Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Rahnella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, small, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in fresh water.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).ShoesHearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.JapanHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.IndiaSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.MexicoChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Transvestism: Disorder characterized by recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing in a heterosexual male. The fantasies, urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other areas of functioning. (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.MoscowDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.CambodiaViolence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)PrintingInhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.PhilippinesVietnamAsbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.MiningDominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Respiratory Tract DiseasesHuman Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)PaintLead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.TextilesRespiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.PeruCoke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.BangladeshPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)PaperSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Lead PoisoningAir Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.ParaguayAir Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.ToluidinesToluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
  • Normative sex buyer behavior includes a refusal to see one's own participation in harmful activities such as dehumanizing a woman, humiliating her, verbally and physically sexually harassing her, and paying her money to coerce her to perform sex acts that she otherwise would not. (logosjournal.com)
  • For hostile sex-related or gender-related behavior to be considered illegal sexual harassment, it must be pervasive or severe enough to be judged as having had a negative impact upon the work or educational environment. (nap.edu)
  • The Human Rights Commission of Sierra Leone (HRC-SL) issued a report finding that the police employed unprofessional behavior and excessive use of force. (state.gov)
  • Biological sex likely impacts behavior to some degree. (prezi.com)
  • Interesting: 'Where the Bible mentions [same-sex sexual] behavior at all, it clearly condemns it. (wdtprs.com)
  • Martin, inveterate Jesuit homosexualist activist quotes this Methodist who suggests: "Yes, the Bible condemns same-sex behavior. (wdtprs.com)
  • It is not even imagined as a mythological alternative, since civilized behavior is so critically different in actuality from primitive behavior--as different as the differences between the sexes. (primitivism.com)
  • The study , to be presented at the International Congress on Love and Sex with Robots in Montana because we live in a world where that's a thing now, involved two experiments asking Finnish library patrons their opinions on the moral character of a person using a brothel either staffed by humans or robots in a short sci-fi story. (bigthink.com)
  • The most notable of these is, perhaps, David Levy, whose 2007 book Love and Sex with Robots remains the best single-volume work on this topic. (blogspot.com)
  • He reaffirmed his 2007 prediction, in his book Love and Sex with Robots , that humans will be marrying robots by 2050. (opendemocracy.net)
  • And do reports of awkward and tiring positions reflect the "weaker sex" or are women struggling to find the correct ergonomics at work stations designed based on a male standard? (treehugger.com)
  • Freda Adler, the first notable feminist on the criminology scene, rejected the thought that females are the weaker sex, innately programmed for nurturing, biologically predisposed to being good. (bitebackpublishing.com)
  • Chinese law treats most sex work-related offences as administrative violations, punishable by fines and short periods of police custody or administrative detention rather than criminal penalties. (hrw.org)
  • It was obvious that some of the workers who resumed for duty on October 11, 2016 were avoiding body contact with some of their colleagues hanging around the company's premises. (punchng.com)
  • This photo taken on February 1, 2018 shows a worker trimming the skin imperfections of a silicone doll at a factory of EXDOLL, a firm based in the northeastern Chinese port city of Dalian. (bigthink.com)
  • A proposed robot brothel in California is in the crowdfunding stage , Chinese scientists are pitching lifelike dolls as the solution for a society with a shockingly skewed gender ratio , and a TV show including sex robots as characters is watched by millions. (bigthink.com)
  • The brothel either advertises "You cannot tell our robots from real women" or "All our workers are real women. (bigthink.com)
