Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/6119)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (2/6119)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Fatal Serratia marcescens meningitis and myocarditis in a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter. (3/6119)

Serratia marcescens is commonly isolated from the urine of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter and in the absence of symptoms is often regarded as a contaminant. A case of fatal Serratia marcescens septicaemia with meningitis, brain abscesses, and myocarditis discovered at necropsy is described. The patient was an 83 year old man with an indwelling urinary catheter who suffered from several chronic medical conditions and from whose urine Serratia marcescens was isolated at the time of catheterisation. Serratia marcescens can be a virulent pathogen in particular groups of patients and when assessing its significance in catheter urine specimens, consideration should be given to recognised risk factors such as old age, previous antibiotic treatment, and underlying chronic or debilitating disease, even in the absence of clinical symptoms.  (+info)

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (4/6119)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Poor outcome of autologous stem cell transplantation for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. (5/6119)

A limited number of patients with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) who received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) have been reported. We report here a case of fatal systemic Candida krusei infection in a female patient with ATL undergoing ASCT. All of the eight patients (including seven patients in the literature) with ATL who received ASCT developed relapse of ATL or death due to ASCT complication, irrespective of subtype or remission state of ATL, source or selection of SCT or conditioning regimen. At present, ASCT appears to provide little benefit for ATL in contrast to that for other types of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  (+info)

Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family. (6/6119)

We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  (+info)

Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid. (7/6119)

We treated a patient diagnosed as central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with the combined use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-PCR). DWI, a cutting-edge imaging modality to reveal the earliest changes of cerebral infarction, detected cerebral fungal embolization when the conventional computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal it. CSF-PCR demonstrated the presence of Aspergillus-specific DNA in the specimen, when the conventional examination and culture of CSF were nonspecific or negative. These diagnostic methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis.  (+info)

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report. (8/6119)

An unusual case of metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung presented as a pituitary tumour in a young adult Chinese female, who subsequently died after having undergone trans-sphenoidal resection. Metastatic cancers of the pituitary are uncommon even in necropsy series and rarely give rise to clinical symptoms. This case draws attention to the fact that, although uncommon, pituitary metastases have been noted with increasing frequency and their distinction from primary pituitary tumours is often difficult. A metastatic pituitary tumour may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignancy, wherein the metastatic deposits may also be limited to the pituitary gland. Clinicians and pathologists alike should consider a metastatic lesion in the differential diagnosis of a non-functioning pituitary tumour.  (+info)

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious bacterial infection that affects the fascia, which is the tissue that surrounds muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. The infection can also spread to the muscle and skin. It is often caused by a combination of different types of bacteria, including group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The infection causes extensive tissue damage and necrosis (death) of the fascia and surrounding tissues. It can progress rapidly and can be fatal if not treated promptly with aggressive surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics.

Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area; fever; chills; and general weakness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if these symptoms occur, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Meningococcal meningitis is a specific type of bacterial meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. Meningitis refers to the inflammation of the meninges, which are the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. When this inflammation is caused by the meningococcal bacteria, it is called meningococcal meningitis.

There are several serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis that can cause invasive disease, with the most common ones being A, B, C, W, and Y. The infection can spread through respiratory droplets or direct contact with an infected person's saliva or secretions, especially when they cough or sneeze.

Meningococcal meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms may include sudden onset of fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, a rash may also develop, characterized by small purple or red spots that do not blanch when pressed with a glass.

Prevention measures include vaccination against the different serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis, maintaining good personal hygiene, avoiding sharing utensils, cigarettes, or other items that may come into contact with an infected person's saliva, and promptly seeking medical care if symptoms develop.

Meningococcal infections are caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. These infections can take several forms, but the most common are meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). Meningococcal infections are contagious and can spread through respiratory droplets or close contact with an infected person. They can be serious and potentially life-threatening, requiring prompt medical attention and treatment with antibiotics. Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light, while symptoms of septicemia may include fever, chills, rash, and severe muscle pain. Vaccination is available to prevent certain strains of meningococcal disease.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) is a severe condition characterized by the dysfunction or failure of more than one organ system in the body. It often occurs as a result of serious illness, trauma, or infection, such as sepsis. The organs that commonly fail include the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This condition can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The definition of MOF has evolved over time, but a widely accepted one is the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment" (SOFA) score, which evaluates six organ systems: respiratory, coagulation, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic. A SOFA score of 10 or more indicates MOF, and a higher score is associated with worse outcomes.

