Mice, Inbred ICRDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Silver-Russell Syndrome: Genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by low birth weight, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, bilateral body asymmetry, and clinodactyly of the fifth fingers. Alterations in GENETIC IMPRINTING are involved. Hypomethylation of IGF2/H19 locus near an imprinting center region of chromosome 11p15 plays a role in a subset of Silver-Russell syndrome. Hypermethylation of the same chromosomal region, on the other hand, can cause BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME. Maternal UNIPARENTAL DISOMY for chromosome 7 is known to play a role in its etiology.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Inbred BALB CTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mice, Inbred C3HBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced: Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Octamer Transcription Factors: A family of POU domain factors that bind the octamer motif ATTTGCAT in enhancer and PROMOTER REGIONS to regulate GENE EXPRESSION.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Mice, Inbred DBACattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... or conduct experiments that exclude genetic variation as a factor. In contrast, outbred populations are used when identical ... Murine astrovirus was found in nine mice strains, including NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3−/−, uPA-NOG, B6J, ICR, Bash2 ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ...
To enable future studies on host resistance factors and therapy, inbred and outbred mouse strains were tested for ... Mice with genetic immunological deficiency and cytokine gene-specific knockout mice facilitate studies of the roles cells, and ... whereas other outbred strains (CF-1, SW, ICR) were susceptible. A BALB/c substrain (ByJ) was also susceptible. With exception ... The availability of genetically defined strains of mice, immunological reagents, cost and ease of handling are factors. Both ...
24). The most studied genetic rodent models of relevance to pain include the recombinant inbred (RI) CXBK mouse strain (25, 26 ... between SW mice from two different suppliers is likely due to genetic factors, because both populations have been bred in my ... ICR × SW) F1 hybrid mice revealed that male offspring displayed an ICR-like phenotype and female offspring displayed a SW-like ... Rodent populations of use for genetic analysis can either be produced (e.g., inbred strains, recombinant inbred strains, ...
... inbred BALB/c and outbred ICR wild‐type females, respectively. Accordingly, these targeted mutant strains are referred to ... Genetic studies in mice have implicated several factors in determining the cell fate and differentiation of major trophoblast ... A-C) Hsf1‐deficient mice exhibit growth retardation at birth. In both sexes of C,129‐Hsf1 strains, Hsf1−/− adult mice were ... mice in another hybrid strain (e.g. B6,129‐Hsf1) were similar to those reported presently in C,129‐ and R,129‐Hsf1 strains ( ...
"Does the prenatal bisphenol A exposure alter DNA methylation levels in the mouse hippocampus?: An analysis using a high- ... it is preferable to use inbred strain animals to exclude genetic variation among individuals in the analysis of epigenomic ... and closed colonies such as ICR mice and SD rats show genetic 50% in SD and Fisher 344 rats, respectively [41]. Further- ... natal environmental factors are the causes of diseases after CA, USA). maturation [22-24]. It is hypothesized that exposure to ...
Parental alcohol exposure has been shown to reduce global DNA methylation in the developing mouse fetus. This study explored ... Parental alcohol exposure has been shown to reduce global DNA methylation in the developing mouse fetus. This study explored ... These effects are not consistent between inbred rodent strains, suggesting a genetic contribution to the phenotype outcome. On ... Barlow, D. P., Stoger, R., Herrmann, B. G., Saito, K., and Schweifer, N. (1991). The mouse insulin-like growth factor type-2 ...
The C57BL/6 mouse is the most well-known inbred mouse strain, and has been widely used as a genetic background for congenic and ... Most of the genetic factors of NIDDM are yet unknown. Here, we identified two types of genetic factors that regulate ... We also injected Mol/MSM-1 ES cells into blastocysts of ICR or C57BL/6 x BDF1 mice and found that blastocyst injection resulted ... Wild-derived mouse strains can complement deficiencies of common inbred mouse strains, providing novel allelic variants and ...
2012) Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits. Mamm ... Cell intrinsic factors Genetic background The first indication of genetic influence on adult neurogenesis came from ... ICR, BALB/c, 129Sv/J, A/J, C3H/HeJ, and DBA/2J (Kempermann et al., 1997a; Kempermann and Gage, 2002). Significant inter-strain ... is differentially regulated by the genetic variation among different inbred mouse strains. The phenotypic and genetic diversity ...
Understanding the reciprocal genetic and epigenetic control between host and microbiota will be an important step towards the ... A genetic linkage study examined a cross between the C57BL/6 J inbred mouse strain and an ICR/HaJ-derived outbred line to ... A systematic study focusing on environmental factors and host genetic factors that together shape the complex microbial ... Another genetic linkage study used a genetic resource based on a mouse inbred line, which is commonly used to study differences ...
Apr, 2004 , Pubmed ID: 15133273 The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mouse, a new inbred mouse strain with a hereditary ... Our results underscore the importance of genetic factors in SSC self-renewal. Furthermore, application of genetic modification ... Jul, 2004 , Pubmed ID: 15297765 The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mouse, a novel inbred mouse strain with a hereditary ... Apr, 2005 , Pubmed ID: 15897628 ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mice are a novel inbred strain with hereditary nephrotic ...
NSG-nude mice are useful for studying the function of human TECs in disease models of type 1 diabetes, autoimmunity and ... p,,strong,Estimated Removal of Live Colony date: 16 July 2020.,/strong,,/p,NSG-nude (or NSG-Foxn1,sup,null,/sup,) mice are NOD ... "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or ... The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic ...
... strains. Noninbred mice are less expensive and include the ICR, Swiss Webster, and NIH lines. Inbred strains of mice are used ... because of their genetic consistency and include C57BL/6 and BALB/c [17]. The strain of HSV-1, mouse strain, and mouse gender ... Numerous stimuli that induce reactivation in mice and rabbits are described, as well as factors that inhibit viral reactivation ... most strains of HSV-1 reactivate more readily in inbred BALB/c mice than inbred C57BL/6 mice, which is thought to be caused by ...
These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. This strain is among the least responsive ... LG/J mice develop antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor as well as renal disease characterized by glomerulonephritis, ... LG/J mice are often compared to SM/J (Stock No. ,a href=https://www.jax.org/strain/000687,000687,/a,) for quantitative trait ... The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice. Elife 4:e05607PubMed: 26067236MGI: J:223755 ...
