Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Schools: Educational institutions.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Animals, PoisonousPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
... is a database of toxins that are expressed by the predatory sea snails in the family Conidae, the cone snails. These ... toxins are known as conotoxins or conopeptides. The toxins are of importance to medical research. A notable feature of these ...
Their venom contains conotoxins which have powerful neurotoxic effects. Given that they are capable of "stinging" humans, live ... Conus magus, common name the magical cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the ...
... s typically lack disulfide bonds, in contrast to most families of conotoxins, which have an unusually high density of ... Conantokins are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus ...
Omega, delta and kappa families of conotoxins have a knottin or inhibitor cystine knot scaffold. The knottin scaffold is a very ... Sato K, Kini RM, Gopalakrishnakone P, Balaji RA, Ohtake A, Seow KT, Bay BH (2000). "lambda-conotoxins, a new family of ... The cysteine arrangements are the same for omega, delta and kappa families, even though omega conotoxins are calcium channel ... Mu-conotoxins have two types of cysteine arrangements, but the knottin scaffold is not observed. Mu-conotoxins target the ...
Daly, N. L.; Craik, D. J. (2009). "Structural studies of conotoxins". IUBMB Life. 61 (2): 144-50. doi:10.1002/iub.158. PMID ... Bruick, R. K. (2001). "A Conserved Family of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylases That Modify HIF". Science. 294 (5545): 1337-40. doi:10.1126/ ... Such proteins include C1q, elastins, PrP, Argonaute 2, and conotoxins, among others. As prolyl hydroxylase requires ascorbate ...
They are relatively homologous to the calcium channel blockers omega-conotoxins from marine cone snails and belong to the four- ... Assassin bugs, sometimes known as kissing bugs, are one of the largest and morphologically diverse families of true bugs ...
Zugasti-Cruz, A., Aguilar, M.B., Falcon, A., Olivera, B.M., & Heimer de la Cotera, E.P. (2008) Two new 4-cys conotoxins ( ... In the new classification of the family Conidae by Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015), ... Berschauer D. (2010). Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54 Puillandre N., Meyer ... Conasprelloides is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies ...
It is thought that the conotoxins in the venom of cone snails are able to completely relax this muscle so that the body can be ... which makes the Gray's monitor somewhat of an exception amongst the varanid family. The prehistoric placodont reptiles is an ...
HWTX-X has selectivity for isoforms of N-type Ca2+ channels, compared with ω-conotoxins GVIA and MVIIA. HWTX-X specifically ... HWTX-IV comprises 35 amino acid residues, with three disulfide bridges, belonging to the ICK motif structural family. Its ... While structurally similar to ω-conotoxins that block the twitch response to electrical nerve stimulation, HWTX-X has no effect ...
... , common name the Queen Victoria cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family ... The Conus Biodiversity website Cone Shell and Conotoxins website Pain Killer Comes out of its Shell - The Age 25 July 2005 ... "Therapeutic applications of conotoxins that target the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor". Toxicon. 48 (7): 810-29. doi ...
Conotoxins represent a category of poisons produced by the marine cone snail, and are capable of inhibiting the activity of a ... Bungarotoxin is a compound with known interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which constitute a family of ... One of the unique forms of conotoxins, ω-conotoxin (ω-CgTx) is highly specific for Ca channels and has shown usefulness in ... In many cases, the toxins released by the different types of cone snails include a range of different types of conotoxins, ...
Several of the conotoxins contain two to five Gla residues. Vitamin K status can be assessed by: The prothrombin time (PT) test ... Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives. Vitamin K includes two natural ... These snails produce a venom containing hundreds of neuroactive peptides, or conotoxins, which is sufficiently toxic to kill an ... Buczek, O.; Bulaj, G.; Olivera, BM (Dec 2005). "Conotoxins and the posttranslational modification of secreted gene products". ...
Family[edit]. The Charybdotoxin family of scorpion toxins is a group of small peptides that has many family members, such as ... N-type-selective: ω-Conotoxins. *ω-Conotoxin GVIA. *Caroverine. *Huwentoxin XVI. *Leconotide (ω-conotoxin CVID) ...
UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/family-85 - Spatial positions of inward rectifier potassium channels in ... The crystal structure[15] and function[16] of bacterial members of the IRK-C family have been determined. KirBac1.1, from ... The P domains of IRK channels exhibit limited sequence similarity to those of the VIC family. Inward rectifiers play a role in ... Inward rectifiers lack the intrinsic voltage sensing helices found in many VIC family channels. In a few cases, those of Kir1.1 ...
... is an inducer of the CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 families of the P450 enzyme responsible for the liver's degradation of various ... N-type-selective: ω-Conotoxins. *ω-Conotoxin GVIA. *Caroverine. *Huwentoxin XVI. *Leconotide (ω-conotoxin CVID) ...
... (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus, a cone snail, it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide. In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system. Ziconotide is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus. Scientists have been intrigued by the effects of the thousands of chemicals in marine snail toxins since the initial investigations in the late 1960s by Baldomero Olivera. Olivera, now a professor of biology in the University of Utah, was inspired by accounts of the deadly effects of these toxins from his childhood in the Philippines. Ziconotide was discovered in the early 1980s by University of Utah research scientist Michael McIntosh, when he was barely out of high school and working with Baldomero Olivera. Ziconotide was developed into an artificially ...
எம்.ஜீயில் தன்பிறப்பொருளெதிரிகள் பெரும்பாலாக நிகோடினிக் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுக்கு( என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் (nAChR)) எதிராக இயக்கப்படுகின்றன.[5] என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் தசை இறுக்கத்தைத் தூண்டும் நரம்பியத்தாண்டுவிப்பியாக அசிடைல்கொலினுக்கான இயக்க முனைத்தட்டுக்கான ஏற்பியாகும். பிறப்பொருளெதிரியின் சில வடிவங்கள் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுடன் பிணைவதை பாழாக்குகின்றன. மற்றவை ஏற்பிகள் அழியக் ...
... (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain. Derived from Conus magus, a cone snail, it is the synthetic form of an ω-conotoxin peptide. In December 2004 the Food and Drug Administration approved ziconotide when delivered as an infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid using an intrathecal pump system. Ziconotide is derived from the toxin of the cone snail species Conus magus. Scientists have been intrigued by the effects of the thousands of chemicals in marine snail toxins since the initial investigations in the late 1960s by Baldomero Olivera. Olivera, now a professor of biology in the University of Utah, was inspired by accounts of the deadly effects of these toxins from his childhood in the Philippines. Ziconotide was discovered in the early 1980s by University of Utah research scientist Michael McIntosh, when he was barely out of high school and working with Baldomero Olivera. Ziconotide was developed into an artificially ...
Trees are sparse, rarely forming natural groves, and it has been argued whether native Easter Islanders deforested the island in the process of erecting their statues,[73] and in providing sustenance for an overpopulated island.[citation needed] Experimental archaeology demonstrated that some statues certainly could have been placed on "Y" shaped wooden frames called miro manga erua and then pulled to their final destinations on ceremonial sites.[73] Other theories involve the use of "ladders" (parallel wooden rails) over which the statues could have been dragged.[74] Rapa Nui traditions metaphorically refer to spiritual power (mana) as the means by which the moai were "walked" from the quarry. Recent experimental recreations have proven that it is fully possible that the moai were literally walked from their quarries to their final positions by use of ropes, casting doubt on the role that their existence plays in the environmental collapse of the island.[75]. Given the island's southern ...
Trees are sparse, rarely forming natural groves, and it has been argued whether native Easter Islanders deforested the island in the process of erecting their statues,[73] and in providing sustenance for an overpopulated island.[citation needed] Experimental archaeology demonstrated that some statues certainly could have been placed on "Y" shaped wooden frames called miro manga erua and then pulled to their final destinations on ceremonial sites.[73] Other theories involve the use of "ladders" (parallel wooden rails) over which the statues could have been dragged.[74] Rapa Nui traditions metaphorically refer to spiritual power (mana) as the means by which the moai were "walked" from the quarry. Recent experimental recreations have proven that it is fully possible that the moai were literally walked from their quarries to their final positions by use of ropes, casting doubt on the role that their existence plays in the environmental collapse of the island.[75] Given the island's southern ...