MOF can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary MOF occurs when the initial insult directly causes organ dysfunction, such as in severe trauma or septic shock. Secondary MOF occurs when the initial injury or illness has been controlled, but organ dysfunction develops later due to ongoing inflammation and other factors.

Early recognition and aggressive management of MOF are crucial for improving outcomes. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and medication to support cardiovascular function. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of organ dysfunction.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of an infection that has spread throughout the body. It's characterized by a severe drop in blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism, which can lead to organ failure and death if not promptly treated.

In septic shock, the immune system overreacts to an infection, releasing an overwhelming amount of inflammatory chemicals into the bloodstream. This leads to widespread inflammation, blood vessel dilation, and leaky blood vessels, which can cause fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into surrounding tissues. As a result, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to vital organs, leading to organ failure.

Septic shock is often caused by bacterial infections, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. It's most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have recently undergone surgery, have chronic medical conditions, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of septic shock is critical to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves aggressive antibiotic therapy, intravenous fluids, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and supportive care in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).

Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

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The disease is highly contagious and the outcome is often fatal. It is not zoonotic. The bacteria usually enter fish through ...
The outcome is rarely fatal, and the defeated bull will flee; however, bulls can suffer severe tears and cuts. Some males can ...
As in all ancient tragedies, the outcome can only be fatal. Fascinating by the morbid desire carried by the Paul/Elisabeth ... who precipitated its outcome by sending a poisoned black ball to Paul, who completed the work of the first snowball. Elizabeth ...
Fulminant hepatic failure has been reported for nilutamide, with fatal outcome. Between 1986 and 2003, the numbers of published ... 874-. ISBN 978-0-444-53741-6. Marty F, Godart D, Doermann F, Mérillon H (1996). "[Fatal fulminating hepatitis caused by ...
... this is likely due to other accompanying injuries that prove fatal. Accompanying injuries often play a key role in the outcome ... However, for people who do receive surgery soon after the injury to repair the lesion, outcome is usually good; the long-term ... Kiser AC, O'Brien SM, Detterbeck FC (June 2001). "Blunt tracheobronchial injuries: treatment and outcomes". The Annals of ... outcome is good for over 90% of people who have TBI surgically repaired early in treatment. Even when surgery is performed ...
"Uloric (febuxostat) - Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Fatal Outcomes". Health Canada. 4 November 2019. Commissioner, Office of ... The primary outcome was a combination of heart-related death, non-deadly heart attack, non-deadly stroke, and a condition of ... However, when the outcomes were evaluated separately, febuxostat showed an increased risk of heart-related deaths and death ...
Infection by rickettsia helps to explain the more fatal outcome afflicting canids.[citation needed] Upon infection with N. ... The parasite is most known for its association with "salmon poisoning disease", which, left untreated, is fatal to dogs and ...
Battle outcomes are now decided ahead of time. The event is held annually for 3 days in the third weekend of October. "歴史 , 伊万里 ... In 2006 there was a fatal accident involving a high school student. From 2013 there were changes made to the festival insuring ...
January 2012). "Ranitidine is associated with infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, and fatal outcome in newborns". Pediatrics ...
Once the central nervous system is involved, the outcome is invariably fatal. But with the deployment of antiviral therapy, ...
This report describes two instances of fatal anthrax pneumonia in welders. ... This report describes two instances of fatal anthrax pneumonia in welders. ... Outcome. A§. 1994¶. Louisiana. B. cereus G9241**. 42. Male. Welder††. Recovered. B§. 2003. Texas. B. cereus 03BB87**. 56. Male ... Fatal pneumonia among metalworkers due to inhalation exposure to Bacillus cereus Containing Bacillus anthracis toxin genes. ...
This study aimed to explore treatment delay, outcomes and their predictors in this group. Adult (≥20 years) patients with ... From: Treatment delay and fatal outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in advanced age: a retrospective nationwide cohort study ...
Outcome. Postmortem findings. Histopathologic findings. SAE12/07. 5 y. Neurologic signs, hind and fore limb ataxia, pupil ... Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa Marietjie Venter. , Stacey Human, Dewald ... Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa. ...