  • A study out of Finland shows us that sex is sex and robots are robots, and the overlap is confusing. (bigthink.com)
  • Regrettably, philosophical investigation into the ethics around sex robots has not kept up with the tech or culture. (bigthink.com)
  • Philosophical Disquisitions: Will sex workers be replaced by robots? (blogspot.com)
  • Will sex workers be replaced by robots? (blogspot.com)
  • I'm going to focus solely on the arguments relating to the replacement of sex workers by robots, leaving the basic income arguments out. (blogspot.com)
  • Prostitutes will be displaced by sex robots, much as other human labourers (e.g. factory workers) have been displaced by technological analogues. (blogspot.com)
  • All the factors driving demand for human prostitutes can be transferred over to sex robots, i.e. the fact that there is demand for the former suggests that there will also be demand for the latter. (blogspot.com)
  • Sex robots will have advantages over human prostitutes that will make them more desirable/more readily available. (blogspot.com)
  • To defend the transference thesis, one simply needs to argue that sex robots can cater to all of these demands. (blogspot.com)
  • and it will be possible to supply sex robots to those who are unable to find sexual partners by other means. (blogspot.com)
  • The argument for the advantages thesis depends on identifying all the ways in which sex robots could be more desirable and more readily available than human prostitutes. (blogspot.com)
  • In the article, I list four types of advantage that sex robots could have over human sex workers. (blogspot.com)
  • Employment efficiencies at Amazon will tighten further with a target of 10,000 robots in its fulfilment centres (25 teams are competing in a 'Picking Challenge' to deliver the perfect fulfilment robot) and this raises an interesting issue around the moral highground in the human-automation debate. (mintel.com)
  • Relationships with Robots: Good or Bad for Humans? (forbes.com)
  • They're how we interact and control the technology, from self-driving cars to sex robots. (forbes.com)
  • For example, by making robots look like humans or cute animals, we may develop emotional affinity toward the machines. (forbes.com)
  • Her new book, Culture and Human-Robot Interaction in Militarized Spaces: A War Story , examines how bomb-disposal experts work and live with robots. (forbes.com)
  • Q: Your book is about robots, but it's very human-centered. (forbes.com)
  • When studying how people interact with robots in different situations, I use an interdisciplinary approach to understand the social dimensions of learning and human experience, including how we work and live with robots and other emerging technologies. (forbes.com)
  • I do place a primacy on the human part of a human-robot interaction, and I collect individual stories about peoples' experiences with robots. (forbes.com)
  • Q: Much of your research is about human emotional attachment to robots. (forbes.com)
  • While a lot of jobs, particularly those in factories, appear idiot-simple to humans, industrial robots have proven to be major disappointments in many applications. (anthrozine.com)
  • For most applications, the robots aren t smart enough yet and therefore the worker s job remains safe. (anthrozine.com)
  • While more than half of the top ten countries in robot-to-worker ratios belong to the European Union, 75 percent of the world's robots are geographically concentrated in five countries: China, Germany, Japan, South Korea and the United States. (ipsnews.net)
  • A number of anti-slavery organisations are working to end slavery at sea in Thailand and elsewhere including the Human Rights at Sea (HRAS) initiative launched in April this year. (maritime-executive.com)
  • HRAS is currently involved in a number of matters in SE Asia in support of national and international NGO investigations into the use of children at sea, slavery conditions on board fishing vessels and state organisations which may potentially be complicit in either turning a blind eye at best, or facilitating at worst, human rights abuses of children in the maritime domain. (maritime-executive.com)
  • The GOJ has already taken some measures (such as practically abolishing the "Entertainer Visa", used for the sex trades) to abolish some forms of slavery (not an exaggeration, see http://www.debito.org/japantimes110706.html ) in Japan. (debito.org)
  • The modern face of slavery can express itself in many forms: in the lives of domestic workers, bonded and forced labour in rural and urban areas, low-paying factory work, errand boys in offices, flower sellers at traffic junctions, tea boys in makeshift eateries and sex workers. (thedailystar.net)
  • This connection between child marriage and slavery was strongly asserted by an earlier UN Commission for Human Rights (UNCHR) study. (thedailystar.net)
  • places same-sex acts on the same plane as slavery. (wdtprs.com)
