 (5528): 290 ... Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus )". PLOS ONE. 11 (6): e0156684. doi: ... Yue Jiang, King-Wai Fan, Raymond Tsz-Yeung Wong & Feng Chen (2004). "Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine ... DHA synthesis in Schizochytrium does not involve membrane-bound desaturases or fatty acid elongation enzymes such as those ...
Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups: in animals and fungi, all these fatty acid synthase ... The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid ... Fats are catabolised by hydrolysis to free fatty acids and glycerol. The glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids are ...
An acetyl CoA is further elongated using malonyl-CoA by fatty acid synthase to form butyryl-CoA. Further elongation of butyryl- ... 2 abgebildet." (An illustration of the crystalline acid, see Fig. 1 ; the sodium salt of conium acid is depicted in Fig. 2.) ... The influence of certain inorganic haloids on the optical rotatory powers of α-hydroxy-acids, α-amino-acids, and their ... pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid) and some of its derivatives under varying conditions, that it must belong to the ...
This conclusion is supported by the discovery of Type II Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) machinery in the apicoplast. The apicoplast ... If unable to synthesize sufficient fatty acids the parasite is unable to form the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is ... The apicoplast has also been implicated with heme synthesis and amino acid synthesis. It is also suggested to have a role in ...
Most likely, all of the synthases are located on one megasynthase much like a type I fatty acid synthase. Based on mutant ... Genes encoding for the seven component hybrid synthase responsible for the assembly of the backbone is likely located on the ... This is done by tethering the amino acid to a peptidal carrier protein via a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. Subsequently ... Finally, condensation of 2,3-diaminopropionate with the carried molecule by a second nonribosomalpeptide synthase produces the ...
Chirala SS, Wakil SJ (November 2004). "Structure and function of animal fatty acid synthase". 》Lipids》 39 (11): 1045-53. doi: ... "Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids》 79 (3-5): 147-52. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2008.09.008. PMC 2639783. PMID ... Riediger ND, Othman RA, Suh M, Moghadasian MH (April 2009). "A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and ... Malinauskas T (March 2008). "Docking of fatty acids into the WIF domain of the human Wnt inhibitory factor-1". 》Lipids》 43 (3 ...
"Effects of Pyrazinamide on Fatty Acid Synthesis by Whole Mycobacterial Cells and Purified Fatty Acid Synthase I". Journal of ... Pyrazinoic acid was thought to inhibit the enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) I, which is required by the bacterium to synthesize ... Zimhony O, Cox JS, Welch JT, Vilchèze C, Jacobs WR (2000). "Pyrazinamide inhibits the eukaryotic-like fatty acid synthetase I ( ... fatty acids although this has been discounted. It was also suggested that the accumulation of pyrazinoic acid disrupts membrane ...
These fatty acids inhibitors have been used as drugs to relieve pain because they can act as the substrate, and bind to the ... For example, sulfanilamide competitively binds to the enzyme in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) active site by mimicking ... Essential fatty acids form the prostaglandins and when this was discovered, it turned out that these were actually very good ... Bacteria must synthesize folic acid because they do not have a transporter for it. Without folic acid, bacteria cannot grow and ...
Fatty Acid Synthase: RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month. *3D electron microscopy structures of fatty acid synthase from the EM Data ... FASN, fatty acid synthase, Fasn, A630082H08Rik, FAS, OA-519, SDR27X1, Fatty acid synthase. ... "Human fatty acid synthase: assembling recombinant halves of the fatty acid synthase subunit protein reconstitutes enzyme ... Fatty acid synthase is a multi-enzyme protein that catalyzes fatty acid synthesis. It is not a single enzyme but a whole ...
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Keywords: Akt signaling; Anticancer; Antiobesity; Black tea; Fatty acid synthase (FAS); Green tea; HepG2 cells; JNK signaling; ... Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. Overexpression of FAS is dominant in cancer cells and proliferative ... Pu-erh Tea Supplementation Suppresses Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Rat Liver Through Downregulating Akt and JNK ...
Volpe JJ, Marasa JC: Hormonal regulation of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthesis in mammalian ... Liu LH, Wang XK, Hu YD, Kang JL, Wang LL, Li S: Effects of a fatty acid synthase inhibitor on adipocyte differentiation of ... Yin D, Clarke SD, Peters JL, Etherton TD: Somatotropin-dependent decrease in fatty acid synthase mRNA abundance in 3T3-F442A ... Yin D, Griffin MJ, Etherton TD: Analysis of the signal pathways involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthase gene ...
Rabbit polyclonal Fatty Acid Synthase antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen ... Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody. See all Fatty Acid Synthase primary antibodies. ... Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This ... A region within amino acids 2462-2511 of Human Fatty Acid Synthase (NP_004095.4). ...
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This ... Fatty acid synthaseAdd BLAST. 2505. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This ... Fatty acid synthase (EC:2.3.1.85). Including the following 7 domains:. [Acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase (EC:2.3.1.38) ...
... for Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody used in Western blot. Abcam provides excellent in-house scientific support ...