Fatal Sunday: George Washington, the Monmouth Campaign, and the Politics of Battle. Fatal Sunday is the new, definitive account ... Most would call the outcome of this battle a draw. So how was it that the Americans claimed Monmouth as a stunning victory?. It ... Fatal Sunday: George Washington, the Monmouth Campaign, and the Politics of Battle. Fatal Sunday is the new, definitive account ... Fatal Sunday: The Monmouth Campaign of 1778. Home George Washington Revolutionary War Revolutionary War Battles The Monmouth ...
7. Preventing fatal and non-fatal suicide outcomes. RAND has extensive history of studying the magnitude of suicide risk in ... A critical priority for improving outcomes for those with serious mental illness is to provide supportive housing services. ... a critical priority for improving outcomes for those with serious mental illness is to provide supportive housing services. Up ... and providers should monitor patient outcomes. Through a partnership with the George W. Bush Institutes Veteran Wellness ...
Medical mistakes lead to over 250,000 deaths each year across the United States, including Maryland. And unfortunately, even ... medical malpractice
Analysis of fatal outcomes from in?uenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mongolia Authors. * Jantsansengeegiin Baigalmaa National Center for ... Baigalmaa J, Tuul T, Darmaa B, Soyolmaa E. Analysis of fatal outcomes from in?uenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mongolia. Western Pac ... As there is no documented evidence on fatal outcomes from influenza in Mongolia previously, we aimed to describe the ... Crude CFR was 2.2%. Of all fatal cases, 62% had at least one underlying condition. Most (62%) were provided antivirals, ...
These data demonstrate that there may be differences between patients who have fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and provide ... we were able to compare fatal and non-fatal outcomes in iMCD to identify laboratory features that may be clues that patients ... The disease course of Castleman disease patients with fatal outcomes in the ACCELERATE registry. ... Castleman disease (CD) describes a group of rare, potentially fatal lymphoprolifera- tive disorders. To determine factors ...
In 2003, Buccino et al found a good overall outcome in their reinvestigation of a series of 34 patients with confirmed CVT. [13 ... Fatal cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Eur Neurol. 1997. 37(3):191-2. [QxMD ... Neurological and cognitive long-term outcome in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 May. ... he compared outcomes of patients who were treated with heparin and local infusion of urokinase (12 patients) with those of ...
Wife of Fort Worth CEO, survivor of fatal crash, returns home after hospital stay. ... Dan Patrick in a losing battle regardless of the impeachment trial outcome?. However AG Ken Paxtons trial in the Texas Senate ... Like any judge, his rulings could impact the trials outcome and have lasting political ramifications. ...
"Fatal outcome" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009. "Vladimir Suprunyuk: " ...
Disparities in non-fatal injury outcomes, an indicator of health-care quality, have received minimal attention. We evaluated ... we recommend greater attention to systematic collection and reporting of non-fatal injury outcomes disaggregated by socio- ... We examined the extent to which the reported health outcomes varied across the PROGRESS criteria: place of residence, race/ ... The available evidence on differential outcomes is limited as many studies were compromised by selection or retention biases ...
Fatal Outcome * Humans * Male * Renal Dialysis / adverse effects* * Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnosis* * Subarachnoid ...
Polymethylmethacrylate embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report on a case of polymethylmethacrylate ... Polymethylmethacrylate embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report on a case of polymethylmethacrylate ... Pulmonary polymethylmethacrylate embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Clinical ... We report a case of fatal pulmonary polymethylmethacrylate embolism during percutaneous vertebroplasty that initially presented ...
Risk factors for mortality in adult COVID-19 patients: frailty predicts fatal outcome in older patients. ... Risk factors for death in adult COVID-19 patients: Frailty predicts fatal outcome in older patients ... and previous stroke significantly contribute to a fatal outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In patients aged 65 ... Most fatal cases (90%) occurred in patients aged 65 years or older. Among such patients, CFS level was the only predictor of ...
Albuquerque man sentenced for 2018 fatal shooting 1 day ago. .cls-3{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. ... Additionally, they say all of that makes patient outcomes worse.. "Those acquisitions are associated with decreased staffing ... Cooper says its critical to hold healthcare conglomerates accountable by implementing systems to track patient outcomes. ... and worse health outcomes, including higher rates of emergency department visits and mortality," Dr. Karen Joynt Maddox of ...
