Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Receptors, Neuropeptide Y: Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Synaptonemal Complex: The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
... detachment from kinetochores in prometaphase to ensure efficient error correction and faithful chromosome segregation. Cells ... M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. Cell changes in the ... allowing the chromosomes to be divided correctly as cell division proceeds. In contrast, in cyclin A-deficient cells, ... The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit ...
... the DNA bridge connecting homologous chromosomes remains fixed. As the daughter cells exit mitosis and re-enter interphase, the ... Jallepalli PV, Lengauer C (2001). "Chromosome segregation and cancer: cutting through the mystery". Nature Reviews Cancer. 1 (2 ... Hoffelder D, Luo L, Burke N, Watkins S, Gollin S, Saunders W (2004). "Resolution of anaphase bridges in cancer cells" (PDF). ... while having been linked to tumorigenesis in humans. This premise is based on the fact that as the mitotic cell divides and the ...
In yeast at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, Scc1 dissociates from the chromosomes and the sister chromatids separate. ... Eukaryotic cell cycle consists of various checkpoints and feedback loops to ensure faithful and successful cell division. ... immediately before the cell enters mitosis. Other experimenters showed that cells would not divide if cyclin B remains in the ... in their series of experiments with the human HeLa cell line in 1998 that it is the spatial location of cyclin B within the ...
... and metaphase-anaphase), ensuring the normality of cell division. Hundreds of proteins found in the centrosome exert a variety ... and kinetochore-microtubule attachments that allow correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Errors in these processes lead ... Keywords: centrosomes, cell cycle, mitosis, CA, CIN, cancer therapy ... and plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle transitions (G1-S, G2-M, ...
2012 Sds22 and repo-man stabilize chromosome segregation by counteracting Aurora B on anaphase kinetochores. J. Cell Biol. 198 ... an aberrant number of chromosomes). Aneuploid karyotypes are the major cause of spontaneous miscarriages in humans [1] and ... but both are of great interest as they are absolutely required to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. Protein phosphatase 1 ... When a cell enters mitosis, kinase activity destabilizes kinetochore-microtubule interactions [4,5] to allow for dynamic ...
Faithful chromosome segregation is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability during cell division. Eukaryotic cells ... have evolved a mechanism that delays the onset of anaphase until condensed chromosomes are properly positioned on the mitotic ... To further understand the molecular basis of this surveillance mechanism in human cells, we have been studying the role of a ... Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas.. You are going to email the following Enhanced genomic ...
... detachment from kinetochores in prometaphase to ensure efficient error correction and faithful chromosome segregation. Cells ... M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. Cell changes in the ... allowing the chromosomes to be divided correctly as cell division proceeds. In contrast, in cyclin A-deficient cells, ... The destruction of M cyclins during metaphase and anaphase, after the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint is satisfied, causes the exit ...
Anaphase/telophase defects after 4.1R RNAi. (A) Examples of anaphase cells with lagging chromosomes (right top panel, arrows), ... ensuring orderly cell cycle progression with accurate chromosome segregation. We report that the multifunctional structural ... Cell cycle progression and de novo centriole assembly after centrosomal removal in untransformed human cells. J. Cell Biol. 176 ... To determine whether cells with perturbed ninein could enter mitosis, we immunostained 4.1R-depleted CaSki cells for ...
... condensin I is important for mechanical rigidity and assembly of mitotic chromosomes and faithful chromosome segregation. ... condensation defects in cells experiencing prolonged mitotic arrest and chromosome segregation defects in cells in anaphase (70 ... Live-cell imaging RNAi screen identifies PP2A-B55α and importin-β1 as key mitotic exit regulators in human cells. Nat. Cell ... As cells enter mitosis, condensin I is phosphorylated by Cdk1, which targets condensin I to chromosomes and partially activates ...
... the correct segregation of chromosomes by restraining cell cycle progression from entering anaphase until all chromosomes have ... and this process is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during anaphase. A fundamental question in cell biology is ... APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16 ... When cells divide, the chromosomes must be delivered flawlessly to the daughter cells. Missing or extra chromosomes can result ...
