Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MalatesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.GlucosephosphatesAminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.CitratesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.PyruvatesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adenine NucleotidesGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The further dimerization only produces the anti product due to steric factors. In these reactions, ladderanes are formed from ... Fuerst, John A. (23 May 2005). "Intracelluar Compartmentation in Planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. ... as well as reduce the catabolic efficiency of the cell. A naturally occurring [5]-ladderane lipid, named pentacycloanammoxic ...
... and so have a primitive metabolism in which factors that promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become extinct ... The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates ... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. 1. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN ... The data suggest that viruses originated from ancient cells that co-existed with the ancestors of modern cells. These ancient ...
Rijksen G, Staal GE, Beks PJ, Streefkerk M, Akkerman JW (December 1982). "Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. ... The transcription factor PU.1 is known to directly activate transcription of the antiapoptotic BCL2A1 gene or inhibit ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (3): 187-8. doi:10.1159/000134409. PMID 8941369. "Entrez Gene: HK3 hexokinase 3 (white cell ... Within cells, HK3 localizes to the cytoplasm and putatively binds the perinuclear envelope. HK3 is the predominant hexokinase ...
In order to control which genes are being transcribed, the cell separates some transcription factor proteins responsible for ... 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
Upon low frequency stimulation of knockout cells, these molecules are likely to diffuse out of the cell before a concentration ... Actin Depolymerizing Factor, or ADF, normally disassembles actin and does not allow for the induction of LTP. However, synaptic ... Developmentally regulated changes in cellular compartmentation and synaptic distribution of actin in hippocampal neurons. J. ... Cell 107:605-16 Fischer M, Kaech S, Knutti D, Matus A. 1998. Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines. Neuron 20:847-54 ...
Boulikas T (1995). "Phosphorylation of transcription factors and control of the cell cycle". Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
July 2007). "Cell biology assessment of glucokinase mutations V62M and G72R in pancreatic beta-cells: evidence for cellular ... May 2007). "Glucokinase thermolability and hepatic regulatory protein binding are essential factors for predicting the blood ... "Dual role of phosphofructokinase-2/fructose bisphosphatase-2 in regulating the compartmentation and expression of glucokinase ... in small amounts in certain rat lung cells, in pancreatic islet cells, and in periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus in ...
"Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival". Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. ... In bacteriology, NAD, sometimes referred to factor V, is used a supplement to culture media for some fastidious bacteria. The ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... The actual concentration of NAD+ in cell cytosol is harder to measure, with recent estimates in animal cells ranging around 0.3 ...
"Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. PMC 3366687. PMID 17889652.. ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... In bacteriology, NAD, sometimes referred to factor V, is used a supplement to culture media for some fastidious bacteria.[90] ... "Cell. 155 (7): 1624-1638. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.037. PMC 4076149. PMID 24360282.. ...
Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival». Cell, 130, 2007, pàg. 1095-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell. ... Stoichiometry and compartmentation of NADH metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae». FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 25, 1, 2001, pàg. 15- ... The isolation and identification of the anti-black tongue factor» (PDF). J. Biol. Chem., 123, 1, 1938, pàg. 137-49. ... 50,0 50,1 Diefenbach J, Bürkle A «Introduction to poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism». Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 62, 7-8, 2005, pàg. 721- ...
... they press against the cell walls of the phytobiont's root cells. Often the fungal and plant cell walls become almost ... Other indirect factors can also play a role in the EcM fungal community, such as leaf fall and litter quality, which ... doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2005.00044.x. Lasat, M.M.; Baker, A.J.M.; Kochian, L.V. (1998). "Altered Zn compartmentation in the ... Upon the connection of fungal hyphae and root cap cells, growth must continue inwards to the epidermal cells wherein the hyphae ...
... in the form of soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096. Niki I, Yokokura ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... This often replaces the need for an external binding factor, such as a metal ion, for protein function. Potential modifications ... The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 100 to 150 moles of ATP daily, which is around 50 to 75 kg. In ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096.. ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... They called the unidentified factor responsible for this effect a coferment. Through a long and difficult purification from ... Sauke DJ, Metzler DE, Metzler CM (2001). Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells (2nd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt/ ...
