Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.SesquiterpenesQuinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.TetrahydrocortisoneLife Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Plasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Plasmodium knowlesi: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.AfricaMicroscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Echinostoma: A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.CambodiaGhana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Plasmodium gallinaceum: A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.Plasmodium ovale: A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.Babesia bovis: A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.Aotus trivirgatus: A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.QuinolinesImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Sulfalene: Long-acting plasma-bound sulfonamide used for respiratory and urinary tract infections and also for malaria.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Desmoglein 1: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.LaosIndiaBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.VietnamTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Vesicovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.East Timor: A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)PeruSarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Urachal Cyst: Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.BrazilRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Eimeria tenella: A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Organellar proteomics reveals hundreds of novel nuclear proteins in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Genome Biology ... Microtubules in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and their importance for invasion of erythrocytes., Parasitology. nov 1998 ; ... Malcolm J. Gardner, Neil Hall, Eula Fung jt, Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Nature 419, ... Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Gerald H. Learn, Rebecca S. Rudicell, Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in ...
... and blocking monoclonal antibody epitopes on merozoite surface protein 1 of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". ... The monoclonal antibodies that prevent the invasion of merozoites bind to the parasitic antigen MSP-1 (merozoite surface ... While in the merozoite form, malaria parasites invade erythrocytes and reproduce in them. Some blocking antibodies may inhibit ... Blackman, MJ (July 1996). "Plasmodium knowlesi: secondary processing of the malaria merozoite surface protein-1". Experimental ...
... finding the human parasite P. falciparum to be more closely related to avian parasites than to other parasites of primates.[16] ... In some hosts, invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium species can result in disease, called malaria. This can sometimes be ... Spread throughout the parasite are secretory vesicles called dense granules that contain parasite proteins involved in ... Most merozoites continue this replicative cycle, however some merozoites upon infecting red blood cells differentiate into male ...
... a simian malaria, possesses vaccine-related properties believed to originate from a receptor-like role in parasite invasion of ... the distribution of PK66 changes in a coordinate manner associated with merozoite invasion. Prior to rupture, the protein is ... "Integral membrane protein located in the apical complex of Plasmodium falciparum". Mol. Cell. Biol. 9 (7): 3151-4. PMC 362792 ... AMA-1 appears to be transported to the merozoite surface close to the time of schizont rupture. The 66kDa merozoite surface ...
RTS,S/AS01 (commercial name Mosquirix), was engineered using genes from the outer protein of P. falciparum malaria parasite and ... A vaccine here could prevent merozoite multiplication or the invasion of red blood cells. This approach is complicated by the ... Another approach is to target the protein kinases, which are present during the entire lifecyle of the malaria parasite. ... Zhang VM, Chavchich M, Waters NC (March 2012). "Targeting protein kinases in the malaria parasite: update of an antimalarial ...
... is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.[1] It causes malaria in long-tailed ... Summary: Merozoite → trophozoite → schizont → merozoites. Epidemiology[edit]. P. knowlesi infection is normally considered a ... Although the infecting parasite was initially identified as P. falciparum, one day later it was then identified as P. malariae ... a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that the parasite uses to invade. ...
The protein is also the receptor for the human malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi and simian malarial ... The epitope Fy6 is required for P. vivax invasion. The protection to P. vivax malaria conferred by the absence of the Duffy ... Individuals with the Fy(a+b-) phenotype have a 30-80% reduced risk of clinical vivax but not falciparum malaria. The binding of ... Duffy negative individuals whose erythrocytes do not express the receptor are believed to be resistant to merozoite invasion ...
The Wright b antigen (Wrb) is located on glycophorin A and acts as a receptor for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... Facer CA (November 1983). "Merozoites of P. falciparum require glycophorin for invasion into red cells". Bull Soc Pathol Exot ... The mature protein SAT protein contains 104 amino acid residues. Orriss (Or) appears to be a mutant of glyphorin A but its ... "A malaria invasion receptor, the 175-kilodalton erythrocyte binding antigen of Plasmodium falciparum recognizes the terminal ...
