Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Abnormalities, MultipleGrowth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Cockayne Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.CreatinineHeart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mice, Inbred C57BLInfant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).United StatesEnergy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Failure to thrive, a growth disorder Weight and height percentile "WHO Child Growth Standards" (PDF). World Health Organization ... The height, weight, and head circumference of a child can be compared to the expected parameters of children of the same age ... CDC information on growth charts WHO information on growth charts The WHO Child Growth Standards Growth Charts and ... A growth chart is used by pediatricians and other health care providers to follow a child's growth over time. Growth charts ...
Intensive animal farming
Maintaining a more specific temperature within the pig-tolerance range also maximizes growth and growth to feed ratio. In an ... Meat-type chickens currently grow to market weight in six to seven weeks, whereas only fifty years ago it took three times as ... Before this, chickens did not thrive during the winter (due to lack of sunlight), and egg production, incubation, and meat ... After a few false starts, (such as the Maine Experiment Station's failure at improving egg production) success was shown by ...
When compared to a control group raised on regular food, they exhibited higher weight gain and better food-to-growth conversion ... of organism growth on copper alloy nets also provides a cleaner and healthier environment for farmed fish to grow and thrive. ... On August 22, 2017, there was a massive failure of such cages at a commercial fishery in Washington state in Puget Sound, ... Whether the optimal stunning parameters that researchers have determined in studies are used by the industry in practice is ...
Poultry farming in the United States
Meat-type chickens currently grow to market weight in six to seven weeks whereas only fifty years ago it took three times as ... Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poult ... Before this, chickens did not thrive during the winter (due to lack of sunlight), and egg production, incubation, and meat ... After a few false starts, such as the Maine Experiment Station's failure at improving egg production, success was shown by ...
... s resemble failure to thrive, except that at times in feeding disorder there is no medical or physiological ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Bernard-Bonnin, AC (2006). "Feeding problems of infants and toddlers". Canadian Family ... of infants aged less than one year show severe food refusal and poor growth. Among infants born prematurely, 40% to 70% ... which causes the child to not gain enough weight, grow naturally, or cause any developmental delays. ...
Reactive attachment disorder
The criteria included a requirement of onset before the age of 8 months and was equated with failure to thrive. Both these ... and growth failure in some cases (inhibited form only); evidence of capacity for social reciprocity and responsiveness as shown ... The practice parameters would also provide the framework for a diagnostic protocol. Most recently, Daniel Schechter and Erica ... Autistic children are likely to be of normal size and weight and often exhibit a degree of intellectual disability. They are ...
If the problem is chronic, symptoms consist of fatigue, weight loss, failure to thrive (in children), delayed puberty (in ... Growth hormone deficiency is almost certain if all other pituitary tests are also abnormal, and insulin-like growth factor 1 ( ... If these parameters are unchanged, desmopressin (an ADH analogue) is administered. If the urine then becomes concentrated and ... Pituitary failure results in many changes in the skin, hair and nails as a result of the absence of pituitary hormone action on ...
Climate change in Saskatchewan
Increased temperature could have a positive effect on the growth of pastures and provide better feed for livestock, assuming ... Within Saskatchewan there are areas where unique geography or topography allows for rare or distinctive organisms to thrive. ... Warmer conditions in the summer can also suppress appetite, leading to lower weight gains. In June 2007, Saskatchewan ... leading to increased risk of reproductive failure due to frost damage from cold snaps. For instance, trembling aspen in Alberta ...
Weight. In developed countries, the average birth weight of a full-term newborn is approximately 3.4 kg (7 1⁄2 lb), and is ... CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) *^ Tronick, Edward Z.; Morelli, Gilda A.; Ivey, Paula K. (1992). "The Efe forager ... Failure to thrive. *Immunization. *Infant and toddler safety. *Infant bathing. *Infant food safety ... Human Growth Development and Learning' 2004 Ed. - Page 50 9712339114 2004 - ... is mainly through prespeech forms of crying, ...
EMSRb is smarter and handles multiple segments by comparing the revenue of the lower segment to a demand weighted average of ... There have also been high-profile failures and faux pas. Amazon.com was criticized for irrational price changes that resulted ... reliance of the major carriers on high fares in captive markets arguably created the conditions for low cost carriers to thrive ... and customer base has made it particularly attractive to business leaders that prefer to generate return from revenue growth ...
Their paper included charts for five rats, illustrating their weights over time compared to a normal growth curve, meant to ... but McCollum's approach differed in that he was seeking the reason for failure in growth. McCollum and Davis's experiments with ... After the first year, only the corn group was thriving, and the others and their young were weak or dying. The wheat group was ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) "21CFR137.105". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. and "Title 21 - Food and Drugs: ...
... affects vegetation in several ways, the presence of stored water can promote growth, yet the annual onset of growth is ... Starting as a powdery deposition, snow becomes more granular when it begins to compact under its own weight, be blown by the ... Many invertebrates thrive in snow, including spiders, wasps, beetles, snow scorpionflys and springtails. Such arthropods are ... Chang, A.T.C.; Foster, J.L.; Hall, D.K. (1987). "NIMBUS-7 SMMR derived global snow parameters" (PDF). Annals of Glaciology. ...
History of Slovenia
After its failure, a policy of gradual liberalization was followed. In the late 1950s, Slovenia was the first ... The interwar period brought a further industrialization in Slovenia, with a rapid economic growth in the 1920s followed by a ... By the end of the 19th century, Slovenes had established a standardized literary language, and a thriving civil society. ... Comparatively to other Central European regions, the Slovene Lands lost demographic weight between the late 18th and early 20th ...
Electoral Carlism (Second Republic)
general opinion as to the weight of Carlism within the electoral realm of the Right differs. One scholar talks about "el ... Carlism was not a genuinely nationwide grouping; its so-called Mass Party Index, a parameter devised to gauge capacity to ... According to another reading, in turbulent times Carlism has always thrived as an amalgamating force; in the 1830s it attracted ... with relative growth also in Old Castile and regions where the party failed to obtain a single seat prior to 1923. Application ...
Child development stages
Length growth. Average weight. Weight gain. Respiration rate. (per minute). Normal body temperature. Heart rate (pulse). (per ... Loading parameters of the foot generally increase, the midfoot develops opposite of the other regions in the foot. ... Responds to and thrives on warm, sensitive physical contact and care. ... Self-perceived failure can make the child easily disappointed and frustrated.. *Can't handle things not going their own way ...
Malnutrition in South Africa
... lack of weight plotting, nurses not trained sufficiently to detect malnutrition, inability to supply growth cards to all ... If left untreated, Beriberi can cause inflammation of the nervous system and even heart failure. Heart failure associated with ... Thus, many infants are not provided with the necessary nutrients they need to thrive, and this can lead to severe cases of ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). ... 15% of South African infants are born with a low birth weight. ...