Trees are sparse, rarely forming natural groves, and it has been argued whether native Easter Islanders deforested the island in the process of erecting their statues,[69] and in providing sustenance for an overpopulated island.[citation needed] Experimental archaeology demonstrated that some statues certainly could have been placed on "Y" shaped wooden frames called miro manga erua and then pulled to their final destinations on ceremonial sites.[69] Other theories involve the use of "ladders" (parallel wooden rails) over which the statues could have been dragged.[70] Rapanui traditions metaphorically refer to spiritual power (mana) as the means by which the moai were "walked" from the quarry. Recent experimental recreations have proven that it is fully possible that the moai were literally walked from their quarries to their final positions by use of ropes, casting doubt on the role that their existence plays in the environmental collapse of the island.[71]. Given the island's southern ...
Trees are sparse, rarely forming natural groves, and it has been argued whether native Easter Islanders deforested the island in the process of erecting their statues,[73] and in providing sustenance for an overpopulated island.[citation needed] Experimental archaeology demonstrated that some statues certainly could have been placed on "Y" shaped wooden frames called miro manga erua and then pulled to their final destinations on ceremonial sites.[73] Other theories involve the use of "ladders" (parallel wooden rails) over which the statues could have been dragged.[74] Rapa Nui traditions metaphorically refer to spiritual power (mana) as the means by which the moai were "walked" from the quarry. Recent experimental recreations have proven that it is fully possible that the moai were literally walked from their quarries to their final positions by use of ropes, casting doubt on the role that their existence plays in the environmental collapse of the island.[75] Given the island's southern ...
A snail is a common name for a kind of mollusc. The term is used for a gastropod with a coiled shell.. Snails and slugs which breathe with a kind of lung are members of a group, the Pulmonata, which was a well-known order in traditional taxonomy. Their fossil records extends back into the Carboniferous period.[1]. However, the Pulmonata was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study.[2] What this means is that, in the course of evolution, the same life-style evolved in a number of different lines. Therefore the pulmonates are polyphyletic, and the Pulmonata is no longer an official term in biological classification.. The term "snail" is also sometimes used for aquatic snail-like gastropods, which usually have gills. Actually, most snail species are marine snails: they have much greater diversity and a greater biomass. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh water habitats.. Close relatives of the snails are the slugs, which are basically snails without shells. Both slugs and snails ...
The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is a folkloric figure and symbol of Easter, depicted as a rabbit bringing Easter eggs. Originating among German Lutherans, the "Easter Hare" originally played the role of a judge, evaluating whether children were good or disobedient in behaviour at the start of the season of Eastertide. The Easter Bunny is sometimes depicted with clothes. In legend, the creature carries colored eggs in his basket, candy, and sometimes also toys to the homes of children, and as such shows similarities to Santa Claus or the Christkind, as they both bring gifts to children on the night before their respective holidays. The custom was first[unreliable source?] mentioned in Georg Franck von Franckenau's De ovis paschalibus ('About Easter Eggs') in 1682, referring to a German tradition of an Easter Hare bringing Easter eggs for the children. The hare was a popular motif in medieval church art. In ancient times, it was widely believed (as by Pliny, ...
