Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.CreatinineMultiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive: A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Delayed Graft Function: General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.United StatesRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).MyoglobinuriaCyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2012. 60(2): p. 330-332 Graham G, Lundy M, Moreno A (1983). "Failure of Gallium-67 ... Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria. In most cases of acute ... In chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, the most serious long-term effect is kidney failure. When the proximal tubule is ... Other conditions that may develop include hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. About 23% of patients have ...
He is particularly known for his work using micropuncture techniques to study the kidney's ability to concentrate urine, and ... that recommended government support for kidney transplants and artificial kidney machines for patients with kidney failure. His ... Throughout his career, Gottschalk published extensively about the kidney and about the history of kidney research. ... and helped set government policies that provided dialysis to patients with kidney failure. Born in Salem, Virginia in 1922, he ...
... filtrate This is such disease states as chronic and acute kidney failure in which the kidneys lack the ability to concentrate ... Therefore, unlike isosthenuria, this condition is not associated with renal failure as the kidney tubules have altered the ... Isosthenuria reflects renal tubular damage/failure of renal medullary function. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where ... Effects of alpha-thalassemia and sickle polymerization tendency on the urine-concentrating defect of individuals with sickle ...
High volume hyponatremia can occur from heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure. Conditions that can lead to falsely ... Normal volume hyponatremia is divided into cases with dilute urine and concentrated urine. Cases in which the urine is dilute ... Mild symptoms include a decreased ability to think, headaches, nausea, and poor balance. Severe symptoms include confusion, ... Cases in which the urine is concentrated include syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). ...
Loss of renal concentrating ability is a direct result of hypercalcemia. As hypercalcemia persists, mineralization of the ... and possibly kidney failure. It is considered to be single-dose, cumulative (depending on concentration used; the common 0.075 ... After ingestion of a lethal dose, the free calcium levels are raised sufficiently that blood vessels, kidneys, the stomach wall ... Cholecalciferol produces hypercalcemia, which results in systemic calcification of soft tissue, leading to renal failure, ...
Poor blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract may result in renal failure and stomach ulcers. ... They include disruption of the skin's sensation, ability to prevent water loss through evaporation, and ability to control body ... making the blood more concentrated. ... urinary tract infections and respiratory failure. Risk factors ... Herndon D (ed.). "Chapter 31: Etiology and prevention of multisystem organ failure". Total burn care (4th ed.). Edinburgh: ...
... thus reducing the kidney's ability to concentrate the urine. This means that psychogenic polydipsia may lead to test results (e ... chronic heart failure and cirrhosis. Tobacco smoking is an often overlooked factor linked to hypnoatremia, due to the ADH- ... Diagnosis may be complicated by the fact that chronic and extreme compulsive drinking may impair the response of the kidneys to ... Hypervoelemia, leading to oedema, hypertension and weight gain (due to the kidneys being unable to filter the excess blood) in ...
... and chronic kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease is found in about one-third of people undergoing long-term lithium treatment ... It is estimated that impaired urinary concentrating ability is present in at least 50% of individuals on chronic lithium ... according to one study.[28] Some forms of lithium-caused kidney damage may be progressive and lead to end-stage kidney failure. ... Kidney damageEdit. Lithium has been associated with several forms of kidney injury.[42][43] ...
... died of kidney failure in February 1918. According to: "Jim Fitzgerald ... among a number of relations of ... In June 1900 Melville met future stage magician Harry Houdini when he came to Scotland Yard to showcase his abilities as an ... His own section continued as a separate Special Section and he concentrated on looking for German spies. In August 1914 he ... Melville recruited more personnel for his section when it was attached to the newly established G-section that concentrated on ...
Elderly people and those who have heart, lung, or kidney disease prior to the injury are more likely to stay longer in hospital ... Pulmonary contusion can result in respiratory failure-about half of such cases occur within a few hours of the initial trauma. ... Chronic lung disease correlates with the size of the contusion and can interfere with an individual's ability to return to work ... When accompanied by a fracture, it is usually concentrated into a specific location-the contusion is more diffuse when there is ...