But the link is weakened because the Bird Man cult continued to thrive and survived the great impact caused by the arrival of ... With no trees to protect them, sea spray led to crop failures exacerbated by a sudden reduction in fresh water flows. There is ... Several other statues of similar weight were transported to ahu on the north and south coasts. Possible means by which the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Acevedo J., O'Grady M., Wallis B. (2012). "Sighting of the fin whale in the Eastern ...
Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in ... The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive ... Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around ... If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result. Preformed vitamin A ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
... "failure to thrive", where growth is reduced. Poor growth occurs for two reasons: the work of breathing is intense enough that ... This problem can also be caused by excessive weight in children. In this case, the symptoms are more like the symptoms adults ... March 2002). "Practice parameters for the use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating ... The operation may be far from trivial, especially in the worst apnea cases, in which growth is retarded and abnormalities of ...
Energy balances in the growth of oilseed rape for biodiesel and of wheat for bioethanol, June 2000, I.R. Richards ... Some of these parameters such as spray pattern and atomization are directly related to injection timing. ... Microbes in water cause the paper-element filters in the system to rot and fail, causing failure of the fuel pump due to ... The oil producing tree has the highest yield of oil producing plant (approximately 40% by weight of the seed is oil) while ...
... such as allocation of biomass in trees during growth are subject to mechanical failure as gravitational forces influence the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). *^ Jacobsen, D. (2008). "Low oxygen pressure as a driving factor for the altitudinal ... The trophic pyramid roughly represents the biomass (usually measured as total dry-weight) at each level. Plants generally have ... and eventually completely anoxic where anaerobic bacteria thrive among the roots. Water also influences the intensity and ...
In turn, this implies that much of the popularity of CAM is a poignant criticism of the failure of mainstream healthcare. We ... However, despite the growth in patient demand for complementary medicine, most of the early alternative/complementary medical ... Kolata, Gina (June 17, 1996), On Fringes of Health Care, Untested Therapies Thrive, The New York Times, retrieved December 22, ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Taylor, Kim (2005). Chinese Medicine in Early Communist China, 1945-63: a Medicine of ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
... "failure to thrive", where growth is reduced. Poor growth occurs for two reasons: the work of breathing is intense enough that ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). *^ Yaggi HK, Concato J, Kernan WN, Lichtman JH, Brass LM, Mohsenin V (November 2005 ... This problem can also be caused by excessive weight in children. In this case, the symptoms are more like the symptoms adults ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). *^ Peretz Lavie, Paula Herer, Victor Hoffstein (19 February 2000). "Obstructive sleep ...
History of Pakistan
After the failure of the Cabinet Mission Plan, Jinnah called for Muslims to observe Direct Action Day to demand the creation of ... This led to a growth of the army, which was split into different Punjabi armies and then semi-independent "misls". Each of ... He therefore invaded Ghazna, but was defeated ... CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) "Ferishta's History of Dekkan from ... Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and ...
CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link). *^ a b Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Dougherty ... "Canada's oil sands survive, but can't thrive in a $50 oil world". Reuters. October 18, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2020.. ... The OPEC Reference Basket, a weighted average of oil blends from various OPEC (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting ... "IHS Markit: Canadian oil sands production to be ~1M barrels higher by 2030 but with lower annual growth; boosted by ...
Low milk supply
... and subsequently inflate the baby's weight loss. Newborns should regain their birth weight by two weeks of age, and gain at ... Failure to thrive. *Immunization. *Infant and toddler safety. *Infant bathing. *Infant food safety ... To evaluate whether milk supply is actually insufficient, qualitative parameters should be used such as the following: *By 3-5 ... and does not have a medical condition that would explain the lack of growth. The main method for increasing milk supply is ...
Effects of global warming on human health
Ticks are also thriving in the warmer temperatures allowing them to feed and grow at a faster rate. The black legged tick, a ... This increased growth of algae and phytoplankton in turn can have dire consequences. These algal blooms can emit toxic ... Holstius, D.M.; Reid, C. E.; Jesdale, B. M.; Morello-Frosch, R. (September 2012). "Birth Weight following Pregnancy during the ... A study done in Ethiopia showed that chronic malnutrition was a predictor of first line antiretroviral therapy failure. This ...
Evaluation of Suspected Child Physical Abuse | American Academy of Pediatrics
Plotting parameters is essential, because clinicians may miss significant growth failure in infants and children if the ... Physical abuse and failure to thrive are sometimes concurrent32,33; in addition, some children are starved intentionally.34 ... When the child is stable, height, weight, and fronto-occipital circumference should be carefully measured and then plotted on a ... Failure to thrive and fatal injury as a continuum. Am J Dis Child.1969;118 :565- 567. ...
Failure to Thrive - American Family Physician
Many infants with failure to thrive are not identified unless careful attention is paid to plotting growth parameters at ... weight). Few need laboratory evaluation. Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive ... All children with failure to thrive need additional calories for catch-up growth (typically 150 percent of the caloric ... can lead to failure to thrive. About 25 percent of normal infants will shift to a lower growth percentile in the first two ...
Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)
Growth and Development. While prenatal growth is often normal, in most infants with RSTS parameters for height, weight, and ... Affected infants fail to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Although weight gain can be very slow ... Growth parameters should be regularly plotted on an RSTS-specific growth chart. There should be yearly eye and hearing ... Male infants with RSTS may have abnormalities of the genitourinary tract including failure of one or both testes to descend ...
Down Syndrome Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination, Complications
Growth charts for children with Down syndrome have been published.  Failure to thrive is common in infancy, especially in ... Growth and skeletal anomalies. Newborns with Down syndrome have lower birth weight, length, and head circumference compared ... Growth parameters continue to be low up to puberty. ... Signs and symptoms include growth failure, abdominal pain, and ... Growth retardation in Down syndrome in relation to insulin-like growth factors and growth hormone. Am J Med Genet Suppl. 1990. ...
Email this article
... poor growth, and serious lung, pancreas, and liver complications. ... Poor growth and weight loss are directly associated with the ... Your doctor may describe this as failure to thrive (FTT). FTT is more than just a general assessment of your childs ... It is the decelerated or arrested growth in which a childs weight and height falls below certain accepted parameters (known as ... the failure to ovulate) and amenorrhea (the failure to menstruate). ...
08 | February | 2010 | PediatricEducation.org™
Disease: Failure to Thrive and Lack of Normal Physiological Growth , Growth Disorders , Infant and Toddler Nutrition Symptom/ ... For general growth parameters see How Do I Calculate Mid-Parental Height and Other Growth Parameters? About 70-80% of FTT cases ... Failure to Thrive (FTT) is defined as persistent weight below the 3rd percentile for age in infants and young children. The ... 2. What signs, symptoms or testing may help to distinguish between failure to thrive versus low weight in a child with a ...