Cowman, Alan F.; Crabb, Brendan S. (2006). "Invasion of red blood cells by malaria parasites". Cell. 124 (4): 755-766. doi: ... the parasites first multiply in the liver. The daughter parasites called merozoites then only infect the RBCs. They undergo ... Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T.R. (2015). "PfEMP1 - A Parasite Protein Family of Key Importance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria ... In humans, malaria can be caused by five Plasmodium parasites, namely P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. ...
... the host gains no benefit from the parasite invasion but rather suffers. This allows the parasite to exploit all resources ... a protozoan of similar morphology that causes malaria. Trophozoite and merozoite growth ruptures the host erythrocyte, leading ... a number of parasite proteins with immunogenic potential have been discovered. Through polymerase chain reaction, genetic ... because of its substantial similarity to the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This has resulted in many patients ...
... falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfMP-1).[12] This protein is the parasite's main cytoadherence ligand and virulence ... These alterations generally protect red blood cells from invasion by Plasmodium parasites or replication of parasites within ... Development of genetic resistance to malaria[edit]. Microscopic parasites, like viruses, protozoans that cause malaria, and ... "Four distinct pathways of hemoglobin uptake in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
... a multi-gene phylogeny of the bat malaria genus suggests a second invasion of mammals by a haemosporidian parasite. Malar J 11: ... Analysis of the merozoite surface protein in ten species of the Asian clade suggest that this group diversified between 3 and ... The malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax exhibits greater genetic diversity than Plasmodium falciparum. Nat Genet 44(9):1046-1050 ... On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos. PLoS Pathog 6(2): ...
"Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and ... Typically, a host is infected via an active invasion by the parasites (similar to entosis), which divide to produce sporozoites ... This then divides into a number of merozoites by schizogony. The merozoites are released by lysing the host cell, which in turn ... "DNA organization by the apicoplast-targeted bacterial histone-like protein of Plasmodium falciparum". Nucleic Acids Research. ...
A host is infected by an active invasion by the parasites. The parasites divide to produce sporozoites which enter its cells. ... Ram, Ev et al (2008). "DNA organization by the apicoplast-targeted bacterial histone-like protein of Plasmodium falciparum". ... Eventually, the cells burst, releasing merozoites, which infect new cells. Eventually, gametes are produced, and they fuse to ... Malaria (Plasmodium). *Coccidian diseases including: *Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium parvum). *Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora ...
Kadekoppala, Madhusudan; Holder, Anthony A. (2010). "Merozoite surface proteins of the malaria parasite: The MSP1 complex and ... An example of a pathogenic protozoan is the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum), which uses one adhesion molecule called ... Rathore, Dharmendar; Sacci, John B.; de la Vega, Patricia; McCutchan, Thomas F. (2002). "Binding and Invasion of Liver Cells by ... Pathogenic fungi use adhesion molecules present on its cell wall to attach, either through protein-protein or protein- ...
Organellar proteomics reveals hundreds of novel nuclear proteins in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Genome Biology ... Microtubules in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and their importance for invasion of erythrocytes., Parasitology. nov 1998 ; ... Malcolm J. Gardner, Neil Hall, Eula Fung jt, Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Nature 419, ... Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Gerald H. Learn, Rebecca S. Rudicell, Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in ...
"Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and ... Typically, a host is infected via an active invasion by the parasites (similar to entosis), which divide to produce sporozoites ... This then divides into a number of merozoites by schizogony. The merozoites are released by lysing the host cell, which in turn ... "DNA organization by the apicoplast-targeted bacterial histone-like protein of Plasmodium falciparum". Nucleic Acids Research. ...
... for the invasion and growth of the malaria parasite and disruption of it provides insight into the binding of the parasite to ... Functional analysis of proteins involved in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of red blood cells * AF Cowman ... Merozoites of the protozoan parasite responsible for the most virulent form of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, invade ... Plasmodium falciparum 19-kilodalton merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1)-specific antibodies that interfere with parasite growth ...
