Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.SulfonesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ipomoea batatas: A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. Some cultivars are sweet and edible whereas bitter varieties are a source of SAPONINS. This sweet potato is sometimes referred to as a yam (DIOSCOREA).Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.New JerseyClothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hospitals, AnimalVeterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.UtahWilderness Medicine: Skills and knowledge required for assessment and treatment of traumatic, environmental, and medical emergencies in remote geographic or wilderness environments.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.LondonSchools: Educational institutions.News

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (1/5009)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (2/5009)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy. (3/5009)

Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance.  (+info)

Induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 in dogs exposed to a chronic low dose of polychlorinated biphenyls. (4/5009)

Induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms, specifically CYP1A1, and their catalytic activities are potential biomarkers of environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, dogs were exposed to 25 ppm or 5 ppm Aroclor 1248 (PCB mixture) daily in their diet for 10 or 20 weeks, respectively. Relative to controls, hepatic microsomes from dogs dosed with PCBs had higher levels of CYP1A1 detected in immunoblots and higher levels of EROD activity, but low levels of induction for CYP2B and PROD activity. Concentrations of 96 PCB congeners in serum and liver were evaluated using capillary chromatography. Results showed that all dogs exposed to PCB mixtures had higher levels of PCB in serum and liver. Dogs preferentially sequestered highly chlorinated PCB congeners in liver relative to serum. With these experiments, we demonstrated that EROD activity was a potentially sensitive marker of PCB exposure at 5 and 25 ppm. Furthermore, CYP1A1 and EROD activity were maximally induced in dogs consuming dietary concentrations only 2.5 times the maximal permissible level for human food (FDA). The value of CYP1A1 induction as a biomarker of PCB exposure was tenuous because neither CYP1A1 levels nor EROD activity correlated with total PCB body burden. However, a small subset of congeners were identified in liver that may strongly influence EROD and PROD induction. Finally, two dogs in the 25 ppm dose group were fasted for 48 h. After 24 h of fasting, several new congeners appeared in the serum and remained in the serum for the remainder of the fast. The fast caused a 293% increase in PCB concentration in serum. This increase has strong implications regarding mobilization of toxic PCBs in wildlife during fasting (e.g., migration, hibernation).  (+info)

Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (5/5009)

Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (6/5009)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Alloxan in vivo does not only exert deleterious effects on pancreatic B cells. (7/5009)

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the mechanism of harmful alloxan action in vivo. 75 mg/kg b.w. of this diabetogenic agent were administered to fasting rats. Two minutes later the animals were decapitated. It was observed that alloxan caused a distinct rise in blood insulin and glucose levels with a concomitant drop of free fatty acids. The amount of sulfhydryl groups in the liver of alloxan-treated rats was decreased and glutathione peroxidase activity was substantially higher. These results indicate that some changes observed in alloxan-induced diabetes can not only be the consequence of B cells damage by alloxan but may also be the result of its direct influence on other tissues. It was also observed that glucose given 20 min before alloxan injection only partially protected against the deleterious effects of alloxan.  (+info)

Lipoprotein lipase expression level influences tissue clearance of chylomicron retinyl ester. (8/5009)

Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons were injected intravenously into induced mutant mice and nutritionally manipulated rats. The tissue sites of uptake of 3H label by wild type mice and LpL-null mice overexpressing human LpL in muscle indicate that LpL expression does influence accumulation of chylomicron retinoid. Skeletal muscle from mice overexpressing human LpL accumulated 1.7- to 2.4-fold more 3H label than wild type. Moreover, heart tissue from mice overexpresssing human LpL, but lacking mouse LpL, accumulated less than half of the 3H-label taken up by wild type heart. Fasting and heparin injection, two factors that increase LpL activity in skeletal muscle, increased uptake of chylomicron [3H] retinoid by rat skeletal muscle. Using [3H]retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable analog retinyl [14C]hexadecyl ether incorporated into Intralipid emulsions, the importance of retinyl ester hydrolysis in this process was assessed. We observed that 3H label was taken up to a greater extent than 14C label by rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that retinoid uptake requires hydrolysis. In summary, for each of our experiments, the level of lipoprotein lipase expression in skeletal muscle, heart, and/or adipose tissue influenced the amount of [3H]retinoid taken up from chylomicrons and/or their remnants.  (+info)

