Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.United StatesPatient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).EnglandHospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overCost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Hospitalists: Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Intermediate Care Facilities: Institutions which provide health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care which hospitals or skilled nursing facilities provide, but because of their physical or mental condition require care and services above the level of room and board.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Critical Pathways: Schedules of medical and nursing procedures, including diagnostic tests, medications, and consultations designed to effect an efficient, coordinated program of treatment. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Ancillary Services, Hospital: Those support services other than room, board, and medical and nursing services that are provided to hospital patients in the course of care. They include such services as laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, and physical therapy services.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Prospective Payment System: A system wherein reimbursement rates are set, for a given period of time, prior to the circumstances giving rise to actual reimbursement claims.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Rehabilitation Centers: Facilities which provide programs for rehabilitating the mentally or physically disabled individuals.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.CaliforniaMassachusettsLaryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.New JerseyPatient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.New YorkChild, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Perioperative Period: The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.Day Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Great BritainQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Aftercare: The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.SwitzerlandHospital Bed Capacity, under 100Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.LondonCoronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Home Care Services, Hospital-Based: Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.GermanyGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
  • A clinical decision-making tool is demonstrated to assist hospital administrators to define admission criteria and predict length of stay and volumes with clinical teams. (igi-global.com)
  • Researchers at the National Cancer Registry Ireland (NCRI) carried out a population-based study of sociodemographic, clinical, and health service factors affecting length of stay (LOS) after treatment for head and neck cancer. (ncri.ie)
  • Low back pain associated with lumbar degenerative pathologies is highly prevalent and an economic burden.1-5 It is important to investigate costs and to examine the real-world clinical and cost benefit of commonly performed spinal surgeries. (deepdyve.com)
  • Patient demographic and clinical characteristics, surgeon specialty (general vs urologist), surgeon adrenalectomy volume, and hospital factors were assessed. (scialert.net)
  • Objectives: We investigate variations in costs and length of stay (LoS) among hospitals for ten clinical treatments to assess: 1. (repec.org)
  • Conclusion: The findings suggest that all hospitals have scope to make efficiency savings in at least one of the clinical areas considered by this study. (repec.org)
  • Once this clinical data is documented and made available within the patient's electronic health record (EHR), the notification of critical risk factor information can be promptly shared with the larger multidisciplinary team across clinical specialty areas, hospital locations and admission encounters. (pharmacyonesource.com)
  • What works in one hospital may not work in another," says AnnMarie Papa, R.N., clinical nurse specialist at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and president of the Emergency Nurses Association. (hhnmag.com)
  • The key is learning how to manage hospital capacity as a whole," says Jeff Terry, managing principle of clinical operations for GE Healthcare Performance Solutions. (hhnmag.com)
  • Incidental findings present clinical and financial challenges," says Venkat Gundareddy, M.D., M.P.H ., a director of the Collaborative Inpatient Medicine Service at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • i) for planning purposes (e.g. identifying cost drivers), (ii) for risk- adjustment (resource allocation formulae), (iii) for the design of activity-based reimbursement systems, and, (iv) as inputs into cost - and economic evaluation analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To learn what a reasonable price should be, check out the free, online cost-comparison tool from Healthcare Blue Book (healthcarebluebook.com), which lists "fair" rates in your zip code based on the average insurance reimbursement fee. (rd.com)
  • The proposed rule builds on prior experiments with episode-based payment models (EPM) and confirms predictions that bundled payments will become a broader reality and a mandatory reimbursement framework for hospitals - whether they are ready or not. (bakerlaw.com)
  • Under some circumstances, clinicians who are EPM "collaborators" (including hospital employees) may be able to improve or avoid Part B reimbursement under the new Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS). (bakerlaw.com)
  • In 2015, the penalty increases and reimbursement changes are predicted to cost a 300-bed hospital $1.3 million annually. (beckershospitalreview.com)
  • In an effort to curb escalating costs, CMS has proposed a pay-for-performance episode-based bundled payment model for hospital and physician reimbursement. (deepdyve.com)
  • These data suggest that risk adjustment according to underlying patient factors may be warranted when considering reimbursement for costs related to HACs in the setting of CVPs. (thejns.org)
  • Those factors can lead to lower reimbursement rates. (kansascity.com)
  • McClellan suggests that PPS may not optimally incentivize cost sharing among insurers and health providers due to the income effect by which hospitals may seek out particular diagnoses with higher reimbursement rates, akin to skimming in the insurance arena. (wikipedia.org)
  • A framework is proposed for health administrators, policy makers, and researchers to understand the input variables for determining resource utilization and long stay trim point. (igi-global.com)
  • 7.7 million in 2008, accounting for 20% of hospitalizations and $83 billion (23% of total hospital costs) in the U.S. ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During the period of the study, there were 20 beds in post-emergency unit of Toulouse university hospital with a total of 1250 hospitalizations in 2010. (medsci.org)
  • Total revenue for the year increased over last year, largely due to the addition of The Westerly Hospital in August, Inzana said, but expenses outpaced revenue by about $7 million. (theday.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation is a disease in itself, but it also serves as a marker for the severity of other illnesses," said Nileshkumar Patel, M.D., lead author and internal medicine physician at Staten Island University Hospital, New York. (eurekalert.org)
  • This means your stay has been ordered at the request of a physician. (healthcare.com)
