Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Fallopian Tube Neoplasms: Benign or malignant neoplasms of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. They are uncommon. If they develop, they may be located in the wall or within the lumen as a growth attached to the wall by a stalk.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Fallopian Tube Patency Tests: Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Hysterosalpingography: Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Salpingectomy: Excision of one or both of the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mycoplasmataceae: A family of gram-negative, non-motile bacteria from human and animal sources. One saprophytic species is known.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Salpingostomy: Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseVagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLPAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Mice, Inbred BALB CCystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived: A vascular endothelial growth factor whose expression is found largely restricted to the GONADS; ADRENAL CORTEX; and PLACENTA. It has similar biological activity to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-A.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.
Phase I study of abagovomab in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. Clin Cancer Res ... Abagovomab is a mouse anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody whose variable epitope mirrors a tumour antigen (CA-125) highly ... expressed in the epithelial ovarian cancer. Abagovomab does not bind directly to CA-125, but it works as a "surrogate" antigen ... Phase III of the trial showed no evidence of slowing ovarian cancer with a monoclonal antibody against CA125. "Medical News: ...
... though some may form at the Fallopian tubes. Less common types of ovarian cancer include germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal ... There is no specific marker for immature teratomas, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA-125, CA19-9, or AFP can sometimes ... Surface epithelial-stromal tumour, also known as ovarian epithelial carcinoma, is the most common type of ovarian cancer, ... Epithelial ovarian cancers develop from the epithelium, a layer of cells that covers the ovary. Most people with epithelial ...
Niloff JM, Knapp RC, Schaetzl E, et al.: CA125 antigen levels in obstetric and gynecologic patients. Obstet Gynecol 64 (5): 703 ... Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor Treatment; and Ovarian Low ... Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ... Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer section in the PDQ summary on Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal ...
Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma Ovarian ... Baseline values of cancer antigen (CA)-125 at least twice the upper limit of normal ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Ovarian Cancer Fallopian Tube Cancer Ovarian Epithelial Cancer ... Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma Recurrent Fallopian Tube ...
Ca-125 serum results compared from baseline to after patients last treatment. This is a tumor biomarker. A decrease in results ... Determine whether serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) at the time of cytoreduction is associated with the ability to optimally ... stage III ovarian epithelial cancer. stage IV ovarian epithelial cancer. peritoneal cavity cancer. fallopian tube cancer. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Ovarian Cancer Fallopian Tube Cancer Ovarian Epithelial Cancer ...
Phase I study of abagovomab in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. Clin Cancer Res ... that functionally mimics the 3D structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125 (203). ... it has been used in ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer (NCT00058435). Another example of vaccine therapy ... for the treatment of ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. Bevacizumab has also been combined with MNRP1685A ( ...
Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer or Recurrent Triple-Negative Breast Cancer ... Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib in Treating Patients with Recurrent Ovarian, ... or fallopian tube cancer; participants with epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers of other high- ... CA)125 level at least twice the upper limit of normal on two separate occasions at least 1 day but not more than 3 months apart ...
The inclusion of FTC and PPC within the ovarian epithelial... ... fallopian tube cancer (FTC), and primary peritoneal cancer (PPC ... Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] ... This PDQ summary addresses the staging and treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer, ... CA-125 levels can be elevated in other malignancies and benign gynecologic problems such as endometriosis. CA-125 levels and ...
1. Histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or serous primary peritoneal carcinoma. 2. In complete remission ... A randomised trial in relapsed ovarian cancer, early treatment based on Cancer Antigen (CA) 125 levels alone versus delayed ... A randomised trial in relapsed ovarian cancer, early treatment based on Cancer Antigen (CA) 125 levels alone versus delayed ... To investigate the benefit of early chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer based on a raised CA125 (a serum marker) level ...
... epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, CA-125, CA19-9, and B72.3 and negative for CEA. ... R. E. Scully, R. H. Young, and P. B. Clement, Tumors of the Ovary, Maldeveloped Gonads, Fallopian Tube, and Broad Ligament, ... Prognostic factors for synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers are age, stage of ovarian cancer, grade of ... L. Palma, V. Marcus, L. Gilbert, G. Chong, and W. D. Foulkes, "Synchronous occult cancers of the endometrium and fallopian tube ...
Useful biomarkers include cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4). ... Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the U.S. and the fifth most common cause of ... glycoprotein antigen expressed in tissue derived from coelomic epithelial cells (ovary, fallopian tube, peritoneum, pericardium ... Most ovarian tumors are epithelial and secrete CA 125 and HE4 *These markers do not increase early enough to be useful for ...