Renal failure (kidney failure) * is common in dogs and may be found in acute or chronic forms. It is defined by a loss of ... Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. ... Dogs are susceptible to gastrointestinal obstruction due to their ability to swallow relatively large objects and pass them ... Familial renal disease is an uncommon cause of renal failure (kidney failure) in young dogs. Most causes are breed-related ( ...
... or slowly worsening kidney function, called Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, (previously called chronic kidney failure and end- ... solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural ... dilutions of concentrated salts, while leaving the protein of interest inside the semipermeable membrane separated. The kidneys ... The decision to initiate dialysis or hemofiltration in patients with kidney failure depends on several factors. These can be ...
In the kidney, AVPR2's primary function is to respond to arginine vasopressin by stimulating mechanisms that concentrate the ... This internalized Gs signaling by V2R is explained by the receptors ability to form "mega-complexes" consisting of a single V2R ... congestive heart failure (CHF) and cirrhosis. Normally, when osmolality falls below its set point, plasma vasopressin levels ... V1Rs are found in kidney, where they occur in high density on medullary interstitial cells, vasa recta, and epithelial cells of ...
... kidney failure, or abnormal hemoglobin (such as that of sickle-cell disease). ... The ability of each hemoglobin molecule to carry oxygen is normally modified by altered blood pH or CO2, causing an altered ... artificially by concentrating Hb), advanced lung disease and certain tumors.[43] ... especially the delicate blood filtering vessels of the kidneys, causing kidney damage. Iron is removed from heme and salvaged ...
... kidney failure and heat stroke. So, it is important to drink plenty of fluids when you exercise or are outside in high ... Amazingly, if you move to a hot climate such as the American desert southwest or the tropics, your ability to produce sweat ... First, let's concentrate on how sweat is made in an eccrine sweat gland. ...
... of kidney failure at his home in Center City. In a statement, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called Shestack "a ... During much of his law practice career, he concentrated on involved commercial law and advocacy regarding appellate law. An ... "personal stature or legal ability". Shestack later acknowledged the remark had been disrespectful of Quayle's office. He longed ...
If complete obstruction occurs, a postrenal kidney failure (obstructive nephropathy) may follow.[2] ... Impaired concentrating ability or elevated urine pH (distal renal tubular acidosis) are also commonly found due to tubular ... the overall kidney function may remain normal since the unaffected kidney will compensate for the obstructed kidney. ... Permanent kidney damage can occur from prolonged hydronephrosis secondary to compression of kidney tissue and ischemia.[4] ...
Lipases allow for the degradation of lipids on the skin surface and its expression can be directly correlated with its ability ... Possible long-term effects are kidney disease. Hospital wards and, nurseries, and can be passed from person to person. Also ... Bullous impetigo, in newborns, children, or adults who are immunocompromised and/or are experiencing renal failure, can develop ... and ETD which act as a glutamic acid-specific serine protease with concentrated specificity. Which results in the cleavage of ...
This porcine nephropathy bears typical signs of toxicity to proximal tubules: loss of ability to concentrate urine, glycosuria ... However, it would be easy to go into excessive levels (Diet 1+), just by eating 200 g of pig kidney and 200 g of peanuts, which ... Patients over the years develop renal failure that requires dialysis or transplantation. The initial symptoms are those of a ... "A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ochratoxin A Inhalational Exposure Associated with Human Illness and Kidney Disease ...
... and acute kidney failure. If kidney failure occurs it is typically reversible, although weeks or months of supportive care ... Many hospital laboratories do not have the ability to perform this blood test and in the absence of this test the diagnosis ... death has occurred with 30 mL of the concentrate in an adult. In the EU classification of dangerous substances it is 'harmful ... During this stage, severe kidney failure is developing secondary to calcium oxalate crystals forming in the kidneys. Severe ...