... inbred strain of mice were developed from a cataract prone subline (CTS) derived from outbred ICR mice (32) The NOD strain is ... When both NOD derived genetic regions were introduced to the SjS nonsusceptible C57BL/6 strain by crossing C57BL/6.NOD c3 mice ... Anti SSA/Ro (n=24) (A), anti SSB/La (n=24) (B), Anti SSA/Ro and anti SSB/La (n=16) (C), rheumatoid factor (n=22) (D), and ... 39 Mouse Samples Strains of mice used in this study were C57BL/6J, C57BL/6.NOD Aec1Aec2, and C57BL/6.NOD Aec1R1Aec2. A total of ...
Pregnant mice.. Outbred ICR strain of mice were purchased from CLEA Japan. At the age of 2-3 mo, female mice were pair-housed ... The second is caused by genetic absence of Ankiryn-repeat-and-SOCS-box-containing-protein 4, a factor that contributes to the ... we first evaluated its effects on the PE-like condition induced in nonpregnant female inbred strain C57BL/6J mice by ... We expressed Flt1(1-3) (7, 26) using adenovirus in nonpregnant female C57BL/6J WT mice and pregnant ICR mice, given or not ...
Our results with two different inbred mouse strains extend previous observations that genetic factors influence the development ... Male ICR mice (20-25 g) obtained from Harlan (Indianapolis, IN) were used throughout the study. Male C57/BL/6J and 129/SvEv ... 6). In contrast to 129 strain mice, C57 mice challenged with an s.c. dose of mecamylamine at 2 mg/kg produced a significant ... The development of tolerance to nicotine after chronic exposure was reported in different outbred and inbred mouse strains. To ...
Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... Spontaneous hepatomas in mice inbred from Ha:ICR swiss stock: Effects of sex, cedar shavings in bedding, and immunization with ... Environmental and genetic factors affecting response of laboratory animals to drugs. Fed. Proc. 35:1125-1132. ... Identification and genetic monitoring of mouse inbred strains using biomedical polymorphisms. Lab. Anim. (London) II(4):209-214 ...
ICR, NOD, 129 strains such as 129/Sv, etc., and mice derived by crossing such strains, e.g., F1 or F2 mice. [0057] In some ... technique can be applied using inbred or outbred mice as donors. The recipient oocytes were obtained from Black6×DBA2 F2 mice ... In some embodiments a transgene is targeted to a genetic locus that is not required for normal development of a mouse. [0058] ... For example, the gene could encode a cytokine, chemokine, cytokine or chemokine receptor, transcription factor, growth factor, ...
In contrast, studies in mice with disruption of single incretin receptors, or analysis of mice with combined genetic disruption ... Subsequent studies identified heterogeneity in baseline levels of DPP-4 activity in different inbred rat strains, emphasizing ... DPP-4−/− mice. Antigen-induced arthritis and plasma levels of the proinflammatory chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 ... significantly reduced ambient and fed blood glucose and A1C levels in diabetic ICR mice, in association with decreased liver ...
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... or conduct experiments that exclude genetic variation as a factor. In contrast, outbred populations are used when identical ... Murine astrovirus was found in nine mice strains, including NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3−/−, uPA-NOG, B6J, ICR, Bash2 ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ...
Taylor B (1989) Recombinant inbred strains. In: Genetic variants and strains of the laboratory mouse (Lyon MF, Searle AG, eds ... Hauschka TS, Mirand EA (1973) The breeder: Ha(ICR) Swiss mouse, a multipurpose stock selected for fecundity. In: Perspectives ... By using these residuals, we are able to factor out the effects of the five independent variables on cell population parameters ... Standard inbred strains. Standard inbred laboratory strains of mice are derived from domesticated hybrids generated from ...
Inbred and outbred mice were immunized with various recombinant P. falciparum MSP142 proteins that represent the two major ... A lack of understanding of the effect of pre-existing immunity to heterologous parasite strains may significantly contribute to ... immunization regimens demonstrated a strong allele-specific response at the T cell level in both inbred and outbred mice. The ... Malaria endemic areas have multiple strains of Plasmodium falciparum circulating at any given time, giving rise to complex ...
Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... and testes frozen and transported internationally to another laboratory by air could produce pups of inbred C57BL/6 mice. ... Lets take factor #1: Demographic Structure. I used % of population under age 15 as a proxy for this factor. The intuition goes ... Normal pups were born irrespective of strains tested (ICR and C57BL/6). Epididymides ...
... anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of ... anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of ... even amongst inbred strains of laboratory rodents, there is within strain variation in particular forms of maternal behavior ... communally reared ICR mice suggest that there are significant increases in hippocampal BDNF and cell survival in offspring ...
Compari- son of the effects of 3-methylcholanthrene treatment in two inbred mouse strains revealed a major difference in PAH ... transcription factors, that is, one of many proteins in the cell that controls the transfer (or transcription) of genetic ... Mice, C5BL/6J 24.4 daysc Mice, DBA/2J 12.6 daysc Mice, B6D2F1/J Koshakji et al., 1984 20 days Mice, male ICR/Ha Swiss Hurst et ... Appropriate genetic crosses between responsive C57BL/6 mice but in non-responsive DB/2 mice indicated that responsiveness in ...
... under the chicken β-actin/CMV immediate early enhancer promoter in an inbred C57BL/6J background [strain B6.129(ICR)-Tg(ACTB- ... is dependent on genetic background, with B6D2F1 and DBA2 mice expressing the mutant phenotype, whereas C57BL/6J and FVB mice do ... fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF, Wnt, Notch and TGFβ families, as well as factors such as colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 ... Mice were interbred with R26R mice and with a separate trangenic strain expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional ...
