A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A thin-walled, glandular stomach found in birds. It precedes the gizzard.
An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.
Infections with viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES. The concept includes FILOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.
An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.
... a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single ... and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah ( ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ... The Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae family of viruses. There is no vaccine. Prevention requires isolating those who ...
They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome ... Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes [26.4 kb (ThCoV HKU12) to 31.7 kb (SW1)] among all known RNA viruses (Figure 1) [2,13 ... Coronaviruses form the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, which is one of two sub-families in the family Coronaviridae, order ... The genome size is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. The ...
... is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses which infect amphibians, birds, and mammals. The group ... The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, among the largest for an RNA virus (second only ... They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. ... The family Coronaviridae is organized in 2 sub-families, 5 genera, 26 sub-genera, and 46 species. Additional species are ...
Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the family Hantaviridae. The family consists of 5 genera: bunyavirus, ... The tri-segmented genome includes a S (small), M (medium), and L (large) segment that code for nucleocapsid (N), glycoproteins ... Andes orthohantavirus is a species of Hantavirus, a group of enveloped, ... The virus genome contains its own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which directs both transcription and replication of the ...
The genome segments are packaged in the same virus particle. The larger segment codes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ( ... Viruses in the family Partitiviridae are non-enveloped with icosahedral geometries and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 35- ... virus Discula destructiva virus 1 Discula destructiva virus 2 Fusarium solani virus 1 Gremmeniella abietina RNA virus MS1 ... Cannabis cryptic virus Ceratocystis resinifera virus 1 Crimson clover cryptic virus 2 Dill cryptic virus 2 Fusarium poae virus ...
Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ... The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the ... Bornavirions are enveloped, with spherical geometries. The diameter is around 70 to 130 nm. Genomes are linear, around 8.9kb in ... Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, reptiles, and humans ...
... is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Totiviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. The name of the ... Viruses in the genus Totivirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral symmetry, and T=2 architecture. The diameter is around 40 nm ... The genome contains two large overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). These open reading frames (ORFs) code for a capsid ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ...
... which are a family of enveloped negative-sense single stranded RNA viruses with a genome split into three parts-Small (S), ... Medium (M) and Large (L). The L RNA segment encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein), the M RNA segment encodes two ... SBV - Schmallenberg Virus PCR Detectction Kit Genbank: Schmallenberg virus RdRp gene for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, segment ... It is considered to be most closely related to the Sathuperi and Douglas viruses. The virus is named after Schmallenberg, in ...
... enveloped RNA viruses of 40 to 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of a single, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ... In PIs the virus remains present in a large number of the animal's body cells throughout its life and is continuously shed. PIs ... The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. BVD ... "Factors regulating template switch in vitro by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases: Implications for RNA-RNA recombination". ...
They are enveloped viruses with surface tubules sometimes referred to as surface filaments. Parapoxvirus virions are large in ... Parapoxviruses belongs to the family of viruses named Poxviridae, family of double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxvirus is ... Virions are the complete form of a virus outside of the host cell that is capable of infection. Virions contain a core of RNA ... the intracellular mature virus (IMV) the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) RDPV has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome. The ...
It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the APN receptor. The ... TGEV belongs to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. It is an enveloped virus with a ... The three largest gene sequence from 5' to 3' is in the order of E2 to E1 to N. There are about seven other open reading frames ... The morphology is similar to myxovirus and oncogenic virus in that they have surface projections and an envelop. The viruses ...
... is a virus in the family Tymoviridae that infects cacao trees in Sierra Leone. CYMV, like other Tymoviridae are non-enveloped ... In the cacao tree, CYMV infection leads to the appearance of large circular yellow blotches on the leaves. Infected trees are ... Tymoviridae have positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes approximately 6 kilobases long. ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Cacao yellow mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e. ...
... is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates (including mammals and ... the large amounts of the structural proteins are produced. According to this model, the virus-associated RNA polymerase starts ... In addition to the functions about virus assembly, morphogenesis and budding off enveloped from the host plasma membrane, ... Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ...
All potyviruses are non-enveloped viruses with positive sense single-stranded RNA genomes. The SPFMV genome is approximately ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method. ... "Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of sweet potato feathery mottle virus (S strain) genomic RNA: the large ... Synergistic infections involve a virus and a co-infecting virus infecting an organism together, with one virus assisting the ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of ... Viruses included in the genus Cystovirus are enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=13, T=2 symmetry. The ... Pseudomonas phage phi6 was the first virus in this family to be discovered and was initially characterized in 1973 in James Van ... Nucleotide Sequence of the Large Double-Stranded RNA". Virology. 295 (2): 266-271. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1436. PMID 12033785. ...
The family Reoviridae is the largest and most diverse dsRNA virus family in terms of host range. Two clades of dsRNA viruses ... BTV, like other members of the family, is a complex non-enveloped virus with seven structural proteins and a RNA genome ... Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus replication ... It is a double-stranded RNA non-enveloped virus The members of genus Orbivirus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod borne ...
The genome is positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a length of 27 to 29 kilobases and a 3'-polyA tail. Two large, ... They are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals, including humans. They have spherical virions with ... The virion is enveloped and spherical measuring 120-160 nm in diameter and a core shell of about 65 nm. Glycoproteins and ... Alphacoronaviruses are in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. Both the Alpha- and Betacoronavirus ...
... is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses. It is the only genus the family Picobirnaviridae. Although amniotes, ... Viruses in the genus picobirnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 35 ... The capsid protein gene is encoded by the second open reading frame of the larger genomic segment 1. Picobirnaviruses are ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ...
The virus has a 60-70 nanometer diameter. It is enveloped, spherical and has a positive-strand RNA genome of ~12 kilobases. The ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Martellivirales Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus ... 2005-2006 - Large epidemic of the chikungunya virus on the island of La Réunion and the surrounding islands in the Indian Ocean ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ...
... Leishmania RNA virus 1 Leishmania RNA virus 2 Viruses in Leishmaniavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral ... Leishmaniavirus (also known as Leishmania RNA virus or LRV) is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus, in the family Totiviridae ... The genome has 2 large open reading frames. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus ... Scheffter, S.M., et al., The complete sequence of Leishmania RNA virus LRV2-1, a virus of an Old World parasite strain. ...
... belongs to the genus Ipomovirus, and the family Potyviridae. As the largest of the 34 plant virus ... the Cassava brown streak virus has a positive, single strand RNA genome. Structurally, viruses in this family are linear, non- ... CBSV is believed to be a non-enveloped virus with a capsid protein coat that is most similar to that of the ipomovirus, SPMMV ( ... CBSV is a single stranded RNA (ssRNA(+)) virus, therefore the virus must use the host cell machinery to translate the ssRNA(+) ...
... non-enveloped viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ... Noroviruses contain a linear, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.5 kilobases, encoding a large ... which includes Bristol virus, Lordsdale virus, Toronto virus, Mexico virus, Hawaii virus and Snow Mountain virus. Most ... Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of replication. Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA ...
... is a family of single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses in the order Tymovirales. Plants serve as natural hosts. ... Bombyx mori latent virus Poinsettia mosaic virus Culex tymovirus Fig fleck-associated virus The virions are non-enveloped and ... There are currently 41 species in this family, divided among three genera, with two species unassigned to a genus. The largest ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ...
... is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Salmonid fish, birds and insects serve as natural hosts. There are ... Viruses in family Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter ... The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) that is processed into the major ... Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model in the cytoplasm. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription ...
These viruses are enveloped and have a single stranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ... In the RNP, genomic RNA is tightly encased by the nucleoprotein. Two other viral proteins, the phosphoprotein and the large ... Rabies lyssavirus has a cylindrical morphology and is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family. ... Viruses portal Cryptic bat rabies Rabies vaccine Duck embryo vaccine Arctic rabies virus Bat-borne virus Walker, Peter (15 June ...
It is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, and its name is derived from the large syncytia that form when infected ... RSV is a medium-sized (~150 nm) enveloped virus. While most particles are spherical, filamentous species have also been ... It belongs to the genus Orthopneumovirus, family Pneumoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Its name comes from the fact that F ... RNA-dependent RNA polymerase transcribes the genome into 10 segments of messenger RNA (mRNA) which is translated into ...
... single-stranded RNA virus. Its genome is about 30 kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The virus has 14 open ... It is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the angiotensin-converting ... The morphology of the SARS-related coronavirus is characteristic of the coronavirus family as a whole. The viruses are large ... Positive Sense RNA Viruses - Positive Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ...
Avian reovirus belongs to the genus Orthoreovirus, and Reoviridae family. They are non-enveloped viruses that undergo ... Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... or large. Of the eleven proteins that are encoded for by the genome, two are nonstructural, while the remaining nine are ... Virus-host interactions[edit]. Alpha and beta interferons belong to a family of multifunctional cytokines, which are expressed ...
Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. The family ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... single-stranded RNA(+) viruses. Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow ...
... nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae.[7] It was the first illness shown to be ... An estimated 90% of the infections occur on the African continent.[4] In 2008, the largest number of recorded cases was in Togo ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[7] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, ...
... es are nonenveloped viruses that represent a large family of small, cytoplasmic, plus-strand RNA(~7.5kb) viruses ... Picornaviruses are non-enveloped, with an icosahedral capsid. The capsid is an arrangement of 60 protomers in a tightly packed ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... Macrophages, from the Greek, meaning "large eaters", are large phagocytic leukocytes, which are able to move outside of the ... oligoadenylate synthetase family, which degrades viral RNA.[23] ... wrapping the membrane around the particle until it is enveloped ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kilobases in ... The particles have large (~20 nm), club- or petal-shaped spikes on the surface (the "peplomers" ). The particles in electron ... The family Coronaviridae is has 2 sub-families, 5 genera, 26 sub-genera, and 46 species.[1] More species are possible, but not ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 11 May 2020.. .mw ...
... and viruses.[18][19] Cathelicidin rapidly destroys the lipoprotein membranes of microbes enveloped in phagosomes after fusion ... The cathelicidin family shares primary sequence homology with the cystatin[9] family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors, ... Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. These larger cathelicidins display repetitive ... The cathelicidin family of peptides are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The AMP family also includes the defensins ...
"Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ... As it is a group 7 virus, replication involves an RNA intermediate. Four main open reading frames are encoded (ORFs) and the ... The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S ... A family of viruses - the Nackednaviridae - has been isolated from fish.[8] This family has a similar genomic organisation to ...
Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Variola is a large brick-shaped virus measuring approximately 302 to 350 nanometers by 244 to 270 nm,[41] with a single linear ... Both enveloped and unenveloped virions are infectious. The viral envelope is made of modified Golgi membranes containing viral- ... the most important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ...
Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... The large segment encodes a small zinc-binding protein (Z) that regulates transcription and replication,[16][17] and the RNA ... both S and L RNA genomes synthesize the antigenomic S and L RNAs, and from the antigenomic RNAs, genomic S and L RNA are ... The L protein most likely represents the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[23] When the cell is infected by the virus, L ...
The relatively large encrusting sponge Lissodendoryx colombiensis is most common on rocky surfaces, but has extended its range ... So far only 137 species have been discovered.[34] Most belong to the family Cladorhizidae, but a few members of the Guitarridae ... digest them by enveloping them with further threads over the course of a few days, and then return to their normal shape; there ... In 2007 one analysis based on comparisons of RNA and another based mainly on comparison of spicules concluded that demosponges ...
Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral ... Panicum mosaic virus is the type species of the genus Panicovirus, a member of the plant virus family Tombusviridae. ... As a result of the lack of resistance in cultivated species of switchgrass, there is a potential danger of developing large ... PMV is serologically related to Molina streak virus and Maize mild mottle virus. There exists a satellite virus to panicum ...
It appears to be able to increase the burst size of the virus. Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Microviridae Sub-Family: ... There are currently 12 species in this family, divided among 7 genera and one subfamily. The virons are non-enveloped, round ... It is translated from an internal start site within the messenger RNA. Gene E is encoded with gene D with a +1 frameshift. Gene ... These are formed by large insertion loops within the protein F of gokushoviruses and are absent in the microviruses. They lack ...
... and then packaged into a virus particle (virion). The virus then becomes enveloped with a lipid membrane as it transits the ... KSHV is a herpesvirus, and is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a protein covering that packages its nucleic acids, called ... PAN, polyadenylated nuclear RNA - non-coding linear and circular RNAs miRNAs (mirKs) - viral microRNAs expressed during latency ... Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ...
The hepatitis C virus (HCV)[2] is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family ... The large pre-protein is later cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into the 10 smaller proteins that allow viral ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... RNA replication takes place via the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B, which produces a negative strand RNA intermediate ...
Like all members of the Poxviridae family, they are oval, relatively large, double-stranded DNA viruses. Parapoxviruses have a ... and Sealpox virus. Viruses in Parapoxvirus are enveloped, with ovoid geometries. These viruses are about 140-170 nm wide and ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ... Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Parapoxvirus Bovine papular stomatitis virus Camel contagious ecthyma virus Orf virus ...
A polydnavirus /pɒˈlɪdnəvaɪərəs/ (PDV) is a member of the family Polydnaviridae of insect viruses. There are currently 53 ... Micro-RNA[edit]. MicroRNA are small RNA fragments produced in the host cells thanks to a specific enzymatic mechanism. They ... Viruses in Polydnaviridae are enveloped, with prolate ellipsoid and cylindrical geometries. Genomes are circular and segmented ... When a large body (wasp egg or small particle used experimentally) is introduced into an insect's body, the classic immune ...
... in case of a DNA virus), or a cDNA copy of its genome (in case of RNA viruses). For many virus families the naked synthetic DNA ... Some viruses may have evolved from bits of DNA or RNA that "escaped" from the genes of a larger organism. The escaped DNA could ... Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.[83]. Complex. These viruses possess a capsid that ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family.[36] The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid ... The virus is one of the smallest enveloped animal viruses. The 42 nm virions, which are capable of infecting liver cells known ... This cccDNA serves as a template for transcription of four viral mRNAs by host RNA polymerase. The largest mRNA, (which is ...
Of these, only two families have RNA genomes, and only five families are surrounded by an envelope. Of the viral families with ... Enveloped, rod-shaped. Linear dsDNA. Acidianus filamentous virus 1 Rudiviridae. Nonenveloped, rod-shaped. Linear dsDNA. ... RNA phage such as MS2 have the smallest genomes of only a few kilobases. However, some DNA phages such as T4 may have large ... For RNA-based phages, RNA replicase is synthesized early in the process. Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it ...
... is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10-kilobase, positive-sense RNA genome. It is ... Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.[3] It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. ... Once the cell has been infected, the virus restructures the endoplasmic reticulum, forming the large vacuoles, resulting in ... Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae family and the genus Flavivirus, thus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, ...
... (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses ... Upon entrance into the plant cell, the virus coat protein disassembles and releases its RNA genome. The viral RNA serves as ... Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses, and possibly the most destructive one in potato crops. The genus includes more ... Potyvirus virions consist of non-enveloped filamentous structures that are 680 - 900 nm in length and 11 to 15 nm in width. ...
It is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, and its name is derived from the large syncytia that form when infected ... "American Family Physician. 95 (2): 94-99. PMID 28084708.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae ... RSV is a medium-sized (~150 nm) enveloped virus. While most particles are spherical, filamentous species have also been ... "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 27 December 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t ...
Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus ... The virions are generally enveloped though the intracellular mature virion form of the virus, which contains a different ... The virion is exceptionally large, its size is around 200 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length and carries its genome in a ... Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the cytoplasm by viral RNA polymerase. Early expression begins at 30 minutes post- ...
... enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.[35] ... "New York tackles 'largest measles outbreak' in state's recent history as cases spike globally". CNN. Retrieved January 12, ... The virus is a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus meaning it first has to be transcribed by RNA polymerase into a ... "Nonnucleoside Inhibitor of Measles Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex Activity". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... "Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the functional organization of an enveloped virus, Semliki Forest virus". Molecular Cell. 5 (2 ... In this one case, the patient was speculated to be immunodeficient and potentially had been exposed to large amounts of virus ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours.[9] The modified virus was also ...
... enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double- ... Tolle MA, Schwarzwald HL (July 15, 2010). "Postexposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus". American Family ... NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., and colleagues summarize results from large clinical trials and cohort studies ... Gag proteins bind to copies of the virus RNA genome to package them into new virus particles.[71] ...
Enveloped. Linear. Monopartite Life cycle[edit]. The main stages in the lifecycle of Gamma herpes virus are namely • Virus ... Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales and in the family Herpesviridae. Viruses in ... Herpesviruses have large genomes containing a wide array of genes. Although the first ORF in these gammaherpesviruses have ... The family Herpesviridae, which contains eight viruses that infect humans, is the most extensively studied group within this ...
The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the ... Both Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) cause disease in non-human primates, yet only EBOV causes disease in humans. ... Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became ... Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There ...
It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the APN receptor. The ... TGEV belongs to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. It is an enveloped virus with a ... The three largest gene sequence from 5 to 3 is in the order of E2 to E1 to N. There are about seven other open reading frames ... The morphology is similar to myxovirus and oncogenic virus in that they have surface projections and an envelop. The viruses ...
The family Paramyxoviridae consists of large enveloped RNA viruses infecting mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Many ... mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and several parainfluenza viruses, are pathogenic for humans. The transmission of ... This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Paramyxoviridae. ... Prevalence and incidence of Zika virus infection among household contacts of patients with Zika virus disease, Puerto Rico, ...
Coronaviruses are a large family of lipid-enveloped RNA viruses. These viruses are commonly occurring in Humans and many ... All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The RNA sequences from COVID-19 infections in U.S. patients demonstrate ... used to measure how contagious an infectious disease is including viruses . The COVID-19 virus has an R0 number of 2.2 as ... Protect your families by wearing your own scrubs to the hospital and taking them off and carrying them back home in a plastic ...
Coronaviruses are a large family of lipid-enveloped RNA viruses. These viruses are commonly occurring in humans and many ... Remdesivir: a prodrug of an adenosine analog with potent activity against an array of RNA virus families. Mechanism of action ... All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The RNA sequences from COVID-19 viral particles detected in U.S. ... The virus can be spread by individuals who are having few if any symptoms. As stated earlier, COVID-19 virus is extremely ...
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, zoonotic RNA viruses. Four CoVs commonly circulate among ... Abstract Virus onslaughts continue to spread fear and cause rampage across the world every now and then. The twenty first ... Corona viruses have been in mutual relationship with humans and other hosts over many decades though aggressive zoonotic ... Zoonotic emergent corona viruses prior to SARS-COV-2 included severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and... ...
SARS-CoV-2 is part of a family of enveloped viruses with a large single-stranded RNA genome. The nucleic acid is compactly ... Both protein-RNA and protein-protein binding via this region are blocked, as well as intramolecular binding with RNA at other ... When RNA concentration was low, small spherical structures were formed, but at higher RNA concentrations, filaments were formed ... However, when long RNAs are present, as, under physiological conditions, multivalent RNA-N protein binding enhances droplet ...
The causative organism is the measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and Morbillivirus genus. It is an enveloped ... negative-sense RNA virus. The genome encodes six structural proteins and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The structural ... proteins are nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, haemagglutinin (HA), and large protein. The HA protein is ... Measles Virus Host Invasion and Pathogenesis. Viruses. 2016 Jul 28;8(8) [PMC free article: PMC4997572] [PubMed: 27483301] ...
This suggests the existence of immunological dysregulation as an accompanying event during severe illness caused by this virus ... This suggests the existence of immunological dysregulation as an accompanying event during severe illness caused by this virus ... SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β-coronavirus family and shares extensive genomic identity with bat coronavirus suggesting that bats ... SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β-coronavirus family and shares extensive genomic identity with bat coronavirus suggesting that bats ...
Paramyxoviruses are a large family of membrane-enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses causing important diseases in humans and ... Paramyxoviridae consist of a large family of enveloped, negative-sense, nonsegmented single-stranded RNA viruses that account ... The Paramyxoviridae comprise a large family of enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with significant economic ... Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. PIV5 ...
CSFV is an enveloped, positive, single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridiae [46 ... Poxviruses are the largest known group of animal DNA viruses. They have been extensively used as expression vectors for ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a type A virus, which is enveloped and consists of negative single-stranded RNA. It is a member ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped, positive strand RNA virus which is a member of the ...