... ... "MMDB and VAST+: tracking structural similarities between macromolecular complexes.Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan; 42(Database ... 2s,3s,5s)-5-[(N-Formyl-L-Leucyl)oxy]-2-Hexyl-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoic Acid. ...
A second paper by Bans group reveals that the carrier protein places a fatty acid intermediate in a ketoacyl synthase active ... Home > Volume 85 Issue 16 > scic > Sharper image of fatty acid synthase ... The gargantuan 2.6-megadalton protein complex that catalyzes the iterative assembly of fungal fatty acids has just come into ... A special carrier protein shuttles intermediates around the reaction chamber; the fatty acid chain length increases by two ...
Oncogenic properties of the endogenous fatty acid metabolism: molecular pathology of fatty acid synthase in cancer cells. Curr ... Fatty acid synthase as a tumor marker: its extracellular expression in human breast cancer. J Exp Ther Oncol 2004; 4: 101-110. ... Extracellular Fatty Acid Synthase: A Possible Surrogate Biomarker of Insulin Resistance. Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real, Javier A. ... Extracellular Fatty Acid Synthase: A Possible Surrogate Biomarker of Insulin Resistance. Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real, Javier A. ...
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Fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed in most bacteria by a group of highly conserved proteins known as the type II fatty acid ... Product diversity and regulation of type II fatty acid synthases.. Lu YJ1, Zhang YM, Rock CO. ... multiple mechanisms to generate unsaturated fatty acids and the accessory components required for branched-chain fatty acid ... However, newly identified transcriptional factors in bacterial fatty acid biosynthetic pathways are a fertile field for new ...
An Overview of Pipeline Products for Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitor 4. Comparative Analysis. 5. Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) ... Table 2: Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Clinical Stages. Table 3: Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) ... Figure 2: Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Clinical Stages. Figure 3: Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) ... Pipeline Therapeutics assessment of products for Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Inhibitor The report assesses the active Fatty Acid ...
The fatty acids found in the human circulation are mainly palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. It has been suggested ... PGI2 synthase activity was assessed in vivo after fatty acid infusion in rats. Finally, the in vivo effects of FFA-induced ROS ... the albumin concentrations used to bind the fatty acids were so low that the relevance of these observations to fatty acid ... Oleic acid, pure fatty acid-free albumin, and NA were from Sigma-Aldrich; CM-H2DCFDA was from Invitrogen Corp. TDGA was a gift ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN Antibody cited in 23 publications. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP, KD. ... Home » Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN » Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN Antibodies » Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN Antibody ... Blogs on Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN. There are no specific blogs for Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN, but you can read our latest blog ... PTMs for Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN Antibody (NB400-114). Learn more about PTMs related to Fatty Acid Synthase/FASN Antibody ( ...
Fatty acid synthesis is essential in embryonic development: fatty acid synthase null mutants and most of the heterozygotes die ... virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular fatty acid ... Fatty-acid synthase and human cancer: new perspectives on its role in tumor biology. Nutrition. 2000;16:202-8.CrossRefPubMed ... Fatty acid synthase, a proficient multifunctional enzyme. Biochemistry. 1989;28:4523-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Fatty acid synthase, a novel target for anti-glioma therapy. Weiling Zhao, Steven Kridel, Joy Little, Sachidanand Hebbar and ... Fatty acid synthase, a novel target for anti-glioma therapy. Weiling Zhao, Steven Kridel, Joy Little, Sachidanand Hebbar and ... Fatty acid synthase, a novel target for anti-glioma therapy. Weiling Zhao, Steven Kridel, Joy Little, Sachidanand Hebbar and ... Fatty acid synthase, a novel target for anti-glioma therapy Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal Fatty Acid Synthase antibodies for many applications. ... fatty acid synthase , fatty acid synthase Fas , Fatty acid synthase Fas , FAS , Fatty Acid SyNthase family member (fasn-1) , ... fatty-acid synthase , fatty-acid synthase II , fatty-acid synthase fas , CG3523-PA , CG3523-PC , fatty acid synthetase , ...
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major enzyme in lipogenesis, and its circulating level is a bi-omarker of metabolically ... free fatty acid uptake, synthesizing, storing and exporting lipids; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops if there ... Evaluation of Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase as a Biomarker in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease ... Evaluation of Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase as a Biomarker in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Open Journal of ...
Fatty acid synthesis is essential in embryonic development: Fatty acid synthase null mutants and most of the heterozygotes die ... Fatty acid synthesis is essential in embryonic development: Fatty acid synthase null mutants and most of the heterozygotes die ... Fatty acid synthesis is essential in embryonic development: Fatty acid synthase null mutants and most of the heterozygotes die ... Fatty acid synthesis is essential in embryonic development: Fatty acid synthase null mutants and most of the heterozygotes die ...
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Fatty acid synthase (E.C.2.3.1.85; FASN) is a lipogenic enzyme which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids ... Novel Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase with Anticancer Activity. Teresa Puig, Carlos Turrado, Bellinda Benhamú, Helena Aguilar ... Novel Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase with Anticancer Activity. Teresa Puig, Carlos Turrado, Bellinda Benhamú, Helena Aguilar ... Novel Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase with Anticancer Activity. Teresa Puig, Carlos Turrado, Bellinda Benhamú, Helena Aguilar ...