  • I take 3 pills 30-45 min before my workout in the morning in a fasted state, so usually right at the end of my 16 hour fast before my first meal that will start my 8 hour eating period. (capsu.org)
  • Intermittently fasting is nothing new, but - especially in recent years - it's been viewed with almost equal measure of confusion, misunderstanding and skepticism. (bodyrock.tv)
  • If you're considering a fast for some reason, I'd suggest finding a doctor who practices functional medicine or a naturopath to guide you through the process. (wordpress.com)
  • Fasting releases toxins, which can make you feel sick, kind of flu-ish. (wordpress.com)
  • Christy Michael, BVMS, demonstrates how to perform a Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) on a dog presenting with non-specific clinical signs. (atdove.org)
  • For example , if you are a night owl and rarely go to sleep before midnight (or later), your fast could start around 10pm and go until 2pm the next day. (bodyrock.tv)
  • If you don't eat enough, you'll feel especially hungry the next day, which can affect your ability to perform at work and at life in general, and you may end up needing to skip fasting that day. (popsugar.com)
  • This Newsweek gallery looks at Muslims around the world as they prepare to mark the start of Ramadan or break their fast after sunset on the first evening. (newsweek.com)
  • What with Christmas and the new year falling during the current month of Ramadan, and the short winter days making the fasting less onerous than sometimes, the people of the Middle East are now enjoying a convergence of festivities they have not seen in 30 years. (economist.com)
  • Despite the fast, grocery sales tend to go up during Ramadan, thanks to the evening feasts. (economist.com)
  • The Shaykh of our Masjid (Mosque) says that we follow the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) in fasting Ramadan and determining the first day of the 'Eed. (islamweb.net)
  • Question: Why has Allah prescribed the compensatory expiation for intentional fast breaking in Ramadan to be sixty days in a row? (islamweb.net)
  • Question: I once broke fasting during Ramadan, but I am not sure as to whether or not I had reached puberty then. (islamweb.net)
  • Question: I had to make up for two days of fasting that I missed in the past Ramadan, and on the 9th and 10th of Muharram I intended to make up for the two days of Ramadan along with the intention to get the blessing of these two days. (islamweb.net)
  • IFTAR: People break their fast in a street of Kadikoy district in Istanbul during Ramadan. (gulf-times.com)
  • The Muslim month of Ramadan is here and over a billion Muslims around the world will fast in this month. (gulf-times.com)
  • The entire Muslim nation fasts this month, even the ones who are normally disobedient fast during Ramadan in most cases. (gulf-times.com)
  • (CNN) -- The temptation to eat a lot during Ramadan, the Muslim holy month of fasting, is great, but Saiful Khandker makes a conscious effort to not overdo it. (cnn.com)
  • It is traditional to eat dates on Eid al Fitr, the breaking of the month-long fast of Ramadan. (cnn.com)
  • Around the world, many observant Muslims like Khandker who've been fasting all day during Ramadan are thinking about the feast they'll have on Eid al Fitr, the holiday that ends the holy month, next weekend. (cnn.com)
  • Religious eating habits are especially relevant this month with Muslims observing Ramadan and Jews about to undertake an approximately 24-hour fast on Yom Kippur, which begins at sundown on September 27. (cnn.com)
  • Fasting for Ramadan: Notes from a Spiritual Practice, a new book of insights and meditations by yoga instructor and Oberlin College creative writing professor, Kazim Ali, touches on these parts of the human. (yogajournal.com)
  • Justifications for fasting run the gamut from cleansing and detoxification to religious edicts (such as Ramadan) to the health-promoting properties of fasting. (hubpages.com)
  • We're not meant to eat three meals a day - and snacks," said Mark Mattson, a pioneer in studying the effects of intermittent fasting on the brain who runs the neuroscience lab at the National Institute on Aging. (businessinsider.com)
  • Studies have looked at the effects of intermittent fasting regimes versus reducing kilojoules overall and the benefits of both strategies appear to be equal," she explains. (abc.net.au)
  • And encouraged by animal findings suggesting that these minifasts may protect the brain against cognitive decline , Mattson and colleagues are looking at the effects of intermittent fasting on the brain in a large-scale study of obese, prediabetic 55- to 70-year-olds. (aarp.org)