The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ... It is found in especially high concentrations within plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is most highly concentrated in fruits ... Hyperkalemia occurs when potassium builds up faster than the kidneys can remove it. It is most common in individuals with renal ... failure. Symptoms of hyperkalemia may include tingling of the hands and feet, muscular weakness, and temporary paralysis. The ...
They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules, including proteins, RNA and DNA. This ability to bind ... Nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) can be caused by tumor lysis syndrome and also due direct effects of drug clearance by the ... Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes of resistance in ... Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied ...
Warren died in Chicago November 7, 1934, of kidney failure. He had a kidney ailment since October 27 and was hosipitalized then ... He had a reputation of "respected for his abilities and for his genial character." He responded by purchasing 10 acres (40,000 ... since then he didn't have to bother with social matters and could then just concentrate on his projects he was interested in. ...
However, the drug is cleared by the kidneys and toxicity should be monitored carefully in people with poor kidney functions. ... Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, has been found to restore both the chloroquine concentration ability and sensitivity to this ... the drug concentrates in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite and interferes with essential processes. Its lysosomotropic ... and congestive heart failure. The changes may be irreversible. Only two cases have been reported requiring heart ...
... osmolarity and ability to infuse peripherally. Incorrect IV administration of concentrated potassium can be lethal, but this is ... Other emulsifiers can only be excreted via the kidneys,[citation needed] creating a toxic load. The emulsifier of choice for ... Fatty liver and liver failure[edit]. Fatty liver is usually a more long term complication of TPN, though over a long enough ...
... their ability to jet quickly through the water, and their ability to hide. All octopuses are venomous, but only the blue-ringed ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The octopus has two nephridia (equivalent to vertebrate kidneys) which are associated with the branchial hearts; these and ...
... improves outcomes in human congestive heart failure (CHF) patie... ... Kidney Concentrating Ability. The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood ... heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease.". Treatment targeted to achieve reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type ... The disease process can lead to heart failure (HF). In HF, an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ... ...
5. Loss of urine diluting and concentrating abilities a. Osmotic diuresis due to high solute concentration for each functioning ... Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) - irreversible kidney dysfunction with azotemia ,3 months 5. Creatinine Clearance (CCr) - the rate ... Chronic Renal Failure. A. Definitions 1. Azotemia - elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN ,28mg/dL) and creatinine (Cr,1.5mg/dL) 2 ... kidney function is often reduced Not all uremic toxins are removed and patients generally do not feel normal Response of ...
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2012. 60(2): p. 330-332 Graham G, Lundy M, Moreno A (1983). "Failure of Gallium-67 ... Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria. In most cases of acute ... In chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, the most serious long-term effect is kidney failure. When the proximal tubule is ... Other conditions that may develop include hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. About 23% of patients have ...
... serious kidney problems; acute kidney failure and worsening of chronic kidney failure; severe liver problems including ... loss of ability to concentrate; hallucinating; extreme tiredness; seizures; numbness, heaviness, or tingling in arms or legs; ... their success at making money by betting on money with money that was given to them to keep them from reporting their failure ... hepatitis, jaundice and liver failure; coughing up blood; cough that doesnt go away; blue-grey color or darkening around mouth ...
Neveus T, Tuvemo T, Lackgren G, Stenberg A "Bladder capacity and renal concentrating ability in enuresis: Pathogenic ... Swenson RD, Golper TA, Bennett WM "Acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of phenylpropanolamine-containing ... Am J Kidney Dis 11 (1988): 357-9 ...
... kidney failure, seizures.. Common: suicidal thoughts, decreased sex drive, decreased sexual ability. Rare: rapid ventricular ... Common: Confusion, difficulty concentrating, euphoria, suicidal thoughts, decreased sex drive & ability. Rare: aggressive ... Rare side effects include a rapid ventricular heartbeat, a slow heartbeat, hemorrhage, liver failure, acute kidney disease and ... kidney failure and seizures. Zoloft users may experience dizziness, drowsiness, diarrhea, dry mouth, increased sweating, ...