Model of the dynamic cohesin-chromosome interactions throughout the metazoan cell cycle. DNA enters the tripartite cohesin ring ... Faithful transmission of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division requires sister chromatids to be paired from their ... Two distinct pathways remove mammalian cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase and from centromeres in anaphase. Cell 103: 399 ... Premise for sister chromatid segregation is removal of cohesin from chromatin. In metazoans, this occurs in two waves ( ...
... proceed to anaphase prematurely and split sister chromatids regardless of whether the prerequisites for chromosome segregation ... In order to accomplish this, the mother cell must replicate its chromosomes exactly once prior to entering mitosis, and at the ... Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax targets the human mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1. Cell 93, 81 -91. ... Faithful transmission of chromosomes during mitosis is ensured by the spindle assembly checkpoint. This molecular safeguard ...
Cohesin cleavage by separase required for anaphase and cytokinesis in human cells. Science. 293:1320-1323. ... Segregation of holocentric chromosomes at meiosis in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Chromosome Res. 1:15-26. ... Several unique chromosomal behaviors during meiosis ensure the faithful segregation of homologues at anaphase I. First, ... Moving proximally, germ nuclei enter meiosis, progress through different stages of meiotic prophase I, and cellularize to ...
GTSE1-depleted cells took significantly longer than control-depleted cells to align all of their chromosomes and enter anaphase ... Examining the link between chromosomal instability and aneuploidy in human cells. J. Cell Biol. 180:665-672. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... dynamics is essential to the accurate execution of mitosis and the faithful segregation of chromosomes. Defects in the ... B) Quantification of the percentage of anaphase HeLa cells with defective anaphase chromosome segregation events. n , 390 per ...
Cell cycle progression is monitored by checkpoint mechanisms that ensure faithful duplication and accurate segregation of the ... Once activated, this checkpoint arrests cells prior to the metaphase-anaphase transition with unsegregated chromosomes, stable ... which senses spindle aberrations and responds by arresting the cell cycle, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome segregation ( ... To investigate the effect of MAD2 on cell cycle progression in an in vitro system, recombinant human MAD2 was added to cycling ...
Once cells enter anaphase, Nek2 is dissociated from the condensed chromosomes and redistributed throughout the cytoplasm. ... Immunoblot analysis was carried out with lysates from the mouse testis, the human 293T cell line and 293T cells transfected ... Phosphorylation of the mitotic regulator protein Hec1 by Nek2 kinase is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. J. Biol ... Aurora B couples chromosome alignment with anaphase by targeting BubR1, Mad2, and Cenp-E to kinetochores. J. Cell Biol. 161, ...
... of eukaryotic cells carries the blueprint for the biosynthesis of cellular proteins and the control of cellular assembly and ... In human cells, six billion base pairs are contained on the forty-six chromosomes of double-stranded DNA. This DNA has a total ... ensuring that each new cell has identical genetic information. The cells then enter G1 phase again. The combination of G1, S, ... These same anchor points may coalesce at metaphase to condense chromosomes for mitotic segregation. ...
Dicer is required for chromosome segregation and gene silencing in fission yeast cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:16648- ... In addition, both proteins are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes and contribute to the function of ... 7C). This analysis also revealed that even in a hip1Δ strain, histone mRNA expression was induced as cells entered S phase (Fig ... However, recent evidence indicates that HIRA functions as a repressor at some histone genes in human cells (20, 41), and here ...
... and divides into identical daughter cells. Cell cycle duration varies according to cell type and organism. In mammals, cell ... Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the process by which a cell grows, duplicates its DNA, ... The precisely choreographed movements of chromosomes during mitosis provide one example of this intrinsically faithful, careful ... tubular cells, and cells that belong to connective tissue, exist in a nonreplicating state but can enter the cell cycle after ...
However, hCAP-D2, a subunit of human condensin I, has not been directly documented to be associated with any human cancers to ... and therefore that all subunits of human condensins are potential therapeutic targets for human cancers. ... Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human ... This will be followed by reviews of most recent studies on subunits of human condensins and their dysregulations or mutations ...