2007). "Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival". Cell 130 (6): 1095-107. PMID 17889652. doi:10.1016 ... 2001). "Stoichiometry and compartmentation of NADH metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25 (1): 15-37 ... Chamaron cofermento ao factor non identificado responsable deste efecto. A través dunha longa e dificultosa purificación a ... "Plant Cell 18 (3): 688-98. PMC 1383643. PMID 16461578. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.039354.. ...
neurotrofný faktor gliových buniek (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) - podporuje nediferencované spermatogónie, čo ... DYM, M.; FAWCETT, D. W.. The blood-testis barrier in the rat and the physiological compartmentation of the seminiferous ... Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, roč. 30, s. 36 - 44. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-21]. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.02 ... The Sertoli cell: Novel clinical potentiality. HORMONES, roč. 14, čís. 4, s. 504 - 514. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-04-21]. DOI ...
It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... Cysteine is the rate-limiting factor in cellular glutathione biosynthesis, since this amino acid is relatively rare in foods. ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ... Manageably low levels result in the systematic breakage of the cell whereas excessively low levels result in rapid cell death. ...
Its main role is to facilitate recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle ... Additionally, in most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is very high and is therefore not a limiting factor. ... Wallimann, T; Wyss, M; Brdiczka, D; Nicolay, K; Eppenberger, HM (January 1992). "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and ...
Boulikas T (1995). "Phosphorylation of transcription factors and control of the cell cycle". Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 5 (1 ... 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... Görlich, Dirk (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (15): 607-660. doi: ... Görlich, Dirk; Kutay, U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (15): 607- ...
A cell wall that contains chitin. *Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions ... "Diversity of Eukaryotic Translational Initiation Factor eIF4E in Protists". Comparative and Functional Genomics. 2012: 1-21. ... Cell wallEdit. Main article: Cell wall. The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer ... Plant cellEdit. Main article: Plant cell. Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic organisms. ...
Palisade mesophyll cells can contain 30-70 chloroplasts per cell, while stomatal guard cells contain only around 8-15 per cell ... Their behavior is strongly influenced by environmental factors like light color and intensity. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria ... "Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... A plant cell which contains chloroplasts is known as a chlorenchyma cell. A typical chlorenchyma cell of a land plant contains ...
Palisade mesophyll cells can contain 30-70 chloroplasts per cell, while stomatal guard cells contain only around 8-15 per cell ... Their behavior is strongly influenced by environmental factors like light color and intensity. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria ... "Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... This event is called endosymbiosis, or "cell living inside another cell with a mutual benefit for both". The external cell is ...
Tumor suppressor proteins control the proliferation and survival of normal cells; consequently, their inactivation by gene ... Cell Compartmentation * Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism * Humans * Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit ... Tumor suppressor proteins control the proliferation and survival of normal cells; consequently, their inactivation by gene ... Exp Cell Res. 2003 Jan 15;282(2):59-69. doi: 10.1016/s0014-4827(02)00019-8. ...
Cell Compartmentation. Cell Differentiation. Cell Polarity / physiology*. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Knockdown Techniques. ... ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 / analysis. Animals. Brain Chemistry. Cadherins / biosynthesis, genetics, metabolism*. ... Hair Cells, Auditory / metabolism, ultrastructure*. Immunoprecipitation. Mice. Mice, Neurologic Mutants. Mutation. Organ of ... Immature mouse cochleae and UB/OC-1 cells were used in this work to address whether specific variants of PCDH15 and VLGR1 are ...
Assimilate translocation and membrane transport as limiting factors for plant growth4. Compartmentation of nutrient ions in ... Growth, turgor, cell-wall properties, and microfibril orientation along the growing-zone transduction in living plant cells17. ... Enforcement and release of quiescence in cells in the embryo axis of the seed: role of the nuclear proteins13. rolB A bacterial ... Ecological adaptations at levels with different scaling: ecosystems, whole plants, cells, membranes, molecules3. ...
CHO cells expressing wild-type ARF6 were doubled labeled with an anticellubrevin antibody (15 nm go ... ADP-Ribosylation Factors. *Animals. *CHO Cells. *Cell Compartmentation. *Cell Line. *Cricetinae. *Cytosol/chemistry ... MPR and Lamp-3 labeling was done in 293 cells due to low cross-reactivity in CHO cells. c, centriole. Bar, 200 nm. Mentions: ... MPR and Lamp-3 labeling was done in 293 cells due to low cross-reactivity in CHO cells. c, centriole. Bar, 200 nm. ...
