Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.BoliviaTrypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.NitroimidazolesNifurtimox: A nitrofuran thiazine that has been used against TRYPANOSOMIASIS.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.BrazilArgentinaNeglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Amoebida: An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.VenezuelaSouth AmericaHelminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.GuatemalaHousing: Living facilities for humans.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).ParaguayCentral AmericaEimeriida: An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Panstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Pan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.MexicoAnthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.PanamaLung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.HondurasNymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Iodoquinol: One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.ChileAmebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.PeruCysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.El SalvadorHookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Communicable DiseasesEchinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.ColombiaAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.EcuadorTrichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Blood DonorsDisease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Saudi ArabiaTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Mice, Inbred BALB CAgelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Costa RicaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Detailed information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (curlie.org)
  • In the United States, chagas disease is considered one of the neglected parasitic infections, a group of five parasitic diseases that have been targeted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for public health action. (blogspot.com)
  • The first paper, by workshop speaker Nina Marano and colleagues of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), describes regulatory procedures designed to reduce the threat of zoonotic diseases to the United States. (nap.edu)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Agency for International Development' s NTD program have taken a leadership role in administering these drugs in countries that are affected by elephantiasis. (researchamerica.org)
  • The conclusions in this blog are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • In regions of the world where the disease is common eflornithine is provided for free by the World Health Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been reporting outstanding success in dealing with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with 1 billion people estimated to have received treatments in 2015. (news-medical.net)
  • It is one of the tropical diseases targeted for elimination by the year 2020 by the World Health Organization, which has spurred vaccine and drug development, as well as new methods of vector control. (meddic.jp)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) currently lists 202 disease groups as neglected tropical diseases. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization reports 11,000 people die each year from Chagas disease. (google.com)
  • Eisai is an active partner and signatory to the London Declaration, a global public-private partnership that aims to eliminate ten neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including lymphatic filariasis, by 2020. (presseportal.ch)
  • There are 149 countries and territories where NTDs are endemic, at least 100 of which are endemic for 2 or more of these diseases, and 30 countries and territories of which are endemic for 6 or more. (presseportal.ch)
  • Integrating neglected tropical diseases in global health and development, will be released the same day at the Global Partners' Meeting on NTDs in Geneva. (news-medical.net)
  • These kinetoplastid diseases also referred to as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries and affect more than one billion people, costing developing economies billions of dollars every year [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of diseases and conditions prevalent mainly in Africa, Asia and the Americas where they affect more than 1 billion people1. (who.int)
  • Most of these diseases, a mixture of parasitic, bacterial, fungal, viral and non-communicable diseases endemic in 49 countries on the continent and affect over 600 million individuals, representing 42% of the global burden of NTDs. (who.int)
  • In some regions of the African continent, socio political conflicts and internal civil unrest continue have aggravated the spread of NTDs and also hampered effective interventions to control and /or eliminate these diseases. (who.int)
  • Though these diseases are diverse in transmission, pathology and requirements for prevention and control, they are labelled as NTDs because they are intrinsically associated with poverty and are predominately prevalent in low income countries. (who.int)
  • The list of NTDs is not exhaustive as new diseases may be added to the current global NTD portfolio based on criteria8 for classifying a condition as an NTD. (who.int)
  • On basis of the main interventions needed to control them, NTDs can be broadly categorized into two groups: Preventive Chemotherapy (PC) NTDs and Innovative and Intensified Disease Management NTDs. (who.int)
  • With almost one-sixth of the world's population affected by the lack of access to proper medical care and to the resources necessary for prevention and treatment of tropical diseases, the consequences of NTDs transcend their direct impact on individual health. (infectiveperspective.com)
  • Although there is no risk of elephantiasis in America, there are other NTDs emerging in the U.S. such as Chagas disease, West Nile virus and dengue fever. (researchamerica.org)
  • Neglected tropical diseases, or NTDs, affect over 12 million people in the U.S. and 1.4 billion people worldwide, yet have historically received little attention. (researchamerica.org)
  • Moreover, there is an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), notwithstanding to the already high burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid expansion of trade and transportation during the Industrial Revolution resulted in the global proliferation of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue and chikungunya. (nap.edu)
  • There is no vaccine for the majority of mosquito-borne diseases, and no specific treatment for viruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, Zika or West Nile virus - there is a vaccine only for yellow fever. (rentokil-steritech.com)