The subcellular localizations of 31 of 42 proteins linked with merozoite invasion is consistent with their role in this process ... Transcriptional profiling of growth perturbations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. Hu G1, Cabrera A, Kono ... the agent responsible for the most serious form of human malaria. Here we report changes in P. falciparum gene expression ... We use this compendium for guilt-by-association prediction of protein function using an interaction network constructed from ...
... several recent studies have shown that malaria parasites and their close relatives are able to modify in a relatively complex ... 1999) Antibodies to a merozoite surface protein promote multiple invasion of red blood cells by malaria parasites. Parasite ... 2009) Density‐dependent impact of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte sex ratio on mosquito infection ... Wang CC (1970) Multiple invasion of erythrocyte by malaria parasites. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine ...
A total of 140 P. falciparum malaria patients diagnosed with microscopy and confirmed using nested PCR were recruited and ... In this study the majority of P. falciparum isolates from uncomplicated and severe malaria patients consisted of multiple ... One hundred and eleven P. falciparum isolates (81 %) consisted of multiple genotypes; 71/90 (78.9 %) in uncomplicated malaria ... Further molecular epidemiological studies delineate the link between P. falciparum genotype with the malaria phenotype in ...
... the merozoite prior to invasion. The major protein complex on the merozoite surface comprises three proteins called merozoite ... The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Rupture of the ... A multifunctional serine protease primes the malaria parasite for red blood cell invasion.. Koussis K1, Withers-Martinez C, ... A multifunctional serine protease primes the malaria parasite for red blood cell invasion ...
Plasmodium falciparum malaria merozoites require erythrocyte sialic acid for optimal invasion of human erythrocytes. Since ... The rim of parasitized mouse erythrocytes contained the P. falciparum 155-kD protein, which is on the rim of ring-infected ... Invasion of mouse erythrocytes by the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.. F W Klotz, J D Chulay, W Daniel, L H ... Invasion of mouse erythrocytes by the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.. F W Klotz, J D Chulay, W Daniel, L H ...
Proteins located on the surface of the pathogenic malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are objects of intensive studies due ... The C-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 self-assembles into alpha-helical coiled coil ... Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (PvCS) protein is a major sporozoite surface antigen involved in parasite invasion of ... One of these proteins, merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) represents a leading component among vaccine candidates; however, ...
Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) these cells requires an array of specialized parasite molecules, many of... ... inhibit merozoite surface protein-1 secondary processing and erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum ... The merozoite surface protein 6 gene codes for a 36 kDa protein associated with the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface ... Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease 2, a merozoite candidate for the merozoite surface protein 1-42 maturase. Proc ...
... parasites express various polymorphic proteins that help evade human antibody responses and facilitate invasion of host cells. ... Band 3 is a host receptor binding merozoite surface protein 1 during Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes. Proc Natl ... study of type-specific antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 in an area of unstable malaria ... Khattab A, Meri S: Exposure of the Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant STEVOR proteins on the merozoite surface. Malar J. ...
For at least two of these--the sporozoite and the blood-stage merozoite--invasion into their respective host cell requires the ... This review summarizes the evidence for this, discusses selected well-described proteolytic modifications linked to invasion, ... The life cycle of the malaria parasite contains three distinct invasive forms, or zoites. ... Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 Complexes Mediate Merozoite Binding to Human Erythrocytes.. *Clara S ...
Antibodies that inhibit malaria merozoite surface protein-1 processing and erythrocyte invasion are blocked by naturally ... falciparum 3D7 parasites. Negative control IgGs (30% v/v), which were purified from a pool of malaria-naive U.S. normal serum, ... Invasion-inhibitory antibodies inhibit proteolytic processing of apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites ... The human immune response to Plasmodium falciparum includes both antibodies that inhibit merozoite surface protein 1 secondary ...
Localization of apical sushi protein in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 174, 66-69 PubMed link ... Molecular insights into receptors used for erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites. Curr Opin Hematol. 8, 85-91 ... Expression and characterization of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum origin recognition complex subunit 1. Biochem ... Signalling in malaria parasites. The MALSIG consortium. Parasite. 16, 169-182 PubMed link ...