  • Stick to a routine eating schedule, and avoid fasting or skipping meals. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most of us aren't on a structured timetable of meals where the window of fasting is constant, so rather than fasting intermittently, we're fasting haphazardly - and there's no benefit there. (askmen.com)
  • Intermittent fasting is achieved by skipping meals throughout the day, and dieters can choose their eating windows. (news-medical.net)
  • If you are fasting, you should eat normal sized, well-balanced meals with plenty of liquids to avoid dehydration before a day without eating, she said. (cnn.com)
  • One benefit I found to intermittent fasting is being able to sit down to larger, more satisfying meals without feeling like I have to strictly count calories. (popsugar.com)
  • Then try two meals, and work your way up to a daylong fast. (desiringgod.org)
  • NPR coverage of Fresh Food Fast: Delicious, Seasonal Vegetarian Meals in Under an Hour by Peter Berley and Melissa Clark. (npr.org)
  • Choosing high-fiber and high-protein foods for your fast-day meals helps to stave off hunger, according to Krista Varady, associate professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois at Chicago, who has conducted several studies of alternate-day fasting. (aarp.org)
  • Newer fasting programs substitute a variety of protein-rich powders for meals. (healthy.net)
  • Dear Grace: Someone recently asked me why Catholics have Lent and also why we do not fast for the entire forty day period. (freerepublic.com)
  • Could you please explain the message behind Lent and why we do not fast every single day of the forty days? (freerepublic.com)
  • The season of Lent is a commemoration of Our Lord s fast, which He undertook before entering into His public ministry. (freerepublic.com)
  • As to why most Catholics do not fast the entire forty days of Lent, the Church in fact strongly recommends that we do so, but leaves it to us to decide for ourselves. (freerepublic.com)
  • For all other weekdays of Lent, we strongly recommend participation in daily Mass and a self-imposed observance of fasting. (freerepublic.com)
  • Remembering that fasting is a form of penance and self-denial, we must keep in mind that we are urged to do this during the entire season of Lent, but it does not have to be a fast from food on all those forty days. (freerepublic.com)
  • And Sunday is never a day of fasting (not even during Lent). (freerepublic.com)
  • The Jewish Passover and Christian Lent are also examples of fasting, although the nature and duration of their fasting may be different than Muslim fasting. (gulf-times.com)
  • 26 February sees the beginning of Lent in the Christian faith and gives us a great opportunity to discuss fasting in religion and spiritual fasting around the world. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Left patients for all of the bands mentioned, gel days of how to order real messages and a generic cialis fast delivery molecule of friends and their ingredients can be found at the addition of this fie. (liberalstudies.ca)
  • Anything more than a couple of days should be considered a prolonged fast, and be supervised by a physician. (faqs.org)
  • I have fasted and prayed many days that I might know these things, Alma 5:46 . (lds.org)
  • Scripture tells us that 'Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil and he fasted forty days and forty nights' (Matthew 4:1-2). (freerepublic.com)
  • In other words, it was not always forty days in length and the fast was not always observed the same way. (freerepublic.com)
  • For example, during the late second century, the season of penance before Easter was much shorter and some people fasted for one day, others for two days, and others for a greater number of days. (freerepublic.com)
  • Because this made the Lenten season only thirty-six days in duration, with time it was lengthened by adding four more days, making it forty, in remembrance of Jesus fast in the desert. (freerepublic.com)
  • The idea behind this strategy is that you have to fast for several days to get the benefits: basically, you have to fully deplete your energy reserves (in the form of glycogen), and it takes your body at least 24 hours, and probably 48 hours or more, to do this. (forbes.com)
  • Or you can go with the more difficult strategy (but still easier than a 3-day fast) where you fast for 2 entire days per week. (forbes.com)
  • 5:2 fasting: fast for 2 different days each week, which means eating just 500-700 calories worth of food and drink on those days. (forbes.com)
  • Question: My question is plain and simple: I want to know whether fasting on Mondays and Thursdays is the Sunnah, or is it sufficient to fast two days weekly in order to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhiwa sallam? (islamweb.net)
  • Just as its name implies, this plan involves alternating "fast" and "feast" days. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fasting days consist of a single 500-calorie meal at lunchtime. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Developed by Dr. Michael Mosley, the fast diet involves fasting 2 days per week. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • On fasting days, women eat 500 calories , and men eat 600 calories. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Feasting and Fasting comprises a series of short scripts on the single subject (it is one and the same in two parallel forms, those of legend and history) of the holidays/holy days of Christmas and Easter in the Christian calendar. (rte.ie)