  • L+M Healthcare Corp., which includes the main hospital, The Westerly Hospital, affiliated physician practices and the Visiting Nurse Association of Southeastern Connecticut, had a negative operating margin of expenses over revenues of 1.76 percent for the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30. (theday.com)
  • 8 The Danish population and healthcare attendance during 1 year Directly to hospital 2% Gatekeeper Population % Family Physician 4,760,941 14% 19% 17% Hospital 666,990 Hosp. (docplayer.net)
  • Hospitals, health systems, and physician practices use MAP App to benchmark and compare revenue cycle performance to data from more than 600 facilities. (hfma.org)
  • We employed an observational study design where the same set of referrals was assessed by a sample of clinicians, thus creating data with a panel structure being particularly relevant for analyzing supply factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite current importance given to genetics testing, clinicians should attempt to identify common contributing factors for prolonged non-therapeutic INR, to minimize the risk of coagulation, and to reduce costs of hospital stay and laboratory exams. (scielo.br)
  • The figures are determined by a negotiated contract that dictates the rate at which the companies will reimburse the hospital on the patient's behalf. (rd.com)
  • Under these two payment systems, CMS generally sets payment rates prospectively for inpatient stays based on the patient's diagnosis and severity of illness. (aapc.com)
  • recently demonstrated that a patient's ASA score was a stronger predictor of increased LOS and room and board charges than other well-known predictors of costs such as age, BMI, and comorbidities [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results confirm that supply factors are important but ignoring such variables, when analyzing demand variables, do not generally seem to produce biased (confounded) coefficients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there are many specific results clarifying the effects of lifestyle factors on risk of lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, and other cancers, both the roles of various lifestyle factors and combined effects of multiple factors are still not clear. (hindawi.com)
  • These hospitals are likely to struggle financially under Payment by Results (PbR) and need to consider how to improve their use of resources. (repec.org)
  • Results We identified 99 103 inpatient hospitalisations meeting criteria for inclusion. (bmj.com)
  • In a comparison ranking system against all other hospitals and medical centers in the US, Sarah Bush Lincoln Health Center maintains an overall "B-" score, ranking it in the 47th percentile. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
  • At the same time, Boston s very affluence and the prominent standing of its renowned academic medical centers have made cost containment a particular challenge. (hschange.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hike in hospitalizations is probably because we're living longer and accompanying risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, sleep apnea and diabetes are increasing, he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Risk factors and preventative measures for SCEDO should be further studied. (garvan.org.au)
  • An approach to estimate the contribution of various measurable factors, including behavior/lifestyle, to cancer risk in the US elderly population is presented. (hindawi.com)
  • Analyzing an impact of the modifiable factors on cancer risk, it has been speculated that about 50% of cancers are potentially preventable [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The sources for obtaining the evidence on associations between behavioral factors and cancer risk include in vitro studies, animal experiments, ecological studies, and case-control studies. (hindawi.com)
  • However, there are certain limitations in providing with exposure-to-a-factor-cancer risk correlations [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Physiotherapy-led exercise that increases physical activity levels can also reduce cardiovascular risk factors, as well as the risk of other chronic conditions, such as diabetes and osteoporosis. (csp.org.uk)
  • Less than 70% of the normal value increases the risk of venous thrombosis because of the role of antithrombin in the inactivation of thrombin, factors VIIa, IXa, Xa, XIa, kallikrein and plasma. (brainscape.com)
  • 8 9 Risk factors reported to be independently associated with ADRs have included advancing age, sex, comorbidity, multiple drug regimens, inappropriate use of medication, alcohol intake, poor cognitive function, and depression. (bmj.com)
  • The risk factors included in the model are available in the information systems of hospitals at all levels. (bmj.com)
  • The data were inadequate to determine which risk factors should determine the route of antibiotic administration. (aafp.org)
  • Previous reports 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 illustrate the influence of isolated risk factors on high warfarin dose requirements. (scielo.br)
  • Recent surgery was the most common risk factor associated with isolation of a Gram-positive or Gram-negative MDRO from blood, wound, and biopsy cultures. (eventscribe.com)
  • Recent surgery, prior antibiotic exposure, and presence of a urinary catheter were consistently identified as the top risk factors associated with the development MDRO infection. (eventscribe.com)
  • Scientific literature provides considerable evidence regarding risk factors for C. difficile infection. (pharmacyonesource.com)
  • Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was POD assessment during ICU stay. (bmj.com)
  • Secondary outcome measures include the percent with diabetes-related prescription drug use, perceived access to prescription drugs, hospital inpatient stays, and emergency department use in the past 12 months. (ajmc.com)
  • Fewer children are going to be followed up at the hospital and the GP must have confidence in the local paediatric team and know he or she has easy access to their specialist advice when it is needed. (bmj.com)
  • Another major issue for Mercy is that it fell outside of eligibility for federal designation as a "critical access hospital," meaning one with 25 beds or fewer that is 35 miles or more from another hospital. (kansascity.com)
  • Rural hospitals have trouble recruiting and retaining medical workers. (kansascity.com)
  • It's a model similar to one developed by the Kansas Hospital Association called the Primary Health Center Model, a financially sustainable alternative for low-volume, rural hospitals that don't qualify for the "critical access" designation. (kansascity.com)
  • In this article, we are exploring the role of supply variables in explaining variation in mental health treatment costs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And the bundles allow CMS to target conditions that are common and expensive to treat, with great variation in cost. (bakerlaw.com)
  • Variation in cost, if extant, provides an opportunity to understand the differences and learn from the better practice patterns. (deepdyve.com)
  • This is distinct from a cost index, which measures variation in actual expenditures, such as wages and benefits. (nap.edu)
  • A variation in the calculation of ALOS can be to consider only length of stay during the period under analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite concerns that ADRs represent an important medical problem in older people, the predictive factors are still poorly understood. (bmj.com)