Kidney disease is common in older pets, but renal failure can often be managed with dietary and medical treatments. ... In kidney failure waste products accumulate in the blood due to reduced excretion. ... Urine analysis is the key step in diagnosis, as a loss in concentrating ability is the hallmark of chronic renal failure. Other ... Acute kidney failure. A sudden, abrupt decrease in function of the kidneys results in the syndrome of acute kidney failure. ...
What are the three things that can cause the Kidneys ability to concentrate urine to diminish ? ... The ability to concentrate urine depends on the difference between osmolar clearance and clearance of water. This is the free ... It is used to estimate the ability to concentrate or dilute the urine. ... It is solute free water that is produced in the diluting segments of the kidney where NaCl is reabsorbed and free water is left ...
Dehydration may also result and cause a decrease in the blood flow through the kidney which then impairs the kidneys ability to ... Renal: increased urine output (polyuria), renal stones, flank pain, renal failure. Polyuria is caused by the kidneys inability ... Neuromuscular: Mild to moderate hypercalcaemia: muscle weakness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating, mild confusion, ... Calcium balance in the body is tightly regulated by the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and a vitamin on the gut, kidney ...
... significant problem is their ability to translocate mercury from the blood and other organs and concentrating it in the kidneys ... thereby causing renal failure. Whats more, most of the mercury is not in your blood but rather in your cells, and neither DMPS ... You get more of it in the kidney and the liver than you will get in the brain, but it does get into the brain. It crosses the ... About 60 to 80 percent … is absorbed … In test animals, we showed that it did the same thing and that it concentrates and it ...
... ) is an epidemiological, observational, prospective and mul... ... Kidney Failure. A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ... Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS. ... Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as ...
Kidney disease and failure, how to test for it and what signs to look for. Help your dog live longer through these diet ... I have seen renal values return to normal and even regain some degree of concentrating ability. The remaining portion of the ... Kidney Failure Symptoms In Dogs. In the early stages of kidney disease, youll notice your dog drinking a lot more water in ... Testing For Kidney Failure. A routine blood screen can detect kidney disease by measuring, among other values, the blood urea ...
Failing kidneys have a reduced ability to concentrate urine. Ultimately, this failure prompts the affected dog to drink more ... FEATUREDKidney Diets for Cats: What to Look for. Symptoms and treatment for kidney disease vary depending the specifics of the ... While an elevated body temperature (hyperthermia) commonly causes dogs to drink more water (polydypsia), kidney failure ... Untreated Lyme disease can result in kidney (renal) failure, and eventually, death. ...
A defect in the concentrating ability of the kidney can occur in diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure, sickle ... Nocturia (awakening at night to pass urine) may be normal or may suggest a decrease in urine concentrating ability or CKD. ... Persistent and complicated kidney disease such as glomerulonephritis, renal failure, systemic disease with renal involvement, ... Persistent and complicated kidney disease such as glomerulonephritis, renal failure, systemic disease with renal involvement, ...
Impaired concentrating ability of the neonatal kidney is probably of no clinical significance in all but the most extreme ... When plasma renin activity is measured in the infant with renal failure of hypertension, one must compare the result with the ... Smith HW (1951) The kidney: structure and function in health and disease. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar ... Potter EL, Thierstein ST (1943) Glomerular development in the kidney as an index of fetal maturity. J Pediatr 22: 695-706Google ...
Learn methods that will help prevent, identify, and treat Canine Acute Renal Failure and other Kidney related diseases. ... kidneys play a vital role in the bodys ability to regulate various systems related to hormones and toxins in the body. ... Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infections and to evaluate the kidneys ability to concentrate urine ... What does acute kidney injury mean? It refers to an abrupt decline in the kidneys ability to function, often due to a major ...