Outcome fatal drowning.. A child who did not attend swimming lessons was more likely to drown (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) 2. ... Outcome fatal drowning.. While not statistically significant, swimming ability showed a reduction in the risk of an incident, ... Outcome fatal drowning.. Limited to coroners death investigation records. Water familiarization defined as participation in ... Rodgers [60] attempted to examine and quantify factors affecting the risk of child fatal and non-fatal drowning incidents in ...
Gordon Gault death Six teens accused of taking part in fatal stab attack on Gordon Gault in Newcastle ... Gordon Gault death Teenager who inflicted fatal knife wound on boy, 14, claims it was self-defence ... Trial for alleged fatal ammonia spray attackers in Gateshead put back to April ...
The outcome of those conversations was not immediately available Wednesday.. Anyone with information about the slaying is asked ... The suspect in the fatal shooting of his 13-year-old sister at their home in Lancaster has turned himself in to authorities, ...
Outcome: Salt Lake County District Attorneys Office ruled the shooting not justified and filed charges filed that were later ... This was Longmans third fatal shooting.]. His mother, Susan Neese, has filed a lawsuit alleging officers "threatened and ... Outcome: Ruled unjustified by The Salt Lake County District Attorneys Office, but prosecutors did not file charges. ... Outcome: Since Allens death wasnt considered an officer-involved critical incident, the Salt Lake County District Attorneys ...
Fatal distraction: a case series of fatal fall-asleep road accidents and their medicolegal outcomes. ...
Listeriosis in a fetus or infant is often fatal. Healthy older children and adults are more likely to survive. The illness is ...
And D-health, with its high dose supplement, and its 21,000 older adults, and non-sig 9% reduction in non-fatal CV outcomes, ... The authors of CLEAR Outcomes trial have published a subgroup analysis of the main trial in JAMA. The results are touted as ... D-Health is another big CV outcomes trial.. *. 21,000 older adults randomly assigned to 60,000 IU of Vit D per month or placebo ... Guess what the HR was for Vit D supplementation in CV outcomes? It was 1.00! CI 0.93 to 1.08. My friends, that is about as sure ...
Fatal and Dangerous Outcomes to Synthetics Abuse. The abuse of this drug is not only dangerous and potentially addictive to the ... user, it can be fatal for children or people in the vicinity. In Washington State, bath salts abuse resulted in the deaths of a ...
IVUS-derived negative remodeling is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcome in stable patients with intermediate ... this study was to investigate the impact of arterial remodeling of intermediate coronary lesions on long-term clinical outcomes ... Cardiac death was defined as any death due to cardiac causes (e.g., MI, heart failure, and fatal arrhythmia). MI was defined as ... S. Inaba, G. S. Mintz, N. Z. Farhat et al., "Impact of positive and negative lesion site remodeling on clinical outcomes: ...
Non-fatal offences against the person: assault; battery; consent; s47 Offences against the Person Act 1861; s20 Offences ... See detailed outcomes for the LPC and PRT.. Day One Outcome D. Legal, professional and client relationship knowledge and skills ... Day One Outcome A. Core knowledge and understanding of the law applied in England and Wales. Outcomes. Indicative content. ... Day One Outcome B. Intellectual, analytical and problem-solving skills. Outcomes. Indicative content. Further comments. ...
Some cases had a fatal outcome. Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia including but not limited to, new ... The major efficacy outcome measure was disease-free survival (DFS, defined as reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or ... One grade 5 (fatal) event was reported (diarrhea) for EGFR TKI comparator.. ,,Includes stomatitis and mouth ulceration.. ‡ ... Additional efficacy outcome measures included DFS in the overall population (patients with stage IB â€" IIIA NSCLC), and ...
Fatal outcome in Japanese encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 34:1203-1210, 1985. * Burke DS, Morrill JC. Levels of interferon in ... Fatal 1981 Beijing Student U.S. 21 M Fatal 1981 ? ? Australia ? ? ? 1982 Beijing College Professor U.S. 62 M Fatal 1982 ? ... and low CSF levels of viral specific IgM and IgG antibodies are highly associated with a fatal outcome. These clinical ... Fatal 1985 Thailand Oil Field Worker Germany 30 M ? Dead 1985 N. Vietnam Child E. Europe 9 M Fatal 1986 Philippines Soldier U.S ...
  • The available evidence on differential outcomes is limited as many studies were compromised by selection or retention biases that reduced the participation of children from demographic groups at increased risk of adverse outcomes, or the analyses mainly focused on variations in outcomes by sex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The available evidence about the effectiveness of specific first-line antihypertensive drugs in lowering blood pressure and preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically quantified in a manner that would assist clinicians in choosing a first-line drug. (cmaj.ca)