  • The reality is that slavery always has and always will exist in some form in every era of human life. (wdtprs.com)
  • A paroled sex offender, Spanbauer abducted and killed two girls, ages 10 and 12, in 1992 and 1994 as they bicycled on rural roads. (mayhem.net)
  • Hayashi's book includes testimonies from a dozen Korean workers and 11 Japanese, including guards and police, who recalled the systemic and brutal mistreatment of Koreans. (yahoo.com)
  • After the #MeToo movement opened a global floodgate of accounts of mistreatment, a former Chicago worker proposed a new campaign: "#WhatAboutUs. (nytimes.com)
  • and that, furthermore, Syndicalism has been consciously practiced by the workers of France, Italy and Spain since 1895, it is rather amusing to witness some people in America and England now swooping down upon Syndicalism as a perfectly new and never before heard-of proposition. (libcom.org)
  • After years of agitation and experiment the idea was incorporated by the first convention of the internationale, in 1867, in the resolution that the economic emancipation of the workers must be the principal aim of all revolutionists, to which everything else is to be subordinated. (libcom.org)
  • Concluding that Marxism "constantly learns from perpetually changing reality" and that it is the conscious expression of the real movement of workers towards self-emancipation, Mandel propose a formula which provides for a dialectical interaction between innovation and the verification of established tenets. (grenzeloos.org)
  • Amongst the majority of the participants oral sex seemed to be an uncommon practice however, those participants with hrHPV did practice oral sex. (up.ac.za)
  • Studies of sex work participants reporting on satisfaction in their jobs show considerable positive effects for many, including flexible working hours, good earning potential, and general job and customer satisfaction, and conclude that it is no more inherently exploitative than most unskilled labour. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The United Nations, citing Chinese police sources, estimates that four to six million adult women currently engage in sex work. (hrw.org)
  • Do specific aspects of population growth, such as age structure or sex imbalance, have bigger impacts on economic development and environmental quality than other aspects? (learner.org)
  • Therefore, the altered sex ratio raises a grave public health question: what is causing consistent biological changes in the human populations of so many industrialized and industrializing countries? (rachel.org)
  • Devra Lee Davis of the World Resources Institute (Washington, D.C), writing in the JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, acknowledges that any change in a complex biological process, such as sex determination, probably has several causes. (rachel.org)
  • Gender inequality is a major barrier for human development worldwide as gender is a determinant for the basis of discrimination in various spheres such as health, education, political representation, and labor markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • They're always polite, they always upsell, they never take a vacation, they never show up late, there's never a slip-and-fall, or an age, sex or race discrimination case," he said. (nytimes.com)
  • When our correspondent visited the Cway Food and Beverages Limited's factory located in Ota, Ogun State, it was gathered that 26 employees of the company had to endure serious discrimination and stigmatisation simply because they had been infected with Hepatitis B. (punchng.com)
  • Despite recent Sex Discrimination and Equal Pay legislation a sexual division of labour continues to exist and on the few occasions when that divide is crossed we read about it in the newspapers (the first woman judge, crane driver, astronaut, etc. (worldsocialism.org)
  • Pakistan constitution puts a ban on discrimination on the basis of sex in appointment in "the service in Pakistan", provided that the performance and functions of the job can be carried out by, and is deemed suitable for, both sexes (Art. (hr.com)
  • Thus sex is determined by tiny amounts of hormones circulating in the blood of the embryo. (rachel.org)
  • Previous studies, also conducted on Chinese factory workers, have suggested that BPA may lower sperm counts as well as increase the risk of sexual dysfunction in men -- health effects that are controlled in part by sex hormones. (huffpost.com)
  • BPA-which can be found in some baby bottles and water bottles, as well the linings of food and beverage cans-is known to be a so-called endocrine disruptor that functions "like a weak estrogen" and blocks male sex hormones (including testosterone), says the lead author of the study, De-Kun Li, MD, a reproductive and perinatal epidemiologist at Kaiser Permanente's division of research, in Oakland, Calif. (health.com)
  • Interesting article on how Japan's factories' abusive practices towards foreign "trainee" workers are coming to light. (debito.org)