Further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the Philippines. ... a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. The Asian genotype was identified as the ... The causative agent is chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus (family Togaviridae, ... large outbreaks occurred in the islands in the Indian Ocean and India that were caused by the Indian Ocean lineage (IOL) virus ...
... generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) ... into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus ... Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial ... neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses ...
... a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single ... and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah ( ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the viruss RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ... The Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae family of viruses. There is no vaccine. Prevention requires isolating those who ...
Coronaviruses are large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae in the order ... Viral RNA was isolated by using a QIAamp viral RNA kit (QIAGEN, Westburg, Leusden, The Netherlands). HCoV NL63 RNA was kindly ... The HCoV OC43 assay allows quantitation over a range from 20 to 2 × 108 RNA copies per reaction mixture (5 μl RNA extract). ... Coronaviruses have the largest known nonsegmented viral RNA genome (27 to 32 kb), which is capped, polyadenylated, and ...
The Coronaviridae is a large and complex family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses... ... Influenza A virus in swine has an endemic presence in swine populations across North and South America, Asia... ... No Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Fed Diets Containing Commercial Spray-Dried Porcine Plasma. Spray-dried porcine ... Diagnostics Critical in Effort to Eradicate PRRS Virus. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) costs the global ...
Paramyxoviridae encompasses a group of large (300-500 nm in diameter), enveloped, pleomorphic viruses with RNA genomes of 14.6- ... Philbey AW, Kirkland PD, Ross AD, Davis RJ, Gleeson AB, Love RJ, et al. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) ... canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), peste des petits ruminants virus, rinderpest virus, and feline ... contains measles virus (MeV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), ...
Coronaviruses are a family of large, positive-stranded, and enveloped RNA viruses (11, 12). Two highly pathogenic coronaviruses ... Total RNA was extracted from three different cell lines: HEK293T, MRC5, and HeLa. Then qRT-PCR was performed on the total RNAs ... Extraction of total RNA and qRT-PCR.Total RNAs of cells were extracted using TRIzol reagent according to the manufacturers ... The expression level of DPP4 in each cell line is defined as the ratio between the RNA of DPP4 and the RNA of glyceraldehyde-3- ...
Hantavirus is an enveloped virus with trisegmented negative sense RNA genome, defined as small, medium and large. Human ... infected by a virus of the family Bunyaviridae2, which includes than 20 hantaviruses identified throughout the American ... Viruses of the genus hantavirus can cause two serious illnesses when transmitted from rodents to humans: hemorrhagic fever with ... At this time showed, the presence of antibodies to Hantaan virus was also observed, the prototype of the genus hantavirus in ...
... enveloped and contain a genome comprising three segments of single-stranded RNA designated L (large), M (medium), and S (small ... a family containing ,300 mainly arthropod-borne viruses that share certain morphological and biochemical characteristics. Virus ... The exact 3′ end of the RNA is specified by self-cleavage of the nascent RNA by the hepatitis delta virus (Hep δ) antigenome ... The L RNA segment is 6875 nt long and encodes the viral RNA polymerase (L protein); the M RNA segment of 4458 nt encodes the ...
... bisegmented single-stranded RNA virus (figure 1b) belonging to the large arenavirus family. While no accurate numbers for ... Its causal agent LASV is an enveloped, ... f,g) The ORF of LARGE in humans has an unusually large number ... 6. Large and IL21 show different ancient patterns of evolution. *7. Hypotheses for how variants of LARGE and IL21 may confer ... Both LARGE and IL21 have a strong biological association with LASV infection and disease. LARGE is a glycosyltransferase that ...
Coronaviruses comprise a large family of enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause diseases in birds and ... these viruses are common, but not ubiquitous as are Rhinoviruses, Enteroviruses and Influenza viruses). Using VirScan data, we ... Virus-Receptor Interactions of Glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Human ACE2 Receptor. Cell Host Microbe 28, 1-16 (2020). pmid: ... the NH patients exhibited greater responses to individual peptides from common viruses such as Rhinoviruses, Influenza viruses ...
Bunyaviruses have enveloped virions (virus particles) that are about 80-120 nm (1 nm = 10−9 metre) in diameter. The ... The bunyavirus genome is made up of three segments (large, medium, and small) containing single-stranded negative-sense RNA ( ... Bunyavirus, any virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviruses have enveloped virions (virus particles) that are ... virus: Annotated classification. Family Bunyaviridae Enveloped virions about 80-120 nm in diameter with a 3-segment helical ...
HCV is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae. Naturally occurring variants of HCV are classified ... B) FL-J6/JFH (H2476L) was preincubated with 12 μg/ml of a recombinant form of the large extracellular loop (LEL) of CD81 and ... virus strains (Fig. 1A). Both full-length chimeras and the subgenomic RNA were competent for RNA replication, as seen by the ... 1A). Subgenomic RNA replicons have been adapted for efficient RNA replication in the human hepatoma line Huh-7 and other ...
... are a large group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. They belong to subfamily Coronavirinae, in the family of ...
Retroviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses found in all vertebrates. The retroviral genome is a homodimer of ... Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV, a γ-retrovirus) and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, a β-retrovirus). These viruses cause ... Virion proteins and progeny RNAs assemble at the cell periphery and the plasma membrane, and progeny viruses are released by a ... In the retroviral life cycle, the genetic information goes from RNA to DNA and exists in two different forms, as genomic RNA ...
Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring ... Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV) F and G ... recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus- ... based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which ...
... constitute a large family of enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses. For viral infection, enveloped viruses need a means of ... On the Stability of Parainfluenza Virus 5 F Proteins. Taylor A. Poor, Albert S. Song, Brett D. Welch, Christopher A. Kors, ... On the Stability of Parainfluenza Virus 5 F Proteins. Taylor A. Poor, Albert S. Song, Brett D. Welch, Christopher A. Kors, ... Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication, p 957-995. In Knipe DM, Howley PM (ed), Fields virology, 6th ed. Wolters ...
Hantavirus is a genus of the family Bunyaviridae; the viruses in this genus are enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. The viral ... genome contains three segments, including a large segment (L) that encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a medium segment (M) that ... Virus culture - The Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) strain HTN-0007 was kindly provided by Dr Robert E Shope from the University of ... Moreover, we could not obtain information on the infecting virus because patients were infected by ARAQV and the virus used in ...
p class=db_paraghraph,Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus ... Measles virus (MV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. ... AR10680PU-S Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase (2059-2183) Search for all "Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase" ... Product Description for Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase. Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase.. Presentation: Purified ...
  • When SARS-CoV-2 enters a host cell, it is disassembled, the nucleocapsid breaks apart and allows the genome to be translated into several non-structural proteins, including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (news-medical.net)
  • Morbillivirus genomes encode 6 structural proteins in the following order: nucleocapsid (N) protein, phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M) protein, hemagglutinin (H) protein, fusion (F) protein, and large polymerase (L) protein ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • When cells expressing both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant Bunyamwera bunyavirus proteins were transfected with these plasmids, full-length antigenome RNAs were transcribed intracellularly, and these in turn were replicated and packaged into infectious bunyavirus particles. (pnas.org)
  • Rather, the negative-strand viral RNA is assembled with viral nucleoprotein in the form of a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, and it is the RNP complex that is the template for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (pnas.org)
  • The unsegmented genomes of rhabdoviruses (rabies and vesicular stomatitis viruses) and paramyxoviruses (measles, Sendai, and respiratory syncytial viruses) have been rescued from cDNA to produce infectious virus in a helper-independent manner (i.e., not requiring help from homologous virus) using a different strategy: full-length cDNA clones of antigenomes were transcribed intracellularly and then replicated by expressed recombinant nucleocapsid and polymerase proteins to give genome RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The genome encodes an endogenous RNA polymerase enzyme that is used to transcribe the negative-sense RNA into positive-sense RNA, which can then be used for the translation , or synthesis, of proteins. (britannica.com)
  • As expected, mutation of the NS5B RNA polymerase active site [GlyAspAsp to GlyAsnAsp (GND)] destroyed the ability of FL-J6/JFH to replicate ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • B ) Huh-7.5 cells were electroporated with RNA transcripts of the indicated genomes [or the RNA-polymerase defective mutant FL-J6/JFH(GND)] 48 hours before immunostaining for NS5A (brown, upper panel). (sciencemag.org)
  • Measles Large Polymerase was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Measles Large Polymerase can be used as an antigen in ELISA and Western Blots. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The E.coli derived recombinant protein contains the large polymerase immunodominant regions, 2059-2183 amino acids. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The gene itself displays over half of the frequent mutations, with 22 mutations in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicase, proteinase, endo-RNAase, exonuclease, and transmembrane domains. (news-medical.net)
  • This ability to quickly adapt to novel hosts and ecological niches are attributed to the high mutation rate (number of mutations/genome/round of replication) caused by relatively low fidelity of the viral RNA polymerase ( 7 ), the large genomes of CoVs ( 8 ), and the high frequency of homologous recombination events during RNA replication well-documented for several porcine, feline and canine coronaviruses ( 9 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering, with some alternative splicing mechanism, is the method of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, foci of nascent RNAs were always found to colocalize with the nsp12-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The 5′-most 22 kb of the coronavirus genome encodes the nonstructural RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while all the structural proteins are encoded in the 3′ terminal 9 kb of the genome ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • They are nucleoprotein (NP), phosphoprotein (P), membrane protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (HA), and RNA-dependent large polymerase (L). Two types of spikes, HA and hemolysin (HL), are on the envelope but with no neuraminidase. (springer.com)
  • Three proteins are associated with the nucleocaspid and include nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and polymerase or large protein (L). The other five viral proteins are contained within the virus envelope and include nonglycosylated matrix protein (M), M2, fusion protein (F), glycoprotein (G), and short hydrophobic protein (SH). (msdsonline.com)
  • The genome of NiV is continuous (nonsegmented) and contain six ORFs that codes for structural genes namely, nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), Fusion protein (F), attachment protein (G) and polymerase or large protein (L) separated by inter-genomic sequences. (alliedacademies.org)
  • RNA polymerase along with phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein forms transcriptase complex that transcribe viral RNA into positive sense mRNA after binding to promoter located at the 3' end and translated into structural and non-structural proteins. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The main tests used are IgM and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from bodily fluids like respiratory secretion, urine, CSF etc., and virus isolation using Vero cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Although HCV is a single-stranded RNA, the fact that replication of the HCV genome is catalysed by its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B, suggests that dsRNA may be formed during the HCV life cycle and activate PRRs. (bmj.com)
  • The genome is transcribed and replicated in the cytoplasm by a complex consisting of the viral phosphoprotein (P) and the large (L) RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRP) which engages the RNP at the 3' end of the RNA genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • The viral nucleocapsid consists of the single-stranded viral RNA genome tightly bound by associated viral proteins including the viral polymerase. (ictvonline.org)