A common hypothesis is held that the apparent decline of Rapa Nui culture and society before European discovery in 1722 was caused by the over-exploitation of the island's environment, most notably through deforestation of almost all the island's trees. The most prominent proponent of this explanation is Jared Diamond who proposes a scenario for the "ecocide" on Easter Island in his 2005 book Collapse. This idea that Rapa Nui society collapsed came out of the imbalance between general resources present on the island, mainly population, timber and food sources, and the energy- and resource-intensive feat of transporting and raising the moai. Food resources may have been scarcer than in other areas of Polynesia because of factors like the cooler climate, lack of rainfall in comparison to other islands in the area, high winds and a lack of biodiversity, leading to common Polynesian crops not faring as well as they would in other areas of the Pacific. A source of good timber is also currently ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails The height of the species' shell attains 5.5 mm, its diameter 7 mm. The broadly perforate, translucent, glossy shell has a depressed-turbinate shape. Its colour is variable, either uniform buff, uniform white, or with brown spirals on a white ground.The 4½ whorls are rounded on the base, subangled at the periphery, flattened above and impressed at the suture. The sculpture of the protoconch is smooth, the next whorl shows a couple of spiral keels, which by intercalation multiply in number, but decrease in relative importance as the whorls advance. The body whorl carries close fine spiral threads, of which every fourth or fifth predominates. The radials are confined to faint growth lines. The aperture is slightly descending, oblique, angled above, rounded below. The outer lip is simple. The columella is expanded, and a little reflected above. A substantial callus unites the lips. The deep ...
... , common name abalone (US), pāua (NZ), or ormer (UK), is the only genus in the family Haliotidae. This genus once contained six subgenera. These subgenera have become alternate representations of Haliotis. The genus consists of small to very large, edible, herbivorous sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs. The number of species recognized worldwide ranges between 30 and 130, with over 230 species-level taxa described. The most comprehensive treatment of the family considers 56 species valid, with 18 additional subspecies. The shells of abalones have a low, open, spiral structure, and are characterized by having several open respiratory pores in a row near the shell's outer edge. The thick inner layer of the shell is composed of nacre, which in many species of abalone is highly iridescent, giving rise to a range of strong, changeable colors, which make the shells attractive to humans as decorative objects, in jewelry, and as a source of colorful mother-of-pearl. The shell of abalones is ...
... /æsɪˈpɛnsərɪˈfɔːrmiːz/ is an order of basal ray-finned fishes that includes the sturgeons and paddlefishes, as well as some extinct families. Notable characteristics of Acipenseriformes include: Cartilaginous endoskeleton Lack of vertebral centrum Spiral valve intestine Conus arteriosus Taxonomy based on the work of Mikko Haaramo, Neslon, Grande and Wilson 2016 and van der Laan 2016. Order Acipenseriformes Berg 1940 Genus †Hesperopsephurus Nesov 1997 Genus †Neochallaia Rusconi 1949 Genus †Psephuroides Nesov 1997 Family †Errolichthyidae Lehman 1952 Genus †Errolichthys Lehman 1952 Genus †Psilichthys Hall 1900 non Steindachner 1907 Suborder †Chondrosteoidei Family †Chondrosteidae Huxley 1861 Genus †Chondrosteus Agassiz 1843 ex Egerton 1858 Genus †Eochondrosteus Lu, Li & Yang 2005 Genus †Gyrosteus Morris 1854 Genus †Strongylosteus Egerton 1858 Suborder †Peipiaosteoidei Grande & Bemis 1996 Family †Peipiaosteidae Liu & Zhou 1965 Genus ...
This review compares the action of three ω-conotoxins, GVIA, MVIIA and CVID, describing their structure-activity relationships ... the ω-conotoxins) have emerged as a new class of therapeutics for the treatment of chronic and neuropathic pain. Earlier in ... Family. Molecular target. Example. A. CC-C-C. α. AChR* (antagonist). α-Vc1.1. ... ω-Conotoxins. All ω-conotoxins identified to date have been found in piscivorous cone snails ranging from the small Conus catus ...
ConoServer is a database of toxins that are expressed by the predatory sea snails in the family Conidae, the cone snails. These ... toxins are known as conotoxins or conopeptides. The toxins are of importance to medical research. A notable feature of these ...
Conus genus includes around 500 species of marine mollusks with a peculiar production of venomous peptides known as conotoxins ... Several CTX families have been identified to modulate Na+ current, in particular μ- and μO-CTX are antagonist of the Nav ... Halai, R.; Craik, D.J. Conotoxins: Natural product drug leads. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2009, 26, 526-536. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [ ... Li, R.A.; Tomaselli, G.F. Using the deadly μ-conotoxins as probes of voltage-gated sodium channels. Toxicon 2004, 44, 117-122 ...