Nutrition and Growth Guidelines | Domestic Guidelines - Immigrant and Refugee Health | CDC
A history of failure to thrive, hospitalization for nutritional issues, enrollment in a supplementary feeding program, or ... weight-for-age, and weight-for-height by using the WHO (World Health Organization) growth standardsExternal. or 2000 CDC Growth ... This may lead to a better understanding of the etiology for poor growth parameters and risk for micronutrient deficiencies, ... Weight and height/length - to initiate longitudinal growth monitoring *Recommended anthropometric indices used to characterize ...
September | 2007 | PediatricEducation.org™
Failure to thrive, weight loss or growth retardation *Unusual infections, i.e. Pseudomonas carinii in a presumably normal child ... The pertinent physical exam showed a healthy teenager with growth parameters in the 50-90%. He had mild comedomal acne on his ... Children with immunodeficiencies can present in many ways including failure to thrive, weight loss, poor weight gain, diarrhea ... Physical examination should look at growth parameters, clues of allergies (eczema, allergic shiners, wheezing), lymph nodes ...
Pediatric Precursors of Adult Atherosclerosis | American Academy of Pediatrics
Physicians should monitor weight and growth parameters carefully for any children who have been prescribed a diet. ... parental implementation of low-fat hypocaloric diets in young children has been reported to result in failure to thrive in ... The weighting of family history in assessing a childs future CAD risk is a complex issue. A family history of CAD encompasses ... Among the potentially serious adverse effects are hepatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis resulting in renal failure. The ...
Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population | Archives of...
... giving priority to ages with both a weight and a length measurement. Growth data were then converted into z scores and centiles ... 8 but a consensus in 1985 concluded that the diagnosis should be based solely on anthropometric parameters.9 Reviews further ... Failure to thrive (FTT), often defined by low weight or poor weight gain, is a state of paediatric undernutrition. ... Conditional weight gain was calculated using the thrive index method,13 where thrive index is the change in weight z scores ...
Shiraz E-Medical Journal | Factors Associated With Failure to Thrive Among Children Aged 3 to 72 Months in Jahrom, Southern...
... weight, and head circumference are among parameters used to evaluate the growth of children (3). However, in many studies, ... Failure to Thrive is a description of a clinical situation for identifying children with inappropriate growth and is widely ... weight gain disorder in children is used as a measure of Failure to Thrive (FTT), (4). ... Failure to Thrive Children Associated Factors Iran Copyright © 2018, Shiraz E-Medical Journal. This is an open-access article ...
Risk factors for intraoperative hypoglycemia in children: a retrospective observational cohort study | SpringerLink
Selection of growth parameters to define failure to thrive. J Pediatr Nurs 2003; 18: 52-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Young age, weight for age , 5th percentile, developmental delay, having a gastric or jejunal tube, and abdominal surgery were ... Correction for prematurity and its consequences for the assessment of the very low birth weight infant. Child Dev 1983; 54: ... weight for age , 5th percentile, developmental delay, presence of a gastric or jejunal tube, and abdominal surgery were ...
Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Full Text
Growth and feeding should be closely monitored. Other specialists that may be involved in the care of individuals with 15q24 ... Other less frequent findings include hearing loss, growth hormone deficiency, hernias, and obesity. Congenital malformations, ... It is characterized by growth retardation, intellectual disability, and distinct facial features including long face with high ... Feeding difficulties and failure to thrive were reported in approximately 20%. However, in later childhood, growth parameters ...
Chapter 1. Child Maltreatment | Atlas of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 2e | AccessPediatrics | McGraw-Hill Medical
Plot growth parameters of height, weight, and head circumference to exclude failure to thrive. Perform a complete physical ... In the United States, child abuse is defined as "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which ... results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation" or "an act or failure to act which ...
Rhode Island Medical Home Portal - Constipation
Evaluate growth curve for weight loss, short stature, or low weight for height/length or declining BMI. Failure to thrive may ... Growth Parameters ... 100 ml/kg for the 1st 10 kg of weight *50 ml/kg for the 2nd 10 ... 20 ml/kg for the remaining weight Holliday-Segar adaptation to calculate hourly maintenance fluids (useful for kids who are on ... Assess gross motor control to the lower portion of the body by visualizing gait and weight bearing, for example, and assess for ...
Growth failure | Article about Growth failure by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about Growth failure. 1. Biology the process or act of growing, esp in organisms following assimilation of ... food 2. Pathology any abnormal tissue, such as a tumour the increase in... Explanation of Growth failure ... The usual parameters of growth are changes in the mass (weight) or linear dimensions (length) of an individual or organ. ... Related to Growth failure: failure to thrive. growth. 1. Biology the process or act of growing, esp in organisms following ...
"A Behavior Analytic Model for Nonorganic Failure to Thrive: Observatio" by Robert Warren Heffer Jr
Descriptive data (e.g., child growth parameters, temperament, and developmental status; maternal medical history and ... organic failure to thrive (OFTT), or (c) normal weight and hospitalized due to acute illness (control). Statements with regard ... nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFTT) or Mixed FTT (e.g., physical and psychosocial etiology), (b) ... This study was the first to apply a behavior analytic model of assessment to failure to thrive (FTT) by observing parent and ...
The affected infant manifested a severe phenotype with growth reta.. ... A two-month-old male infant presented with multiple congenital anomalies, feeding problems and failure to thrive. He was the ... The growth parameters were all below the 3rd centile (HC: 35.5 cm, Ht: 52 cm, Wt: 3 kg). ... The patient was born at full term via spontaneous labour and his birth weight was 3 kg. ...
Relation of in utero lead exposure with insulin-like growth factor-I levels and neonatal anthropometric parameters | AVESİS
Whether serum lead level predicts the development of failure to thrive in these children remains to be determined in follow-up ... In the model birth weight (p: 0.01, beta: -0.81) birth length (p: 0.05, beta: 0.41) and midarm-circumferences (p: 0.05, beta: ... Relation of in utero lead exposure with insulin-like growth factor-I levels and neonatal anthropometric parameters ... aim was to establish whether independent relationships exist between either anthropometric parameters or insulin-like growth ...
Towards identification of molecular mechanisms of short stature | International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology | Full Text
As we advance towards establishing a molecular mechanism for poor growth in a greater percentage of those currently labeled ISS ... leading to speculation that a collection of mild mutations or polymorphisms of these genes can explain poor growth in a larger ... Growth evaluations are among the most common referrals to pediatric endocrinologists. Although a number of pathologies, both ... the long-held hypothesis that common genetic variants of the hormone pathway provide the molecular mechanism for poor growth in ...
Growth chart - Wikipedia
Failure to thrive, a growth disorder Weight and height percentile "WHO Child Growth Standards" (PDF). World Health Organization ... The height, weight, and head circumference of a child can be compared to the expected parameters of children of the same age ... CDC information on growth charts WHO information on growth charts The WHO Child Growth Standards Growth Charts and ... A growth chart is used by pediatricians and other health care providers to follow a childs growth over time. Growth charts ...