  • The large fragment encodes the viral polymerase. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatitis delta virus uses host RNA polymerase II to replicate via double rolling circle RNA synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These successes involved an entirely different approach from that used to engineer positive-strand RNA viruses, and consisted of transforming cell lines expressing bacteriophage T7 polymerase with transcription plasmids encoding the core nucleocapsid proteins and exact copies of the agRNAs. (prolekare.cz)
  • The virus is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus, subgenus Tegacovirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGEV belongs to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causative organism is the measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and Morbillivirus genus. (nih.gov)
  • The causative agent is chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus (family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Morbillivirus genus includes measles virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), peste des petits ruminants virus, rinderpest virus, and feline morbillivirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Less well-characterized paramyxoviruses associated with central nervous and respiratory disease in pigs also have been reported ( 17 - 20 ), but none of these viruses are classified in the genus Morbillivirus . (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses of the genus hantavirus can cause two serious illnesses when transmitted from rodents to humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFSR) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), characterized by respiratory failure, shock and high mortality, making it an important public health problem 1 . (scielo.br)
  • Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus , family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. (dovepress.com)
  • the viruses in this genus are enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. (scielo.br)
  • Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pneumoenteric virus that belongs to the species Betacoronavirus 1 (subgenus Embecovirus ) of the Betacoronavirus genus along with wild ruminant CoVs, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, equine coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, HECoV-44, and canine respiratory coronavirus ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Dengue virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae . (asm.org)
  • Currently, 16 viruses are assigned to eight species included in one genus in this family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Orthoreovirus is one of 15 recognized genera in Family Reoviridae , a large, diverse group of non-enveloped viruses with segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • As a member of the flavivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae, it is a close relative of yellow fever, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (highveld.com)
  • BTV is the type species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae . (highveld.com)
  • Measles virus has been categorized into the genus of Morbillivirus and the family of Paramyxoviridae . (springer.com)
  • CHARACTERISTICS: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is classified as a member of the genus Pneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae(1-4). (msdsonline.com)
  • NiV is a RNA virus that belongs to genus Henipavirus of Paramyxoviridae family. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Measles virus (MeV) is an enveloped RNA virus within the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HCV belongs to the Flaviviridae family (hepacivirus genus), and is an enveloped virus with a 9.6 kb single-stranded RNA genome 2 - 7 (box 2). (bmj.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus is a non-enveloped RNA virus with positive polarity and the only member of genus Hepatovirus in the family Picornaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV was classified as a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family of Retroviridae. (prospecbio.com)
  • The previously uncharacterized complete or near complete genomes of four viruses from three genera in Papillomaviridae family, six viruses in a proposed new Picornaviridae genus (Aimelvirus), two unclassified viruses related to posaviruses in Picornavirales order, 19 anelloviruses in four different clades of Anelloviridae family, four putative circoviruses, and 15 viruses belonging to the recently described Genomoviridae family were sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family includes four genera, members of three of which ( Aquabirnavirus , Avibirnavirus and Blosnavirus ) infect vertebrates (excluding mammals), whereas members of the fourth genus ( Entomobirnavirus ) infect insects. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepatitis delta virus, the only member of the only species in the genus Deltavirus , is a unique human pathogen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Based on the viral genome sequence and evolutionary analysis, Chinese horseshoe bats of genus Rhinolophus have been considered as a natural reservoir host for the SARS-CoV-2 virus [8-10] . (cureus.com)
  • Yeh, Shyi-Dong 2010-07-01 00:00:00 Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), a tentative member of the genus Tospovirus , is considered a distinct serotype due to the lack of a serological relationship with other tospoviruses in its nucleocapsid protein (NP). (deepdyve.com)
  • They are respiratory viruses classified under family: Coronaviridae and Coronavirus as the genus name. (sciencetechniz.com)
  • The Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family encompasses numerous enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Members of the genus Flavivirus of Flaviviridae are important human pathogens of great concern because they cause serious diseases, sometimes death, in human populations living in tropical, subtropical (dengue virus [DENV], Zika virus [ZIKV], and yellow fever virus), or moderate climates (West Nile virus). (asm.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. (caister.com)
  • Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae . (bionity.com)
  • SeV, which belongs to the genus Respirovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a respiratory tract pathogen of rodents. (reninsignaling.com)
  • The motivation for engineering the TGEV genome is that coronaviruses have large genomes, so they have room for insertion of foreign genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramyxoviridae encompasses a group of large (300-500 nm in diameter), enveloped, pleomorphic viruses with RNA genomes of 14.6-20.1 kb. (cdc.gov)
  • Study of the molecular biology of viruses with RNA genomes has been hampered by the inherent limitations imposed by the nature of their genetic material. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, it was shown that RNA transcribed in vitro from cloned cDNA copies of a number of positive-strand genomes is a much more efficient initiator of infection, and these studies have revolutionized experimental analysis of the replication processes of these viruses ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The amplified genomes then acted as template for transcription of all viral mRNAs, thus producing all the viral proteins required for genome packaging and viral assembly, and infectious viruses were recovered ( 8 - 12 , 33 ). (pnas.org)
  • By applying tests for selection to genome-wide data from the International Haplotype Map Consortium and the 1000 Genomes Consortium, we demonstrate evidence for positive selection in LARGE and interleukin 21 ( IL21 ), two genes implicated in LASV infectivity and immunity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The explosion in genotyping and high-throughput sequencing has made possible surveys of human genetic variation from multiple populations in large-scale collaborations such as the International Haplotype Map (HapMap) Consortium [ 5 ] and the 1000 Genomes (1000 G) Consortium [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, full-length genomes containing cell culture-adaptive mutations do not produce infectious virus particles in culture and are severely attenuated in vivo ( 6 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Full-length chimeric genomes were constructed with the use of the core-NS2 gene regions from the infectious J6 (genotype 2a) and H77 (genotype 1a) virus strains ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A ) The structures of the HCV RNA genome, the SGR-JFH1 replicon, and full-length chimeric genomes FL-J6/JFH and FL-H77/JFH. (sciencemag.org)
  • Now, a new study published on the preprint server bioRxiv reports on a large scale analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes and reveals a clonal geo-distribution and rich genetic variations. (news-medical.net)
  • Only about 100 of the large number of genomes analyzed were wildtype, mostly of Chinese origin. (news-medical.net)
  • Still, the mutant virus genomes came from all over, being seen in almost 3,000 strains with varying genotypes. (news-medical.net)
  • CoVs are the only known RNA viruses that evolved a mechanism for proofreading their genomes (via activities of non-structural proteins 10-14) allowing them to escape lethal error catastrophe events ( 14 ) and to generate and maintain highly diverse and viable quasispecies pools. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like the other members of the family, Orbiviruses which encompass, besides BTV, the agents causing African horse sickness (AHSV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHDV), have the characteristic double-stranded and segmented features of their RNA genomes. (highveld.com)
  • They have the large positive polarity single-stranded RNA virus genomes. (hstalks.com)
  • With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. (brian-ladd.com)
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bi-segmented dsRNA genomes totalling about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non-enveloped virions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 2004 ). The elevated possibility of incidence of the viral outbreak might be ascribed to the limitations in the applied detection systems as well as the adaptive nature of viruses with large genomes (Frenk et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The genomes of DENV, like the genomes of yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), or Zika virus (ZIKV), control their translation by a 5′-terminal capping group. (asm.org)
  • IRESs were originally discovered in picornavirus genomes (that function as mRNA) where they are long, highly structured RNA segments up to 450 nucleotides (nt) long ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Two nonstructural proteins, C and V, are expressed from the P open reading frame and are thought to interfere with the innate immune response in at least a subset of members of the family Paramyxoviridae ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Measles virus (MV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The present invention provides virus vectors of the family Paramyxoviridae in which the transcription start (S) sequence has been modified so as to modify the expression of genes located downstream thereof, a method for producing the vectors, and uses thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. (abcam.com)
  • This taxon formerly was a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae , but was reclassified as a family in 2016. (ictvonline.org)
  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Paramyxoviridae. (cdc.gov)
  • The family Paramyxoviridae consists of large enveloped RNA viruses infecting mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Paramyxoviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • It is an enveloped virus with a positive single stranded RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 is part of a family of enveloped viruses with a large single-stranded RNA genome. (news-medical.net)
  • [1] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry. (bionity.com)
  • TGEV has three major structural proteins, which are phosphoprotein (N), integral membrane protein (E1), and large glycoprotein (E2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome encodes six structural proteins and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The structural proteins are nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, haemagglutinin (HA), and large protein. (nih.gov)
  • The replication of the viral genome begins when the RNA strand is used as a template to produce a complementary strand in the subgenomic regions that encode four major structural proteins, S, M, N, and E, required for viral assembly. (news-medical.net)
  • These can be translated to produce the structural proteins needed to reassemble the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Most paramyxoviruses encode ~9 proteins and express two glycoproteins embedded in the particle envelope that are responsible for host cell binding, membrane fusion and virus entry [ 12 , 13 ]. (plos.org)
  • The F protein is a member of the class I viral fusion proteins and it undergoes large conformational changes during virus entry to promote viral and cellular membrane fusion ( Fig 1A ) [ 13 - 18 ]. (plos.org)
  • A "reverse-genetic" system for influenza A viruses (whose genome comprises eight separate segments of RNA) was developed in which an influenza virus-like RNA molecule containing a reporter gene was mixed with disrupted virion core proteins, and the resulting in vitro -reconstituted RNP complexes transfected into influenza virus-infected cells, where they were replicated and packaged into viral particles ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The 9.6-kb genome encodes one large polyprotein that is processed by viral and cellular proteinases to produce the virion structural proteins (core and glycoproteins E1 and E2) as well as nonstructural (NS) proteins (p7 through NS5B) ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) possess the largest and most complex RNA genome (up to 32 kb) that encodes for 16 non-structural proteins regulating RNA synthesis and modification. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lipid envelop is derived from the cell membrane of the infected cell and contains specific glycoprotein spikes which include the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and the "fusion" proteins. (msdsonline.com)