The increased solute load per nephrons impairs the kidneys ability to reduce concentrated urine. As the GFR falls to lower ... The kidneys can malfunction, resulting in kidney failure that may require dialysis or kidney transplantation. Doctors usually ... kidney failure affects the growth of bones. In both children and adults, kidney failure can lead to weaker, abnormal bones. ... Chronic kidney failure is a gradual decline in kidney function which may be explained in terms of a full solute load fall in on ...
The ability of the kidneys to retain water and concentrate urine is regulated by ADH, the osmolality of the renal medulla, ... with reports of evolution to end-stage renal failure (46), but the absolute risk seems to be small (0.5% compared with 0.2% in ... However, in some cases it takes several months or years for the full re-establishment of the renal ability to concentrate urine ... Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;489(5):832-7. [ Links ]. 18. McKnight RF, Adida M, Budge K, Stockton S, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR. Lithium ...
Not only does it improve our mood, the ability to concentrate, and be our best the following day, it is an essential component ... Uncontrolled diabetes has devastating consequences- blindness, stroke, heart disease, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve ... Over time, chronic oxygen-deprivation can impair the hearts ability to effectively pump blood. And, too, if a plaque ruptures ...
... a marked defect in urine concentrating ability, increased excretion of proteins [36, 54, 55, 57, 58], glycosuria (urinary ... J. Mårtensson, C.-R. Martling, and M. Bell, "Novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury and failure: clinical applicability," ... "The acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease transition: A potential opportunity to improve care in acute kidney injury," ... A. Bataille, P. Galichon, M. Wetzstein et al., "Evaluation of the ability of bone marrow derived cells to engraft the kidney ...
We here validated aquaporin-2-guided tolvaptan therapy in patients with decompensated heart failure. Long-term efficacy of ... it is especially indicated in patients with decompensated heart failure refractory to conventional diuretics. However, the ... and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, ... and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, ...
He is particularly known for his work using micropuncture techniques to study the kidneys ability to concentrate urine, and ... that recommended government support for kidney transplants and artificial kidney machines for patients with kidney failure. His ... Throughout his career, Gottschalk published extensively about the kidney and about the history of kidney research. ... and helped set government policies that provided dialysis to patients with kidney failure. Born in Salem, Virginia in 1922, he ...
In these cases, the kidney has lost its ability to concentrate the urine because of tubular damage. ... Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees. 2006-06-06. FP. Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee. Effective date: ... the specific gravity of a urine sample measures the concentrating and diluting abilities of the kidneys of an individual. The ... is the most severe example of impaired kidney concentrating ability. This disease is characterized by excreting large urine ...
Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium With Diuretics for Heart Failure With Kidney Dysfunction in renal ... is known to be associated with significant impairment of urinary concentrating ability and down-regulation of renal aquaporins ... With Kidney Dysfunction Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium With Diuretics for Heart Failure With Kidney ... Cause of acute kidney injury other than prerenal physiology (...) Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium ...
This page has a detailed explanation of how we diagnose and treat kidney disease in animals, especially dogs and cats. Early ... So, the ability to concentrate the urine and dilute the urine is an important function of the kidneys. It is a fine tuned ... Kidney Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease) or Chronic Renal Failure. Home•Kidney Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease) or Chronic Renal ... The ability of the kidneys to dilute and concentrate the urine is an important parameter to monitor. Water has a specific ...
  • Sodium levels in the body are regulated ultimately by the kidneys (it excrete excess sodium). (ukessays.com)
  • The kidney plays a central role in our ability to maintain appropriate sodium balance, which is critical to determination of blood pressure. (jci.org)
  • In many cases will be able to remove excess body water, the urea content, which is morphologically equivalent to sodium homeostasis in the neonatal rat kidney kidney int j dev biol a peng y kok k h risauand qin y distinct roles in protein binding domains tsukita colucio attachment of the intermediate mesoderm on the experience of the. (drpadgett.com)