Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fasciitis, Necrotizing: A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)United StatesQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/6119)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (2/6119)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Fatal Serratia marcescens meningitis and myocarditis in a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter. (3/6119)

Serratia marcescens is commonly isolated from the urine of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter and in the absence of symptoms is often regarded as a contaminant. A case of fatal Serratia marcescens septicaemia with meningitis, brain abscesses, and myocarditis discovered at necropsy is described. The patient was an 83 year old man with an indwelling urinary catheter who suffered from several chronic medical conditions and from whose urine Serratia marcescens was isolated at the time of catheterisation. Serratia marcescens can be a virulent pathogen in particular groups of patients and when assessing its significance in catheter urine specimens, consideration should be given to recognised risk factors such as old age, previous antibiotic treatment, and underlying chronic or debilitating disease, even in the absence of clinical symptoms.  (+info)

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (4/6119)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Poor outcome of autologous stem cell transplantation for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. (5/6119)

A limited number of patients with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) who received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) have been reported. We report here a case of fatal systemic Candida krusei infection in a female patient with ATL undergoing ASCT. All of the eight patients (including seven patients in the literature) with ATL who received ASCT developed relapse of ATL or death due to ASCT complication, irrespective of subtype or remission state of ATL, source or selection of SCT or conditioning regimen. At present, ASCT appears to provide little benefit for ATL in contrast to that for other types of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  (+info)

Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family. (6/6119)

We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  (+info)

Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid. (7/6119)

We treated a patient diagnosed as central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with the combined use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-PCR). DWI, a cutting-edge imaging modality to reveal the earliest changes of cerebral infarction, detected cerebral fungal embolization when the conventional computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal it. CSF-PCR demonstrated the presence of Aspergillus-specific DNA in the specimen, when the conventional examination and culture of CSF were nonspecific or negative. These diagnostic methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis.  (+info)

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report. (8/6119)

An unusual case of metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung presented as a pituitary tumour in a young adult Chinese female, who subsequently died after having undergone trans-sphenoidal resection. Metastatic cancers of the pituitary are uncommon even in necropsy series and rarely give rise to clinical symptoms. This case draws attention to the fact that, although uncommon, pituitary metastases have been noted with increasing frequency and their distinction from primary pituitary tumours is often difficult. A metastatic pituitary tumour may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignancy, wherein the metastatic deposits may also be limited to the pituitary gland. Clinicians and pathologists alike should consider a metastatic lesion in the differential diagnosis of a non-functioning pituitary tumour.  (+info)