  • Coronaviruses induce in infected cells the formation of replicative structures, consisting of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and convoluted membranes, where viral RNA synthesis supposedly takes place and to which the nonstructural proteins (nsp's) localize. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CoVs have a very large genome (~27 to 32 kb), the first two-thirds of which encode the replicase nonstructural proteins (nsp's) that collectively form the replication-transcription complexes (RTCs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The fusogenic capacity of these viruses, attributable to a unique family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins, is a correlate of virulence. (prolekare.cz)
  • The FAST proteins are the only known examples of nonenveloped virus membrane fusion proteins, and they are the smallest known viral fusogens whose structural and functional attributes are incompatible with current models of protein-mediated membrane fusion. (prolekare.cz)
  • Flaviviruses are small enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses containing a capsid protein (C) and two membrane-associated proteins (E-envelope and M-membrane). (jimmunol.org)
  • BTV, like the other members of the family is a complex non-enveloped virus with seven structural proteins and a RNA genome consisting of 10 double-stranded (ds) RNA segments of different sizes. (highveld.com)
  • and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. (highveld.com)
  • The outer capsid, which is composed of two major structural proteins (VP2 and VP5), is involved in cell attachment and virus penetration during the initial stages of infection. (highveld.com)
  • The two remaining non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2, are produced at high levels in the cytoplasm and are believed to be involved in virus replication, assembly and morphogenesis. (highveld.com)
  • It is only infectious in the form of the nucleocapsid protein RNA complex (RNP) but as a negative-stranded RNA virus it also requires the presence of the P and L proteins in the complex to become replication and transcription competent. (ictvonline.org)
  • After this, virus subgenomic 26S RNA continues to be translated and virus structural proteins are the main products of cellular translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RNAs, the largest number for any emaravirus so far, and are investigating the roles of these RNAs and their encoded proteins in the virus life-cycle. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Instead, replication initiation of these groups of viruses requires de novo viral mRNA synthesis from the viral nucleocapsid (NC) which consists of the viral gRNA and the NC core proteins [ 8 , 9 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Recently, a virus isolate collected from diseased watermelon in central Taiwan (MYSV-TW) was found to react with a rabbit antiserum (RAs) prepared against the NP of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) prepared against the common epitope of the NSs proteins of WSMoV-serogroup tospoviruses, but not with the WSMoV NP-specific MAb, in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. (deepdyve.com)
  • Viral RNA as well as viral proteins interact with different components of the host cell, acting as key determinants of viral pathogenesis. (caister.com)
  • This morphology is actually formed by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism. (bionity.com)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of SARS ( see below ), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (bionity.com)
  • The SeV genome comprises six genes encoding structural proteins, including N (nucleocapsid), P (phospho-), M (matrix), F (fusion), HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase), and L (large) proteins (1). (reninsignaling.com)
  • Coronaviruses are large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae in the order Nidovirales ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The identification of the causative agent of SARS as a new member of the Coronaviridae family has prompted research in the coronavirus field. (asm.org)
  • The Coronaviridae is a large and complex family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses. (thepigsite.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses with the largest RNA genome (26.4-31.7 kb) that belong to the subfamily of Coronavirinae within the family Coronaviridae , order Nidovirales ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. (mdpi.com)
  • led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. (mdpi.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to the family of coronaviridae viruses, which are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. (taconic.com)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) belongs to the Coronaviridae , which is a family of enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide variety of animals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with Turkey coronavirus and Beluga whale coronavirus, belongs to a Gammacoronavirus subgroup, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. (hindawi.com)
  • The Coronaviridae is a large and complex family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that cause enteric and respiratory disease in humans and animals, write Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola et al, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, US. (thepigsite.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Sarbecovirus subgenus of the Coronaviridae family, and is the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans. (bmj.com)
  • SDAV is antigenically related to the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) serogroup of the family Coronaviridae in the order of Nidovirales ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Coronaviruses belong to the family coronaviridae and are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. (sciencetechniz.com)
  • The family Coronaviridae is has 2 sub-families, 5 genera, 26 sub-genera, and 46 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. (naijavibe.net)
  • Other coronaviruses that belong to the species Alphacoronavirus 1 are Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of lipid-enveloped RNA viruses. (baptistonline.org)
  • Rarely, animal coronaviruses can mutate to infect humans and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV , SARS-CoV , and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19. (baptistonline.org)
  • Coronaviruses have the largest known nonsegmented viral RNA genome (27 to 32 kb), which is capped, polyadenylated, and infectious ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • There are two groups of mammalian coronaviruses, groups I and II, while the two avian coronaviruses, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), form the third group. (ivis.org)
  • The second group of mammalian coronaviruses includes the prototype murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and the coronaviruses of humans (HCoV-OC43 and HECoV-4408), rats (RCoV), cattle (BCoV), pigs (PHEV) and other species. (ivis.org)
  • Coronaviruses are in the family Nidovirus. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped and have the largest RNA genome of any virus with lengths up to 32 kb. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Recently-emerged coronaviruses include the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus that caused outbreaks of respiratory disease in humans in 2002-2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus identified in 2012. (thepigsite.com)
  • Five coronaviruses are recognized in swine: three alphacoronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)), one betacoronavirus (porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV)), and one species of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). (thepigsite.com)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses, some of which cause illness in people (e.g., common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]), and others that circulate among mammals and birds. (bmj.com)
  • The virus has been found to be similar to SARS-like coronaviruses from bats, but it is distinct from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. (bmj.com)
  • Although a large amount of genetic information has been accumulated for MHV and other coronaviruses, such information is not available for any rat coronavirus, mainly due to the difficulty with propagation of the virus in cell cultures. (asm.org)
  • 9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized. (brian-ladd.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of enveloped, RNA viruses that circulate in mammals and birds. (bvsalud.org)
  • The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 16 to 31 kilobases, extraordinarily large for an RNA virus. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus , meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNA's during infection. (bionity.com)
  • The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be translated into RNA through using the host cells machinery. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. (naijavibe.net)
  • The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses. (naijavibe.net)
  • The N protein encapsulates the genomic RNA, and the S protein forms viral projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β-coronavirus family and shares extensive genomic identity with bat coronavirus suggesting that bats are the natural host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. (bmj.com)
  • We cloned and sequenced the 3′ terminal 9.8 kb of the genomic RNA and analyzed the structure of the viral genome. (asm.org)
  • To these ends, we have performed cDNA cloning of the entire structural-protein region of the sialodacryoadenitis rat coronavirus genome, and in this communication we report the complete sequence of the 3′ terminal 9.8 kb of the SDAV genomic RNA. (asm.org)
  • The HCV genomic RNA is then translated into a polyprotein through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) 3 . (nature.com)
  • These are translated directly from the full-length 42S genomic RNA and form the virus replicase responsible for RNA replication and transcription ( Takkinen, 1986 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus. (brian-ladd.com)
  • Unlike positive-strand RNA viruses, whose genomic RNAs (gRNAs) are infectious upon introduction into permissive host cells, neither the naked gRNAs nor the antigenomic RNAs (agRNAs) of NSR viruses are able to initiate infection process when present alone. (prolekare.cz)
  • The E2 protein is thought to be involved in pathogenesis by helping the virus enter the host cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • After glycosylation of the protein in the golgi, the protein is then incorporated into the new virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the protein is divided into two parts, a hydrophilic stretch that is inside the virus and a cysteine rich stretch that are possibly fatty acylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E1 protein is mostly embedded in the lipid envelop and hence plays an essential role in virus architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection of cells with this altered virus elicits a specific lactogenic immune response against the heterologous protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HA protein is responsible for virus attachment to the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • The N protein is dimeric, and the structure has multiple sites to which RNA binds, including a sizeable RNA-binding groove formed by two tightly bound CTD, and another on the NTD. (news-medical.net)
  • b, N protein was incubated at the indicated temperature for 30 min in the presence of 1 µM 5'-400 RNA. (news-medical.net)
  • d, Condensates of 10 µM WT or 10D N protein were formed in droplet buffer (70 mM KCl) by incubation with 1 µM PS-318 RNA for 30 min and imaged. (news-medical.net)
  • They then found few microscopic protein structures but enhanced protein structure formation once RNA was added. (news-medical.net)
  • With the addition of RNA at room temperature and at a concentration of 10 μM, the N protein formed networks of small "liquid-like beads" in the presence of subgenomic RNA. (news-medical.net)
  • The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. (plos.org)
  • We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. (plos.org)
  • The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. (plos.org)
  • Both full-length chimeras and the subgenomic RNA were competent for RNA replication, as seen by the accumulation of NS5A protein and viral RNA 48 hours after RNA transfection into the Huh-7.5 cell line ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. (dovepress.com)
  • The crystal structure of the F protein (prefusion form) of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) WR isolate was determined. (asm.org)
  • Since it was observed that the spike protein had been acquired from CCoV, it is understandable why FCoV type II viruses are serologically related to CCoV. (ivis.org)
  • Sendai Virus Gene Start Signals Are Not Equivalent in Reinitiation Capacity: Moderation at the Fusion Protein Gene," J. Virol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In order to analyze the biological relevance of NS1 secretion in vivo, we developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the protein in the sera of dengue virus-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • With purified dengue virus type 1 NS1 as a protein standard, the sensitivity of our capture ELISA was less than 1 ng/ml. (asm.org)
  • The NS1 protein could be detected even when viral RNA was negative in reverse transcriptase-PCR or in the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, NS1 circulation in the bloodstream of patients during the clinical phase of the disease suggests a contribution of the nonstructural protein to dengue virus pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • The nucleocaspid core is herringbone-like in shape, and is filamentous since it is studded with the "phosphoprotein" and the "large" protein. (msdsonline.com)
  • Figure Legend: Graphical abstract illustrating how the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 in order to enter human host cells, which is followed by priming by TMPRSS2. (taconic.com)
  • this tiny molecular key helps the virus to enter host cells by fusing the virus with the structure of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein, which is on the surfaces of respiratory cell membrane. (lww.com)