  • Methods: To investigate whether low-dose BPA exposure in the fetal stage can alter CpG methylation levels in the central nervous system, the hippocampus of the inbred C57BL/6 J mouse as the target tissue was collected to detect alterations in CpG methylation levels using a highly sensitive method of genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, methylated site display-amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSD-AFLP). (deepdyve.com)
  • Presently, we examined the presence, source and clinical correlations of IL-22 in human SjS patients and in the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1R1Aec2 mouse model. (ufl.edu)
  • Interestingly, in the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1R1Aec2 mouse model (currently considered one of the most phenotypically similar to the human disease) minimal to no IL-22 was present within the salivary or lacrimal glands, and levels present within the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes were comparable to that of C57BL/6 controls. (ufl.edu)
  • For these studies, the transgene was transferred by repeated backcrossing to the atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J inbred strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we describe differences in the cortical area map of two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The sample of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice can be discriminated with 90% accuracy on the basis of these three size dimensions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, suggesting that inbred strains harbor enough phenotypic variation to encourage a forward genetic approach to understanding cortical development, complementing other approaches. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Characteristics The C57BL is easily the most widely used of all inbred strain. (spotidoc.com)
  • The mean maximally preferred concentrations of ethanol were 17,9% for C57BL/6 and 6,8% for ICR mice. (spotidoc.com)
  • The consumption of ethanol represents a preferred source of calories for the C57BL/6 mouse (McMillen et al, 1998). (spotidoc.com)
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • In C57BL/6 mice selfgrooming and allo-grooming is observed (Militzer and Wecker, 1986) Drugs Susceptible to skin ulceration by DMBA (Thomas et al, 1973). (spotidoc.com)
  • Site-directed mutations of tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) about the top of adeno-associated viral (AAV) capsids have already been reported as a straightforward solution to greatly enhance gene transfer and in two different strains of mice, the outbred ICR as well as the inbred C57BL/6. (ivachtin.com)
  • For systemic delivery, 31011 VG total was delivered via tail vein injection into 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 (BL6) mice, which were purchase from Jackson Laboratory (Pub Harbor, ME). (ivachtin.com)
  • Evaluation of Y-to-F mutants and wild-type AAV8 and AAV9 vectors encoding luciferase in adult C57BL/6 mice. (ivachtin.com)
  • The mutant and wild-type Luc vectors managed with the CMV promoter had been injected via the Vegfa tail vein into 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice at a dosage … FIG. 5. (ivachtin.com)
  • Skin tumors induced by the subcutaneous injection of 3 - methylcholanthrene (3-MC) in New Zealand Black (NZB) mice had a delayed development and lower frequency compared with BALB/c and C57BL mice. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Twice monthly, and C57BL/6J wild type male mice (n = 18 per genotype) were subjected to the four limb grip strength test and two and four limb hanging tests on consecutive days, from the age of 4 weeks to either 8, 16 or 24 weeks. (techuniq.com)
  • RNA-seq was used to evaluate the psoriasiform phenotype elicited by 6 days of Aldara (5% IMQ) treatment in both sexes of seven mouse strains (C57BL/6 J (B6), BALB/cJ, CD1, DBA/1 J, FVB/NJ, 129X1/SvJ, and MOLF/EiJ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997). For example they reported that C57BL/6 mice exhibit exceptional complex learning while BALB/c mice exhibit poor learning responses comparatively. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • In addition, BALB/c mice demonstrate increased anxiety-like behaviors compared with C57BL/6 find more mice in the light/dark selleck compound test of anxiety. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • 2011) examined behavioral and physiological responses to 10 days of social defeat in BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • We used TALEN-mediated genome editing in fertilized mouse oocytes to create the Zurich-3 (ZH3) Prnp -ablated allele on a pure C57BL/6J genetic background. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we set out to overcome these limitations by generating a co-isogenic line of Prnp −/− mice in the well-characterized C57BL/6J background using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-based genome editing. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we employ 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to establish the native microbial composition of the vaginal tract in adult C57Bl/6 J mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we characterize the murine vaginal microbiota of the post-pubertal female C57Bl/6 J Jackson mouse over time to assess the composition and stability of the vaginal flora throughout the estrous cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice have short estrous cycles that last 4-5 days and consist of four stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus [ 25 ].To assess stability of the mouse vaginal microbiota in this context, we used one of the most commonly utilized mouse strains/ages and sources: post-pubertal 8-week-old female C57Bl/6 J mice, obtained from Jackson Laboratories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we contaminated powdered feed with 10-fold concentrations of MNV and MPV and fed it to both Swiss Webster (SW) and C57BL/6NTac (B6) mice to determine a 'powdered ID50' according to seroconversion over a 28-d period. (bvsalud.org)
  • To confirm the re-transmissibility of the mouse-adapted ME7 scrapie strain to ovine prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, mice of an ovinized transgenic mouse line carrying the Suffolk sheep PrP gene that contained the A₁₃₆ R₁₅₄ Q₁₇₁/ARQ allele were intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates obtained from terminally ill ME7-infected C57BL/6J mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study we explore the effect of communal rearing conditions (three dams with three litters per cage) during the postnatal period on offspring (F1) and grand-offspring (F2) anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Though Balb-C mice are often considered "socially-incompetent" and high in anxiety-like behavior, our findings suggest that through enrichment of the postnatal environment, these behavioral and neuroendocrine deficits may be attenuated both within and across generations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Key aspects of the IMQ response differed between the two most commonly studied strains (BALB/c and B6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although IMQ-induced expression shifts mirrored psoriasis, responses in BALB/c, 129/SvJ, DBA, and MOLF mice were more consistent with other human skin conditions (e.g., wounds or infections). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examination of the factors that regulate circulating enzyme levels in normal mice revealed that whereas there was no difference in resting enzyme levels among several inbred strains of mice (BALB/cAnN, NZBWF1/J,B10.D2/nSnN, and A/J mice), when mice were stressed by the administration of an enzyme load, certain inbred strains (BALB/cAnN) cleared the enzyme rapidly and others (B10.D2/nSnN) cleared the enzyme slowly. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Furthermore, mice and rats with genetic inactivation or inhibition of DPP-4 exhibit improved glucose tolerance, elevated levels of GLP-1 and GIP, and resistance to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain susceptibility and resistance to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced enteric tumors in germfree rats (40146). (cdc.gov)