Their venom contains conotoxins which have powerful neurotoxic effects. Given that they are capable of "stinging" humans, live ... Conus magus, common name the magical cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the ...
... and nine more conotoxins are at various stages of preclinical or clinical evaluation. In short, the genus Conus, the big family ... These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and ... These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or ... Over 2000 nucleotide and 8000 peptide sequences of conotoxins have been published, and the number is still increasing quickly. ...
Another family of conotoxins, the α-conotoxins, are competitive antagonists of mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ( ... Surprisingly, however, α-conotoxins Vc1.1, RgIA and PeIA more potently inhibit N-type VGCC currents via a GABA B GPCR mechanism ... Structurally related ω-conotoxins bind directly to and selectively inhibit neuronal (N)-type voltage-gated calcium channels ( ... A series of newly discovered ω-conotoxins from Conus catus, including CVID-F, are potent and selective antagonists of N-type ...
Snails: conotoxins - a range of poisons from the venom of sea snails which use them to paralyse their prey (fish). Different ... forms of conotoxins act on sodium and calcium channels.. Snakes: from the krait family, alpha-bungarotoxin - prevents ... From the mamba family, dendrotoxin blocks potassium channels. Many snake venoms also contain other chemicals that disable prey ... Fish: tetrodotoxin - possibly the most renowned animal toxin; named after the four-toothed puffer fish family Tetraodontidae. ...
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into ... omega-Conotoxins. Subscribe to New Research on omega-Conotoxins A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from ... 03/01/2013 - "Omega-conotoxins as experimental tools and therapeutics in pain management.". 11/10/2000 - "omega-Conotoxins ... 02/01/2010 - "Neuronal (N)-type Ca(2+) channel-selective omega-conotoxins have emerged as potential new drugs for the treatment ...
The cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) consists of the nicotinic acetylcholine, serotonin type-3 (5-HT3), ... According to its different targets acting on the organism, the conotoxins can be divided into three categories [3]: (1) acting ... All of these nAChRs belong to a family of receptors that are collectively called ligand-gated ion channel receptors.. Alcohols ... PAT-2 (proton/amino acid symporter member 2, also called solute carrier family 36 member 2, slc36a2), and P2RX5 (purinergic ...
Dr Anne Bruestle, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada. Anne Bruestle did her PhD at the Institute of ... JCSMR School Seminar Series: Conotoxins and calcium channels in chronic pain states ...
3 family of alpha-conotoxins and selectively blocks the alpha9alpha10 nAChR subtype, in contrast to another well-characterized ... Alpha-conotoxins are small disulfide-constrained peptides from cone snails that act as antagonists at specific subtypes of ... The conserved disulfide scaffold of the α-conotoxin family and the sequences of α-RgIA (top) and α-ImI (bottom) are shown. The ... 3 family, but with variations in side-chain solvent accessibility and orientation. Asp5, Pro6, and Arg7 in loop 1 are critical ...
Electrophysiological data demonstrated that like ù-conotoxins, PnTx3-6 blocks the conductance of Cav2 family members. Cav2.2 (N ... The naturally occurring ù-conotoxins have activity at various Ca channels including the N- (Cav2.2), P/Q- (Cav2.1), R- (Cav2.3 ...
Novel.alpha.- and.omega.-conotoxins and Conus striatus venom. Biochemistry. 1992;31(41):9919-26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... New members of the APETx-like family identified by a 454 pyrosequencing approach. Peptides. 2012;34:26-38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Kaas Q, Yu R, Jin A-H, Dutertre S, Craik D. Conotoxins that confer therapeutic possibilities. Mar Drugs. 2012a;10(6):1244-65. ...
Conotoxins have been investigated as potential painkillers for at least a decade. As slow moving animals, cone snails rely on a ... Importantly, they have also identified examples of plants within five major families that naturally produce cyclic peptides: ... These petunias would have been genetically modified to produce small, circular peptides very similar to conotoxins, produced in ... the wild by a family of marine molluscs called cone snails. ...
Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins ... However, each such predictor focuses on only one type or property such as the conotoxins family [13], peptidases [14] or ... Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins ... Kaplan, N.; Morpurgo, N.; Linial, M. Novel families of toxin-like peptides in insects and mammals: A computational approach. J ...
Omega, delta and kappa families of conotoxins have a knottin or inhibitor cystine knot scaffold. The knottin scaffold is a very ... Sato K, Kini RM, Gopalakrishnakone P, Balaji RA, Ohtake A, Seow KT, Bay BH (2000). "lambda-conotoxins, a new family of ... Mu-conotoxins have two types of cysteine arrangements, but the knottin scaffold is not observed.[17] Mu-conotoxins target the ... The cysteine arrangements are the same for omega, delta and kappa families, even though omega conotoxins are calcium channel ...
Targeted re-engineering of native α-conotoxins has resulted in excellent tools for nAChR research as well as potential ... A subset of these peptides known as α-conotoxins, are antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These ... A subset of these peptides known as α-conotoxins, are antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These ... Highly prevalent peptides include those that belong to the α-conotoxin family which target nAChRs (Abraham and Lewis, 2018; ...
Conotoxins are parts of the neurotoxic peptides isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail of the Genus Conus. They are ... Ku CJ, Yona G: The distance-profile representation and its application to detection of distantly related protein families. BMC ... We set out with the aim of providing a more accurate method of classifying protein sequences, using conotoxins as an example. ... Craik DJ, Adams DJ: Chemical modification of conotoxins to improve stability and activity. ACS Chem Biol 2007, 2: 457-468. ...
PhcrTx2 is the first known paralyzing toxin in the family Phymanthidae.. Assuntos. Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , ... Moreover, PiVIIA has a conserved motif (-γCCS-) that characterizes γ-conotoxins from molluscivorous Conus. Peptide PiVIIA has ... Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of proton-sensing channels that are voltage insensitive, cation selective ( ... Members of this expanded family of secreted cestode proteins thus have the potential to block, through high affinity ...
Given that spiny pufferfish from the sister family Diodontidae and a fish from the outgroup Molidae have genomes twice as large ... mRNA transcripts reveal that piscivores from independent evolutionary lineages express the same subset of four-loop conotoxins ... These results demonstrate that differential expression of gene-family members can play a key role in adaptive evolution, ... Smooth pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae have the smallest vertebrate genomes yet measured. They have a haploid genome ...
Conotoxins are a diverse array of small peptides, mostly with multiple disulfide bridges. Using a 3′ RACE approach, we ... These peptides are named Pu5.1-Pu5.6 as their primary structures show the typical pattern of T-1 conotoxin family, a large and ... Identification of six novel T-1 conotoxins from Conus pulicarius by molecular cloning by Can Peng; Xuechen Wu; Yuhong Han; ... Here, we present a simple and fast strategy of gaining novel disulfide-rich conotoxins via molecular cloning and our detailed ...
... viruses from the family papovaviridae, including polyomaviruses such as SV40, JC and BK and including papillomaviruses (e.g., ... Conotoxins; Diacetoxyscirpenol; Diphtheria toxin; Grayanotoxin; mushroom toxins such as amanitins, gyromitrin, and orellanine; ... flowable oxide product families (comprising hydrogen silsesquioxane); solder masks (as described in the standard IPC-SM-840C: ... Other viruses that can comprise a target nucleic acid sequence include species not mentioned above belonging to the families ...
... conotoxins can be classified into several families [1]. Omega, delta and kappa families of conotoxins have a knottin or ... Lambda-conotoxins, a new family of conotoxins with unique disulfide pattern and protein folding. Isolation and characterization ... The omega conotoxins are calcium channel blockers, whereas delta conotoxins delay the inactivation of sodium channels [1]. The ... α conotoxins belong to the A-superfamily and have two types of cysteine arrangement [CC-C-C] and [CCC-C-C-C] [7]. α conotoxins ...
... family, Conidae), a diverse group of marine gastropods that capture their prey using a cocktail of neurotoxic peptides ( ... conotoxins). We were able to successfully recover conotoxin gene superfamilies across all species with high confidence (> 100× ... targeted sequencing technique demonstrated here has the potential to radically increase the pace at which venom gene families ...