  • In addition, we hypothesized that functional status, according to the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), in patients aged 65 years or older is a better predictor of poor outcome than age and comorbidities. (c19hcq.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of arterial remodeling of intermediate coronary lesions on long-term clinical outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • IVUS-derived negative remodeling is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcome in stable patients with intermediate coronary artery stenosis. (hindawi.com)
  • However, data regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of IVUS-guided deferral of coronary revascularization are limited. (hindawi.com)
  • Severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity has occurred in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • It is the study of epidemiological and clinical characteristics, the immediate outcome and the factors associated with newborn (NB) mortality with NA. (scirp.org)
  • The objective of this work is to study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of PA, as well as the immediate outcome of newborns included. (scirp.org)
  • An accompanying editorial by Mike Leonis and William Balistreri of the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center points out that the two groups compared in Kortsalioudaki's study were markedly dissimilar in their clinical presentation which could account for some of the differences in outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • Given the rising number of patients either awaiting or having received a kidney transplant and the absence of smoking cessation as the criterion for transplantation in guidelines, we explored the association between smoking status and clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. (mendeley.com)
  • These findings confirm previous non-adjudicated observations that smoking is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and suggest that more emphasis should be placed on smoking cessation prior to kidney transplantation. (mendeley.com)
  • Discuss clinical characteristics associated with early, intermediate, and late presentations of RMSF, and those associated with higher risk of fatal outcome. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2020, CDC confirmed two cases of pneumonia (one fatal) in welders caused by rare Bacillus cereus group bacteria containing anthrax toxin genes typically associated with Bacillus anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • In 2020, HRC tracked a record number of violent fatal incidents against transgender and gender non-conforming people. (hrc.org)
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to welding and metalworking fumes is associated with various forms of lung injury that can cause changes in lung function and increase susceptibility to pulmonary infections, including fatal pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Those acquisitions are associated with decreased staffing and worse health outcomes, including higher rates of emergency department visits and mortality," Dr. Karen Joynt Maddox of Washington State University said. (krqe.com)
  • The 12 global indicators chosen for monitoring health status were largely mortality based (e.g. life expectancy at birth, and infant, child and maternal mortality rates) and included only one measure of non-fatal health status (nutritional status). (who.int)
  • Patients and methods: In this post hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplant trial, the associations between smoking status, defined as never having smoked, formerly or currently smoking, and both all-cause mortality and graft survival were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. (mendeley.com)
  • Using our natural history registry, ACCELERATE ( www.CDCN.org/ACCELERATE ), we were able to compare fatal and non-fatal outcomes in iMCD to identify laboratory features that may be clues that patients are at increased risk of death. (cdcn.org)
  • These data demonstrate that there may be differences between patients who have fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and provide preliminary suggestions for parameters to evaluate further. (cdcn.org)
  • Most fatal cases (90%) occurred in patients aged 65 years or older. (c19hcq.org)
  • Conclusions: This study shows that increasing age, chronic kidney disease, and previous stroke significantly contribute to a fatal outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. (c19hcq.org)
  • DESIGN: Novel outcome evaluation involving primary review of three retrospective case series. (cdc.gov)
  • As there is no documented evidence on fatal outcomes from influenza in Mongolia previously, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases to provide recommendations to assist the national influenza prevention and control strategy. (who.int)