  • Male rats and mice maintained on a low-carbohydrate high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) exhibited canonical markers of chronic stress, including increased basal and stress-evoked plasma corticosterone, increased adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropin hormone, increased stress-evoked c-Fos immunolabeling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and thymic atrophy, an indicator of chronic glucocorticoid exposure. (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, acutely feeding medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) to rapidly induce ketosis among chow-fed male rats and mice also acutely increased HPA axis activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • As a result, chronic stress typically leads to elevated basal/nonstress corticosterone secretion (which may occur despite normal nonstress ACTH secretion), habituated responses to homotypic stressors, facilitated responses to heterotypic stressors, overall increased adrenal responsivity to ACTH, and adrenal gland hypertrophy in rats (2-16) [Although the extent to which each of these effects occur can vary among species and/or rodent strains (10). (deepdyve.com)
  • The effects of oral administration of clonazepam, a new benzodiazepine derivative (F. Hoffmann-La Roche), on the central nervous system were compared with those of diazepam and several anticonvulsants in mice and rats. (isharonline.org)
  • 1) Clonazepam exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect on the locomotor activity observed with open-field situation in mice and no effect in rats, while it inhibited markedly the rearing behavior in both animals, the duration of action being approximately six hours. (isharonline.org)
  • Genetic models of this disorder have been created by selectively inbreeding rats for absence seizure-like events with similar electrical and behavioral characteristics. (bvsalud.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we compared chronic video/electrocorticogram recordings from male and female wild-caught (Brown-Norway [BN]) rats to recordings from laboratory outbred BN, outbred Long-Evans, and inbred WAG/Rij rats (i.e., a model of absence epilepsy). (bvsalud.org)
  • however, SWD bursts were less frequent and of shorter duration in wild-caught and outbred BN rats than the outbred Long-Evans and inbred WAG/Rij strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • In wild rats, SWD/immobility appears to represent normal brain activity that does not reduce survival in natural environments, a conclusion that logically extends to outbred laboratory rats and possibly to those that have been inbred to model absence epilepsy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spike-wave discharges (SWDs), behavioral arrest, and diminished consciousness are cardinal signs of seizures in human absence epilepsy and are used to model this disorder in inbred rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of oxatomide, an antiallergic drug, on the central and peripheral nervous systems were investigated, and the following results were obtained: Oxatomide at oral doses of 30-100 mg/kg produced little or no effect on the spontaneous and cooperative movements in mice, hexobarbital-induced hypnosis in mice, body temperature in rats, and did not induce muscle relaxation, the analgesic effect, anticonvulsive effects and anti-physostigmine effect. (isharonline.org)
  • Oxatomide at doses of 300 mg/kg or more produced sedation followed by an increase in the responses to stimuli in mice and rats. (isharonline.org)
  • Reactivation can occur spontaneously with virus strains known to be high phenotypic reactivators (HPRs), or after induction in latently infected animals [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Using phenotypic and transplantation analyses of mice carrying the mesenchymal dysplasia ( mes ) allele of patched 1 ( Ptch1 mes ), we found that Ptch1 mes homozygosity led to either complete failure of gland development, failure of post-pubertal ductal elongation, or delayed growth with ductal dysplasia. (biologists.org)
  • Inbred strains of laboratory mice can be exploited to study cortical area map formation if there are significant phenotypic differences with which to correlate gene polymorphism or expression data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1) neonatal microsomia is not always a risk factor for adult metabolic syndrome, (2) neonatal non-genetic microsomia displays changes in the expression of important epigenetic genes and changes in liver mRNA transcription profile at birth, exaggerating sexual dimorphism, and (3) random preimplantation phenotypic variability could partially explain body birth weight variation in isogenic lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomic, transcriptional, and phenotypic characterization of Prnp ZH3/ZH3 mice failed to identify phenotypes previously described in non-co-isogenic Prnp −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • As proof of concept, a candidate gene called Galanin receptor 2 (Galr2) in the Chr 11 QTL was demonstrated to be a pro-proliferative regulator of NPCs using in vitro techniques manipulating Galr2 expression and Galr2 knockout mice. (ubc.ca)
  • PDGF Receptor-alpha Deficiency in Glomerular Mesangial Cells of Tenascin-C Knockout Mice Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (jove.com)
  • 129/Sv mice have a normal lifespan and cancer incidence and are most often used to produce knockout mice. (docplayer.net)
  • NSG-nude females homozygous for all three mutations, and males that are homozygous for Foxn1 null , homozygous for scid and hemizygous for the X-linked Il2Rγc null , may be collectively referred to as homozygous NSG-nude mice. (jax.org)
  • Homozygous NSG mice are immunodeficient: they have no mature T cells or B cells, lack functional natural killer (NK) cells, have reduced numbers of lymphocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and are deficient in cytokine signaling. (jax.org)
  • Like homozygous NSG mice, homozygous NSG-nude mice are designed to robustly support engraftment human hematopoietic cells, human tissues and primary cancers: these include purified human CD4 + T cells (fractionated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMC]), hematopoietic cancers ( e . g ., leukemia), melanoma, ER+ breast cancer xenografts, and other tissues. (jax.org)
  • Similar to other immunodeficient strains, maintaining homozygous NSG-nude mice in high health status (specific pathogen-free) vivaria promotes overall colony health. (jax.org)
  • This strain is homozygous for Cdh23 ahl , the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, which on this background results in progressive hearing loss with onset after 10 months of age. (jax.org)
  • In the current study, we examined natural birth weight variations in inbred mice (homozygous at every allele) to determine how a single genotype in a similar environment may give rise to different phenotypes at birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are endogenous physiological substrates for DPP-4, and chemical inhibition of DPP-4 activity, or genetic inactivation of DPP-4 in rodents, results in increased levels of intact bioactive GIP and GLP-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in which all members are as nearly as possible genetically identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on the genetic architecture of growth in rodents suggest complex patterns of age- and tissue-specific gene expression where certain loci are active at one phase of ontogeny and not during other phases. (genetics.org)
  • s findings corroborate a number of experimental analyses showing ontogenetic changes in additive and nonadditive genetic variances and covariances for a number of traits in rodents. (genetics.org)
  • Genetic variation in QTLs on chromosome (Chr) 6 and 11 were significantly associated with the differences in NPC numbers in the RMS. (ubc.ca)
  • It locates next to the Zfp127 imprinted gene in the mouse 7C region, which has syntenic homology to the human Prader-Willi syndrome region on chromosome 15q11-q13, indicating that this imprinted region extends to the telomeric side in the mouse. (jove.com)