... and maintained between kinetochores and dynamic microtubule ends is fundamental to faithful chromosome segregation and cell ... 2016) The human SKA complex drives the metaphase-anaphase cell cycle transition by recruiting protein phosphatase 1 to ... Microtubules are dynamic, tube-like structures that drive the segregation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division. The ... Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas.. You are going to email the following Human Ska ...
BLM is required for faithful chromosome segregation and its localization defines a class of ultrafine anaphase bridges. Embo J ... is thought to be critical for the suppression of DNA crossover formation in mitotic cells and cancer avoidance in humans. The ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004, 41 (2): 109-116. 10.1002/gcc.20070.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... These values, as well as the values for ORs and 95% CIs were entered into the online spreadsheet included in Wacholder et al. [ ...
When cells enter mitosis, chromatin becomes compacted to form mitotic chromosomes. Chromosome condensation, the gross ... This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. ... 2013) . In the case of human cells, the genomic distances that are enriched for contacts in mitotic chromatin are much longer ... Cdc14 phosphatase induces rDNA condensation and resolves cohesinindependent cohesion during budding yeast anaphase . Cell 117 ...
... the DNA bridge connecting homologous chromosomes remains fixed. As the daughter cells exit mitosis and re-enter interphase, the ... Jallepalli PV, Lengauer C (2001). "Chromosome segregation and cancer: cutting through the mystery". Nature Reviews Cancer. 1 (2 ... Hoffelder D, Luo L, Burke N, Watkins S, Gollin S, Saunders W (2004). "Resolution of anaphase bridges in cancer cells" (PDF). ... while having been linked to tumorigenesis in humans. This premise is based on the fact that as the mitotic cell divides and the ...
In both cases the yeast cells die, due to abnormal chromosome segregation and loss of DNA during anaphase. Because of these ... Live analysis of lagging chromosomes during anaphase and their effect on spindle elongation rate in fission yeast. J. Cell Sci. ... which cannot be fully repaired and in turn affects faithful chromosome segregation, producing the cut phenotype and ... This work was supported in part by the Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer and the Human Frontiers Science Program (to ...
... metaphase chromosome alignment, kinetochore disjunction, and chromosome segregation. J. Cell Biol. 153:865 C880.. ! B) g8 @. E ... Cohesin cleavage by separase required for anaphase and cytokinesis in human cells. Science. 293:1320 C1323.. 3 {, A; _* J1 D2 ... Segregation of holocentric chromosomes at meiosis in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Chromosome Res. 1:15 C26.3 J- k6 V, ... Several unique chromosomal behaviors during meiosis ensure the faithful segregation of homologues at anaphase I. First, ...
As with all other mammalian cell divisions, the segregation of chromosomes in MI is a result of anaphase-promoting complex (APC ... which suggests that this checkpoint serves a necessary component in maintaining a high rate of faithful chromosome division in ... 2015) Plk1 and Mps1 cooperatively regulate the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells. Cell Rep. 12, 66-78 doi:10.1016/j. ... In the fetal ovary, oocytes are formed from primordial germ cells. These cells commit in a one-way journey to enter meiosis, ...
... of active Aurora-A in the near diploi d human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A leads to aberrant chromosome segregation and ... allowing cells to inappropriately enter anaphase despite de fective spindle formation and to become resistant to paclitaxel- ... 53 Introduction The segregation of chromosomes at mitosi s involves several processes, including chromosome condensation in ... Aurora-A plays a critical role in cell cycle checkpoints to ensure the faithful duplication and transmi ssion of genetic materi ...