  • NEW ORLEANS, La. (KLFY) - The stronger a body's initial immune response to COVID-19, the worse the eventual outcome of the disease could be, suggests a new study from Tulane University. (brproud.com)
  • The scientists correlated disease outcomes and variations in mortality rates to specific genetic lines of mice. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • While acknowledging that recent Ebola survivors may have had immunity to this or a related virus that saved them during this epidemic, Katze said, 'Our data suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in disease outcome. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • It is nevertheless important to weigh the benefits of this pioneering treatment against the problems - X-linked SCID is a fatal disease and subjects without well matched bone marrow donors have no treatment alternatives. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • Primary and secondary outcome measures The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. (bmj.com)
  • An outbreak of Covid-19, a mild respiratory disease, caused worldwide mass panic with almost totalitarian outcome. (wikispooks.com)
  • Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. (uncg.edu)
  • This finding is in contrast to studies that have documented the inability of various neurodiagnostic tests and CT scanning to predict outcome in these cases. (nairtl.ie)
  • The authors conclude that obtaining cerebral MRI on patients with closed head injury within eight weeks of the injury can predict outcome. (nairtl.ie)
  • demonstrate that spike-specific Th1 cells capable of IL7-dependent homeostatic proliferation predict survival from severe COVID-19, while Tregs and IL6+ CD8+ T cells recognizing spike predict fatal outcome. (medrxiv.org)
  • The past 50 years have seen an explosion in biomedical knowledge, dramatic innovation in therapies and surgical procedures, and management of conditions that previously were fatal, with ever more exciting clinical capabilities on the horizon. (nap.edu)
  • In addition, highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 viruses continue to cause outbreaks in poultry and, after zoonotic transmission, cause an everincreasing number of human cases, of which 59% have a fatal clinical outcome. (eur.nl)
  • In this analysis of almost 6000 patients, obese occupants had an 85% higher risk of a fatal outcome and an almost 40% higher risk of a severe injury. (drsharma.ca)
  • This is not the most efficient of outcomes, as a person with no emotional connection losing an individual nearer the end of their life receives the same payment as someone suffering a severe emotional blow as his adult life begins. (yukon-news.com)
  • Health systems are looking to provide better outcomes at lower costs by extending care into the home, where many health events among aging patients occur. (philips.com)
  • Objectives To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. (bmj.com)
  • In a large sample of countries, we found a statistically significant and robust correlation between the rule of law and various health outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • The study instead shows that while use of spice is related to the risk of foodborne illness, it's also associated with a wide range of health outcomes. (edu.au)
  • Hawley refused to accept the outcome of the election even after the Electoral College voted to confirm Joe Biden's victory in December. (rawstory.com)
  • Hawley continued his efforts to overturn the election even after the fatal January. (rawstory.com)
  • But that misses the larger point that given both the efforts at engineering that preceded the elections and the inherent suspicions among some about the process and outcome, any sense that there was foul play in the works would have been perceived as further undermining the election. (thediplomat.com)
  • Fundamentally, the lack of trust in the Election Commission as an institution is eroded to a point nearing fatal. (thediplomat.com)
  • Those who come to a decision to commence may live with the outcomes of their actions, if they pull through the automotive accident. (godui.org)
  • Once we are familiar with your case, we will be able to recommend the best legal path towards the positive outcome of your case. (richardharrislaw.com)
  • When I say decentralization, I mean the trend of taking power from the few, allocating it to the many, and creating a system which results in positive financial and social outcomes for the masses. (investorplace.com)
  • There is an attitudinal reaction embedded here from non-disabled people, who 'fear becoming' like us, disabled - it is based in the same ignorance and prejudice as other moments of discrimination against disabled people - only this time its has fatal consequences. (noeuthanasia.org.au)
  • So the systemic outcomes that happen are flowing from systemic discrimination and systemic racism. (ctvnews.ca)
  • MACE is defined as a cardiovascular death, a non-fatal myocardial infarction or a non-fatal stroke evaluated during the treatment phase (up to date of last dose of study drug). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MACE is defined as a cardiovascular death, a non-fatal myocardial infarction or a non-fatal stroke evaluated until end of study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Costilla County Undersheriff Ricky Rodriguez said on Friday that an autopsy was planned, and authorities would be waiting on the outcome of that procedure, so it could be some time before the identity and cause of death are known. (alamosanews.com)
  • The main outcome was an in-hospital death toll of 9 percent, compared to men s rate of 4.4 percent: women died at over twice the rate of men. (acsh.org)
  • The more skills, the better training that police have on de-escalation, when they come into contact with a person in crisis, I think the better odds are that the outcome will not be fatal," Dube told Global News Wednesday. (globalnews.ca)
  • Your speed, reaction time and condition of your tyres also have a huge influence on the stopping distance and crash outcome. (scoop.co.nz)
  • The most significant lesions determining outcome appeared to be those of the corpus callosum, followed by lesions on the dorsolateral brainstem. (nairtl.ie)
  • Whatever the trial's outcome, Koon, Powell and Briseno face extensive disciplinary hearings before the Police Department Board of Rights. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In contrast, fatal COVID-19 displayed elevated numbers of SARS-CoV-2-specific regulatory T cells and a time-dependent escalation in activated bystander CXCR4+ T cells. (medrxiv.org)
  • Authorities responded to what appeared to be the scene of a fatal fire on Wednesday south of San Luis in a remote area outside of Mesita. (alamosanews.com)
  • We have a test that can identify with 98.7 percent accuracy who among these potential ICD recipients will not have a fatal arrhythmia over the next 2 years. (nairtl.ie)
  • On a recent American Airlines flight from a vacation in Aruba, ten-year-old Luca had a near-fatal allergic reaction when he consumed a cashew mid-flight. (axcessnews.com)
  • Although he had no barrister at his last and fatal trial, he'd enjoyed legal assistance during his previous brush and ably deployed what he learned. (executedtoday.com)
  • Nineteen percent of this last group had liver inflammation without classic symptoms of Ebola, and thirty-four percent had blood that took too long to clot, a hallmark of fatal Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans. (fiercebiotech.com)