  • J:39320 Beechey CV, Ball ST, Townsend KM, Jones J, The mouse chromosome 7 distal imprinting domain maps to G-bands F4/F5. (jax.org)
  • J:47668 Caspary T, Cleary MA, Baker CC, Guan XJ, Tilghman SM, Multiple mechanisms regulate imprinting of the mouse distal chromosome 7 gene cluster. (jax.org)
  • For neonatal delivery, different doses of AAV vector (11010 VG/pup for the low-dose group, and 11011 VG/pup for the high-dose group) were launched into 3-day-old ICR pups via intraperitoneal injection. (ivachtin.com)
  • three coyote pups were inoculated with the brains from mice infected with 3 strains of n. caninum originally isolated from dogs. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Malaria endemic areas have multiple strains of Plasmodium falciparum circulating at any given time, giving rise to complex immune responses, an issue which is generally not addressed in clinical trials conducted in non-endemic areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phylogenetic tree was constructed using concatenated trimmed multiple alignments of 76 orthologous proteins shared among all 41 fungal strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The Foxn1 em1Dvs knockout allele ( Foxn1 null ) was created by the Type 1 Diabetes Repository (Dr. David V. Serreze) at The Jackson Laboratory using CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering in NSG mouse zygotes (Stock No. 005557 ). (jax.org)
  • The allele is segregating in the outbred stocks ICR and CD-1. (jax.org)
  • Analysis of the immune responses induced by various immunization regimens demonstrated a strong allele-specific response at the T cell level in both inbred and outbred mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the mice all exhibited decreased cellular and inflammatory immune responses when compared to control mice. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • The corneal pocket assay showed that angiogenic responses to VEGF and FGF2 were remarkably decreased in apelin-KO mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • The reduced responses to VEGF and FGF2 in apelin-KO mice were partially restored by apelin, but apelin alone did not induce angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • IMQ responses in B6 mice were most consistent with human psoriasis and best replicated expression patterns specific to psoriasis lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The laboratory mouse is a useful model for the study of host immune responses during active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease. (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus vectors with E1 deleted of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) and the chimpanzee serotype 68 (AdC68) expressing the glycoprotein of the Evelyn Rokiniki Abelseth strain of rabies virus were tested upon oral application for induction of systemic and mucosal transgene product-specific antibody responses in mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Foxn1-deficient mice have no thymus (lack T cells and cell-mediated immunity) with functional-but-faulty hair growth follicles (hairless ["nude"] appearance). (jax.org)
  • A lack of understanding of the effect of pre-existing immunity to heterologous parasite strains may significantly contribute to vaccine failure in the field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toxocara larval burdens vary between individual outbred mice receiving the same inocula, suggesting a role for immunity in the establishment of cerebral infection. (biologists.org)
  • The specificity of infection-induced immunity in mice infected with cultured or host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease, was examined. (asm.org)
  • In studies with a cloned strain (cN40) of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, active infection, although persistent ( 7 , 10 ), elicits strong protective immunity and disease (arthritis and carditis)-modulating immunity. (asm.org)
  • Protective immunity can be measured by challenge of mice that were passively immunized with small amounts of serum from actively infected donor mice (immune serum) ( 4 , 5 , 8 ) or by challenge of actively immune mice that were previously actively infected and then cured of infection with an antibiotic ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The attenuated chimeric viruses are effective as immunogens or vaccines and may be combined in a pharmaceutical composition to confer simultaneous immunity against several strains of pathogenic flaviviruses. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Oral vaccination of mice with adenoviral vectors is not impaired by preexisting immunity to the vaccine carrier. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is evidence for a genetic contribution as part of the underlying cause - which may affect alcohol susceptibility in the developing fetus (as reviewed in Ramsay, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because sPLA 2 is found in human atherosclerotic lesions 9 10 and a variety of in vitro studies suggest that the enzyme can promote inflammation, 2 we have examined the sPLA 2 transgenic mice for susceptibility to diet-induced atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effect of stress on susceptibility to influenza has been examined using several different types of stressors, primarily using experimental studies in mice. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • Analysis of the susceptibility of line B mice to two-stage skin carcinogenesis revealed that papillomas and SCCs arose earlier and in greater numbers compared with nontransgenic littermates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These mice had epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis for ∼1 week after birth and displayed enhanced susceptibility to tumor promotion by TPA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Resistance or susceptibility to the disease is dependent on several factors, including the strain of infecting agent, the degree of exposure, and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the prion protein gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • The focus of this review is to examine the scope of individual differences in pain and analgesia in both humans and laboratory animals and to consider what is known and what remains to be determined regarding the genetic contributions to such variability. (pnas.org)
  • Wide inter-strain differences and negative impact of age on the number of NPCs were observed in the RMS. (ubc.ca)
  • Heritability estimated ~50% of the differences in NPC numbers were attributed to the genetic variation among the strains. (ubc.ca)
  • Strain differences in LGN volume correlate moderately well with glial cell number ( r = 0.69) and less well with RGC number ( r = 0.35) and with LGN neuron number ( r = 0.32). (jneurosci.org)
  • 6 ] have employed gene expression array analysis of the dissected embryonic (16.5d) mouse cerebral cortex to expand the list of genes regionally expressed, and noted that regional differences in expression of genes in the cortical plate should eventually convert into functionally distinct cortical areas with anatomically distinguishable borders after birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Alcohol preference may be associated with strain differences in mesolimbic enkephalin gene expression (Ng et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Regardless of diet, adult mice born with microsomia showed a significantly lower body weight and size, and differences in the weight of several organs of microsomic adult mice compared to normal birth weight adults were found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This does not rule out that there are likely some pre-existing differences, but resilience and vulnerability to stress may be a dynamic combination of genetic and environmental differences impacted by stress-related adaptations. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • Importantly, there are also genetic strain differences in the behavioral response to learning tasks and stress responsivity that have been extensively characterized by Crawley et al. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • Differences in the response to social defeat stress in different strains of mice have also been reported. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • Numerous animal models have been used to study the phenomenon of HSV-1 latency, particularly in relation to the specific characteristics of virus strain and genetics, host response, and environmental factors. (hindawi.com)