  • When fasting is in the news these days, it's usually accompanied by words like "cleanse" and "detox. (motherjones.com)
  • A third approach is the 5:2 diet, in which participants have a modified fast on 2 non-consecutive days each week. (news-medical.net)
  • On fasting days, participants are restricted to consuming 66 to 500 calories. (news-medical.net)
  • But when we fast, after about 3-4 days, the liver starts to convert our body fat to create chemicals called ketones. (gulf-times.com)
  • It has been observed also by the scientists that after a few days of fasting, the body adapts to starvation and starts to release high amounts of catecholamines including adrenalin, norepinephrine and dopamine into the brain. (gulf-times.com)
  • Some people are unable to fast due to their sickness, and thus Allah permitted them to break their fast whilst sick and mandated that they make up for the days they missed. (gulf-times.com)
  • Make your fasting days distinct from all your other days. (islamweb.net)
  • These days fasting is in fashion. (abc.net.au)
  • It doesn't matter if you fast on consecutive or alternate days. (abc.net.au)
  • The 5:2 diet recommends fasting on non-consecutive days, such as Tuesday and Thursday. (abc.net.au)
  • Gradually extend your fasting window 30 minutes every one to three days, until you've reached your goal. (popsugar.com)
  • Fast Plants are a type of crucifer (a large group of plants that includes mustard, radish, cabbage, and more) that have been bred and selected to have a uniform, short flowering time (14 days) and grow well under in a small indoor space, with little soil, under artificial lights. (merlot.org)
  • Natural News) Prolonged fasting - not eating for between two and four subsequent days at a time - has been shown to regenerate the immune system and protect it from further damage. (naturalnews.com)
  • Could fasting for a couple of days each week help you improve your health and live longer ? (aarp.org)
  • Some people follow the 5:2 diet , which involves fasting for two days a week. (healthline.com)
  • A short fast, perhaps of five to ten days, can be useful as a motivator and catalyst for making these necessary dietary changes and new commitments and to help release a pound or two daily. (healthy.net)
  • It is clearly stated in muslim law that pregnant women, breast feeding women and menstruating women, as well as the elderly and ill are not expected to fast. (medhelp.org)
  • Since all of these liquids are high in vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and natural sugars, some consider this to be a restricted diet instead of a real fast. (faqs.org)
  • And thanks to how-to books like The Fast Diet , Jandial's Neurofitness: A Brain Surgeon's secrets to Boost Performance and Unleash Creativity , and endorsements by celebrities like Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey (who eats only one meal a day), people are beginning to ask their doctors about it. (webmd.com)
  • Cutting out all snacks in the evening, which is the biggest change imposed by time-restricted fasting, means not only a reduction in calories consumed, but also a reduction in the amount of highly processed ("junk") foods in one's diet as well. (forbes.com)
  • Intermittent fasting is a popular diet plan that does not dictate which foods dieters can consume. (news-medical.net)
  • He now believes he's developed a diet that may boost longevity - by mimicking the effect of periodic fasting. (businessinsider.com)
  • Longo's ProLon diet (it stands for "pro-longevity," he says, and not "Professor Longo") reflects a growing interest in episodic fasting, which has been touted by celebrities such as Jimmy Kimmel and Benedict Cumberbatch and in best-selling books like "The Alternate-Day Diet. (businessinsider.com)
  • His approach stands out because he insists he can use certain combinations of nutrients to trick the body into thinking it's fasting without actually being on a punishing, water-only diet. (businessinsider.com)
  • Fasting day kilojoule restrictions in the 5:2 diet are 2500kJ (600 calories) for men and 2000kJ (500 calories) for women. (abc.net.au)
  • Intermittent fasting does allow you a little wiggle room in your diet, which is why people love it so much. (popsugar.com)
  • Intermittent fasting is a great thing for routine health and can be part of a good diet plan. (healingwell.com)
  • Part-time fasting is a new diet trend - but does it work? (aarp.org)
  • It is important to make a gradual transition into a regular diet, rather than just going out to dinner after a week-long fast. (healthy.net)
  • Arnold Ehret, a European fasting expert and proponent of the "mucusless" diet, suggests that fruits and fruit juices should not be used right after a meat eater's first fast because they may coagulate intestinal mucus and cause problems. (healthy.net)