A role for Gp in receptor compartmentation. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 23856-23862. ... 1994). Rhizobium meliloti Nod factors elicit cell-specific transcription of the ENOD12 gene in transgenic alfalfa. Plant J. 6, ... Biochemical studies have characterized Nod factor binding activities in Medicago cell extracts (Bono et al., 1995; Niebel et al ... 1995). Role of the differentiation of root epidermal cells in Nod factor (from Rhizobium meliloti)-induced root-hair ...
There were no associations of FcεRIIFDC with clinical prognostic factors (FLIPI indices) or with bone marrow involvement in FL ... The presence of FcεRIIFDCs in tumor tissue was an independent prognostic factor according to treatment results, i.e. frequency ... Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing FcεRII or CD23 (FcεRIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have ... expressing follicular dendritic cells is a main prognostic factor in follicular lymphoma. Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., ...
Cell Nucleolus/*metabolism; Cell Compartmentation; *Active Transport, Cell Nucleus; *RNA-Binding Proteins; *Saccharomyces ... Box C/D small nucleolar RNA trafficking involves small nucleolar RNP proteins, nucleolar factors and a novel nuclear domain. ... Box C/D small nucleolar RNA trafficking involves small nucleolar RNP proteins, nucleolar factors and a novel nuclear domain. ...
Cell Adhesion Molecules; Neuronal/immunology/*metabolism, Cell Compartmentation/drug effects/immunology, Cells; Cultured, ... ADP-Ribosylation Factors/immunology/*metabolism, Adaptor Proteins; Vesicular Transport/immunology/*metabolism, Amino Acid ...
In a particular embodiment, the invention provides a method of fusing a spine by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with ... Finally, the invention relates to methods for inducing systemic bone formation by stable transfection of host cells with the ... Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of inducing bone formation by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with ... admixing the transfected osteogenic precursor cells with a matrix and contacting the matrix with the spine. ...
In this review, we will (a) underline the role of ROS in the pathway leading a normal cell to tumor transformation and ... ROS concentration and compartmentation determine their physiological or pathological effects. ROS overproduction is a feature ... of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. ROS continuously contribute to each step ... The presence of ROS is a constant feature in living cells metabolizing O,sub,2,/sub,. ...
I. Development and compartmentation of cerebellar cortex.. *Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell- ... Neurotransmission in cerebellar cortex. 4. The distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF binding sites and CRF1 ... Unipolar brush cells in cerebellar cortex. 9. The unipolar brush cells of the mammalian cerebellum and cochlear nucleus: ... Characterization of purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo- ...
loss of cell growth control. -loss of specific function. -often produce their own angiogenesis factors. -metastasis and ... a) dividing cells with adequate nutrient and vascular supply. b) resting cells in G0. c) cells no longer able to divide ... If a treatment kills 10^4 or 99.99% of cancer cells, then for a population of 10^9 cells, this would mean a reduction to 10^5 ... To prevent any excess loss of bone marrow cells whilst still allowing tumour cell to levels to reduce to necessary levels. ...
Other Replication Factors from the course General Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. General Biochemistry and Molecular ... This course covers molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their viruses. Mechanisms of DNA replication, ... intracellular trafficking and subcellular compartmentation, cytoskeletal architecture, nucleocytoplasmic transport, signal ...
When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell ... When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell ... New findings have been reported implicating other caveolar protein components in endothelial cell signaling and function, such ... New findings have been reported implicating other caveolar protein components in endothelial cell signaling and function, such ...
Experimental Cell Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... The role of tyrosine kinase activity in endocytosis, compartmentation, and down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor ... Anomalous binding of epidermal growth factor to A431 cells is due to the effect of high receptor densities and a saturable ... The Drosophila Numb protein inhibits signaling of the Notch receptor during cell-cell interaction in sensory organ lineage ...
This might be linked to other factors like compartmentation that can influence the reconstituted pathway; for example, an ... Tracing heme in a living cell: hemoglobin degradation and heme traffic in digest cells of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. ... Cell Proteomics. 2002;1:60-68. [PubMed]. *Grunclova L, Horn M, Vancova M, Sojka D, Franta Z, Mares M, Kopacek P. Two secreted ... Cell Death. Differ. 1999;6:362-369. [PubMed]. *Goldberg DE. Hemoglobin degradation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2005;295:275 ...