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sPLA 2 transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of a 6.2-kb Hin dIII restriction fragment containing the human secretory PLA 2 gene into (B6×SJL)F2 hybrid embryos, which were transferred to strain ICR recipients and developed to term according to standard protocols. (ahajournals.org)
  • Parthenogenetic mouse embryos usually die before 6½ days post coitum (dpc). (plos.org)
  • First, the union of unbalanced complementary gametes in intercrosses of mice carrying reciprocal or Robertsonian translocations yield, at low frequency, embryos with maternal duplication and paternal deficiency for particular Chr regions as defined by the translocation breakpoint - . (plos.org)
  • 9 Similarly, apelin is a potent angiogenic factor required for the normal vascular development of frog embryos. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, using embryo transfer of embryos of different quality and age, we identified a putative preimplantation origin of this non-genetic microsomia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Injecting Embryonic Stem Cells into Eight-Cell-Stage Mouse Embryos. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • Amri A, Abdullah R, Embong W. Developmental Potential of Mouse Single Blastomere Derived from Isolated 2-, 4- and 8- Cell Embryos into Blastocyst and Inner Cell Mass (ICM) Outgrowths. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • Automation and optimization of multi-pulse laser zona drilling of mouse embryos during embryo biopsy.IEEE. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • Alexandrova S, Kalkan T, Humphreys P, Riddell A, Scognamiglio R, Trumpp A, Nichols J. Selection and dynamics of embryonic stem cell integration into early mouse embryos. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • J:28401 Bettenhausen B, Gossler A, Efficient isolation of novel mouse genes differentially expressed in early postimplantation embryos. (jax.org)
  • Taken together, these observations indicate that a tailored genetic vaccine based on a bacterial protein can be used to confer protection against plague in mice without resorting to regimens involving the use of purified proteins. (asm.org)
  • Altered tissue interactions mediated by these local growth factors and their receptors contribute significantly to breast pathologies including mastitis and cancer. (biologists.org)
  • Results Treatment with rapamycin significantly inhibited age-related weight gain in female mice (Fig. 1A). (docplayer.net)
  • mice that received rapamycin demonstrated a significantly smaller weight increase. (docplayer.net)
  • Apelin-KO mice showed significantly impaired retinal vascularization in the early postnatal period. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lastly, and consistent with a growing literature that characterizes the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) as both a marker of the ketotic state and as a key metabolic stress hormone, the HPA response to both KD and MCTs was significantly blunted among mice lacking FGF21. (deepdyve.com)
  • PM21 showed a strong antithrombotic effect by reducing significantly the length of mouse tail thrombus. (bireme.br)
  • STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. (bireme.br)
  • Intro Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been increasingly used like a vector of choice for gene delivery and gene therapy for many genetic diseases, such as hemophilia B (Manno and (Zhong MgCl2) at space temperature for 6 to 8 8?hr or at Ataluren 4C over night, vector genome copy titers were determined by DNA dot blot and confirmed by quantitative PCR. (ivachtin.com)
  • Both vectors induced systemic and mucosal antibodies to rabies virus, including virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection against a severe intracerebral challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of rabies virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Paternal Expression of a Novel Imprinted Gene, Peg12/Frat3, in the Mouse 7C Region Homologous to the Prader-Willi Syndrome Region Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (jove.com)
  • The present study demonstrates that our mouse nicotine withdrawal model will be useful for studying the pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In particular, a mouse model offers several possibilities for exploring the underlying mechanisms of nicotine dependence and abstinence by using the transgenic and genetic mouse models available along with the pharmacological and biochemical approaches. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was originally thought to be caused by a single prion strain, based on analysis of its biological and biochemical characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Murine norovirus (MNV) and mouse parvovirus (MPV) are among the most common adventitial viruses seen in laboratory mice, and infections arise in barrier facilities despite rigorous biosecurity programs. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, the use of new drugs in the therapy of a parasitic infection, trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), is being studied in vitro and in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • Adenovirus-mediated Gene Delivery and in Vitro Microinsemination Produce Offspring from Infertile Male Mice Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
  • Although DPP-4 cleaves dozens of regulatory peptides and chemokines in vitro, studies of mice with genetic inactivation of incretin receptors demonstrate that GIP and GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathways represent the dominant mechanisms transducing the glucoregulatory actions of DPP-4 inhibitors in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have studied the factors that affect transcription termination in vitro at the tR2 terminator of bacteriophage lambda and at the T1 terminator of the Escherichia coli rrnB operon. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • NSG-nude mice are useful for studying the function of human TECs in disease models of type 1 diabetes, autoimmunity and transplantation. (jax.org)
  • Transplantation of ovarian tissue is a valuable method to rescue mouse strains with fertility problems and to revitalize archived strains. (springer.com)
  • Sera obtained from mice following infection with high and low doses of cultured B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, transplantation of infected tissue (host-adapted spirochetes), or tick-borne inoculation all showed protective activity in passive immunization assays. (asm.org)
  • Infection and disease were similar in mice infected with cultured spirochetes or by transplantation. (asm.org)
  • Arthritis and carditis in mice that had immunizing infections with B. afzelii and B. garinii and then challenged by transplantation with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were equivalent in prevalence and severity to those in nonimmune recipient mice. (asm.org)
  • As determined with immunoblots against cultured B. burgdorferi lysate antigen, the antibody response in mice infected following inoculation with low doses of spirochetes is similar to that in mice infected with tick-borne spirochetes as well as that in mice infected with host-adapted spirochetes introduced by transplantation of infected tissue ( 9 , 15 , 27 , 38 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • We screened 64,424 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized great-grandsires for weight abnormalities. (biologists.org)
  • This strain exhibits a naturally occurring null mutation of the group IIa sPLA 2 gene, providing a clear contrast for the effects of the transgene. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to natural selection, where populations are never strictly "replicated," experimental evolution routinely includes replicate lines so that selection signatures-genomic regions showing excessive differentiation between treatments-can be separated from possible founder effects, genetic drift, and multiple adaptive solutions. (genetics.org)