  • Workers describe a mix of sex, swagger, suspicion and racial resentment that makes the factories - the Chicago Assembly Plant and the Chicago Stamping Plant - particularly volatile. (nytimes.com)
  • Such gangs traffic thousands of Burmese into jobs in factories, agriculture labor, domestic help or as sex workers. (hawaiireporter.com)
  • Sex workers who don't use drugs have little contact with these projects and are unlikely to be surveyed. (prostitutescollective.net)
  • Most, if not all, legal regimes decriminalizing or partially legalizing the practice heavily restrict or prohibit independent sex work, since the point behind legalization - as with drugs - is not to open up more to criminal operation of the profession, but to outcompete it with a much safer, regulated alternative. (rationalwiki.org)
  • And just like with the war on drugs, legalization is the only approach that actually champions harm reduction approaches to the benefit of the fellow human beings involved, often worse off without it. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Officials say it can lead to germs becoming resistant to drugs, making antibiotics no longer effective in treating some illnesses in humans. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Have not shared needles to inject drugs or for any other reason, and have not had sex with anyone who has. (santacruzhealth.org)
  • It can be passed during vaginal, oral or anal sex and while sharing needles or equipment to inject drugs or other substances. (santacruzhealth.org)
  • NHIS collects information about the health of the nonin- lion heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department stitutionalized, civilian population in the United States, using of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts nationally representative samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Levy discussed a line of robotic sex dolls to be released in 2017 that can speak and respond to touch. (opendemocracy.net)
  • While many of these practices violate Chinese law as well as international human rights law, the government is doing far too little to bring an end to the abuses or to ensure that women in sex work have access to health services. (hrw.org)
  • Aimed at workers exposed to lead, this training booklet presents the risks incurred, hygiene and preventive measures, and workers' rights with respect to occupational safety and health in poem form. (ilo.org)
  • In both rounds, the workers completed a questionnaire concerning demographics, health, and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • New Zealand decriminalised in 2003 with verifiable improvements in sex workers' health and safety. (prostitutescollective.net)
  • This Statement was prepared to give you information about hexachlorobutadiene and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. (cdc.gov)
  • This information is important because exposure to hexachlorobutadiene may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to hexachlorobutadiene. (cdc.gov)
  • They should also help to determine whether or not the effects vary with dose and/or duration, and place into perspective the possible significance of these effects to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates of levels posing minimal risk to humans (Minimal Risk Levels, MRLs) may be of interest to health professionals and citizens alike. (cdc.gov)
  • As these kinds of health effects data become available and methods to assess levels of significant human exposure improve, these MRLs will be revised. (cdc.gov)
  • No studies were located regarding the following health effects in humans or animals following inhalation exposure to diethyl phthalate. (cdc.gov)
  • Yet, the risks are enormous, it will take years to learn them, and when we finally know it'll be too late to reverse the damage if it's proved conclusively that genetically engineered foods harm human health as growing numbers of independent experts believe. (baltimorechronicle.com)
  • This document provides a framework and approach for public health authorities and investigators at all levels to plan for and conduct investigations of human cases of A(H5N1) (or other novel influenza viruses of pandemic potential). (who.int)
  • Together with other key resources, the Guidelines can provide all levels of public health investigators with the essential information on how to conduct an investigation of human cases of A(H5N1). (who.int)
  • Once again, to the outsider, these social mores and practices remain under the radar screen, and in the absence of trained social workers in the country, the health and welfare of the teens and young adults often remain hidden under the curtain of social taboos. (thedailystar.net)
  • The paternal grandfather was a retired health care worker. (vibeghana.com)
  • KFC says it plans to stop serving chicken given antibiotics important to human health. (hindustantimes.com)
  • This affects everyone, not just industrial workers: "proof" of the hazards of a chemical based on health effects in workers is often required before use of a chemical can successfully be restricted in consumer applications. (treehugger.com)
  • Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. (cdc.gov)
  • Some pimps, some sex buyers and some governments have made the decision that it is reasonable to expect certain women to tolerate sexual exploitation and sexual assault in order to survive. (logosjournal.com)
  • Archaeological evidence suggests that the present day territory of Russia was inhabited since prehistoric times: 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus, demonstrating the presence of early humans in Russia from a very early time. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study of Chinese factory workers suggests that very high levels of BPA exposure may decrease sperm count and contribute to other sperm-related problems in men. (health.com)
  • The Fund identifies organizations that are leading the charge for protection and enforcement of human rights, building on-the-ground demand for change, and feeding into global efforts to press for equality, justice and accountability. (globalhumanrights.org)
  • Without social and political equality of the sexes, the revolution would become a farce. (inkrit.org)
  • On 30 April 2000, the federal government announced its Labor Welfare Package for Workers making it obligatory for the organizations to offer gender equality and affirmative action. (hr.com)
  • The Federal Government introduced new labor policy in 2002 empowering labor courts to order re-instatement of illegally dismissed workers or award reasonable compensation in lieu of re-instatement. (hr.com)
  • There she met Parsons, who believed her to be the "elemental" woman that he had invoked in the early stages of a series of sex magic rituals called the Babalon Working. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving to Beaumont, she established a multi-racial occult group called The Children, which dedicated itself to sex magical rituals with the intent of producing mixed-race "moon children" who would be devoted to the god Horus. (wikipedia.org)
  • He regularly took sex workers into the Freetown State Forest to hold nocturnal rituals and sacrifices. (onlyinyourstate.com)
  • In the study, men who were exposed to BPA because they worked in a chemical plant for at least six months had lower levels of testosterone in their blood compared with those who worked in a tap water factory. (huffpost.com)
  • Specifically, chemical plant workers had reduced levels of "free" testosterone, which is the form thought to have the greatest influence on the body. (huffpost.com)
  • Women having multiple sex partners are reportedly at an increased risk of HPV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The momentous economic and social change in China in recent decades has been accompanied by a sharp increase in inequality and in the numbers of women in sex work. (hrw.org)
  • Women interviewed for this report told Human Rights Watch of arbitrary fines, of possession of condoms used as evidence against them, of being detained following sex with undercover police officers, and of having almost no hope of winning remedies for rights violations by clients, bosses, or state agents. (hrw.org)
  • At the heart of the research were interviews with 75 women sex workers in Beijing, including 20 detailed interviews with women between the ages of 20 and 63. (hrw.org)
  • Sex buyers don't acknowledge the humanity of the women they use for sex. (logosjournal.com)
  • Sex buyers commodify and select women on the basis of race/ethnic stereotypes via ethno-sexualization. (logosjournal.com)
  • This volume offers more than 150 photographs, most never reproduced before, of some of the 86,000 women serving the nation as WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), as well as factory workers whose presence was crucial in winning the war. (lavendermagazine.com)
  • The Government of Sri Lanka, however, did not condone violence against women or human rights violations committed by the security and police personnel. (un.org)
  • The «unnatural» domination of men over women was derived by De Gouges psychologically: the male, «extravagant, blind, […] bloated and degenerated, wants to command despotically a sex which possesses all intellectual capacities» (88). (inkrit.org)
  • Between 1979 and 1980, Carl H. Drew of Fall River was involved in the murder of three women in what was styled as Satanic human sacrifices. (onlyinyourstate.com)
  • They groped women, pressed against them, simulated sex acts or masturbated in front of them. (nytimes.com)
  • For the Ford women, the harassment has endured even though they work for a multinational corporation with a professional human resources operation, even though they are members of one of the country's most powerful unions, even though a federal agency and then a federal judge sided with them, and even after independent monitors policed the factory floors for several years. (nytimes.com)