Antibodies to PfAARP provide synergistic effects in inhibition of parasite invasion when used in combination with antibodies to ... A previous study has shown that Plasmodium falciparum apical asparagine-rich protein (PfAARP) stimulates immune response and ... the recombinant protein was effective in inducing a pronounced Th1 type of immune response quantified by IFN-γ ELISA and ... long-lasting humoral and cellular response on PfAARP immunization in mice underscores its possible use as a blood-stage malaria ...
Prior to invasion of the erythrocyte, the protein is cleaved, and a 66-kDa product is exported to the surface of the merozoite ... Confocal microscopy with human sera on malaria parasites.Confocal microscopy was performed on P. falciparum 3D7-parasitized red ... Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a merozoite protein that is expressed during the asexual blood stages of P. falciparum, and ... Invasion-inhibitory antibodies inhibit proteolytic processing of apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites ...
Protein targeting to destinations of the secretory pathway in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Current Opinion in ... Phenotypic variation of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite proteins directs receptor targeting for invasion of human erythrocytes ... Macrolides rapidly inhibit red blood cell invasion by the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. BMC Biology. 13. 2015 ... Ycf93 (Orf105), a Small Apicoplast-Encoded Membrane Protein in the Relict Plastid of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ...
Malaria kills over one million people a year, but much about the disease is still poorly understood. Researchers congregated in ... Phase 1 study of two merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(42)) vaccines for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS Clin Trials 2: e12 ... Intramembrane proteolysis mediates shedding of a key adhesin during erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite. J. Cell Biol. ... How might HbC protect against severe malaria? Some researchers suggest the gene influences the extent of parasite invasion of ...
All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of ... cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We ... The central role of cAMP in regulating Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes. ... falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical ...
Protein,impedes,microcirculation,of,malaria-infected,red,blood,cells,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... When the parasite responsible for malaria infects hum...That increased rigidity impairs red blood cells ability to travel thr ... Parasite invasion. When a mosquito carrying the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, bites a human, the parasite invades ... In the next stage of infection, the merozoites take up residence inside the red blood cells for about 48 hours, producing more ...
Antibodies to some of the non-repeat sequences inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro, notably, also the invasion of parasites ... Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most prevalent of all the great insect-borne diseases causing high morbidity and ... rhoptry-associated protein-2; also designated RSP-2) due to either failed or aborted invasion by merozoites resulted in the ... Malaria remains a challenging health problem in malaria endemic regions. Infection with malaria invariably leads to anaemia. ...
Antibodies to some of the non-repeat sequences inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro, notably, also the invasion of parasites ... falciparum extract in a malaria endemic area of Senegal. IgG antibody reactivity with crude P. falciparum antigen was detected ... rhoptry-associated protein-2; also designated RSP-2) due to either failed or aborted invasion by merozoites resulted in the ... Malaria remains a challenging health problem in malaria endemic regions. Infection with malaria invariably leads to anaemia. ...
Organellar proteomics reveals hundreds of novel nuclear proteins in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Genome Biology ... Microtubules in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and their importance for invasion of erythrocytes., Parasitology. nov 1998 ; ... Malcolm J. Gardner, Neil Hall, Eula Fung jt, Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Nature 419, ... Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Gerald H. Learn, Rebecca S. Rudicell, Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in ...
MIT-led research team finds that protein significantly reduces infected cells ability to squeeze through tiny channels ... Parasite invasion. When a mosquito carrying the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, bites a human, the parasite invades ... In the next stage of infection, the merozoites take up residence inside the red blood cells for about 48 hours, producing more ... Protein impedes microcirculation of malaria-infected red blood cells. MIT-led research team finds that protein significantly ...
Immunization against malaria with a recombinant protein.Parasite Immunol.1619946367. ... MSP119-specific monoclonal antibodies can inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites in vitro (17). In ... A conserved parasite serine protease processes the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1.Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.62 ... The 19-kDa conserved C-terminal part of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP119) is a malaria vaccine ...