  • Relatively insensitive to the primary odorant isovaleric acid (contrast seven other strains) and may provide an animal model of specific anosmia (Wysocki et al, 1977). (spotidoc.com)
  • In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Classical hormone ablation/replacement experiments, and more-recent genetic analyses in mice, have shown that post-pubertal gland development requires systemic hormones from ovary [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)], pituitary [growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)] and adrenal gland (glucocorticoids) ( Topper and Freeman, 1980 ). (biologists.org)
  • Compared with nontransgenic littermates, the transgenic mice exhibited dramatically increased atherosclerotic lesions when maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • On both chow and atherogenic diets, the transgenic mice exhibited decreased levels of HDLs and slightly increased levels of LDLs compared with nontransgenic littermates. (ahajournals.org)
  • The lipoprotein profiles of the transgenic mice appeared to be more pro-atherogenic than those of nontransgenic littermates, and the transgenic mice exhibited markedly reduced levels of paraoxonase, an enzyme associated with HDL that protects against LDL oxidation. (ahajournals.org)
  • To directly test this in vivo , we have generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative TGF-βRII (ΔβRII) in the epidermis, using a truncated mouse loricrin promoter (ML). ML.ΔβRII transgenic mice exhibited a thickened skin due to epidermal hyperproliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccination of mice with deF1 DNA conferred protection against subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain, even at challenge amounts as high as 4,000 50% lethal doses. (asm.org)
  • Immunization with multiple doses of F1 has been shown to protect mice against subcutaneous challenge with wild-type Y. pestis ( 3 , 38 ), and a combined formulation containing F1 and V antigen confers protection against airborne infection ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • to identify risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in dairy herds in québec and to estimate seroprevalence in case and control herds. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Toxocara canis is a parasitic nematode that infects canines worldwide, and as a consequence of the widespread environmental dissemination of its ova in host faeces, other abnormal hosts including mice and humans are exposed to infection. (biologists.org)
  • A phenomenon of potential public health significance in humans and of ecological significance in mice is that T. canis larvae exhibit neurotrophic behaviour, which results in a greater concentration of parasites in the brain, as infection progresses. (biologists.org)
  • Widespread environmental contamination of the environment, with eggs shed in host faeces, facilitates infection of so-called abnormal or paratenic hosts including mice and humans ( Holland and Smith, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the anti-malarial activity of Euphorbia abyssinica root extract against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice infected with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and then cured of infection with an antibiotic during early or late stages of infection were resistant to challenge with high doses of homologous cultured spirochetes for up to 1 year. (asm.org)
  • When low doses (≤10 4 ) of cultured spirochetes are used to infect mice or when mice are infected by tick-borne inoculation, the input antigenic load is sufficiently small that the immune response that ensues from the active infection reflects the host response to antigens expressed in vivo by spirochetes that have replicated and disseminated in the host ( 9 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • In the mouse, mammary gland development begins at about embryonic day 10 (E10) with the induction of the milk line, along which the five pairs of mammary glands will be placed. (biologists.org)
  • We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can be adapted to any pathway that acts via DNA elements. (biologists.org)
  • 8 During mouse and frog embryonic development, the APJ receptor is highly expressed in endothelial precursor cells and in nascent vascular structures. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, all currently available Prnp −/− lines were generated in embryonic stem cells from the 129 strain of the laboratory mouse and mostly crossed to non-129 strains. (rupress.org)
  • The second confounder depends on the embryonic stem (ES) cells and breeding schemes used for the generation of Prnp −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic regulation shows that initially fetal development is under control of the maternal genome but the fetal genome itself assumes control followed by age- and tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. (genetics.org)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (ageing-map.org)
  • In most strains, IMQ altered gene expression in a manner consistent with human psoriasis, partly due to innate immune activation and decreased homeostatic gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, to date there is scarce evidence to suggest that naturally (non-genetic) occurring low birth weight may have a negative long term effect, and we lack data on the subsequent characteristics developed by each sex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The morphological characteristics of the PrP Sc of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. (bireme.br)
  • Systemic hormones and local growth factor-mediated tissue interactions are essential for mammary gland development. (biologists.org)
  • 8-10,16 TOR accelerates aging in diverse organisms, from worms to mammals In mammals, mtor (mammalian TOR) controls cellular mass growth, functions and metabolism in response to nutrients, hormones, cytokines and growth factors Rapamycin decelerates senescence in normal 9 and progeric 29 human cells. (docplayer.net)
  • Birth weight variation was similar in inbred and outbred lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present review covers the relevant PubMed literature and cancer incidence data from various sources, highlighting similarities and variation in the different cancer types, with attempts to explain disparities with reference to possible environmental factors. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Among the 16 loci, markers for 10 loci could be amplified from all 12 international standard strains of Trichinella spp. (springer.com)
  • As hypothesized, mice were infected by contaminated rodent feed despite the pelleting process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understanding the reciprocal genetic and epigenetic control between host and microbiota will be an important step towards the development of novel therapies against microbiome-driven diseases. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Through a transcriptome analysis, we detected a different pattern of mRNA transcription in the liver at birth comparing male vs female and microsomic vs normal mice, noting some modifications in epigenetic regulatory genes in females and modifications in some growth factor genes in males. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, advancements in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of drug addiction and the pharmacogenetics of the safety and/or efficacy of the medications are providing opportunities for more individualized pharmacotherapy approaches. (isharonline.org)
  • Epigenetic modifications in response to traumatic experience and stress are emerging as important factors in the long-term biological trajectories leading to stress-related psychiatric disorders, reflecting both environmental influences as well as individual genetic predisposition. (isharonline.org)
  • After immunization, nearly all antigen-specific GC B cells in allotype-marked mice in which the alleles were able to class switch (50% locus. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • To assess whether HSF1 exhibited redundant or unique in vivo functions, we created Hsf1 −/− deficient mice. (embopress.org)