Cystinosis: a review | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Full Text
... the first year of life through proximal tubular damage followed by progressive glomerular damage and end stage renal failure ... to intermediate molecular weight (IMW) proteins [23, 25]. Infants present with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia, ... Typical growth charts in 2 cystinosis patients: a- Normal growth pattern at birth, followed by decreased growth velocity after ... At birth, patients show a normal birth length and weight parameters. By the age of 6 to 12 months, height drops to the third ...
Naddez's Tidbyts : May 2009
Specific growth charts are available for height, weight and head circumference parameters of boys or girls with CdLS at ... The term "failure to thrive" is not appropriate, and may generate the use of unnecessary calorie supplementation, which results ... Some individuals with CdLS have been found to have growth hormone deficiency, requiring exogenous growth hormone administration ... The camera is light weight and can record 60 minutes of excellent quality video. The battery lasts for around130 minutes and ...
Failure to thrive - The Clinical Advisor
How can failure to thrive be prevented?. The first step is routine pediatric care and monitoring of growth parameters. If ... for the growth chart depicting undernutrition. Note the asymmetric faltering of growth failure due to undernutrition. Weight ... As most failure to thrive is due to inadequate caloric intake, genetic causes of suspected failure to thrive may not reflect an ... Undernutrition and failure to thrive. Historically, the term "failure to thrive" was used to describe institutionalized infants ...
Dr. Howard Dubowitz
Many infants with failure to thrive are not identified unless careful attention is paid to plotting growth parameters at ... weight). Few need laboratory evaluation. Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive ... Failure to thrive. Krugman, S.D.; Dubowitz, H. (American Academy of Family Physicians, 2003) Failure to thrive is a condition ... All children with failure to thrive need additional calories for catch-up growth (typically 150 percent of the caloric ...
Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal
For each patient the growth parameters (weight, height and head circumference) were measured. RESULTS: The age of the patients ... defined as a progressive increase in size of the body as a whole or of its separate parts and can result in failure to thrive ... Group B:Those with Rt sided heart failure without cyanosis Group C:Those with Rt sided failure and cyanosis. Group D:Those with ... of children as parameters of growth. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 50 patients with isolated VSD done in welfare ...
Disturbance of Growth Causes & Reasons - Symptoma
Disturbance of Growth Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Exostosis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions ... Failure to thrive: This refer to poor weight gain and possibly slower growth due to the reduced absorption of fats. [ ... At follow-up, biochemical parameters improved significantly, growth was regained, relief in pruritus, sleeping pattern was ... Weakened immunity Growth and weight should also be followed closely and parents should be aware of treatment options such as ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
... study was designed to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplementation on the growth of mild to moderate failure to thrive ( ... Further studies should be designed to found out the effect of synbiotic on growth parameters in undernourished and well- ... The mean weight was similar at baseline. After 30 days of intervention, the mean weight of the participants in the synbiotic ... The Effect of Synbiotic Supplementation on Growth Parameters in Mild to Moderate FTT Children Aged 2-5 Years. ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Timothy W. Jones (Translated to Turkish)
... is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance presenting in infancy with renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Here, we ... we find that some EEG parameters change significantly under hypoglycemia condition. Based on these parameters, a method of ... As part of the larger, prospective cohort Growth and Development Study, this report aimed to identify the medical complications ... Despite high calorie feeds the infant weight gain and hyponatraemia did not improve until salt supplements were commenced. ...
Head circumferenceCircumferencePercentileInfancyRetardationWorld Health OrganDevelopmental delaySevere failure to thrClinicalInfants with failure to thrAnthropometric parametersIntrauterineDifferential DiagnosisShort statureUndernutritionInadequateHeightAnorexiaUnderweightDiagnosisSyndromeAbnormalitiesEtiologyMetabolicHandoutAbnormalOutpatient managementPediatricAssessmentAcuteNormalPatternsCenters for DiseasFactorsCurvesHormoneNutritional StatusGainSymptomsMechanismSyndromesChronicFindingsLossMaternalLaboratoryCognitiveDescribeEarly 1980sInfantComplicationsNeurologicalBirth weightsPrematureDysphagiaVelocityInterventionRenalCongenital
- While prenatal growth is often normal, in most infants with RSTS parameters for height, weight, and head circumference fall below the fifth percentile during infancy. (rarediseases.org)
- At 14 months his weight was 50% for a 5 month old, height was 50% for a 9 month old and head circumference was 50% for a 6 month old. (pediatriceducation.org)
- His weight was 7.84 kg (50% for a 6 month old), height was 74.5 cm (50% for a 12 month old) and head circumference was 45 cm (50% for an 8 month old). (pediatriceducation.org)
- Generally, height, weight, and head circumference are among parameters used to evaluate the growth of children ( 3 ). (emedicalj.com)
- Plot growth parameters of height, weight, and head circumference to exclude failure to thrive. (mhmedical.com)
- The height, weight, and head circumference of a child can be compared to the expected parameters of children of the same age and sex to determine whether the child is growing appropriately. (wikipedia.org)
- Weight gain decelerates first, followed by length and lastly head circumference in severe cases. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Symmetric faltering of weight and linear growth with preservation of head circumference may suggest an endocrinopathy or constitutional growth delay (See Figure 3 ). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- For each patient the growth parameters (weight, height and head circumference) were measured. (iasj.net)
- Difficulty attaining or maintaining appropriate weight is the first indication of FTT, and sustained undernutrition can impede appropriate height, head circumference, and the development of cognitive skills or immune function in extreme cases. (aafp.org)
- Although problems achieving or sustaining appropriate weight are the predominant manifestations of FTT, ongoing severe malnutrition impairs overall growth, impacting weight first, then length and head circumference. (aafp.org)
- While the adequacy of infant feeding can be determined prospectively by regular measurements of length, weight, and head circumference, understanding the energy needs of an individual infant would allow targeted treatment, particularly for those at risk of failure to thrive. (rcjournal.com)
- AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was done to demonstrate the effects of the VSD on weight, height and occiptofrontal circumference (OFC) of children as parameters of growth. (iasj.net)
- Birth weight was 2800 g (−1.2 SD), length and occipitofrontal circumference at birth were not recorded. (biomedcentral.com)
- Her weight was 6600 g (−5.3 SD), length 69 cm (−3.3 SD) and occipitofrontal circumference 43 cm (−2.6 SD). (biomedcentral.com)
- Her weight was 9.370 kg, length was 85 cm (25th percentile) and cranial circumference was 49 cm (75th percentile). (biomedcentral.com)
- While definitions of FTT have varied, most practitioners diagnose FTT when a child's weight for age falls below the fifth percentile of the standard NCHS growth chart or if it crosses two major percentile lines. (aafp.org)
- As infants age, they may continue to experience poor growth and exhibit short stature (most below the third percentile). (rarediseases.org)
- Consistent calorie boosting at home and daycare caused him to regain and stabilize his weight and height at the 5th percentile. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Failure to Thrive (FTT) is defined as persistent weight below the 3rd percentile for age in infants and young children. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The associated terms "Failure to gain weight" (FGW) or "Lack of Normal Physiologic Growth and Development" are more precise, especially for children who are not below the 3rd percentile but are losing weight over time and/or crossing percentile lines on their growth curve. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The pertinent physical exam showed a not ill-appearing infant with heart rate = 140 beats/minute, respiratory rate = 34 breaths/minute, blood pressure = 74/58 mm Hg, and growth parameters in the 25-50% percentile. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The case group included children with growth curves below the third percentile in more than one measurement and children above the third percentile with failure to gain weight or with weight loss during at least 1 month. (emedicalj.com)