All these factors may influence carbon metabolism and the expression of its genes. Cell density affects light conditions, ... This compartmentation enables the cell to adjust the carbon flux through regulation of transport of metabolites between the ... 2015 Intracellular and cell-to-apoplast compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism. Trends Plant Sci. 20, 490-497. (doi: ... 2015 Whole-cell response to nitrogen deprivation in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. J. Exp. Bot. 66, 6281-6296. (doi: ...
Organisation of enzymes in the cell. Enzymes in the cell, localization, compartmentation of metabolic pathways, enzymes in ... Factors affecting the enzyme activity- Concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetics of a single-substrate enzyme catalysed ...
... on blocking the pathways involved in cell spread that are activated not later than signals such as cultivation factors or ... by damaging the mechanisms of cubicle compartmentation such as creation of the mitotic spindle; · ... Gene pronouncement profiles teach that unmutated CLL cells manifest more ZAP-70 mRNA than mutated cells, and the increasing use ... their induced feeling in once non-expressive cells as observed in perceptiveness parenchymal cells, singularly in neurons from ...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Eukaryotic Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this ... Cytoplasmic compartmentation of Gln3 during nitrogen catabolite repression and the mechanism of its nuclear localization during ... The GATA factor AreA is essential for chromatin remodelling in a eukaryotic bidirectional promoter. EMBO J.18:1584-1597. ... Eukaryotic Cell Oct 2005, 4 (10) 1646-1653; DOI: 10.1128/EC.4.10.1646-1653.2005 ...
These results suggest that the induction of symplastic unloading during tuber formation is a key factor in the regulation of ... in solute transport pathways results in enhanced sink potential within stolon tips and a marked change in the compartmentation ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... 1999). Cell-to-cell and long-distance trafficking of the green fluorescent protein in the phloem and symplastic unloading of ...
In early Drosophila development a complex cascade of diffusible transcription factors generates an intricate expression pattern ... Cell Compartmentation * Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure * Drosophila melanogaster / genetics* * Gene Expression Regulation, ... In early Drosophila development a complex cascade of diffusible transcription factors generates an intricate expression pattern ... permanently inactivate genes by generating heterochromatin-like structures which could then be inherited by the daughter cells ...
Factors effecting enzyme activity 4 star(s) Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of fatty acid oxidation. White blood cells ... DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL COMPARTMENTATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND THE DIFFERING FUNCTIONS OF THESE COMPARTMENTS 4 star(s) ... The outer membrane of each epithelial cell has microvilli which increase the exposed surface of the cell by 20 times. * There ... Protein synthesis is extremely important to cells, and so large numbers of ribosomes are found throughout cells (often ...
Factors affecting the accumulation of potassium in sugar beet storage roots. (Confidential Report to British Sugar PLC). ... Compartmentation of nitrate in barley root cells growing at different nitrogen levels. Abstracts AFRC Meeting on Plant and Soil ... Compartmentation of nitrate in root cells. Abstracts Society for Experimental Biology Plant Transport Group Discussion Meeting ... Compartmentation of nitrate in barley root cells. Abstracts 3rd International Symposium on Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation, ...
Compartmentation of soil contaminants in plants Zinc allocation to vein and leaf blade tissues of poplar leaves. histochemical ... Healthy cell in the mesophyll of a beech leaf in summer. Transmission elec- tron microscopy. (Photo: Terry Menard/WSL). ... In MICRO, symptoms in sensitive species are validated and the synergy between the effects of ozone and other stress factor are ... MICRO - structural bioindications of environmental stress factors Plants confronted with environmental or anthropogeneous ...