  • In order to better understand the in vivo function of IL-22, a mouse model is needed which mimics similar overexpression patterns to human SjS patients. (ufl.edu)
  • Apelin is a potent angiogenic factor in 2 in vivo angiogenesis assays, the frog embryo and the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo antithrombotic effect of PM21 was observed from a carrageenan induced mouse tail thrombosis model. (bireme.br)
  • In the SJL/J strain, the incidence of tumors was lower than in the NZB, but with the same delayed development. (worldwidescience.org)
  • more than one third of the tumors in the NZB mice were squamous cell carcinomas. (worldwidescience.org)
  • 3-MC injection and the presence of skin tumors had no influence on the development of glomerulonephritis or hematopoietic neoplasms in the NZB mice. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Patient-derived xenografts (PDX), which are established by the transfer of patient tumors into immunodeficient mice, serve as a platform for co-clinical trials by enabling the integration of clinical data, genomic profiles, and drug responsiveness data to determine precisely targeted therapies. (molcells.org)
  • Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, an angiogenesis factor, and decreased expression of thrombospondin-1, an angiogenesis inhibitor, were also observed in ML.ΔβRII tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disease-associated prion protein (PrP Sc ) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, a question regarding batteries is whether one can expect a consistent individual behavioural phenotype in mice across tests that can be presumed to be part of the same construct. (cambridge.org)
  • Imiquimod (IMQ) produces a cutaneous phenotype in mice frequently studied as an acute model of human psoriasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice were bred in the Experimental Animal Facility of the Leiden University Medical Center. (techuniq.com)
  • It is not unusual for either the strain or sex of experimental animals to go unreported in published research [ 8 ], and the question of whether mechanistic findings are sensitive to genetic background or sex is seldom addressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because basal Hsp expression is not altered appreciably by the HSF1 null mutation, our findings suggest that this factor, like Drosophila Hsf protein, might be involved in regulating other important genes or signaling pathways. (embopress.org)
  • Their expression is often regulated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) protein binding at imprinting control regions (ICRs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Signaling centers release morphogens that determine regional growth and tissue identity by regulating regional expression of transcription factors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Their small size could involve inactivity of Igf2 , encoding a growth factor, with some contribution by over-expression of Cdkn1c , encoding a negative growth regulator. (plos.org)
  • 11 In a mouse model of hypoxia-induced retinopathy of prematurity, APJ mRNA transcripts are localized in endothelial cells, and their expression traces the centripetal extension of the retinal network from the periphery of the retina to the optic disc. (ahajournals.org)
  • The response of MOLF males was aberrant, however, with decreased expression of differentiation-associated genes (elevated in other strains). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the current study, we generated c-src transgenic mice with targeted expression in the basal layer of the epidermis to obtain transgenic mice with a more persistent phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Differential cytokine expression and other brain injury-associated biomarkers have been observed in infected versus uninfected outbred and inbred mice. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we observed that BCG increased the expression of hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). (paulthomasmd.com)
  • J:106102 Carter AM, Nygard K, Mazzuca DM, Han VK, The expression of insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding protein mRNAs in mouse placenta. (jax.org)
  • Does the prenatal bisphenol A exposure alter DNA methylation levels in the mouse hippocampus? (deepdyve.com)
  • The heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) gene belongs to a family of vertebrate HSF transactivators, and encodes the orthologous protein found across the eukaryotic phyla ( Morimoto, 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • however, elevated human src wt protein in the epidermis of line B mice was clearly evident. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sperm function, protein phosphorylation and metabolism differ in mice lacking successive sperm-specific glycolytic enzymes. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • The complete protein-coding DNA sequence (CDS) for mouse PrP C is located within exon 3 of the Prnp gene. (rupress.org)
  • Transcriptional activator proteins interact with the general transcription factors TATA-binding protein (TBP), TFIIB and/or other TBP-associated factors (TAFs). (statescale.cf)
  • Kozhevnikova E.N., Leshchenko A.E., Pindyurin A.V. An Inducible DamID System for Profiling Interactions of Nuclear Lamina Protein Component Lamin B1 with Chromosomes in Mouse Cells // Biochemistry (Moscow). (nsc.ru)
  • To examine the role of misexpressions determined by two maternal copies of the Igf2 / H19 imprinting control region (ICR)-a chromatin insulator, we introduced a mutant ICR (ICR Δ ) into MatDup.dist7 fetuses. (plos.org)
  • We investigated the involvement of two maternal copies of the Igf2 / H19 imprinting control region (ICR), which is associated with lack of activity of the Igf2 gene, encoding a growth factor, and over-activity of H19 . (plos.org)
  • By introducing a mutant ICR, we activated Igf2 and expected to correct other misexpressions, such as that of H19 . (plos.org)
  • Half ovaries from B6 donors were transferred into immunodeficient mice. (springer.com)
  • 20. The method of claim 19, wherein said two step cloning comprises introducing ES cells into mouse tetraploid blastocysts by injection under conditions that result in production of an embryo. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • When these mice were subjected to a standard two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol, they exhibited an increased sensitivity, with an earlier appearance and a 2-fold greater number of papillomas than control mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, TPA promotion alone induced papilloma formation in ML.ΔβRII mice, which suggests an initiating role for ΔβRII in skin carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • (11) recently reported that mice hemizygous for the TGF-β1 gene showed accelerated chemical carcinogenesis in the liver and lung, indicating that TGF-β1 is a tumor suppressor with haploid-insufficiency. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We revealed that PAX6 accomplishes its role through a unique regulatory interaction with the transcription factor MITF, a master regulator of the pigmentation program. (prolekare.cz)
  • These findings provide comprehensive insight into the gene hierarchy that controls RPE development: from a kernel gene (a term referring to the upper-most gene in the gene regulatory network) that is broadly expressed during CNS development through a lineage-specific transcription factor that together with the kernel gene creates cis-regulatory input that contributes to transcriptionally activate a battery of terminal differentiation genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • 5 ] demonstrated changes in the position and or size of primary sensory visual, somatosensory, and auditory cortical regions in transgenic mice over expressing the transcription factor Emx2 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor family. (biologists.org)
  • J:120667 Bouzin C, Clotman F, Renauld JC, Lemaigre FP, Rousseau GG, The onecut transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 controls B lymphopoiesis in fetal liver. (jax.org)