- Failure to thrive, a growth disorder Weight and height percentile "WHO Child Growth Standards" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- 5th percentile, or documented weight loss. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Her weight and height were below 3rd percentile throughout her childhood. (hindawi.com)
- Her ponderal growth was normal (at the 50th percentile) until the third month of life, when it slowly but progressively began to decelerate from the 50th percentile to the 5th percentile by 21 months. (biomedcentral.com)
- Her statural growth was consistently at the 25th percentile. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although weight gain can be very slow in infancy, children with RSTS may later show a relative obesity for their height. (rarediseases.org)
- Growth has always been considered as an indicator of health from early infancy to late adolescence ( 1 ). (emedicalj.com)
- Past medical records indicating the growth pattern in infancy and childhood are highly desirable to shape the context of the presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infants with Down syndrome, intrauterine growth retardation, or premature birth follow different growth patterns than normal infants. (aafp.org)
- Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare and novel microdeletion syndrome characterized by pre- and post-natal growth retardation, intellectual disability, distinct facial features, and genital, skeletal, and digital anomalies. (biomedcentral.com)
- The affected infant manifested a severe phenotype with growth retardation and congenital heart defect. (omicsonline.org)
- The birth history should address any known history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and whether birth parameters indicate small for gestational age (SGA), as approximately 10-15% of SGA infants fail to display appropriate catch-up growth in the first years of life and do not reach an adult height in the normal range [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Dutch pathologist George Lignac (1891-1954) was the first to provide a clear systematic description of the disease in 1924, and the first to associate cystinosis with its major clinical manifestations such as rickets, renal disease and growth retardation [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The patient, a 20 month old Japanese girl, was born at 34 weeks' gestation by caesarean section because of premature rupture of the membranes and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with fetal distress. (bmj.com)
- It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, relative macrocephaly, the triangular face and body asymmetry. (bmj.com)
- Individuals with RSS have mutations in the imprinted region of chromosome and are diagnosed with Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). (bmj.com)
- 36.6% of cases had growth retardation (Height for age -2 Z score) compared to 4.1% in controls with a signific ant difference ( p = 0.000). (scirp.org)
World Health Organ5
- Failure to Thrive is a global problem and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 30% of children under 5 years old show FTT, of which 80% have stunted growth and 20% are underweight ( 5 ). (emedicalj.com)
- Since there are differences in normal growth rates between breastfed and formula-fed babies, the World Health Organization growth charts, which better reflect the growth pattern of the healthy, breastfed infant are considered the standard for U.S. children under age two. (wikipedia.org)
- Use of World Health Organization and CDC Growth Charts for Children Aged 0-59 Months in the United States" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- World Health Organization growth charts are recommended for children up to two years of age. (aafp.org)
- In the multivariate analysis, only CD4+ T-lymphocytes count, according to the categories of the World Health Organization, and weight-for-age z score ≤ -2 were predictors of risk for disease progression in children older than 12 months. (scielo.br)
- The diagnosis of failure to thrive with failed outpatient management, language developmental delay and a complex social situation was made. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. (bmj.com)
Severe failure to thr2
- Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive and for those whose safety is a concern. (aafp.org)
- The patient was a 34-month-old boy who had loss of consciousness, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia with severe failure to thrive, hyper pigmentation of mucosa, hypotonia and no hypospadias. (comprped.com)
- His clinical course also showed a growth pattern consistent with genetic short stature in addition to the resolving failure to thrive. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Failure to Thrive is a description of a clinical situation for identifying children with inappropriate growth and is widely considered as growth under standard growth curves. (emedicalj.com)
- The diagnosis of VSD was done by clinical picture and confirmed by echocardiographic examination to study the effect of malnutrition and other factors on the growth another 50 patients without VSD were included as control group. (iasj.net)
- Patient 1 showed clinical and laboratory improvement with age characterized by normal growth and resolution of rickets. (biomedcentral.com)
- Patient 2 had severe phenotype characterized by progressive weight loss, persistent metabolic acidosis, marked polyuria and clinical and laboratory findings of rickets progressing to death at age 10 months. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 - 3 The term weight faltering has been proposed to more appropriately emphasize that problems with appropriate weight gain are the initial and most reliable clinical finding of undernutrition. (aafp.org)
- 1-3 The decision of starting antiretroviral therapy is based on clinical and laboratory parameters. (scielo.br)
- Data are from the Weight Gain Study, a stepped wedge cluster randomized clinical trial where underweight Filipino children with severe dental decay had their pulpally involved teeth extracted. (biomedcentral.com)
- The preventive aspect of the clinical settings that serve as a body weight of , set of clinical guidelines to assist with infant pesticides such as the diagnosis of cdh and fetal health: Effect on pregnancy outcomes in late childhood and its limits (see chapter , neonatal jaundice, early weight loss, vomiting, or abnormal hematopoiesis that affected by gender, eth- ing, or an unfavorable intrauterine environment table - distinguishing features of kawasaki disease. (wellchild.org)
- We documented the weight and height responses in HIV infected Ugandan children on highly active antiretroviral therapy and determined clinical factors associated with successful treatment outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The objective of this study was to document the growth response to HAART in a cohort of HIV infected Ugandan children and to determine clinical factors including growth parameters associated with successful virologic and immunologic treatment outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
- A prominent clinical manifestation of increased work of breathing in children with obstructive sleep apnea is failure to thrive (FTT). (medscape.com)
Infants with failure to thr1
- 5, 6 Criteria involving behavioural characteristics of the child or quality of the mother-child relationship were proposed in early work, which linked the condition to emotional deprivation, 7, 8 but a consensus in 1985 concluded that the diagnosis should be based solely on anthropometric parameters. (bmj.com)
- Our aim was to establish whether independent relationships exist between either anthropometric parameters or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and cord blood lead levels in newborns. (erciyes.edu.tr)
- Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. (nature.com)
- Anthropometric parameters were measured according to the standards described by the WHO. (scirp.org)
- A history of SGA is found in ~15% of short children, thereby making it the single most common identified etiology, although it is perhaps better termed an association as the mechanisms for absence of catch up growth and persistent short stature in a small percentage of those with a history of SGA remain largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
- To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with "significant undernutrition", defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). (bmj.com)