  • Some women are suspected of gaming a system where sex is a powerful lever. (nytimes.com)
  • Sex also featured in a barmy way twenty-five years on, when in 1950 an American sociologist, Otto Pollak, opined that women are just as much involved in crime but generally don't get caught because - wait for it - they are used to deceit on the grounds that they fake orgasm. (bitebackpublishing.com)
  • To identify workers employment status, industry, and occupation are asked of likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data randomly selected adults. (cdc.gov)
  • For this analysis, an employment status variable was created based on occupation and industry were adjusted for sex and with three categories: currently employed, unemployed, and age. (cdc.gov)
  • The main registration deadline was in July, but officials extended the deadline for workers in the fishing industry until Saturday. (hawaiireporter.com)
  • Just being female makes one vulnerable to a wide range of human rights abuses. (opendemocracy.net)
  • this report documents arbitrary arrests and detentions, physical violence, and other ill-treatment of sex workers in Beijing, and discusses the national legal framework that facilitates these abuses. (hrw.org)
  • Because the information about uncorrected abuses in the nation's capital-where in theory law enforcement should be strongest-track with the findings of interviews from other parts of the country, Human Rights Watch believes similar problems exist nationwide. (hrw.org)
  • Now let's see if the government can hold more employers accountable for these emerging abuses, which they probably couldn't foist on Japanese workers. (debito.org)
  • HPV-associated HNCs are related to sexual behaviour, particularly the lifetime number of oral sex partners. (up.ac.za)
  • Sexual harassment complaints at Ford's Chicago Assembly Plant and a nearby factory have resulted in millions of dollars in settlements. (nytimes.com)
  • Estimates of exposure levels posing minimal risk to humans (MRLs) have been made, where data were believed reliable, for the most sensitive noncancer effect for each exposure duration. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates of human carrying capacity over the past four centuries have varied from less than one billion people to more than one trillion, depending on how the authors defined carrying capacity. (learner.org)
  • The Human Rights Center at the University of California, Berkeley estimates that at least ten thousand people are working as forced laborers at any one time in the United States. (aclu.org)
  • However, people saw the act of sleeping with a robot as less objectionable than sleeping with a human for both single and married individuals. (bigthink.com)
  • The act of sleeping with a robot was condemned less than sleeping with a human, except by people with very high scores on the purity/sanctity spectrum. (bigthink.com)
  • In Seveso, Italy, in 1976, a group of people were heavily exposed to dioxin after an explosion at a pesticide factory. (rachel.org)
  • Factory worker solidarity, cultural affinity between American rural people, tendency of geographically isolated classes like miners to be less tolerant of others than more integrated classes) Sex and Gender: Most evidence indicates that gender roles and expectations are highly, but not entirely socially created. (prezi.com)
  • Animal rights people, he said, know animals mainly as pets, and having been taught that humans "really are like animals," these people have a sentimentalized view of animals (O'Rourke 2004:1567). (upc-online.org)
  • Unapologetic about her same-sex relationship, Chand conceded that her revelation of being in a same-sex relationship led to people looking at her "differently" but insisted that it doesn't bother her one bit. (outlookindia.com)
  • 34). The constitution commits the State to secure the well-being of the people, irrespective of, inter-alia, their sex by (Art. (hr.com)
  • Across shift changes in FEV1 and PEFR were not significantly related to age, sex, race, smoking habits, work shift, or FEV1/FVC ratio. (cdc.gov)
  • "I had a mental check list in terms of race," said a London sex buyer, "I have tried them all over the last five years but they turned out to be the same. (logosjournal.com)
  • USPHS responded in defense of their policy that Burk had not adjusted for age, race or sex. (aarp.org)
  • What fleeting memories she does have from her life as a human all have to do with being dismissed for her gender. (nowtoronto.com)
  • Many companies choose to avoid the high cost of workers' comp by self-insuring or going through a 3rd-party insurance provider-especially in industries where work is inherently dangerous. (jrlawfirm.com)
  • It exists in formal and informal labor markets of both lawful and illicit industries, affecting skilled and unskilled workers from a spectrum of educational backgrounds. (state.gov)