  • Suramin efficiently inhibited CHIKV and Ebola envelope-mediated gene transfer while vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped vectors were only marginally affected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe a quantitative proteomics analysis of quasi-enveloped hepatitis A virus (eHAV) virions that shows capsids are selected as cargo for vesicular export via a highly specific process, and that infectious eHAV virions possess a host protein complement similar to that of exosomes with CD9 and DPP4 displayed on their surface. (pnas.org)
  • Large insertions of 172, 127, and 44 aa were detected in the N-terminal half of the predicted S protein of SDAV when its sequence was compared to the sequences of MHV 2, MHV JHM, and MHV A59, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Recently it was shown that the envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) 2 virus can be expressed from recombinant plasmids in different physical forms depending on the expression cassette used ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In earlier plasmid transfection studies ( 12 , 17 ), it was shown that the TBE virus E protein, when expressed alone, is retained within the cell and that only low levels of secretion can be achieved by introducing a stop codon to truncate the protein before the membrane anchor. (jimmunol.org)
  • The M2-1 protein is unique to the family. (ictvonline.org)
  • 352-401) and a postsynaptic-density protein of 95 kDa, discs large, zona occludens-1 domain-interaction motif (aa. (nature.com)
  • The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a key regulator of protein translation, interferon (IFN) expression and cell survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In summary, in response to SFV, PKR exerts an early antiviral effect that delays virus protein production and release of infectious virus and, whilst PKR is not required for induction of apoptosis or activation of the type I IFN response, it strongly augments the type I IFN response and contributes to clearance of infectious virus from the mouse brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Its ~1.7 kb circular negative-sense RNA genome encodes a protein, hepatitis delta antigen, which occurs in two forms, small and large, both with unique functions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • CoV N protein is required for coronavirus RNA synthesis, and has RNA chaperone activity that may be involved in template switch. (caister.com)
  • Sendai virus (SeV), a pneumotropic virus of rodents, has an accessory protein, V, and the V protein has been shown to interact with MDA5, inhibiting IRF3 activation and interferon-β production. (reninsignaling.com)
  • The name coronavirus is derived from the Latin corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", which refers to the characteristic appearance reminiscent of a crown or a solar corona around the virions (virus particles) when viewed under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy, due to the surface covering in club-shaped protein spikes. (naijavibe.net)
  • Plus-strand RNA viruses induce dramatic membrane rearrangements in infected cells, thereby generating a subcellular microenvironment that facilitates RNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The coronavirus genome is approximately 31 kb, making these viruses the largest known RNA viruses yet identified. (sciencetechniz.com)
  • Virus particles are enveloped, pleomorphic, and about 150 to 300 nm in diameter(1-3). (msdsonline.com)
  • Virus particles are enveloped and pleomorphic, occurring as irregular spherical particles that are 100 to 350 nm in diameter, and as long filamentous fibres that are 60 to 200 nm in diameter and 10 mm in length(2). (msdsonline.com)
  • Paramyxoviruses are pleomorphic, enveloped, cytoplasmic viruses that have a non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronavirus is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 31 kb. (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses with a genome of approximately 11.5 kb with a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 15.4 kilobases. (reninsignaling.com)
  • HCV is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae . (sciencemag.org)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spheric, enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. (omicsonline.org)
  • Three other genera of Flaviviridae are remarkable because their viruses use internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) to control translation, and they are not arthropod transmitted. (asm.org)
  • Moving ahead and using the most intelligent testing algorithms available we have designed a system to create COVID Care Zones and COVID Safe Zones where patient care can be more safely conducted for individuals at risk of contracting COVID-19 ( COVID- Naïve), patients with active infection ( COVID-positive), and those patients who have recovered and developed immunity to the virus ( COVID-competent). (baptistonline.org)
  • During 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the Philippines. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya fever is a mosquitoborne infection that causes large outbreaks mainly in tropical and subtropical countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Neutralisation assays, which are the most specific serologic tests, are not commonly used for a routine hantavirus infection diagnosis because are the tests are laborious and demand biosafety level (BSL)-3 laboratories to handle the virus. (scielo.br)
  • For viral infection, enveloped viruses need a means of fusing their viral membrane with a target cell membrane. (asm.org)
  • Although short-range large-droplet transmission is possible for most respiratory infectious agents, deciding on whether the same agent is also airborne has a potentially huge impact on the types (and costs) of infection control interventions that are required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The infection was first described by Binn in 1971 during an epizootic in Germany, although serological evidence was obtained earlier suggesting that dogs may be naturally infected with a coronavirus related to swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). (ivis.org)
  • Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a VERO E6 cell (purple) exhibiting elongated cell projections and signs of apoptosis, after infection with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (pink), which were isolated from a patient sample. (news-medical.net)
  • This virus is responsible for the ongoing outbreak that causes severe respiratory illness and pneumonia-like infection in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The collaborative efforts of researchers are needed to fill the knowledge gaps about this new virus, to develop the proper diagnostic tools, and effective treatment to combat this infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to provide timely information for the care of the patient, it is important to establish a diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the first few days of clinical symptoms. (asm.org)
  • Early in infection, nascent viral RNA and nsp's colocalized with or occurred adjacent to dsRNA foci. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Late in infection, the correlation between dsRNA dots, then found dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, and nsp's and nascent RNAs was less obvious. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Rather, late in infection many DMVs may harbor dsRNA molecules that are no longer functioning as intermediates in RNA synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Acquired immunodeficiencies that result from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and stem-cell transplantation predispose individuals to symptomatic infection as well. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We tested the activity of suramin during CHIKV or Ebola virus infection, using CHIKV and Ebola envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and wild-type CHIKV and Ebola virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HA can participate in the virus absorption to bind to viral receptors on the surface of host cells, therefore, triggering the infection. (springer.com)
  • Other factors that may predispose to RSV infection include: crowding (schools and day care centers), exposure to tobacco and smoke, low socioeconomic status, and family history of atopy and asthma. (msdsonline.com)
  • RVF virus primarily infects domestic livestock (sheep, goats, cattle) causing high rates of neonatal mortality and abortion, with human infection resulting in a wide variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic diatheses, and miscarriage in pregnant women. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • No vaccine or specific antiviral treatment is available for treating Norovirus infection although the observation that the anti-viral nucleoside analogue 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine inhibits murine norovirus replication in macrophages has elicited hopes that this compound can be developed into medication for the treatment of infection with this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are extremely contagious, and fewer than twenty virus particles can cause an infection (some research suggests as few as five). (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses continue to be shed after symptoms have subsided and shedding can still be detected many weeks after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. (brian-ladd.com)
  • Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute, viral infection that occurs after the reactivation of the Varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (cureus.com)
  • Infection is caused by both vertical and horizontal transmission of virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 10.1097/00001432-200410000-00014 infection had been reported in red stranded, negative RNA virus of the 4. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Co-infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are very prevalent and the primary cause for morbidity and mortality among patients with Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (omicsonline.org)
  • We are involved in collaborations with other researchers to examine how infection of plants and animals by these different viruses might involve related mechanisms and processes. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Soon after infection, the single stranded positive RNA that constitutes the viral genome is efficiently translated using a cap-independent mechanism driven by the internal ribosome entry site element (IRES). (caister.com)
  • However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. (caister.com)
  • Bunyaviruses have enveloped virions (virus particles) that are about 80-120 nm (1 nm = 10 −9 metre) in diameter. (britannica.com)
  • To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation. (pnas.org)
  • Enveloped, both spherical and filamentous virions with a helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core. (ictvonline.org)
  • Taking human respiratory syncytial virus, strain A2 (HRSV-A2) as a representative isolate, virions consist of spherical and filamentous forms and can have considerable variation in size and shape. (ictvonline.org)
  • Virions contain the single-stranded non-segmented negative-sense viral RNA genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • Virions are non-enveloped and spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry (T=3) and diameters ranging from 25 to 33 nm. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Both viruses have isometric, spherical virions, infect giant freshwater prawns and together cause white tail disease, which is responsible for mass mortalities and severe economic losses in hatcheries and farms. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The virions of phycodnaviridae consist of a non-enveloped capsid. (kenyon.edu)
  • An estimated 390 million human infections occur annually, with ~3.6 billion people living in areas where they are at risk ().Flavivirus virions encapsidate a positive-sense, single-stranded, ~11-kb RNA genome. (gilcatur.com.br)
  • SARS-CoV-2 is a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus and closely related to the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). (medworm.com)
  • Zoonotic emergent corona viruses prior to SARS-COV-2 included severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and. (medworm.com)
  • The inhaled virus from the exposed droplets initially infects the respiratory tract's lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • In both mice and nonhuman primates, cocktails of three de novo-designed immunogens induced robust neutralizing responses against the respiratory syncytial virus. (stanford.edu)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. (plos.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are respiratory viruses that cause widespread morbidity within the human population second only to influenza virus [ 1 ]. (plos.org)
  • HMPV is a related virus first identified in 2001 [ 5 ] and is thought to have been causing respiratory illnesses in the human population for over 50 years. (plos.org)
  • Cellular tropism is similar to other morbilliviruses, and PoMV viral RNA was detected in neurons, respiratory epithelium, and lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • hPIVs are the second most common cause of lower respiratory disease in young children after respiratory syncytial virus. (msdsonline.com)
  • A serious complication of COVID-19, and especially amongst a large percentage of COVID-19 deaths, is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 2 . (taconic.com)
  • This virus has a predilection for the respiratory tract, but also has the capacity to produce enteric disease. (thepigsite.com)
  • Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is a coronavirus that is commonly found in laboratory rats and that causes sialodacryoadenitis and respiratory illness. (asm.org)
  • Measles is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by measles virus. (springer.com)
  • Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. (ictvonline.org)
  • Left panel: negative contrast electron micrographs of intact human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) (courtesy of Kyle Dent, Neil Ranson and John Barr, University of Leeds). (ictvonline.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 is 79.6% identical to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the virus that caused the SARS epidemic of 2002-2003, and 96.2% similar to a bat coronavirus RaTG13 (BatCoV RaTG13) at the whole genome level [8] . (cureus.com)