... at least four different families have been identified: the δ-conotoxins, known to inhibit the fast inactivation of voltage- ... the κ-conotoxins which interact with voltage-gated K+ channels, and the ω-conotoxins known to block voltage-activated Ca++ ... The ω-conotoxins, for example, are heavily used in neuroscience and also in other areas of research to study the function of Ca ... Classical examples for conotoxins synthesized by SPPS are the Ca++-channel inhibitor ω-Conotoxin GVIA (Rivier et al. 1987) and ...
  • Targeted re-engineering of native α-conotoxins has resulted in excellent tools for nAChR research as well as potential therapeutics. (frontiersin.org)
  • After a short introduction into the structure and diversity of nAChRs, this overview summarizes the identification and characterization of alpha-conotoxins with selectivity for neuronal nAChR subtypes and provides examples of their use in defining the compositions and function of neuronal nAChR subtypes in native vertebrate tissues. (biologicalworld.com)
  • Alpha-conotoxins act on postsynaptic membranes, they bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and thus inhibit them. (uniprot.org)
  • Imperial J., Bansal P.S., Alewood P.F., Daly N.L., Craik D.J., Sporning A., Terlau H., Lopez - Vera E., Bandyopadhyay P.K. and Olivera B.M.: A Novel Conotoxin Inhibitor of Kv1.6 Channel and nAChR Subtypes Defines a New Superfamily of Conotoxins. (uni-kiel.de)
  • These are the most divergent of the nAChR family and show mixed nicotinic/muscarinic pharmacology, and sensitivity to other drugs including strychnine and 5HT 3 ligands. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, rather than focusing on the most toxic animals, we will cover five of the more surprising or unusual members of the venomous and poisonous family. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Structure determination of µ-CnIIIC revealed some similarities to α-conotoxins acting on nAChRs.µ-CnIIIC potently blocked VGSCs in skeletal muscle and nerve, and hence is applicable to myorelaxation. (epfl.ch)
  • Conotoxins are hypervariable even within the same species. (rug.nl)
  • Given the diversity within the decapods, as well as the large number of extant species readily available for analysis, this group of animals represents an optimal model in which to examine phylogenetic conservation and evolution of neuropeptides and neuropeptide families. (chemweb.com)
  • The study by Chang and Duda is the first to examine conotoxin genes from several closely related species to reconstruct the evolution of conotoxin gene families. (umich.edu)
  • Within a species, genes that are extremely similar in structure and function are considered to be part of the same gene family. (umich.edu)
  • We examine the Pleuronectoidei, the largest suborder of Pleuronectiformes with >99% of species diversity of the order, in detail with a multilocus nuclear and mitochondrial data set of 57 pleuronectoids from 13 families covering a wide range of habitats. (mnhn.fr)
  • Cone shells are a hard act to follow when it comes to beauty, biological diversity, molecular diversity and selectivity of their component toxic compounds, the conotoxins There are over 600 species of cone shells worldwide and over 80 of these are present on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. (sydneyshellclub.net)
  • The primary structure, determined by Edman degradation and MS/MS, shows that the sequence identities with the other members of the family are lower than those between S100 proteins from different species. (tailieu.vn)
  • Triggerfishes are about 40 species of often brightly colored fishes of the family Balistidae. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • κA-conotoxins are a major component of the venom of several species of fish-hunting cone snail, but as a class of compounds have been less well studied due to their molecular complexity and post-translational modifications. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The cysteine arrangement [C-C-CC-C-C] is the same for omega and delta families, which belong to the O-superfamily. (expasy.org)
  • The M-superfamily Mu conotoxins have two types of cysteine arrangement [CC-C-C-CC] and [CC-C-C-C-C], but knottin scaffold is not observed. (expasy.org)
  • The I-superfamily of conotoxins is characterized by a pattern of eight cysteine residues that form four disulfide bridges. (expasy.org)
  • T-1-family conotoxins belong to the T-superfamily and are composed of 10-17 amino acids. (utmb.edu)