  • To assess the effects of manganese on the functions of the nervous system in exposed workers in the shipbuilding and electrical industries, 75 male workers, 62 welders and fitters and 13 workers involved in battery production, were studied. (ilo.org)
  • Many of the industries that employ large numbers of young workers in the United States have higher-than-average injury rates for workers of all ages, such as grocery stores, hospitals, nursing homes, and agriculture. (123helpme.com)
  • City populations grow for two principal reasons: internal, human multiplication, and rural-urban migration. (lausanne.org)
  • it is important to note that the dose range is not, as is sometimes the case, orders of magnitude higher than that encountered in human population, nor is the body burden expressed as concentrations in bone orders of magnitude higher than that found in human populations also ingesting fluoride. (aarp.org)
  • Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its association with head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been established by many studies. (up.ac.za)
  • As of January 2007, more than 250 confirmed cases of human infection with A(H5N1) in 10 countries have been reported to WHO. (who.int)
  • This will help foster greater scrutiny on employers (and consumers) in all sectors, from agriculture and factory labor to domestic service. (wagingnonviolence.org)
  • The feature which distinguishes Syndicalism from most philosophies is that it represents the revolutionary philosophy of labor conceived and born in the actual struggle and experience of the workers themselves - not in universities, colleges, libraries, or in the brain of some scientists. (libcom.org)
  • Andrew F. Puzder, Mr. Trump's pick for labor secretary and chief executive of CKE Restaurants, extolled the virtues of robot employees over the human kind in an interview with Business Insider in March. (nytimes.com)
  • If you think sex workers "sell their bodies," but coal miners do not, your view of labor is clouded by your moralistic view of sexuality. (rationalwiki.org)
  • And the point is all workers deserve labor rights, regardless of the work. (rationalwiki.org)
  • TOKYO (AP) - For years, Yeom Chan-soon was haunted by the cracking sound of a leather belt eating into the flesh of a fellow Korean mine worker being punished for trying to escape from forced labor in Japan. (yahoo.com)
  • Sompong Srakraew, director of the Labor Rights Promotion Network Foundation in Thailand, says although the Thai government has taken steps to reduce the hardships faced by illegal workers, it still falls short of goals set by non-government groups. (hawaiireporter.com)
  • Untold numbers of human beings have been bought and sold over the ages, from Germanic tribesmen who were compelled to labor against their will in Imperial Rome to Native Americans forced to mine precious metals for the conquering Spaniards to Africans shipped across the stormy seas to work the sugar and cotton plantations in the New World. (anthrozine.com)
  • Given Man s callous history in dealing with human slaves, and his even more brutal and calculating one in dealing with those of other species, it s fair to wonder about what might happen if animals capable of doing more productive labor than horses and mules were to suddenly appear on the scene. (anthrozine.com)
  • The central principle informing the programme of research advocated by Blumer is that the analyst should respect and address the actor's point of view, which requires not simply employing qualitative rather than quantitative methods, but giving up the whole set of methodological assumptions that quantitative analysts use to describe and explain the causes of human actions. (socresonline.org.uk)
  • A study of work shift changes in pulmonary function in unexposed blue collar workers was conducted. (cdc.gov)
  • The teenage girl is intent on attracting the opposite sex and learns that to do this she should model herself closely on the image of what is currently deemed to be beautiful - she must be the right size and shape, wear the right clothes and use the right make-up. (worldsocialism.org)
  • The Justice Ministry suspect the firm's practice infringes on the woman's human rights in violation of its guidelines for accepting trainees, which is based on the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Law, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. (debito.org)
  • The international community must both understand the supply chains of the products used to provide a service (hotel sheets, airplane parts, medical equipment) and also examine the risks to those workers who provide them (house cleaners, caregivers, dishwashers). (state.gov)
  • Sex workers also face high risks of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. (hrw.org)
  • The term "anthropomorphism," which originally referred to the attribution of human characteristics to a deity, now refers almost entirely to the attribution of consciousness, emotions, and other mental states, once commonly regarded as exclusively or predominantly human, to nonhuman animals. (upc-online.org)