  • The consensus document notes that despite the smaller incremental benefit, an effort should be made to reach a range of 120 -129/70 - 79 mm Hg, but only if treatment is well tolerated, to avoid the risk of treatment discontinuation because of adverse events, which might offset, in part or completely, the incremental reduction in cardiovascular outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Ammonia concentration and duration of exposure increases a person's risk of adverse health outcomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Exposure to 2,500-4,500 ppm of ammonia for 30 minutes or more can be fatal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain or spinal infections have worse outcomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Ebolavirus genus includes 5 different viruses that result in different case-fatality rates: Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Bundibugyo virus cause fatal infections, but neither Tai Forest virus nor Reston virus has been associated with human fatalities. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the extent to which general trauma follow-up studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature provide evidence of socially patterned inequities in health, functional or disability outcomes ≥4 weeks after childhood injuries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • With the epidemiological transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, the measurement of the non-fatal consequences of diseases, particularly chronic diseases and injuries, has become increasingly relevant to all Member States. (who.int)
  • Considering fatal work-related injuries first, that annual statistic is from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. (cdc.gov)
  • CFOI is considered a robust system for identifying cases of fatal injuries. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary US system for counting non-fatal work-related injuries is the BLS Survey of Occupational Illnesses and Injuries (SOII) ,which uses injury data reported by a sample of US employers to produce annual estimates for the country and for most states. (cdc.gov)
  • SETTING: Fatal, hospitalized, and restricted activity injuries from the United States and Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • DETROIT, October 5, 2022 ~ Detroit Police Chief James White has released body cam footage showing the incident that led to the fatal shooting of 22-year-old Porter Burks , a reportedly troubled man who was brandishing a knife and refusing to comply with officers' orders. (wjr.com)
  • October 5, 2022 ~ 760 WJR Senior News Analyst Lloyd Jackson has the latest information for Paul W . on a fatal shooting involving several Detroit Police officers. (wjr.com)
  • Furthermore, little is known about why these highly fatal pneumonia cases have only been detected among welders and other metalworkers. (cdc.gov)
  • Listeriosis in a fetus or infant is often fatal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the latter case, the outcome is often fatal. (petmd.com)
  • Main outcome measure Cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularisation, or cardiovascular death). (bmj.com)
  • 19 In one lifestyle intervention trial reporting cardiovascular outcomes, there was a non-significant trend towards reduced cardiovascular disease in those assigned to a reduced sodium intervention. (bmj.com)
  • Additionally, they say all of that makes patient outcomes worse. (krqe.com)
  • Prevalence for pregnancy, cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases was five to 50 times higher in fatal cases compared to country prevalence. (who.int)
  • Acute liver failure in children is rare but can be fatal. (news-medical.net)
  • Additionally this study suggests NAC may have a positive effect on the outcome of non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure, improving the survival with native liver as well as post liver transplant survival. (news-medical.net)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • We comprehensively studied three large nursing home outbreaks (20-35% fatal cases among residents) by combining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosol monitoring, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and immunovirological profiling of nasal mucosa by digital nCounter transcriptomics. (nature.com)
  • Severe mucocutaneous reactions, some with fatal outcomes ( 5.2 ). (drugs.com)
  • RUXIENCE should only be administered by a healthcare professional with appropriate medical support to manage severe infusion-related reactions that can be fatal if they occur ( 2.1 ). (drugs.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism can be complicated by bleeding symptoms such as easy bruising, menorrhagia and sometimes even a severe bleeding tendency with fatal outcome. (lu.se)
  • Castleman disease (CD) describes a group of rare, potentially fatal lymphoprolifera- tive disorders. (cdcn.org)
  • The abuse of this drug is not only dangerous and potentially addictive to the user, it can be fatal for children or people in the vicinity. (narconon.org)
  • OAT can help parents enter recovery and reduce the risk of maltreatment, and potentially improve child welfare outcomes. (hhs.gov)
  • Even though the need for greater emphasis on non-fatal health outcomes in the monitoring and evaluation framework was belatedly recognized, the concepts, terminology and methods needed to ensure the comparability of assessments of health status in different populations were not expounded. (who.int)