During its intraerythrocytic development, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exposes variant surface antigens (VSAs) on ... Using deep RNA sequencing of blood-stage parasites, including free merozoites, we first established stevor expression of the ... STEVOR that showed rhoptry localization and demonstrated its role at the parasite-host interface during host cell invasion by ... Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of the disease, uses proteins that are translocated to the ...
2013) Malaria parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates blood stage merozoite secretory organelle discharge and egress. ... Erythrocyte invasion assay by P. falciparum merozoites. P. falciparum merozoites isolated as described above were either mock- ... Presence of cytoplasmic protein PfNapL was detected in P. falciparum merozoite supernatants (NapL(s)) and lysates of merozoite ... Presence of cytoplasmic protein PfNapL was detected in P. falciparum merozoite supernatants (NapL(s)) and lysates of merozoite ...
  • Inhibition of permeation pathways induced in the host cell membrane by intraerythrocytic parasite", Chemical Abstracts, 110(11):18, Col. 2, Abstract 87987p (1989). (patentgenius.com)
  • In contrast with previous studies, which reported only minimal changes in response to chemically induced perturbations of P. falciparum growth, we find that approximately 59% of its coding genes display over three-fold changes in expression in response to at least one of the chemicals we tested. (nih.gov)
  • Each parasite carries approximately 150-200 rif and 30-35 stevor gene copies per genome, and it remains a possibility that their abundance and diversity also contribute to immune evasion by merozoites during their brief extra-cellular phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malaria has been a scourge of mankind since the emergence of our species, and has contributed to human evolution, being the strongest known selective pressure in the recent history of the human genome [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Whole genome sequence data of P. falciparum isolates covering 2 years of transmission within Malawi, alongside global datasets, were used. (springer.com)
  • The existing numbers of this SD per genome is here shown to be variable in between different parasite lines, suggesting variable expansion and/or deletions of existing duplicons. (ki.se)
  • If this is the case, then the malaria genome and SNP projects may provide the essential foundation for duplicating this whole-organism immunity. (jyi.org)
  • Analysis of the sequence of the P. falciparum genome has dramatically expanded our knowledge regarding the paralogous expansion in the genome of parasite proteins expressed on the erythrocyte surface. (jyi.org)
  • Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of their genome through much of the life cycle, doubling the genome only for a brief sexual exchange within the midgut of the insect host. (wikipedia.org)
  • To expand our previously constructed protein library, we used genome-wide expression profiling and identified 20 additional merozoite cell surface and secreted protein candidates that we artificially produced at high quantities, by using our previous methodology. (sangerinstitute.blog)
  • To date, relatively little is known regarding the specific mechanisms the parasite employs to regulate gene expression at the mRNA level, with studies of the P. falciparum genome sequence having revealed few cis -regulatory elements and associated transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed an algorithm called Gene Enrichment Motif Searching (GEMS) that uses a hypergeometric-based scoring function and a position-weight matrix optimization routine to identify with high-confidence regulatory elements in the nucleotide-biased and repeat sequence-rich P. falciparum genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several recent studies applied such protocols to P. falciparum (the deadliest of the five human malaria parasites), assessing its genome organization at different moments of its life cycle. (degruyter.com)
  • Here, I review a set of methods used to build and analyse three-dimensional models from contact maps data with a special highlight on P. falciparum 's genome organization. (degruyter.com)
  • In 2002, scientists succeeded in sequencing the P. falciparum genome , which has allowed researchers to make great strides in better understanding ways to target it. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • conversely, open platform profiling techniques such as SAGE will help the Malaria Genome Project with annotation of previously uncharacterized ORFs and with novel gene discovery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Various pieces of evidence from both nonhuman primate models ( 9 , 10 , 11 ) and human epidemiological studies that have shown that a high AMA1 Ab level is associated with a reduced risk of clinical malaria ( 12 , 13 ) support AMA1 as a promising blood stage malarial vaccine candidate. (jimmunol.org)
  • Methodology: This was a case-control study which utilized a total of 153 archived plasma samples collected (from 81 children with asymptomatic infection and 72 children with clinical malaria) by a larger study (cross sectional) that was conducted at Bongo in the Northern Region and Navrongo in the Upper East Region of Ghana. (edu.gh)