... British Journal of Haematology 141(5): 659- ... Retraction: Fatty Acid Synthase is a Novel Therapeutic Target in Multiple Myeloma. ... This study investigated the biological significance of the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in multiple myeloma (MM) ...
Down-regulation of fatty acid synthase increases the resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to H2O2.. [Ana C Matias, Nuno ... Here this mechanism was addressed and two lines of evidence showed for the first time that fatty acid synthase (Fas) plays a ... Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) through interdigitation or by modulating formation of lipid rafts may decrease the overall ... However, the fas1Delta strain plasma membrane had large increases in the levels of lignoceric acid (C24:0) (40%) and cerotic ...
... allowing the mutants to recover their abilities to respire on glycerol and synthesize lipoic acid. Hence, mtFabD could ... AcpM transacylase and is important for vital protein-protein interactions within type 2 fatty acid synthase FASII. mtFabD ... a type 2 fatty acid synthase enzyme involved in extending C. 20. fatty acids to C. 60. -to-. C. 90. mycolic acids, during de ... Mycolic acids are very long chain -branched -hydroxylated fatty acids that help form the pathogens defensive layer [2]. ...
  • Type I systems utilise a single large, multifunctional polypeptide and are common to both mammals and fungi (although the structural arrangement of fungal and mammalian synthases differ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast FAS has a highly efficient rigid barrel-like structure with 6 reaction chambers which synthesize fatty acids independently, while the mammalian FAS has an open flexible structure with only two reaction chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a complex multifunctional enzyme that contains seven catalytic domains and a phosphopantotheine prosthetic group on a single polypeptide and catalyzes the synthesis of palmitate from the substrates acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mammalian fatty acid synthase, known as FAS, is a type I fatty acid synthase, indicating that all of the activities required to synthesize palmitate from simple precursors are present in a single multifunctional polypeptide. (asbmb.org)
  • However, INH treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the accumulation of hexacosanoic acid (C 26:0 ), a result unexpected for the blocking of an enoyl-reductase. (asm.org)
  • A region within amino acids 2462-2511 of Human Fatty Acid Synthase (NP_004095.4). (abcam.com)
  • Multalin- and Genedoc-based comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of M. tuberculosis FabD (Rv2243), E. coli FabD (AP_001718), and S. cerevisiae Mct1p (Yor221cp). (hindawi.com)
  • Black shadings refer to conserved amino acid residues among all three sequences whereas the darker and lighter grey shadings denote regions with more relaxed residue similarities not necessarily shared by the full set of sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • 2003. The effects of DLmethionine and DL-methionine hydroxy analogue on growth performance, contents of serum amino acids and activities of digestive proteases in broilers. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Accumulated evidence has indicated that bee pollen is mainly composed of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and minerals [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism through which two carbon units from malonyl-CoA are sequentially added to the growing fatty acid chain is unique among vertebrates, making FAS an attractive target for the design of therapeutic agents. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, studies have shown that PRL reduces lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in cultured human adipocytes ( 18 ) and the activity of LPL and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in adipose tissue of lactating mice ( 24 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kusakabe T, Nashimoto A, Honma K, Suzuki T. Fatty acid synthase is highly expressed in carcinoma, adenoma and in regenerative epithelium and intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. (springermedizin.de)
  • Fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 are conserved druggable cofactors of Old World Alphavirus genome replication. (medworm.com)
  • Interference of fatty acid synthase with either siRNA or orlistat had marked effects on virus production, with orlistat having an EC 50 value of 10.07 μM at 24 h post infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, hydrogen is abstracted from carbon 13 of arachidonic acid, and then two molecules of oxygen are added by the PTGS2 (COX-2), giving PGG2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, aspirin-treated COX-2 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 15(R)-HETE which product can be further metabolized to epi-lipoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not consistent with the results of the isotope experiments of arachidonic acid oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, newly identified transcriptional factors in bacterial fatty acid biosynthetic pathways are a fertile field for new investigation into the genetic control of the FAS II system. (nih.gov)
  • Fatty acids are aliphatic acids fundamental to energy production and storage, cellular structure and as intermediates in the biosynthesis of hormones and other biologically important molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoreactivity for Onco-antigen 519 (OA-519), a recently described fatty acid synthase (FAS), has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancers. (geoscience.net)
  • Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of mice with C75 leads to a 95% reduction in 14 C-acetate incorporation into fatty acids and to a 110% increase in the level of hepatic malonyl-CoA, the principal substrate of FAS (Web fig. 1) ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Transcriptions of hepatic fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein-B (APO-B), and fructose bisphosphatase mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. (hindawi.com)
  • A Type I fatty acid synthase system is also found in the CMN group of bacteria (corynebacteria, mycobacteria, and nocardia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The present review focuses on microbial type I fatty acid synthases (FASs), demonstrating their structural and functional diversity. (asm.org)