  • At the same time, relatively little attention has been given to the concepts, methods and data requirements necessary for the assessment of non-fatal health outcomes to be incorporated into strategies for measuring health status. (who.int)
  • Disparities in Non-Fatal Health Outcomes in Pediatric General Trauma Studies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Disparities in non-fatal injury outcomes, an indicator of health-care quality, have received minimal attention. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We examined the extent to which the reported health outcomes varied across the PROGRESS criteria: place of residence, race/ethnicity, occupation, gender/sex, religion, socio-economic status, and social capital. (ox.ac.uk)
  • D-Health is another big CV outcomes trial. (medscape.com)
  • This decision should be made primarily on the basis of the best available evidence of effectiveness - that is, the drug's ability to prevent adverse health outcomes that are important to the patient. (cmaj.ca)
  • Health professionals are reminded that first-generation oral sedating antihistamines, including promethazine oral liquid products, are not approved for use in children under two years of age due to the potential for fatal respiratory depression. (tga.gov.au)
  • There have been international reports of fatal respiratory depression in children under two who have been given promethazine, and therefore we are reminding health professionals that these products should not be prescribed or recommended for children under two years of age. (tga.gov.au)
  • As with fatal work-related illness, non-fatal work-related illnesses are often not identified and documented by our health system. (cdc.gov)
  • The following outcomes were pooled according to trial design (drug-drug or drug-no treatment comparison) and the drug therapy: death, stroke, coronary artery disease, total cardiovascular events, withdrawal due to adverse effect, and decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (cmaj.ca)
  • Is Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick in a losing battle regardless of the impeachment trial outcome? (dallasnews.com)
  • Of all fatal cases, 62% had at least one underlying condition. (who.int)
  • We used logistic regression to determine the prevalence of factors that predict non-fatal forms of violence or assaults among adolescents . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, risk factors for post-vaccination fatal COVID-19 are largely unknown. (nature.com)
  • The TGA recently reviewed this issue following a coronial hearing of a fatal case involving a 74-day old infant being given over-the-counter (OTC) promethazine oral liquid, a phenothiazine derivative that is a long-acting antihistamine with mild atropine-like anticholinergic effects and some anti-serotonin effects. (tga.gov.au)
  • Given the limited research evidence, we recommend greater attention to systematic collection and reporting of non-fatal injury outcomes disaggregated by socio-demographic indicators in order to identify disparities where these exist and inform equity-focused interventions promoting the recovery of injured children. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has resulted in excellent protection against fatal disease, including in older adults. (nature.com)
  • To determine the predictors of non-fatal violence or assault among adolescents in rural Bangladesh to inform evidence-based interventions. (bvsalud.org)
  • CFOI uses multiple sources of data, including death certificates and even news articles, to identify each case* of fatal work-related injury. (cdc.gov)
  • This report builds on a workshop sponsored by ASPE, titled Addressing the Opioid Epidemic: Harnessing the Power of Data for Patient-Centered Research in December 2018, which showcased projects working to build the data infrastructure for patient-centered outcomes research around opioids. (hhs.gov)
  • Dr. Cooper says it's critical to hold healthcare conglomerates accountable by implementing systems to track patient outcomes. (krqe.com)
  • NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman says the process to sell the Ottawa Senators is moving forward as 'quickly as possible,' and the New York-based company overseeing the sale is advising to 'expect a very good outcome in the next few weeks. (ctvnews.ca)
  • The bidding was robust, the interest was great and I'm being advised by GSP, Galatioto Sports Partners, that they expect a very good outcome in the next few weeks. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Comparison with published pre-vaccine fatal COVID-19 transcriptomic and genomic signatures uncovered a unique IRF3 low/ IRF7 high immune signature in post-vaccine fatal COVID-19 outbreaks. (nature.com)
  • Fatal Sunday is the new, definitive account of this important, but often overlooked, Revolutionary War campaign in New Jersey. (mountvernon.org)
  • Monitoring of the INR is essential during warfarin therapy, because bleeding is a common side effect and can be life-threatening and fatal. (nih.gov)
  • ISMP Canada identifies themes associated with fatal medication events in the home. (ahrq.gov)