  • A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt, or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Headaches during a fast could be due to dehydration or hunger, poor rest, or the absence of addictive substances, such as caffeine or nicotine. (independent.ie)
  • Strengthening one's willpower and determination: One, who can tolerate the pain of hunger and thirst and controls himself from having a sexual relation with his spouse whilst fasting, will strengthen his determination and willpower. (gulf-times.com)
  • Occasionally, people are very hungry throughout a fast, but most lose interest in food from day three to day seven or ten and then experience real, deep-seated hunger again. (healthy.net)
  • A 2016 study of more than 2,400 women, published in JAMA Oncology, found that prolonged nighttime fasting may have protected those with early stage breast cancer against recurrence. (aarp.org)
  • Studies in animals and humans indicate fasting could improve cognitive performance, heart health, and symptoms of diabetes and obesity. (newsweek.com)
  • Is Fasting an Effective Treatment for Diabetes? (newsweek.com)
  • The chart below provides fasting blood sugar numbers and descriptions as provided by the American Diabetes Association. (amazonaws.com)
  • In addition to promoting weight loss , so-called intermittent fasting may deliver a host of other surprising health benefits, from improved heart and brain health, to a lower risk of diabetes , and even a longer life, recent research shows. (webmd.com)
  • Fasting may also reverse the effects of chronic conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes , which are both risk factors for cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A 2017 case study looked at the effect of short-term fasting on type 2 diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you have an underlying condition such as diabetes, you should talk to your physician about whether you should fast. (cnn.com)
  • He's an engineer, but he really knows his stuff and talking to him inspired me to re-evaluate my stance on extended water fasting, which I didn't think was necessary in the absence of obesity , diabetes or some other specific health challenge such as cancer . (mercola.com)
  • A 2015 review of intermittent fasting studies concluded that there were no known risks for healthy individuals, though experts recommend against it for women who are pregnant, those with diabetes, those prone to hyperglycemia (high blood-sugar levels) or elderly individuals who are very frail. (aarp.org)
  • Last week, in a paper just published in the New England Journal of Medicine , Rafael de Cabo and Mark Mattson reviewed multiple strategies for fasting that have been tested in the years since Longo's study. (forbes.com)
  • To correct dosage few check of coupons viagra can be used which increases the viagra of generic pregnancy generating the important prezzo generated in fast shipping generic viagra the majority going to the organized penis. (northumberlandpresbytery.org)
  • As fasting increases production of the protein called Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), the brain also builds more neurons (brain cells) to help itself work efficiently. (gulf-times.com)
  • Initially the LDL level increases following the onset of fasting, but then decreases. (news-medical.net)
  • Proponents say that fasting can provide a sense of control of one's life. (faqs.org)
  • Intermittent fasting proponents tend to say no - which flys in the face of much of the dietary advice coming from every authority from registered dieticians to MDs. (askmen.com)
  • Throughout the centuries fasting, or abstaining from food and/or drink, has been a way to cleanse the body, open the mind and free the spirit. (angelfire.com)
  • Fasting practices may preclude intercourse and other activities as well as food. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to refusing food, fasting girls claimed to have special religious or magical powers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A case that led to a death and arrests was that of Sarah Jacob (May 12, 1857 - December 17, 1869), the "Welsh fasting girl", who claimed not to have eaten any food at all after the age of ten. (wikipedia.org)
  • Let thy food be prepared with singleness of heart that thy fasting may be perfect, D&C 59:13-14 . (lds.org)
  • For, although the Koran's injunction to let nothing-neither food, water nor smoke-pass the lips in daylight hours is taken seriously by most, so too is the celebration that accompanies the breaking of the fast at dusk. (economist.com)
  • With this strategy, you fast every day , by eating all of your food in a 6-hour or 8-hour window. (forbes.com)
  • When he woke up, after the Athaan, the food was still in his mouth, and so he spat it out immediately and continued fasting. (islamweb.net)
  • Other alternate day fasting plans involve completely abstaining from food every other day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If these three things call for a fasting of food, how much more does it call for the fasting of other things! (desiringgod.org)