  • Do cloth masks reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease? (stateofk.com)
  • Does an N95 mask reduce the risk of contracting viruses that cause respiratory disease better than a surgical mask? (stateofk.com)
  • In the past two decades, we have seen three variants of coronavirus emerging causing serious epidemic diseases of the respiratory tract system and this an indication that this virus continues to impose continuous threats to human health and affecting the economy as they continue to emerge unexpectedly, spread easily with catastrophic consequences. (sciencetechniz.com)
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (caister.com)
  • Unlike viruses in the other genera of the family Bunyaviridae that are transmitted to humans by the arthropod vector, Hantaviruses have a rodent host. (medscape.com)
  • Journal of General Virology ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profiles are a freely available series of concise, review-type articles that provide overviews of the classification, structure and properties of individual virus orders, families and genera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The family Nodaviridae includes two genera, Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although plant negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses consist of members in the Rhabdoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Ophioviridae families and several unassigned genera that collectively account for many economically important crop diseases, unfortunately, several technical difficulties have hindered application of genetic engineering to these groups of viruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • Plant NSR viruses comprise members of the Rhabdoviridae , Bunyaviridae , Ophioviridae families, and of the unassigned Emaravirus , Tenuivirus , Varicosavirus and Dichorhavirus genera and account for many economically important crop diseases [ 1 - 3 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a double-stranded, DNA-based swine virus with a genome approximating 150 kb in size. (hindawi.com)
  • The virus has a double-stranded linear DNA genome 1.43 × 10 5 kb in length [ 3 ] and contains a unique long region (UL), a unique short region (US), a terminal repeat sequence (TRS), and internal repeat sequences (IRS) [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), the presumed intermediate in RNA synthesis, is localized to the DMV interior. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These spherules probably shield the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) replication intermediates from immune surveillance, while at the same time providing access of cytoplasmic constituents to the replication machinery and means of exit for the newly synthesized RNA to enter the cytoplasm ( 7 , 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During CoV replication and transcription, various complete and partially double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates, which are either active in transcription (termed transcriptive intermediates or forms) or active in replication (termed replicative intermediates or forms), are produced ( 28 , 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Upon entry of the target cell, the viral RNA genomeis converted to double-stranded DNAby a virally encoded reverse transcriptasethat is present in the virus particle. (prospecbio.com)
  • Adenovirus - Non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, 60-90 nm. (microbioservices.com)
  • Reovirus - Non-enveloped, segmented double-stranded RNA virus, 65-75 nm. (microbioservices.com)
  • Phycodnaviridae are viruses with double-stranded DNA that infect chlorella, algal symbionts of paramecia and hydras. (kenyon.edu)
  • Abstract Virus onslaughts continue to spread fear and cause rampage across the world every now and then. (medworm.com)
  • However, as pores connecting the DMV interior with the cytoplasm have not been detected, it is unclear whether RNA synthesis occurs at these same sites. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we studied coronavirus RNA synthesis by feeding cells with a uridine analogue, after which nascent RNAs were detected using click chemistry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting viral RNA synthesis by using click chemistry and indicate that dsRNA dots do not necessarily correspond with sites of active viral RNA synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These dsRNA intermediates are generally considered to be a good marker for the location of the sites of active viral RNA synthesis in infected cells ( 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CoV transcription involves a discontinuous RNA synthesis (template switch) during the extension of a negative copy of the subgenomic mRNAs. (caister.com)
  • Measles virus has no animal reservoir and occurs only in humans. (nih.gov)
  • RSV and HMPV belong to the larger paramyxovirus family, which includes mumps virus, measles virus and human parainfluenza viruses [ 1 , 12 ]. (plos.org)
  • Immunoreactive with sera of Measles Virus infected individuals. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Measles virus is an enveloped sphere or threadlike structure with a diameter of 120-150 nm. (springer.com)
  • Measles virus can replicate itself in many primary or passage cells, such as human embryonic kidney cells (HEKC), human amniotic cells, Vero cells, and Hela cells. (springer.com)
  • Measles virus has stable antigenicity. (springer.com)
  • However, since the 1980s, slight mutations of measles virus antigen have been reported in many countries, which should attract focused attention. (springer.com)
  • Measles virus has weak resistance to external environment and is sensitive to heat, ultraviolet ray, and common disinfectants. (springer.com)
  • Measles virus is coldness and dryness tolerant and can survive for several days at room temperature. (springer.com)
  • Measles virus spreads into the air along with droplets after the patients sneeze, cough, or speak. (springer.com)
  • The genome of measles virus consists of a non-segmented single-stranded RNA molecule of negative polarity, which is encapsidated by the viral nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many paramyxoviruses are host-specific and several, such as measles virus, mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and several parainfluenza viruses, are pathogenic for humans. (cdc.gov)
  • When RNA concentration was low, small spherical structures were formed, but at higher RNA concentrations, filaments were formed. (news-medical.net)
  • Bornavirions are enveloped, with spherical geometries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spherical forms are reported to be 80 - 140 nm in diameter (which may be cross-sections of filaments), but there also can be larger forms of 250 - 600 nm. (ictvonline.org)
  • Recombinant viruses represent a particularly promising avenue of vaccine research both for improving existing vaccines and for developing new ones [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A major advance in the investigation of positive-strand RNA viruses was the demonstration that cloned poliovirus cDNA was infectious ( 1 ), since in the DNA form viral sequences can be manipulated using recombinant DNA techniques and then reintroduced into viable virus. (pnas.org)
  • TransIT-VirusGEN® Transfection Reagent by Mirus, USA, is designed to enhance delivery of packaging and transfer vectors to adherent and suspension HEK 293 cell types to increase recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus production. (openpr.com)
  • Therefore, the minimal infectious units of NSR viruses are the viral NCs and generating infectious NCs for reverse genetic studies initially was a major challenge due to difficulties in in vivo reconstitution of functional NCs containing recombinant RNAs. (prolekare.cz)
  • So, to start at the beginning, I want to discuss the nidovirales family. (hstalks.com)
  • Both SARS and MERS are members of the nidovirales family. (hstalks.com)
  • In 1996, the family Arteriviridae was included within the order Nidovirales. (caister.com)
  • Hoffman and Banerjee, "Precise Mapping of the Replication and Transcription Promoters of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3," Virology 269:201-211 (2000). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Soft fruit virology involves the study of existing and new virus diseases that impact on each of these important crops. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Generation of an infectious virus from a cDNA copy of the viral genome, an approach referred to as reverse genetics, is the most powerful genetic tool in modern virology. (prolekare.cz)
  • These viruses are commonly occurring in Humans and many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. (baptistonline.org)
  • Corona viruses have been in mutual relationship with humans and other hosts over many decades though aggressive zoonotic strains have caused havoc. (medworm.com)
  • This virus has both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 (Nigeria), LP (Nigeria) and strain AV. Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically the natal multimammate mouse or African rat, also called the natal multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically the natal multimammate rat or African rat, also called the natal multimammate mouse ( Mastomys natalensis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • CoVs are a large family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are extensively found in bats but can be found in many other birds and mammals including humans. (lww.com)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2010, large outbreaks in humans occurred in Southeastern and Eastern Europe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a food and water-borne virus causing clinical (mainly hepatitis) and subclinical disease in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause disease in humans include hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and SARS. (bioedonline.org)
  • RLBV has many similarities in molecular structure to the family of bunyaviruses, which cause many important diseases in humans and animals. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • avian influenza viruses can directly infect humans. (caister.com)
  • In principle, the design of PRV vector vaccines is predicated upon the genome of live PRV being used to insert and express genes encoding protective antigens from other pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and parasites [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Rapidly evolving viruses and other pathogens can have an immense impact on human evolution as natural selection acts to increase the prevalence of genetic variants providing resistance to disease. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Some responses to the latter have attempted to put these theoretical risks in a more practical light [ 4 ], and this nicely illustrates the quandary of how to classify such emerging or re-emerging pathogens into either the large droplet (short-range) versus airborne (short and possibly long-range) transmission categories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. (pnas.org)
  • The Reoviridae family is one of the largest families of viruses and includes major human pathogens (e.g., rotavirus) as well as other vertebrate, plant and insect pathogens. (highveld.com)
  • The detection of viable viruses indicates the definite presence of fecal pollution and of human pathogens. (microbioservices.com)
  • Relatively little is known about many of the viruses in this group because many are difficult to culture or are not cultureable and produce diseases that are not readily identifiable (i.e. have symptoms that are common with other pathogens). (microbioservices.com)
  • Subgenomic RNA replicons have been adapted for efficient RNA replication in the human hepatoma line Huh-7 and other cultured cells ( 2 - 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 8 The development of a subgenomic HCV RNA replicon capable of replication in the human hepatoma cell line, Huh 7, was a significant advance. (bmj.com)
  • Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets Against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus? (thepigsite.com)
  • emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in both Americas, and porcine deltacoronavirus emergence and spread in Asia followed by its spread to the US ( 2 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly effective pathogen that can cause death of new-born piglet, resulting in big economical loss in pig farming industry. (springer.com)
  • The RNA sequences from COVID-19 infections in U.S. patients demonstrate a similar RNA sequence when compared to the sequence that researchers from China initially posted. (baptistonline.org)
  • We conducted genetic analysis to characterize recent CHIKV infections that caused a large nationwide outbreak in the Philippines during 2011-2013. (cdc.gov)
  • About 1% of all Lassa virus infections result in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future. (scielo.br)
  • Interestingly, NS1 concentrations did not differ significantly in serum specimens obtained from patients experiencing primary or secondary dengue virus infections. (asm.org)
  • Although the four serogroups of hPIV1-4 have different seasonal peaks, infections caused by these viruses tend to be diagnosed throughout the year(3). (msdsonline.com)
  • Clinically, Lassa fever infections are difficult to distinguish from other viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg virus disease , and from more common febrile illnesses such as malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suramin, also known as Germanin or Bayer-205, is a market-authorized drug, however shows significant side effects, which probably prevents its use as a CHIKV drug, but due to the high lethality of Ebola virus infections, suramin might be valuable against Ebola infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The early steps of viral infections are carried out by the viral glycoproteins which mediate attachment and entry of the virus into the target cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More than two new species of human-infecting viruses are reported worldwide each year, and these novel viruses pose a substantial threat of becoming emerging human infections [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirusthat can lead to a condition in which the immune systembegins to fail, leading to opportunistic infections. (prospecbio.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 belongs to family of viruses that cause a broad range of symptoms, ranging from the common cold to more severe infections. (bioedonline.org)