  • Here we report that inhibition of MPS1 kinase activity by reversine disrupts BUBR1-MAD2 as well as CDC20-MAD2 interactions, causing premature activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • and activation of the anaphase-promoting complex ( Descombes and Nigg, 1998 ). (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We report that the multifunctional structural protein 4.1R localizes at centrosomes to distal/subdistal regions of mature centrioles in a cell cycle-dependent pattern. (asm.org)
  • In our efforts to understand the role of gamma-tubulin in cell cycle regulation, we have created functional fluorescent protein fusions of four SAC proteins in Aspergillus nidulans, the homologs of Mad2, Mps1, Bub1/BubR1 and Bub3. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Nek2, a mammalian structural homologue of Aspergillus protein kinase NIMA, is predominantly known as a centrosomal kinase that controls centriole-centriole linkage during the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • The mammalian cell cycle control system is regulated by a group of protein kinases called cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The alteration of protein activity by the attachment of phosphate groups occurs frequently in cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The discovery of CNAP1 indicated that there was a human protein complex that contained hCAP-C, hCAP-E, and hCAP-D2 in the HeLa nuclear extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SMC complexes orchestrate the mitotic chromatin interaction landscape Yasutaka Kakui 0 1 Frank Uhlmann 0 1 0 Chromosome Segregation Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute , London , UK 1 Communicated by M. Kupiec 2 Frank Uhlmann Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. (paperity.org)
  • The protein is relatively abundant, around 10,000 dimers/cell, and is localized in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • We propose that Sap1 is an architectural chromatin-associated protein, required for chromosome organization. (asm.org)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is an essential aspect of many dynamic cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription ( Pickart, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Here, we show that the leucine-rich repeat protein LRR-1 promotes cell cycle progression during C. elegans development, both in the germ line and in the early embryo. (biologists.org)
  • Little is known about the functional interaction between the Bloom's syndrome protein (BLM) and the recombinase RAD51 within cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein localization fell into four classes: greater than 75% (green), 50-75% (red), 5-45% (orange), and 0% of cells with two foci, suggesting a temporal order of assembly during SPB duplication shown in D. (cloudfront.net)
  • This reveals important molecular insight into chromosome architecture. (paperity.org)
  • The Ska complex is part of a molecular machine that forms force-bearing connections between chromosomes and microtubule ends. (pnas.org)
  • Fluorophores may be added as a molecular tag to different portions of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular mechanism of Aurora-A kinase in human oncogenesis h [electronic resource] / by Lili He. (usf.edu)
  • Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the initiation and completion of meiotic anaphase. (biologists.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in a developmental context are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • MCAK MT depolymerase activity must therefore be precisely controlled in time and cellular space to ensure both chromosome alignment and segregation and to avoid CIN. (rupress.org)
  • Centrosomes are very dynamic organelles duplicating, maturing, and separating in stages coupled with cell cycle progression. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulated proteolysis of a group of key cell cycle molecules, such as p40 SIC1 and cyclin B, plays a critical role in cell cycle progression ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Studies have also linked Hir proteins to control of cell cycle progression because HIRA is a cdk2-cyclin E target and overexpression of HIRA causes a delay in S phase ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Intracellular and extracellular signals block cell-cycle progression at checkpoints if certain events have not yet been completed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Centimeter-long DNA molecules change their spatial chromatin organization within micrometer-sized cells during cell cycle progression. (paperity.org)
  • The feedback regulation loop between Aurora-A and CHFR could play a critical role in regulation of cell cycle progression, imbalance of which may contribute to human oncogenesis. (usf.edu)
  • To achieve this fidelity, cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms to coordinate repair of natural, unavoidable errors with cell cycle progression ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Under these conditions, the ATL-1/CHK-1 pathway is required to transiently arrest cell cycle progression ( Garcia-Muse and Boulton, 2005 ), presumably to allow time for DNA repair. (biologists.org)