... tumor marker for Ovarian and other malignant cancers for research and in vitro diagnostic manufacturing - Inquire for details! ... Associated Cancer Types: Ovarian Cancer Endometrial Cancer Fallopian Tube Cancer Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Gastrointestinal ... CA125) is a surface antigen associated with epithelial ovarian cancer. In serum, CA125 is associated with a high molecular ... Home / Antigens / Enzymes / Antigens / Standards / Controls / Proteins / Cancer Antigen 125 (ca-125) ...
or IV ovarian epithelial, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma treated with. neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval ... Normal mammography (if CA 125/carcinoembryonic antigen ratio less than 25). - Tumor greater than 2 cm, excluding ovaries, on ... Histologically proven stage IIIC or IV ovarian epithelial carcinoma, peritoneal. carcinoma, or fallopian tube carcinoma. - If ... Presence of pelvic ovarian mass. - Omental cake or other metastasis larger than 2 cm in the upper abdomen. and/or regional ...
... a glycoprotein antigen found in normal adult tissues such as the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, the endometrium, the ... Elevated levels are seen in association with epithelial ovarian carcinomas, particularly nonmucinous tumors, as well as with ... CA 125) a surface glycoprotein associated with müllerian epithelial tissue; elevated serum levels are often associated with ... Lewis Y antigen, Low-frequency antigen, Mls antigen, Myeloid antigen, O antigen, Oncofetal antigen, P antigen, p24 antigen, ...
What is heterogeneic antigen? Meaning of heterogeneic antigen medical term. What does heterogeneic antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of heterogeneic antigen in the Medical Dictionary? heterogeneic antigen explanation free. ... a glycoprotein antigen found in normal adult tissues such as the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, the endometrium, the ... Elevated levels are seen in association with epithelial ovarian carcinomas, particularly nonmucinous tumors, as well as with ...
Quality CA-12-5 ELISA kit from ELISA kits manufacturer and elisa kits supplier : CA-12-5 ELISA Assay, CA-12-5 ELISA test, CA- ... CA-19-9 ELISA kit, CA-15-3 ELISA kit. Our kits are FDA, CE and ISO certified. ... CA-12-5) is a surface antigen associated with epithelial ovarian cancer. Elevated serum CA-12-5 levels can be found in ... Serum CA-12-5 levels higher than normal can also be found in individuals with adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube endometrium ...
... or fallopian tube cancer; participants with epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers of other high- ... criteria or an elevated cancer antigen (CA)125 level at least twice the upper limit of normal on two separate occasions at ... or fallopian tube cancer. - Ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube participants in the Phase 1 and Phase 1-T ... I. Assess the toxicities of the combination of cediranib and olaparib in the treatment of recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or ...
This review focuses on the clinicopathologic and molecular features of epithelial ovarian cancer, with specific attention to ... Precursors of ovarian cancer in the fallopian tube: serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma--an update. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. ... There are no reliable screening methods for ovarian cancer, since cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is highly nonspecific for ovarian ... Primary ovarian MUC, previously considered to be the second most common epithelial ovarian tumor, is now known to be much less ...
The optimal cutoff points for NLR, PLR, and CA125 were 3.38, 210, and 365 IU/L, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated ... NLR, PLR, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) levels were calculated for an optimal cutoff point using receiver operating ... Potential predictors for chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal ... Fallopian Tubes , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neutrophils , Odds Ratio , Ovarian ...
... fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and PARP inhibitors. ... CA-125 levels can be elevated in other malignancies and benign gynecologic problems such as endometriosis. CA-125 levels and ... Screening procedures such as gynecologic assessment, vaginal ultrasound, and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) assay have had low ... Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention * Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ...
Potential predictors for chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal ... and CA125 were 3.38, 210, and 365 IU/L, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that NLR >3.38, PLR >210, CA125 >365, ... Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways- ... Fallopian Tubes , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neutrophils , Odds Ratio , Ovarian ...
Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer. *For treatment in ANY of the following: *In combination with ... In combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin for rising cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels or clinical relapse in individuals ... Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer. *As neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination ... Unresectable clinical stage I-IIIA disease and tumors of epithelial, sarcomatoid, or mixed histology; or *Treatment of clinical ...
... and clear cell ovarian carcinomas; mucinous tumors express this antigen less frequently. CA-125 is also found in the epithelium ... fallopian tube) and nongynecologic (eg, pancreas, breast, colon, lung) cancers. CA-125 levels are frequently elevated with ... However, certain ovarian tumors, mostly mucinous epithelial ovarian carcinomas and granulosa cell tumors, produce inhibin. An ... Carbohydrate antigen is not specific for ovarian cancer.. Cancer antigen 27-29. Elevated cancer antigen 27-29 levels are ...
HE4 is not better than CA125 either for EOC or OC prediction. ROMA is promising predictors of epithelial ovarian cancer to ... CA125 (0.78, 95%CI 0.73-0.83). ROMA is helpful for distinguishing epithelial ovarian cancer from benign pelvic mass. ... CA125 (0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.90); AUC: CA125 (0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) > HE4 (0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.85). Comparison of OC predictive ... appear to be promising predictors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), however, conflicting results exist in the diagnostic ...