  • The similar viral families detected in sick and healthy giant pandas indicate that these viruses result in commensal infections in most immuno-competent animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • diagnostic tests that can be used to identify virus infections in the field and also to ensure that plants in our Pre-basic stock and quarantine facilities are and remain virus-free. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • An IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using avidin biotin complex system (ABC MAC-ELISA) was established for the detection and differentiation of dengue-1 and Japanese encephalitis virus infections. (gilcatur.com.br)
  • Using histopathology, metagenomic sequencing, and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH), we identified a novel morbillivirus in swine as the putative cause of an outbreak of reproductive disease characterized by fetal mummification, encephalitis, and placentitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The cellular translation machinery translates the capped and poly-adenylated messenger RNAs in the cytoplasm. (ictvonline.org)
  • Replication of Coronavirus begins with entry to the cell takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, upon entry to the cell the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm. (bionity.com)
  • Plasmids were constructed containing full-length cDNA copies of the three Bunyamwera bunyavirus RNA genome segments flanked by bacteriophage T7 promoter and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences. (pnas.org)
  • Many aspects of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have not been reproduced in cell culture, which has slowed research progress on this important human pathogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with about 170 million people infected worldwide. (bmj.com)
  • Our results also show that one important risk factor for contracting hepatitis A virus is international travel since genotype IIIA was detected in a child who had travelled to Afghanistan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More than 185 million people are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide 1 , leading to severe liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nature.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus - Also in the picornavirus family. (microbioservices.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family, a small deoxy ribonucleic acid (DNA) virus, which replicates through a ribonucleic acid (RNA) intermediate and can integrate into the host genome [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. (bionity.com)
  • The paramyxoviruses are segmented, negative strand RNA viruses, which bud from cells as lipid enveloped viral particles. (plos.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses known to naturally infect swine include porcine rubulavirus, Menangle virus, Nipah virus, and porcine parainfluenza virus ( 11 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Paramyxoviruses, the cause of many important human and animal diseases, constitute a large family of enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • 6 - 10 There is a greater than 40% prevalence of antibodies to HeV in Australian pteropid bats 11 , 12 with viral RNA and infectious virus detected in urine samples collected under the roosting flying foxes, 10 and in free-living colonies of P. alecto (fetus) and P. poliocephalus (fetus and uterine fluid). (dovepress.com)
  • PKR increased levels of serum IFN and the rate of clearance of infectious virus from the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We report an efficient procedure for production of infectious virus from cloned cDNAs of sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) RNAs, a model plant rhabdovirus. (prolekare.cz)
  • i.e., infected by a virus of the family Bunyaviridae 2 , which includes than 20 hantaviruses identified throughout the American continent 3 . (scielo.br)
  • Bunyavirus , any virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. (britannica.com)
  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae [ 1 ] and the causative agent of pseudorabies (PR) or Aujezsky's disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The viruses are mainly circular in shape with a diameter ranging from 100 to 150 nm including the surface projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hantaviruses are lipid-enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, 90-100 nm in diameter. (medscape.com)
  • The bunyavirus genome is made up of three segments (large, medium, and small) containing single-stranded negative-sense RNA (ribonucleic acid). (britannica.com)
  • Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), sometimes less precisely called immune enhancement or disease enhancement, is a phenomenon in which binding of a virus to suboptimal antibodies enhances its entry into host cells, followed by its replication. (gilcatur.com.br)
  • Members and prospective members of the family are large icosahedral viruses that infect eukaryotic algae. (kenyon.edu)
  • Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. (caister.com)
  • Using a large panel of spectroscopic approaches, including circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we failed to detect any direct interaction between IRF-3 and either full-length N or N TAIL under conditions where these latter interact with the C-terminal X domain of the viral phosphoprotein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this purpose, we used a series of plasmid constructs encoding different forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus, is the leading cause of serious arthropod-borne disease globally. (asm.org)
  • The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes flu-like symptoms and arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large-scale epidemics of fever, rash and arthritis since 2004. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Large epidemics can occur, as witnessed by the current epidemic of chikungunya virus ( Powers & Logue, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are no vaccines or small molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses currently available. (plos.org)
  • The viral genome consists of a linear, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA molecule, usually containing about 15,000 nucleotides. (msdsonline.com)
  • Lassa fever can be difficult to distinguish clinically from other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys. (abcam.com)
  • Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the filovirus family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, suramin was able to inhibit wild-type CHIKV and Ebola virus replication in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the filovirus family and is a single (-)-stranded RNA enveloped virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gilead Sciences , a biopharmaceutical firm with an experimental drug called remdesivir that is used to treat the Ebola virus, said late Friday it is working with Chinese health authorities to see if the medication can combat the symptoms of coronavirus. (sciencetechniz.com)
  • A negative strand is synthesized to serve as a template for transcribing RNAs of one genome size and several subgenome sized RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae, a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hantavirus is an enveloped virus with trisegmented negative sense RNA genome, defined as small, medium and large. (scielo.br)
  • We provide the first report, to our knowledge, of a helper-independent system for rescuing a segmented, negative-strand RNA genome virus entirely from cloned cDNAs. (pnas.org)
  • Development of analogous techniques to analyze negative-strand virus replication has been slower, in part because neither isolated genome nor antigenome RNA of negative-strand viruses is infectious, in contrast to the positive-strand viruses. (pnas.org)
  • HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. (abcam.com)
  • Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plus-strand RNAs are synthesized more abundantly than their negative-sense counterparts, approximately in a 100-fold excess ( 28 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Its nucleocapsid is spirally symmetric with a core of nonsegmented single-stranded negative RNA. (springer.com)
  • The viral genome consists of a linear, single- stranded, negative-sense, nonsegmented RNA (~15.2 kb). (msdsonline.com)
  • It is enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a genome size of 18,252 (Bangladesh) and 18,246 (Malaysia) nucleotides. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The Pneumoviridae is a family of large enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • Negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses have major impacts on public health, agriculture and ecology, and they collectively are responsible for some of our most serious human, veterinary, wildlife and plant diseases [ 1 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Filoviruses, members of the family Filoviridae of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, cause sporadic viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks that primarily affect areas of equatorial Africa ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • It is therefore found to pile up in clusters at the RTC and may be instrumental in bringing about the structural rearrangements in the RNA that is are needed for subgenomic transcription to occur. (news-medical.net)
  • We extracted viral RNA using the QIAamp Viral RNA kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions and amplified the partial E1 gene using 1-step reverse transcription PCR followed by direct Sanger sequencing with primers as previously described ( 10 , 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • By measuring the transcription initiation efficiency of the S sequence of each gene carried by Sendai viruses (SeV), it was clarified that the S sequence of F gene has a significantly lower ability to promote transcription than the other three S sequences. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • When the S sequence of the F gene of wild type Sendai virus was substituted by the S sequence of the P/M/HN gene-type showing a high transcription initiation efficiency, the F gene of the resultant Sendai virus mutant and genes located downstream thereof show elevated expression levels. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, by lowering virus gene expression from virus vectors, it is possible to suppress transcription and/or replication and reduce cytotoxicity of the vector genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It belongs to the family of interferon regulatory factors (IRF) and acts as a transactivator for the interferon-β (IFN-β) and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is RNA virus which belongs to the family of lentiviruses, slow replicating virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • the reservoir status of the bats was confirmed by the detection of viral RNA or by virus isolation. (dovepress.com)
  • To face this current outbreak of COVID-19, WHO rapidly provided seven RT-PCR assays for detection of viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2, through converting it to complementary DNA (cDNA) that is subsequently amplified and detected using fluorescence probes (WHO 2020e ). (springeropen.com)
  • TBE virus is a human-pathogenic virus that is endemic in large parts of Europe and Northern Asia. (jimmunol.org)
  • These areas are important for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that may be used by related viruses, which include viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, thus providing the basis for developing strategies for intervention or prevention. (highveld.com)
  • There are three main types of pathogenic microorganisms that can be found in recreational waters: bacteria, viruses and protozoa. (canada.ca)
  • Although it is not possible to completely eliminate the risk of waterborne disease, adopting a multi-barrier approach to recreational water management will help minimize the risk of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in recreational waters. (canada.ca)
  • South America includes four hantavirus species (the Andes, Rio Mamoré, Laguna Negra and Cano Delgadito viruses) with more than 30 variants responsible for approximately 4,000 HCPS cases. (scielo.br)
  • A newer study suggests that HIV is a product of separate viruses jumping from different monkey species into chimps: the red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and the greater spot-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • NiV is a zoonotic virus whose natural host is the fruit bat (Pteropus bat species) and its outbreak was first reported in 1998-99 when virus moved to pig farmers from pigs in Malaysia and Singapore, infecting 276 and resulting in 106 deaths. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The virus has Pteropus bats as natural reservoir and other bat species from countries like Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Madagascar, Cambodia, and Ghana. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This paper is the first up-to-date review of the pathology of these flaviviruses in birds, with a special emphasis on the difference in susceptibility among avian species, in order to understand the specificity of the host spectrum of each of these viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is the sole strictly herbivorous bear species [ 1 ] within Ursidae family [ 2 ], whose other members are carnivores or omnivores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Members of this species, named extra small virus, are satellite viruses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, an unclassified virus related to members of the family Nodaviridae . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Results of serological tests revealed that the RAs to MYSV-TW NP reacted with the homologous antigen and the crude antigens of members of the WSMoV serogroup, including members of the formal species WSMoV and Peanut bud necrosis virus , and members of three tentative species, Watermelon bud necrosis virus, Capsicum chlorosis virus and Calla lily chlorotic spot virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • BackgroundCoronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that are common in people and many animal species. (bvsalud.org)