  • This has resulted in the implementation of donor deferral policies in many countries that restrict blood donation by those with a history of recent travel to or emigration from regions of endemicity and by those with recent cases of clinical malaria. (asm.org)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the role of age, malaria transmission intensity and incidence of clinical malaria in the induction of protective humoral immune response against P. falciparum malaria in children living in Burkina Faso. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The next step will be to understand the molecular mechanisms by which RhopH3 promotes invasion and subsequently facilitates nutrient uptake, and will help researchers to explore its potential as a drug target. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further molecular epidemiological studies delineate the link between P. falciparum genotype with the malaria phenotype in different regions are encouraged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • these include molecular characterization of the malaria parasite in order to answer why some patients develop severe disease while others end up with mild form. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is synthesized as a 200-kDa protein during schizogony but processed into fragments with diverse molecular weights, most of which are discarded before erythrocyte invasion ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. (meta.org)
  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling the parasite to sense and respond to the intra- and the extra-cellular environments are therefore key elements for the proliferation and transmission of Plasmodium , and therefore are, from a public health perspective, strategic targets in the fight against this deadly disease. (parasite-journal.org)
  • New molecular diagnostic tools that are inexpensive, sensitive enough to detect low-level infections and suitable in laboratory settings of resource-limited countries are required for malaria control and elimination programmes. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we summarize the knowledge on molecular mechanisms that underlie the innate immune responses to malaria infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Malaria pathogenesis relies on sexual gametocyte forms of the malaria parasite to be transmitted between the infected human and the mosquito host but the molecular mechanisms controlling gametocytogenesis remains poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2004) Double gametocyte infections in apicomplexan parasites of birds and reptiles. (els.net)
  • Mix and match modules: Structure and function of microneme proteins in apicomplexan parasites. (springer.com)
  • In apicomplexan parasites, actin-disrupting drugs and the inhibitor of myosin heavy chain ATPase, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, have been shown to interfere with host cell invasion by inhibiting parasite gliding motility. (rupress.org)
  • A consensus of intrinsically unstructured or disordered protein was predicted to encompass the entire central domain that contained a number of putative B cell epitopes and putative protein binding regions. (paperity.org)
  • Using deep RNA sequencing analysis, we characterized P. falciparum stevor gene expression across the intraerythrocytic development cycle, including free merozoites, in detail and used the resulting stevor expression profiles for hierarchical clustering. (edu.au)
  • We affinity purified AMA1-specific Abs from both U.S. vaccinees and nonvaccinated individuals living in a malaria-endemic area of Mali and performed ELISA and GIA. (jimmunol.org)
  • however, mutation at position F306L was only reported from Asian malaria endemic areas. (ajtmh.org)
  • We investigated the cross-sectional associations of Plasmodium infection (PI) with fasting glucose (FG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in malaria-endemic south-central Côte d'Ivoire. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Almost half the world's population lives in countries where the disease is endemic, and almost every country in the world encounters imported malaria . (medscape.com)
  • In parts of the world where malaria is endemic, it may cause as many as 10% of all deaths in children. (medscape.com)
  • Association testing of these variants in over 1700 SM cases and unaffected control individuals from the malaria-endemic Ashanti Region in Ghana, West Africa, were performed on the basis of single variants, combined rare variant analyses, and reconstructed haplotypes. (g3journal.org)
  • Approximately 3.2 billion people live in areas where malaria is endemic, and WHO estimates that 350 to 500 million malaria cases occur each year worldwide. (asm.org)
  • This high prevalence, and the high frequency of international travel, creates significant risk for the exportation of malaria to countries where malaria is not endemic and for the introduction of malaria organisms into the blood supply. (asm.org)
  • More than 3.2 billion people in the world today live in areas where malaria is endemic. (asm.org)
  • Finally, the development of several different anti-malaria drugs has changed the way travelers view malaria-endemic countries and the risk associated with travel in general. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Principal Investigator: A multicolor flowcytometric approach to enumerate endothelial microparticles: Relevance for the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction in cerebral malaria. (weebly.com)