  • Fasting affects the hormones that regulate your appetite so much that you don't feel that hungry, and when you eat, you feel full with a small amount of food. (popsugar.com)
  • Fasting is voluntarily going without food - or any other regularly enjoyed, good gift from God - for the sake of some spiritual purpose. (desiringgod.org)
  • The campaign to get fast-food workers paid at least $15 a hour resumes later this week. (cnn.com)
  • Currently, the median pay for fast-food workers is just over $9 an hour, or about $18,500 a year. (cnn.com)
  • Fast-food CEOs make 1,000 times more than the average worker in the industry, according to Demos. (cnn.com)
  • U.S. census data show that the face of the fast-food worker has changed dramatically over the years. (cnn.com)
  • Authorities on Thursday said Lang set out on the trip without food because he was "fasting. (usatoday.com)
  • It has been argued that fasting makes one better appreciate food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Narrowing the passage of the devil: Satan runs in the blood of the son of Aadam and fasting narrows his passage and thus lessens his effects, reduces one's desires and calms one's anger. (gulf-times.com)
  • Other fasts may be partially restrictive, limiting only particular foods or substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Challenge your friends and family to a fast-paced racing game where breakfast foods battle it out in delicious scenarios. (steampowered.com)
  • Breaking Fast is a frantic race between breakfast foods in which there are no rules and the only goal is to win, and if possible, humiliate and ravage your adversaries. (steampowered.com)
  • The purpose of fasting in this case, however, is not to cure these problems but to help understand the relationship of foods, chemicals, or drugs to the mental difficulties. (healthy.net)
  • Initially, a transition from meats to more vegetable foods will then allow a smoother fast, mainly with vegetable juices and broths. (healthy.net)
  • The political and religious leader Mohandas K. Gandhi undertook several long fasts as political and social protests. (wikipedia.org)
  • César Chávez undertook a number of spiritual fasts, including a 25-day fast in 1968 promoting the principle of nonviolence, and a fast of 'thanksgiving and hope' to prepare for pre-arranged civil disobedience by farm workers. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Fasting also helps with weight loss, for obvious reasons. (forbes.com)
  • After 4 months of fasting, the participant had a 17.8 percent reduction in weight and an 11 percent reduction in waist size. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although participants in both group lost weight, those in the 5:2 intermittent fasting group lost weight faster. (news-medical.net)
  • Thanks to improved engine technologies that produce higher horsepower, and lighter materials that lower a car's curb weight, the latest generation of relatively affordable, mass-market sports cars can go as fast if not faster than many of the fancier vehicles blazing down the highway, according to auto experts at Edmunds.com. (forbes.com)
  • Horsepower and weight: the lower the ratio of power to curb weight, the faster the car, experts say. (forbes.com)
  • Associate Professor Amanda Salis, from the University of Sydney's Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, says research has found some forms of fasting really can help some of us to lose weight. (abc.net.au)
  • Intermittent fasting is a powerful weight loss tool. (healthline.com)
  • If our energy is up and then falls for more than a day or if our weight gets too low, these may be signs that we should come off the fast. (healthy.net)
  • If done correctly, you'll hardly feel hungry during your fasting window, and once you hit the time when your feeding window starts, you won't feel so hungry that you want to inhale the entire contents of your kitchen. (popsugar.com)
  • We fast from what we can see and taste, because we have tasted and seen the goodness of the invisible and infinite God - and are desperately hungry for more of him. (desiringgod.org)
  • Can Intermittent Fasting Reset Your Immune System? (forbes.com)
  • In the 2014 study , Valter Longo and colleagues at USC found that fasting lowered white blood cell counts, which in turn triggered the immune system to start producing new white blood cells. (forbes.com)
  • Adding one small meal on a fasting day may make this approach to dietary restriction more acceptable. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism behind the preservation and extension of fertility long past the worms' normal reproductive prime, Van Gilst suspects, is a signaling receptor protein in the cell nucleus called NHR-49, which promotes a major metabolic response to dietary restriction and fasting. (newsmax.com)
  • With fatigue that results from chronic infection, nutritional deficiency, or serious disease, more nourishment is probably needed, rather than fasting. (healthy.net)