  • This framework was assigned to be XII on discovery of VxXIIA , VxXIIB and VxXIIC 2006, which also had been used for conotoxins from the I superfamily (Brown et al. (conoserver.org)
  • The detailed pharmacology of these conotoxins is being studied using endogenous VGSCs in dissociated neurons and cloned ion channels exogenously expressed in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines. (utah.edu)
  • In neurons, native Ca V 2.3 is referred to as R-type current, which is poorly defined as the current remaining after blocking the activity of T channels (Ca V 3) with nickel, L channels (Ca V 1) with dihydropyridines, and N, P, and Q channels with ω-conotoxins. (rupress.org)
  • The naturally occurring ù-conotoxins have activity at various Ca channels including the N- (Cav2.2), P/Q- (Cav2.1), R- (Cav2.3), and T- (Cav3.1/3.2) type channels and have served as platforms for the development of therapeutic agents now in development. (pharmiweb.com)
  • and the therapeutic and medicinal values of conotoxins, including as a powerful nonaddictive painkiller, an epilepsy drug, and more. (appleacademicpress.com)
  • Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. (mdpi.com)
  • They belong to a large and highly divergent family of multifunctional plant acyl-transferases and show at most 21% identity to the only other fruit acyl-transferase characterized so far in strawberry. (tailieu.vn)
  • Therefore, conotoxins genes experience less selection against mutations (like gene duplication and nonsynonymous substitution ), and mutations remain in the genome longer, allowing more time for potentially beneficial novel functions to arise. (rug.nl)
  • Overall, the targeted sequencing technique demonstrated here has the potential to radically increase the pace at which venom gene families are sequenced and studied, reshaping our ability to understand the impact of genetic changes on ecologically relevant phenotypes and subsequent diversification. (ovid.com)
  • The high rates of gene duplication may actually facilitate the rapid evolution of gene-family members by increasing the number of opportunities for beneficial mutations to occur through increases in the gene copy number,' said Chang, a doctoral student in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. (umich.edu)
  • Genes that make up families are hypothesized to have arisen from a common ancestral sequence through gene duplication, which adds an extra copy of a gene to the organism's genome. (umich.edu)
  • Beneficial mutations-ones that result in a valuable new function-can be retained through natural selection, resulting in a new gene and the creation of a gene family. (umich.edu)
  • Our research in this field includes the evolution of gene families, model selection, positive selection, the causes underlying incorrect phylogenetic inferences, etc. (csic.es)
  • Complimentary interactions between conotoxins and their receptor are being established to better understand where and how they act at the molecular level. (edu.au)
  • The database and computational tools found on this website may be used for academic research only, provided that it is referred to ConoServer, the database of conotoxins (http://www.conoserver.org) and the above reference is cited. (conoserver.org)
  • As the process is repeated again and again, additional genes are added to the family. (umich.edu)
  • We targeted 850 protein coding genes (678,322 bp) in ca. 120 samples, spanning all (except one) known families of Conoidea and a broad selection of non-Conoidea neogastropods. (mnhn.fr)
  • The number of conotoxins whose activities have been determined so far is five, and they are called the α(alpha)-, δ(delta)-, κ(kappa)-, μ(mu)-, and ω(omega)- types. (rug.nl)
  • Three signature patterns were developed for omega, delta and mu conotoxin families. (expasy.org)
  • Calcium channel diversity and neurotransmitter release: the omega-conotoxins and omega-agatoxins. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, however, α-conotoxins Vc1.1, RgIA and PeIA more potently inhibit N-type VGCC currents via a GABA B GPCR mechanism in rat sensory neurones. (edu.au)
  • This invertebrate's brand of chemical weaponry is conotoxins - a highly variable family of poisons that, although the snail uses them to kill fish, are more than capable of killing a human. (dnsayurveda.com)
  • Conotoxins represent a category of poisons produced by the marine cone snail, and are capable of inhibiting the activity of a number want to buy klonopin 2mg online in canada of ion channels such as purchase clonazepam with american express calcium, sodium, or potassium purchase clonazepam with american express channels. (theweetrio.com)