  • It was shown that Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced cerebral malaria was prevented in 100% of mice depleted of CD8⁺ T cells 1 day prior to the development of neurological signs. (usda.gov)
  • The clinical picture of SM is complex and includes a number of life-threatening signs, such as severe malaria anemia (SMA), cerebral malaria (CM), hyperparasitemia, respiratory distress, and prostration. (g3journal.org)
  • The disease presents a wide array of systemic clinical conditions and several life-threatening organ pathologies, including the dreaded cerebral malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Schizont rupture and merozoite release were then allowed to proceed for 6 h, and culture supernatants were analyzed by immunoprecipitation using mAb X509 coupled to Sepharose for the presence of MSP-133. (nih.gov)
  • Following schizont rupture, the distribution of PK66 changes in a coordinate manner associated with merozoite invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-localisation IFAs were performed on mature schizont-infected red blood cells and ruptured merozoites using our anti-PfRON4 antisera and antisera against the rhoptry marker proteins RAMA and Pf34 ([Proellocks et al. (edu.au)
  • We use this compendium for guilt-by-association prediction of protein function using an interaction network constructed from gene co-expression, sequence homology, domain-domain and yeast two-hybrid data. (nih.gov)
  • This copy number was almost fixed (96.8% frequency) in Malawi samples, but found at less than 45% frequency in other African populations, and distinct from a whole gene duplication previously reported in Southeast Asian parasites. (springer.com)
  • These together with previous findings, suggest that the malaria parasite employs gene duplications and deletions as general strategies to enhance its survival and spread. (ki.se)
  • Rather, a commonly encountered task is to discover the neighbors of a point, which represents a set of measurements associated with a gene or a protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When applied to promoter regions of genes contained within 21 co-expression gene clusters generated from P. falciparum life cycle microarray data using the semi-supervised clustering algorithm Ontology-based Pattern Identification, GEMS identified 34 putative cis -regulatory elements associated with a variety of parasite processes including sexual development, cell invasion, antigenic variation and protein biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To provide evidence for the biological relevance of a cell invasion-related element predicted by GEMS, reporter gene and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were conducted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fact that regulatory elements were predicted from a diverse range of functional gene clusters supports the hypothesis that cis -regulatory elements play a role in the transcriptional control of many P. falciparum biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The putative regulatory elements described represent promising candidates for future biological investigation into the underlying transcriptional control mechanisms of gene regulation in malaria parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. (plos.org)
  • With its small genomic size, fairly simple (yet changing) genomic organization during its lifecyle and strong correlation between chromatin folding and gene expression, this parasite is the ideal case study for applying and developing methods to infer 3D models and use them for downstream analysis. (degruyter.com)
  • Further investigation revealed that the reduction was due to malaria-specific IgGs in the Mali-non-AMA1 IgGs. (jimmunol.org)
  • A phase 1 trial was conducted with 30 malaria-naïve volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1 malaria vaccine. (asm.org)
  • We found higher k d values for MSP2 (indicating lower affinity) compared to AMA1, which might be partly explained by MSP2 being an intrinsically disordered protein, while AMA1 is globular. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Electron microscopy confirms that the inhibitor prevents junction formation, a critical step in invasion that results from AMA1 - RON2 binding. (blogspot.com)
  • This study investigated the genetic diversity of P. falciparum and multiplicity of infection in relation to the severity of malaria and age of patients in Gezira State, Sudan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further analysis of the impact of discovered genetic differences and the underlying mechanisms is likely to generate a better understanding of the biology and the virulence of the malaria parasite. (ki.se)
  • A number of host factors have already been described as important determinants of clinical outcomes in malaria cases, including age and gender, ethnicity, concomitant chronic conditions, co-infections and diverse genetic polymorphisms. (fiocruz.br)
  • With more than 216 millions cases and nearly 445 000 deaths in 2016, malaria remains a major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries and an impediment to economic development. (degruyter.com)