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  • For example, a person is assumed to be fasting after 8-12 hours from their last meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnostic fast refers to prolonged fasting (from 8-72 hours depending on age) conducted under observation for investigation of a problem, usually hypoglycemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a lipid panel, failure to fast for a full 12 hours (including vitamins) will guarantee an elevated triglyceride measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast your dog for 24 hours. (ardmoreah.com)
  • A fast can last for 24 hours or for as longas one month. (faqs.org)
  • These figures come out when you measure your blood sugar level in the morning after have been fasting for at least 8 hours.This is the time between the dinner and your breakfast. (amazonaws.com)
  • therefore, most of us have a fairly rigid fasting period of 6 to 8 hours per night until we eat in the morning. (askmen.com)
  • Thats only about 12 hours into the fast. (yahoo.com)
  • I still have about 5 more hours of fasting after brushing my teeth. (yahoo.com)
  • Daily intermittent fasting limits eating to a certain number of hours each day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The participant in the study fasted for 24 hours two to three times per week. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the 24-hour method, also known as the "eat-stop-eat" method, participants fast for 24 hours once or twice per week. (news-medical.net)
  • One of these ketones (beta-HBA) is a highly efficient fuel source for the brain, allowing it to function during extended hours of fasting and at the same time, decrease dependence on gluconeogenesis, providing relief to the muscles from which they are derived. (gulf-times.com)
  • With certain blood tests, you may be instructed to fast for up to eight hours before your appointment. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Fasting for a lab test typically lasts eight hours. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • In this version of IF, you fast for 18-20 hours each day and eat for 4-6 hours. (hubpages.com)
  • Ellie explained, 'my book is a step by step instruction of the same method I used to get rid of cold sores fast and in around 12 hours. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Women on this plan who fasted 13 or more hours per night not only reduced their risk of developing new tumors by 36 percent, they also slept longer and had improved blood sugar regulation. (aarp.org)
  • In addition to fasting, antacids are administered the night before (or in the morning of an afternoon operation) and then once again two hours prior to surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fasting guidelines often restrict the intake of any oral fluid after two to six hours preoperatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in reduces maintenance and operating cost as well as contributing to faster synthesis time. (prweb.com)
  • Shun gatherings of useless talk and adopt the manners of fasting women who guard their tongues, vision and limbs from any prohibition that affects the reward of their fasting. (islamweb.net)
  • Different cultures and different religions approach fasting in different manners and at different times of the year. (bath.ac.uk)
  • They also argue that in addition to the minor side effects, like fatigue and dizziness, even modified fasting on juices can sometimes cause the formation of kidney stones or gallstones. (faqs.org)
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  • Some scientists have indicated that a fast will cause white blood cells to break down during the fasting, resulting in new ones needing to be built when the fast is broken, resulting in the replacement of old damaged ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the information on the average fasting blood sugar normal range is important, it is equally valuable to understand the other mean daily blood sugar ranges. (amazonaws.com)
  • Fasting before a blood draw means you don't eat or drink anything except water. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Don't wait until the day of your blood draw to ask if you should fast. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • How long do I have to fast for a blood test? (questdiagnostics.com)
  • What types of blood tests require fasting? (questdiagnostics.com)
  • If it's a test that does not require fasting then, yes, please eat something before having your blood drawn. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Fasting can cause a rise in blood levels of human growth hormone , an important hormone for promoting fat loss ( 20 , 21 ). (healthline.com)
  • Refraining from such bounties and blessings for a short period through fasting, reminds the rich with those who are continuously deprived, and thus become grateful to Allah and more merciful towards the needy. (gulf-times.com)
  • Care must be exercised with the use of fasting in mental patients as the toxicity or lack of nourishment may worsen their problems. (healthy.net)
  • The most accurate definition is the simplest one: IF is merely the alternation of intervals of not eating (fasting) with times where you are allowed to eat. (askmen.com)