... tissue CA125 is primarily expressed in mesothelial cells and in the luminal surface of epithelial cells of the fallopian tube, ... Ovarian cancer antigen CA125 is encoded by the MUC16 mucin gene. Int J Cancer. 2002 Apr 10; 98(5): 737-40. ... CA125 is expressed in almost all cases of (epithelial) malignant mesothelioma and ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. CA125 is also ... Moreover, CA125 is expressed in most adenocarcinomas of fallopian tube, endometrium and endocervix as well as pancreas and ...
... "ovarian cancer" suggests that the majority of serous ovarian cancers originate from dysplastic fallopian tubes (3). Metastatic ... Purified primary human ovarian cancer cells were positive for CA125 and EpCAM, which are commonly overexpressed in epithelial ... rabbit polyclonal Cy5-conjucated anti-CA125 (cancer antigen 125) from Bioss Inc., mouse mAb phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated anti- ... The role of the fallopian tube in the origin of ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;209:409-14. ...
Discusses cause and symptoms of ovarian cancer. Covers diagnosis, including discovery during pelvic exam or ultrasound. Looks ... Women at very high risk because of inherited genes may want to have surgery to remove their ovaries and fallopian tubes. This ... 2009). Epithelial ovarian cancer. In RR Barakat et al., eds., Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology, 5th ed., pp. 763 ... For women who have an average risk for ovarian cancer, experts do not recommend using the CA-125 test as a screening test for ...
  • There is solid evidence to indicate that screening women aged 55 to 74 years at average risk of developing ovarian cancer with the serum marker CA-125 (at a fixed threshold for a positive result of 35 U/mL) annually for 6 years and TVU for 4 years does not result in a decrease in ovarian cancer mortality, after a median follow-up of 14.7 years. (oncolink.org)
  • The lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer in patients harboring germline mutations in BRCA1 is substantially increased over that of the general population. (cigna.com)
  • Fallopian tube screening modalities are aggressively investigated, but few describe cytological characteristics of benign tubal specimens to help in the comparative detection of HGSC precursor cells. (cytojournal.com)
  • Benign conditions associated with raised serum CA-125 concentration. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Fresh-frozen ovarian HGSC tissues and benign serous cystadenoma cases were quantitatively analyzed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation for both global and glycoproteomic analyses by two dimensional fractionation followed by LC-MS/MS analysis using a Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In premenopausal women, benign conditions such as endometriosis can elevate CA 125 levels to more than 1,000 U per mL (1,000 kU per L). (enetmd.com)
  • An FNA, percutaneous biopsy, or diagnostic paracentesis should be performed in patients with diffuse carcinomatosis or ascites without an obvious ovarian mass, or in patients who will be treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Transparent cell and endometrioid ovarian cysts which can be connected with endometriosis possess different gene expression interpretations, as do mucinous sub-types. (wikilink.us)
  • Here we report a case of endometrial stromal sarcoma with multiple metastasis that arose from an ovarian endometriotic lesion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hormones , such as estrogen and testosterone and inhibin, may be at higher levels than normal in some women with ovarian stromal tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • In serum, CA125 is associated with a high molecular weight glycoprotein. (leebio.com)
  • The poor outcome of patients has not changed much in the past three decades, despite advances in surgery and chemotherapies and major efforts to develop a screening test with greater predictive value than a standalone serum test for the tumor-shed glycoprotein CA-125, which is FDA approved for monitoring therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the antigen CA 125 is a large transmembrane glycoprotein and the test has two things to react with OC 125 and M 11 and the latest verso of the test utilises or acts based on both the parameters (OC125 and M11). (endyourillness.com)
  • 8 10 11 ] This postulate is based on studies of women with BRCA1/2 mutations having HGSC precursor lesions in the secretory epithelial cells of their fallopian tubes. (cytojournal.com)
  • We present an updated model for BRCA1/2 mutation-associated ovarian and fallopian tube carcinogenesis, which may aid in identifying improved prevention strategies for high-risk women who delay or decline RRSO. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The theory that lots of high heeled albicans ovarian cysts (that the most often occurring histologic subtype) can originate in precursor lesions which arise at the fimbriae of these prostate tubes was endorsed by findings from risk-reducing operations in obese females with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. (wikilink.us)
  • The clinical use of antibodies directed against antigens not present on the tumor cells, but on cells of the immune system (i.e., anti-immune checkpoint antibodies), evidenced the beneficial effects of the treatment, which persisted even after it was finished ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Following a raised CA125 result patients are randomised to receive either delayed treatment until patient shows clinical signs of relapse or immediate treatment which must start within 4 weeks. (isrctn.com)
  • Nine hundred women in whom the ovarian tumour was removed by surgery and standard chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin can be enrolled in the MIMOSA study, involving eight countries throughout the world (Germany, United States, Italy, Poland, Czech Republic, Spain, Hungary and Belgium) in more than 120 experienced clinical sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary manufacturer of high quality antigens for the clinical diagnostics industry. (bio-rad.com)
  • When combined with CA 125 measurement, biomarker HE4 increases the sensitivity by 22 percent and specificity by 90 percent. (enetmd.com)