- Often, inadequate nutrition or undernutrition is the cause behind an infant/child that has been labeled as failure to thrive. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- See Figure 1 for the growth chart depicting undernutrition. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Note the asymmetric faltering of growth failure due to undernutrition. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The diagnosis of failure to thrive/undernutrition is suspected and later confirmed by evaluating growth indices. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Common nutrition-related risks for developing pressure injuries include unintended weight loss, undernutrition, increased nutrient needs (usually associated with medical conditions), malnutrition, dehydration, low BMI, inadequate food and fluid intake, and inability to feed self, to name a few. (woundsource.com)
- FTT is best defined as inadequate physical growth diagnosed by observation of growth over time using a standard growth chart. (aafp.org)
- First hospitalization was at age 17 month for evaluation of inadequate weight gain and abdominal distension. (biomedcentral.com)
- Failure to thrive occurs when growth fails as a result of inadequate nutrition. (who.int)
- Failure to thrive (FTT) is an abnormal pattern of weight gain defined by the lack of sufficient usable nutrition and documented by inadequate weight gain over time. (aafp.org)
- 4 Other growth parameters that can assist in making the diagnosis of FTT are weight for height and height for age. (aafp.org)
- It is the decelerated or arrested growth in which a child's weight and height falls below certain accepted parameters (known as percentiles). (verywellhealth.com)
- Family history should including miscarriages or early childhood deaths and also weight/height of parents and siblings (for possible genetic abnormalites). (pediatriceducation.org)
- A complete physical examination (including accurate weight, height and head circumferences and their trends) with directed emphasis in areas clued by the history is important. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. (bmj.com)
- 4 Thus, FTT has been used to cover a broad range of different anthropometric indicators, usually based on centile charts for weight or height. (bmj.com)
- Most early studies on FTT used criteria based on attained low weight or, sometimes, height with a cut-off around the 3rd or 5th centile. (bmj.com)
- Candidate gene analysis of rare cases has demonstrated that severe mutations of genes of the GH-IGF-1 axis can present with a profound height phenotype, leading to speculation that a collection of mild mutations or polymorphisms of these genes can explain poor growth in a larger proportion of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth charts can also be used to predict the expected adult height and weight of a child because, in general, children maintain a fairly constant growth curve. (wikipedia.org)
- Growth charts are different for boys and girls, due in part to pubertal differences and disparity in final adult height. (wikipedia.org)
- More commonly, weight is used to define failure to thrive although length/height is also important. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Are weight and length/height affected to the same degree. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The weights, height, and BMI were recorded in a structured diary, and the questionnaires were completed to monitor the numbers of infection episodes, gastrointestinal problems, admission to hospital, and appetite improvement during the study. (bvsalud.org)
- Administration of 30-day synbiotic supplementation may significantly improve weight and BMI in Iranian children with mild to moderate FTT, but there is no effect on the height in this study. (bvsalud.org)
- Based on these exclusion criteria, 314 girls and 304 boys were first omitted for 'unhealthy' weights-for-height. (biomedcentral.com)
- These charts complement existing WHO charts by allowing weight-for-age to be plotted concurrently with height in older children. (biomedcentral.com)
- The study analyzed regression between measured resting energy expenditure and body measurements including height, weight and age. (bvsalud.org)
- The formula proposed by this research is as follows: Proposed REE equation for overweight and obese Korean women = 721 − (1.5 × age) + (0.4 × height) + (9.9 × weight). (bvsalud.org)
- Patients' weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) were measured, and nutritional status was evaluated. (who.int)
- The mean±s.d. height, weight of the mothers and birth weight of the newborns were 151.5±5.29 cm, 46.7±6.04 and 2.84±0.358 kg, respectively. (nature.com)
- Children with very low weight for age or height and those who do not maintain an appropriate growth pattern may have failure to thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering. (aafp.org)
- The weight in pounds or kilograms a person should weigh, based on height and frame, to achieve and maintain optimal health. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Several tables, such as the Metropolitan Life Height and Weight Table, show ideal body weights for men and women of varying heights. (thefreedictionary.com)
- her current weight is 60 kg, height 1.65 m. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Compared with non-picky eaters, z -score of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age in picky eaters was 0.91, 0.73, and 0.44 SD lower, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
- Weight and height measurements were done by the same medical staff early in the morning. (jcrpe.org)
- Evaluations of weight, height and BMI, and their SDS calculations were performed according to the charts prepared by Neyzi et al (7) for Turkish children. (jcrpe.org)
- Then, they received a standard breakfast arranged according to their sex, age, height and weight. (jcrpe.org)
- Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ), weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ) were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
- HIV infected Ugandan children demonstrated a robust increase in height and weight z scores during the first 48 weeks of HAART, including those who failed to completely suppress virus. (biomedcentral.com)
- His Z-score curve values of weight and height were between -2 and -3(Z-score = -2.4). (comprped.com)
- These manifestations are in turn related in the genesis of different geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive decline, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like failure to thrive and anorexia of aging (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
- The causes of poor growth include anorexia and dysphagia due to tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy, diminished or altered patterns of nocturnal growth hormone secretion, hypoxemia, acidosis, and increased work of breathing during sleep. (medscape.com)
- Severe dental caries in young children is associated with underweight and failure to thrive. (biomedcentral.com)
- The objective of this study was to assess whether rate of weight gain after extraction of severely decayed teeth in underweight preschool Filipino children was related to reductions in oral health-related impacts and dental pain from severe dental caries affecting eating and sleeping. (biomedcentral.com)
- After extraction of severely decayed teeth in underweight Filipino children, levels of oral health-related impacts were associated with rate of weight gain. (biomedcentral.com)
- In 18.2% of cases, underweight was found (Weight for age -2 Z score) with a significant difference compared to controls ( p = 0.000). (scirp.org)
- This study was the first to apply a behavior analytic model of assessment to failure to thrive (FTT) by observing parent and child behavior during mealtimes at hospitalization for provisional diagnosis of FTT. (lsu.edu)
- ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the different parameters used in the diagnosis of infantile hypertrophied pyloric stenosis (pyloric canal length, muscle thickness and pyloric canal diameter). (iasj.net)
- Antenatal diagnosis is based on findings of polyhydramnios without fetal anatomical defects and uncontrolled maternal diabetes mellitus, fetal growth restriction and elevation of amniotic chloride and and aldosterone levels. (jpgo.org)
- Many patients lack findings on physical examination and have normal growth parameters, which may lead to a delay in diagnosis. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
- For example, growth failure accompanied by excessive weight gain prompts an evaluation for Cushing syndrome, or characteristic facies or heart murmur may warrant an investigation for Noonan syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, children with diseases such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome follow distinct growth curves which deviate significantly from children without these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Specialized growth charts can be used in addition to the standard charts for supplemental data collection in children born prematurely or with specific diagnoses, such as Turner syndrome or trisomy 21. (aafp.org)