  • Hence, host insects and general arthropods, which developed a way to coexist with such parasites, are a promising source for the prospection of anti-parasitic compounds, as alternative methods for the treatment of protozoa-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion , organ transplantation , eating food contaminated with the parasites, and by vertical transmission (from a mother to her fetus). (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 Both diseases are spread through parasites, and an infected person may present as asymptomatic (shows no symptoms). (ucsb.edu)
  • With one bite, these vectors can transfer the parasites into the human body and the parasites can cause serious diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • June 16, 2010 James McKerrow, leader of the Sandler Center for Drug Discovery at UCSF, was honored with the 2009 Mendel Medal for his work identifying the vulnerabilities of disease-causing parasites and for devising new strategies to fight them. (ucsf.edu)
  • They are caused by many different things, ranging from diseases caused by microscopic bacteria and viruses to large parasites such as worms and fleas. (dc.gov)
  • Trematode parasites of the Schistosoma genus are responsible for schistosomiasis or bilharzia, one of the most important parasitic endemias worldwide in terms of mortality and morbidity. (prolekare.cz)
  • The most recognized marker of acute Chagas disease is called Romaña's sign, which includes swelling of the eyelids on the side of the face near the bite wound or where the bug feces were deposited or accidentally rubbed into the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediate antiparasitic treatment is indicated for most patients with acute Chagas disease. (aafp.org)
  • Toward Improving Early Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease in an Endemic Setting. (nhi.no)
  • In the United States and in other regions where Chagas disease is now found, control strategies are focusing on preventing transmission from blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and mother-to-baby (congenital transmission). (google.com)
  • Onchocerciasis and Chagas' Disease Control: The Evolution of Control via Applied Research through Changing Development Scenarios. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Filarial disease is not particularly life-threatening, but onchocerciasis causes long-term suffering and chronic disease with life-long disabilities in millions of people worldwide, such as blindness, severe itching and dermatitis. (dndi.org)
  • The WHO NTD Roadmap, which instituted goals and milestones for the global control, elimination, and eradication of many of these diseases, is celebrating its 5th anniversary on 19 April 2017 and the report. (news-medical.net)
  • By 2017, the number of people receiving preventive treatment for at least one of the diseases should reach 1.5 billion. (who.int)
  • Toxocariasis primarily affects children and can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory, and ophthalmologic disease. (aafp.org)
  • However, it is crucial for family physicians to understand the basic principles of diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. (aafp.org)
  • Today marks another milestone in our longstanding commitment to the fight against neglected tropical diseases, and we are proud to partner with the Global Chagas Disease Coalition and its members to help improve access to diagnosis and reimagine treatment for people with Chagas disease," said Patrice Matchaba, Group Head, Global Health and Corporate Responsibility at Novartis. (novartis.com)
  • Evaluation of adult chronic Chagas' heart disease diagnosis by molecular and serological methods. (medscape.com)
  • Basel, Switzerland, March 14, 2019 - At the Annual Meeting of the Global Chagas Disease Coalition in Barcelona, Spain, Novartis announced that it is joining the Coalition as a member contributor. (novartis.com)
  • Two UCSF research papers this week are marking major breakthroughs in the effort to tackle schistosomiasis (bilharzia), a tropical disease that infects more than 200 million people worldwide and causes long-term debilitating illness and occasional paralysis or death. (ucsf.edu)
  • Schistosomiasis is a chronic, debilitating disease affecting more than 200 million people in the world caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. (prolekare.cz)
  • A group of parasitic, bacterial, and viral infectious diseases that primarily affect the most impoverished and vulnerable populations in the world and, as such, have received scant attention until the past decade. (kff.org)
  • Neglected Tropical Diseases constitute a diverse group of parasitic, bacterial, fungal, viral and non-communicable diseases7 and remain a high burden for the majority of African countries. (who.int)
  • Background: Chagas disease affects about 7 million people worldwide. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, cardiovascular disease gradually affects all segments of the population as better living conditions prevail. (wordpress.com)
  • When a disease affects only a small number of patients in the U.S., "there's less incentive for generic companies to enter the market," Alpern explains. (npr.org)
  • Despite these urgent needs, research and development has been neglected, because a disease that mainly affects the poor ranks as a low priority in the private sector, and the public sector currently struggles to undertake the development of drugs and diagnostics in the absence of adequate funds and infrastructure. (docplayer.net)
  • Chagas disease is on the World Health Organization's list of neglected diseases because it predominantly affects poor people in rural areas of Latin America, and because it has received little attention from pharmaceutical research and development. (blogspot.com)
  • Skinner-Adams, T.S. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The common bed bug (Latin name, Cimex lectularius) is a wingless, reddish-brown, blood-sucking human-parasitic insect that grows up to 1/4 inch (7 mm) in length and has a lifespan from several months to more than 1 year. (ehso.com)
  • Moreover, we discuss the future application insect peptides as anti-parasitic drugs and the use of non-hosts insect transcriptomes on the prospection of novel molecules for the treatment of parasitic neglected diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both drugs have limited curative power in the chronic phase of the disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Furthermore, resistance to these drugs has been reported, and a further complication is the diversity of strains over the vast geographical area in which the disease is endemic. (pde4npd.eu)
  • 3 The PDE4NPD consortium therefore aims to find and develop more effective drugs against Chagas disease with limited adverse reactions. (pde4npd.eu)
  • Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DND i ) is a collaborative, patients' needs-driven, non-profit drug research and development (R&D) organization that is developing new treatments for neglected patients. (dndi.org)
  • In fact, the past decade has only targeted 3.8% of the 756 new drugs approved in the US and Europe to treat diseases in the developing world . (infectiveperspective.com)
  • Resistance to artemisinin - currently the most effective anti-malarial drug - was reported in 2009 on the Thai-Cambodian border and has spread to other parts of Southeast Asia, underscoring the need for new drugs and a vaccine to effectively fight the disease. (ghitfund.org)
  • It's one of several drugs for "neglected tropical diseases" that are priced differently in the United States than they are in the developing world. (npr.org)
  • Tropical diseases : a manual of diseases of warm climates (5th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report, Integrating Neglected Tropical Diseases in Global Health and Development, revealed the role of political support, liberal donations of medicines, and development in living environments in leading to a continued expansion of disease control programs in countries where these diseases are widespread. (news-medical.net)
  • Further gains in the fight against neglected tropical diseases will depend on wider progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals," said Dr Dirk Engels, Director of the Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Neglected tropical diseases blind, mutilate, disfigure, and weaken millions of people in poor living conditions. (news-medical.net)
  • 19 February 2015 ¦ GENEVA - WHO urges affected countries to scale up their investment in tackling 17 neglected tropical diseases in order to improve the health and well-being of more than 1.5 billion people. (who.int)
  • Neglected tropical diseases cause blindness, disfigurement, permanent disability and death, particularly among the poor. (who.int)
  • WHO's new report, "Investing to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases" , outlines an investment case and essential package of interventions for these diseases. (who.int)
  • Early detection of some neglected tropical diseases will allow more children to continue school and adults to work while reducing the costs associated with treating more advanced forms of these diseases. (who.int)
  • Moving towards universal health coverage will ensure that all people have access to preventive and curative health services for neglected tropical diseases without the risk of financial hardship when paying for them. (who.int)
  • Some of the neglected tropical diseases are no longer strictly tropical," says Dr Dirk Engels, Director of the WHO Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases Department. (who.int)
  • Many countries have recognized the importance and cost effectiveness of investing in preventing and treating neglected tropical diseases. (who.int)
  • Novartis is a signatory to the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases, which aims to control, eliminate or eradicate 10 diseases by 2020. (fav-store.info)
  • Filarial diseases are the most devastating of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of social and economic impact . (dndi.org)
  • 2013. Neglected Tropical Diseases in the African Region. (who.int)
  • Tropical diseases directly affect more than one billion people in the developing world each year . (infectiveperspective.com)
  • In total, the 17 categorized neglected tropical diseases collectively account for a loss of approximately 46-57 million DALYs . (infectiveperspective.com)
  • Using the several combinations of search terms: "sanitation", "hygiene", "WASH", "non-communicable diseases", "chronic diseases", "neglected tropical diseases" and "low-income country", literature search was carried out in PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar without limiting the search to language or study year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But for medications that fight neglected tropical diseases, pharmaceutical companies have been slow to jump in and manufacture the medicine. (npr.org)
  • We have now identified nearly half-a-dozen neglected tropical diseases that are widespread in the U.S. among the poor, especially in the American South," says Hotez, who last year published Blue Marble Health , a book evaluating neglected diseases in America. (npr.org)
  • PO is a member of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme For Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Communicable Diseases Cluster, Geneva, Switzerland. (docplayer.net)
  • SLC and ADMB are at the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (docplayer.net)
  • Correspondence: Dr Piero Olliaro, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), WHO, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. (docplayer.net)
  • Pubic lice (often called "crabs") are a parasitic insect most often found in a person's pubic hair and spread through sexual contact . (ucsb.edu)
  • However, during the last 20 years, the pattern of neglected diseases worldwide has changed, as mortality rates are decreasing, while morbidity still grows on the population. (frontiersin.org)
  • As discussed in the previous chapter, trade in livestock, poultry, and animal products precipitated the emergence of several important zoonotic diseases, including H5N1 influenza and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). (nap.edu)
  • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) The National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases aims to prevent disease, disability, and death caused by emerging diseases (those that are new or just recently identified), and zoonotic diseases (those spread from animals to people). (phpartners.org)
  • Some zoonotic diseases make both animals and people sick. (dc.gov)
  • The best way to protect yourself and your family from zoonotic diseases is practicing good hand hygiene This is as simple as washing your hands for the amount of time it take to sing the "Happy Birthday" song! (dc.gov)
  • If you find wild animals living on your property, you need to take special precautions if cleaning up after them as they may be carrying zoonotic diseases. (dc.gov)
  • However some groups of people are at higher risk of getting zoonotic diseases. (dc.gov)
  • Although it may seem surprising, parasitic worms are included within the study of microbiology because identification depends on observation of microscopic adult worms or eggs. (openstax.org)
  • In this chapter, we will examine characteristics of protists, worms, and fungi while considering their roles in causing disease. (openstax.org)
  • Parasitic worms are organisms that can live and replicate in the gastrointestinal system. (iamat.org)