  • 9 In humans, ciliopathies including primary ciliary dyskinesia, autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, polycystic kidney disease, and Bardet-Biedl disease are linked to defects caused by mutations in genes that encode centrosomal proteins. (dovepress.com)
  • In addition to the known role of PP6 in reducing the activity of the Aurora kinase A, a kinase that is important for chromosome segregation and spindle formation, network analysis of the proteins that exhibited differences in phosphorylation identified roles for PP6 in the regulation of RNA splicing, rRNA processing, and translation. (sciencemag.org)
  • We identified 408 phosphopeptides on 272 proteins that increased and 298 phosphopeptides on 220 proteins that decreased in phosphorylation upon PP6c depletion in mitotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • 4.1R depletion causes G 1 accumulation in p53-proficient cells, similar to depletion of many other proteins that compromise centrosome integrity. (asm.org)
  • The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of eukaryotic cells carries the blueprint for the biosynthesis of cellular proteins and the control of cellular assembly and regulation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The dual problem of how to store this large amount of genetic information but also to keep it accessible for use and for faithful maintenance, copying, and distribution to daughter cells during cell division , is solved by using proteins to package the DNA into chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In higher cells, Hir proteins have been linked to embryogenesis. (asm.org)
  • In addition, immunofluorescence may be used as a laboratory technique to tag cells with specific fluorophores using antibodies, immune proteins created by B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also used the targeting and SUMO-binding properties of Ulp1(3) (C580S) to purify Smt3-modified proteins from cell extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that a substrate-trapping Ulp1(3) (C580S) interacts robustly with human SUMO1, SUMO2 and SUMO2 chains, making it a potentially useful tool for the analysis and purification of SUMO-modified proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), two small proteins that can become attached to other cellular proteins in a reversible manner [ 1 ], control important aspects of the cell division program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, depletion of Class II proteins (CENP‐H, Chl4R CENP−N , CENP‐I and Sim4R CENP−K ) prevents binding of Class I proteins and causes chromosome congression defects, but does not perturb spindle formation. (embopress.org)
  • The extended meiosis II in cul-2 mutants induces polarity reversals that include reversed orientation of polarity proteins, P granules, pronuclei migration and asymmetric cell division. (biologists.org)
  • B) G1/S cells were identified within asynchronous population of cells containing GFP-tagged core SPB components (top row) or membrane/bridge/γ-TC proteins (bottom row) based on a septum in the differential interference contrast (DIC) image, as shown in the last panel. (cloudfront.net)
  • Prior to this signal, the oocyte is essentially in an arrested dictyate state, and also said to be in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage which is similar to G2 of a somatic cell. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • MEIOSIS is a specialized cell division by which the diploid somatic chromosome set is halved prior to the production of gametes. (genetics.org)
  • The pole/germ line stem cells are then enveloped by somatic mesodermal cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • We demonstrated, for the first time, that transcription factor E2F3 directly binds to Aurora-A promoter and tightly regulates Aurora-A expression during G2/M phase.Moreover, expression of E2F3 considerably correlates with Aurora-A level in human ovarian cancer, indicates that E2F3 is a causal factor for Aurora-A overexpression. (usf.edu)
  • In p53-deficient cells, 4.1R depletion delays S phase, but aberrant ninein distribution is not dependent on the S-phase delay. (asm.org)
  • Depletion of the Ska complex destabilizes these connections and disrupts cell division. (pnas.org)
  • Loss of lrr-1 function causes cell cycle arrest in the mitotic region of the germ line, resulting in sterility due to the depletion of germ cells. (biologists.org)
  • Recently, it was shown in Chlamydomonas that the mature centriole can position the daughter centriole and orient the nucleus ( 11 ) and that in Drosophila asymmetric cell division, the mature centrosome is always inherited by the stem cell ( 68 ). (asm.org)
  • Activation of p-p53, p-H2AX, p-Chk1, p-ATM, and p-ATR and down-regulation of p-Chk2 indicate DNA damage response and cell cycle deregulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that inactivation of CUL-2, a member of the cullin family of ubiquitin ligases, delays or abolishes meiotic anaphase II with no effect on anaphase I, indicating differential regulation during the two meiotic stages. (biologists.org)
  • We speculate that BUB-3 is involved in the DNA damage response through regulation of cell cycle timing. (g3journal.org)
  • Dual Regulation of Telomerase Activity Through C-Myc-dependent Inhibition and Alternative Splicing of HTERT Journal of Cell Science. (jove.com)
  • Thus, regulation of telomerase activity could be an important mechanism to limit growth of normal and cancer cells. (jove.com)