- Management generally involves monitoring of growth and feeding, yearly eye and hearing evaluations, and evaluation for cardiac, dental, and renal abnormalities. (rarediseases.org)
- Features include distinctively broad and/or angled fingers and toes, developmental delays, growth delays, speech delays, intellectual disability, characteristic abnormalities of the head and face (craniofacial dysmorphism), breathing and feeding difficulties (dysphagia), and urogenital abnormalities. (rarediseases.org)
- Angina [chest pain], heart failure, stroke and heart rhythm abnormalities. (completewellbeing.com)
- Growth and metabolic abnormalities are common in children living with HIV . (scirp.org)
- A thorough history is the best guide to establishing the etiology of the failure to thrive and directing further evaluation and management. (aafp.org)
- The specific goal, however, was to identify feeding behaviors that differed in rate of occurrence in parent-child dyads in which the child was classified: (a) nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFTT) or Mixed FTT (e.g., physical and psychosocial etiology), (b) organic failure to thrive (OFTT), or (c) normal weight and hospitalized due to acute illness (control). (lsu.edu)
- Suboptimal nutrition, genetics, aberrations in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) axis have all been accused as responsible factors in the etiology of constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) (3,4,5,6). (jcrpe.org)
- Acute decompensation is thought to be more common during rapid growth, acute illness, fasting, or other times of high metabolic requirements. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Total energy needs for infants are the sum of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), thermic effect of food, and physical activity expenditure, plus energy needed for growth. (rcjournal.com)
- Growth evaluations are among the most common referrals to pediatric endocrinologists. (biomedcentral.com)
- Poor growth is among the most common reasons for referral to pediatric endocrinology specialists. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth charts can also be compiled with a portion of the population deemed to have been raised in more or less ideal environments, such as nutrition that conforms to pediatric guidelines, and no maternal smoking. (wikipedia.org)
- She was followed by the pediatric gastrointestinal service and she was noticed to have failure to thrive. (hindawi.com)
- Indeed, reports from the early 1980s found more than a 50% prevalence of FTT in patients with pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, and significant catch-up growth patterns have been reported after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, even in children with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. (medscape.com)
- [ 14 ] These findings suggest that an important factor that mediates FTT in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea involves the combination of increased energy expenditure caused by increased respiratory effort and disruption of the pathways of the growth hormone somatomedin. (medscape.com)
- This apparent growth faltering may be constitutional or represent a disease process, and differentiating between these conditions relies a great deal on growth chart assessment. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The additional centiles permit a more precise assessment of normal growth and earlier detection of aberrant growth as it crosses centiles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Routine laboratory testing and hospitalization are rarely indicated in the assessment of failure to thrive. (aafp.org)
- Inexpensive markers of progression derived from easily obtained parameters, such as blood test or nutritional assessment, can be useful for the follow-up of HIV-infected children living in regions where the access to more sophisticated laboratory methods is not available before the infection progression is clinically detectable. (scielo.br)
- 3, 4 Poor growth and nutrition have also been reported in refugee children arriving in the United States, although studies suggest that most refugee children experience catch-up growth and reach normal weight within 6-24 months of arrival in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- 5 Dynamic measures of weight gain are now increasingly being used, 6 including fall from a normal birth weight below a given cut-off, dropping through major centile spaces and, recently, slow conditional weight gain, taking into account the normal phenomenon of regression to the mean, with small children tending to move upwards through the centiles and large children tending to cross downwards. (bmj.com)
- The control group was selected from children with normal growth rate. (emedicalj.com)
- An unfavorable environment may inhibit growth to the point where it stops, but after the inhibitory factor ceases to act, growth may resume at a high rate, in which case the animal reaches its normal size. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In spite of nonsignificant multivariate group comparisons, this study provided a useful methodology for observational studies of parent-child feeding interactions in hospitalized FTT and normal weight children. (lsu.edu)
- however, they do not reliably distinguish between normal and pathologic growth patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth charts have been constructed by observing the growth of large numbers of normal children over time. (wikipedia.org)
- A recent survey of chart users by the Canadian Paediatric Society also highlighted practical obstacles to routine application of the WHO charts, including the lack of weight-for-age beyond age 10y and the sparseness of the centile lines in the normal range. (biomedcentral.com)
- She was on normal diet and was not compliant to her dietary supplements to increase her weight. (hindawi.com)
- In extreme cases, the development of cognitive skills and appropriate immune function can be impaired, resulting in failure to achieve developmental milestones and normal health. (aafp.org)
- Normal weight depends on the frame of the individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The normal weight of a newborn is between 5.5 lb (2.5 kg) and 10 lb (4.5 kg) and is directly related to the gestational age at which the infant was born. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in overweight and normal-weight children. (harvard.edu)
- Thirty male children with CDGP constituted the study group and fifteen healthy children with normal growth of similar ages-the control group. (jcrpe.org)
- Healthy infants require ∼110 kcal/kg of body weight in the first month of life to promote normal growth and development. (rcjournal.com)
Centers for Diseas1
- 12 Risk factors for infant maltreatment include maternal smoking, the presence of more than 2 siblings, low infant birth weight, and an unmarried mother. (aappublications.org)
- Medical and social factors often contribute to failure to thrive. (aafp.org)
- Growth is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The most important environmental growth factors are food supply, temperature, humidity (for terrestrial animals), water salinity (for aquatic animals), and population density. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When evaluating apparent growth failure, it is important to consider other factors such as whether or not the growth faltering is symmetric or asymmetric. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The decision of whether and how to treat OSA specifically in children is contingent on a number of parameters, including severity (nocturnal symptoms, daytime sequelae, sleep study results), duration of disease, and individual patient variables such as age, co-morbid conditions, and underlying etiologic factors. (prezi.com)
- The purpose of the study was to describe and compare the growth of children living with HIV with those not infected and to identify the associated factors. (scirp.org)
- No factors studied were asso ciated with the growth disorders detected, which suggests that growth disorders in children and adolescents living with HIV are due to the disease itself. (scirp.org)
- Growth is usually described by curves that characterize changes in body weight or length during ontogeny, by the absolute and relative increments occurring during a specific period of time, and by the specific growth rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Hierarchial linear modeling used to examine intraindividual growth curves from recruitment through age 4. (umaryland.edu)
- We therefore sought to extend weight-for-age reference curves from 10 to 19 years by applying WHO exclusion criteria and curve fitting methods to the core NCHS data and to revise the choice of displayed centiles. (biomedcentral.com)
- With only modest representation of the GH-IGF-1 axis, there is little support for the long-held hypothesis that common genetic variants of the hormone pathway provide the molecular mechanism for poor growth in a substantial proportion of individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth hormone is used to treat growth restriction. (jpgo.org)
- The roles of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in promoting growth. (scribd.com)
- People vary widely in their natural capacity to produce various anabolic hormones (Testosterone, growth hormone, IGF-1, etc.) and in their sensitivity to these hormones. (t-nation.com)
- The prevalence of picky eaters in preschool children was high, resulting in significant detrimental impacts on growth, nutritional status, development, physical activity, and health status. (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, this study set out to determine the prevalence of picky eating among preschool children and to evaluate the association between picky eating and growth, nutritional status, development, physical activity, and health status. (frontiersin.org)
- Affected infants fail to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive). (rarediseases.org)
- This was only 1 g/day weight gain since his last visit. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. (bmj.com)
- However, in many studies, weight gain disorder in children is used as a measure of Failure to Thrive (FTT), ( 4 ). (emedicalj.com)
- No difference in rate of weight gain as a function of home intervention. (umaryland.edu)
- Even in the absence of dehydration, chronic diarrhea usually results in weight loss or failure to gain weight. (merckmanuals.com)
- The decrease in the velocity of weight gain results in the child steadily falling off the expected weight curve on growth charts. (aafp.org)
- There was a significant association between oral health-related impacts and rate of weight gain after extraction of pulpally involved teeth (p=0.02). (biomedcentral.com)
- Decreases in oral health impacts on sleeping appeared to be most strongly associated with weight gain. (biomedcentral.com)
- Behavioral feeding disorders may be associated with suboptimal development ( 8 , 11 , 12 ), and some children who refuse food or are picky have poor weight gain ( 3 , 8 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Cystic fibrosis (CF) symptoms can develop soon after birth and may include salty-tasting skin, greasy and bulky stools, chronic breathing problems, and poor growth. (verywellhealth.com)
- The results of this rigorous, multicenter, randomized controlled trial provided critically important data indicating that adenotonsillectomy compared to watchful waiting resulted in improved behavior, quality of life, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms and polysomnographic parameters. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- As we advance towards establishing a molecular mechanism for poor growth in a greater percentage of those currently labeled ISS, we highlight two strategies that will likely be offered with increasing frequency: (1) unbiased genetic technologies including array analysis for copy number variation and whole exome/genome sequencing and (2) epigenetic alterations of key genomic loci. (biomedcentral.com)
- Digoxin appears to have some benefit in congestive heart failure, but the exact mechanism is unclear. (medscape.com)
- One possible mechanism for severe caries affecting growth is that the resulting pain and discomfort influences sleeping and eating, and that affects growth and weight. (biomedcentral.com)
- Poor growth and weight loss are directly associated with the lack of digestive enzymes (their production can be blocked by the buildup of mucus). (verywellhealth.com)
- Is there slow but consistent growth, plateauing, or actual weight loss? (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Twenty-two percent of hospital admissions were classified as malnourished as a result of weight loss or failure to thrive. (woundsource.com)
- Cachexia is a condition characterized by severe loss of body weight, fat, and muscle and increased protein catabolism caused by underlying illness. (woundsource.com)
- Research supports that weight loss and difficulties with eating can increase the incidence of PIs. (woundsource.com)
- Caffeine is also found in some headache and migraine medications, in certain dietary supplements used for weight loss, and in many popular energy drinks. (cancerguide.org)
- This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. (nature.com)
- However, very few studies from India have explored the role of components of maternal weight, that is, fat mass and lean mass on the infant's birth weight. (nature.com)
- A study was therefore carried out to explore the role of maternal body composition on the birth weight of the newborn. (nature.com)
- Background information was collected and maternal weight was measured without footwear to the nearest 0.1 kg on lever type SECA balance (Hamburg, Germany). (nature.com)
- Trends for proportions were also calculated across tertiles of maternal body composition parameters using χ 2 test. (nature.com)
- He had had an extensive laboratory evaluation in the specialty nutrition clinic at 15 months of age, that showed no obvious cause of his poor growth. (pediatriceducation.org)
- In the absence of specific features identified in the history and physical, a laboratory evaluation that assesses for pathologies that characteristically lead to poor growth is typically initiated (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
- There are no routine laboratory studies used in the evaluation of failure to thrive. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- 4-7 Laboratory parameters, CD4+ T-lymphocytes count (CD4+TL) and plasma viral count of HIV, require sophisticated and expensive technology that is not easily available in developing countries. (scielo.br)
- Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common condition of varying etiologies that has been associated with adverse effects on later growth and cognitive development. (aafp.org)
- Failure to thrive (FTT) is regarded as an indicator of physical or psychosocial problems in early childhood and is associated with subsequent growth delay and cognitive deficiencies. (bmj.com)
- Children afflicted with FTT in their early life in addition to physical growth problems, have an increased risk of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional disorders over the later years of life ( 6 ). (emedicalj.com)
- Your doctor may describe this as failure to thrive (FTT). (verywellhealth.com)
- Historically, the term "failure to thrive" was used to describe institutionalized infants suffering from a possible combination of infection, nutritional deficiency, and psychosocial neglect. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Although large scale institutionalization has ceased in the more affluent nations, failure to thrive is still used to used to describe the infant or child that does not appear to be growing appropriately. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Birth weights were recorded from the delivery notes. (nature.com)
- Validity of the recorded birth weights was assured by calibration of the instrument and calculating intra- and inter-individual variations. (nature.com)
- All children were born at term with birth weights appropriate for gestational age and had not suffered from any significant health problems. (jcrpe.org)
- A multidisciplinary approach is recommended when failure to thrive persists despite intervention or when it is severe. (aafp.org)
- Evaluated the longterm impact of home intervention on growth of children with failure-to-thrive (FTT). (umaryland.edu)
- Rate of linear growth higher among children who received home intervention. (umaryland.edu)
- Ably, and several reported karyotypic a well-documented children entering foster care popu- health care, preventive health care tends to occur in and is failure to ensure that enrolled dergarten entry, the k intervention team begins children enter adult- fect. (wellchild.org)
- The kidneys are initially affected during the first year of life through proximal tubular damage followed by progressive glomerular damage and end stage renal failure during mid-childhood if not treated. (biomedcentral.com)
- The body weight of a person after ideal hemodialysis, i.e., of a patient in renal failure who has neither edema nor high blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Eventration of diaphragm is a congenital anomaly that results from a failure of muscular development of part or all of the hemidiaphragm. (peertechz.com)
- The current study introduces a case with adrenal insufficiency that was suspected to have congenital adrenal hypoplasia because of undescended testis and failure to thrive due to muscle involvement. (comprped.com)
- Here a 34-month-old boy case with adrenal insufficiency is introduced who was suspected to have adrenal hypoplasia congenital (AHC) because of undescended testis and failure to thrive due to muscle involvement. (comprped.com)