  • In this study, we have investigated Nod factor signal transduction in the Medicago root epidermis by using a pharmacological approach in conjunction with transgenic plants expressing the Nod factor-responsive reporter construct pMtENOD12-GUS . (plantcell.org)
  • Taken together, these results are consistent with a Nod factor signal transduction mechanism involving G protein mediation coupled to the activation of both phosphoinositide and Ca 2+ second messenger pathways. (plantcell.org)
  • Because of its physical accessibility, the root epidermis has been the focus of various studies designed to reveal early steps in Nod factor signal transduction. (plantcell.org)
  • Although all of these responses are dependent on the structural characteristics of the Nod factor, it is not yet established whether they are part of a signal transduction pathway leading to symbiotic downstream events, such as root hair deformation or specific gene expression. (plantcell.org)
  • Using analogies to electrical and mechanical systems, we show that the upstream signal transduction elements for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) systems can be treated as low-pass filter circuits or as mechanical mass-spring-damper systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infiltration of tumor tissue by immune cells was reflected by gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue. (scirp.org)
  • Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell-specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, accumulated AreA is rapidly lost from the nuclei of nitrogen-starved cells when a nitrogen source is supplied or when a carbon source is absent, and this accompanies arrest of the AreA-dependent nitrogen starvation response on regulated gene expression. (asm.org)
  • ZmbHLH80 and ZmbHLH90 transcription factors act antagonistically and contribute to regulate PEPC1 cell-specific gene expression in maize. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gene expression analysis of an allelic series of En1/2 mutant mice that have an intact Purkinje cell layer revealed severe patterning defects using three known components of the ML molecular code and a new marker of Hsp25 negative stripes (Neurofilament heavy chain, Nfh). (jneurosci.org)
  • Analysis of cell cycle and gene expression using flow cytometry. (cas.cz)
  • When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell barrier. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since then, however, a large body of evidence has accumulated, suggesting that these microdomains are very important in regulating many other important endothelial cell functions, mostly due to their ability to concentrate and compartmentalize various signaling molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Primary or transformed monocytic and endothelial cells were infected with a cell-free HHV-8 inoculum and subsequently infected with lymphotropic or monocytotropic strains of HIV. (courtfield.ml)
  • Indoction in monocytes and endothelial cells by inflammatory and immunological agents with special reference to cyclosporin A 1097 Sæter Gunnar (dr.med. (docplayer.net)
  • HRP labeling in cells expressing ARF6(Q67L), a GTP-bound mutant of ARF6, was restricted to small peripheral vesicles, whereas the mutant protein was enriched on plasma membrane invaginations. (nih.gov)
  • Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane which are particularly abundant in vascular endothelium and present in all other cell types of the cardiovascular system, including vascular smooth-muscle cells, macrophages, cardiac myocytes, and fibroblasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A number of plant genes have been identified whose transcription can be specifically elicited in root tissues in response to applications of Nod factors (reviewed in Heidstra and Bisseling, 1996 ). (plantcell.org)
  • In addition, pathway-specific transcription factors may activate sets of genes involved in catabolism of a particular compound in response to specific low-molecular-weight inducers. (asm.org)
  • In early Drosophila development a complex cascade of diffusible transcription factors generates an intricate expression pattern of developmental regulators such as the homeotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of EphB2 and EphB3 genes reveals that their gene products restrict cell intermingling and allocate cell populations within the intestinal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Given that En2 might regulate ML molecular code patterning, and because the En transcription factors are known to have extensive functional overlap in regulating foliation, we analyzed an allelic series of viable En1/2 mutants to test whether the two genes together play a broad role in regulating ML molecular coding throughout the vermis. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the periportal zonation of the gap junction protein connexin 26 and the pericentral zonation of glutamine synthetase, to name only two, are insensitive to such gradients, are more representative of most tissue-specific genes and appear to be determined by factors intrinsic to the cells or to variables other than blood flow in the microenvironment. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Facet joint parts were collected and used to measure the microstructure, the expression of RANKL, OPG, osteoblast-related genes, inflammatory factors, adiponectin and its receptors by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • HeLa cells with compromised expression of the genes encoding lamins were analyzed using high-resolution imaging and pull-down assays. (biologists.org)
  • The presence of Fc ε RIIFDCs in tumor tissue was an independent prognostic factor according to treatment results, i.e. frequency of CR, duration of OS and PFS. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Figure B. shows the cells from a side-on point of view revealing the different layers of the tissue. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Plants confronted with environmental or anthropogeneous constrains quickly develop modifications in the microscopical cell, tissue and organ structure of the affected plant parts. (wsl.ch)
  • In MICRO, the soil pollutant allocation at cell, tissue and organ level is analysed using histochemical and microanalytical metal revelation methods. (wsl.ch)
  • The paraveinal mesophyll (PVM) is a unique and specialized 1-cell-thick tissue spanning the vascular bundles at the level of the phloem in soybean (G. max (L.) Merr. (eurekamag.com)
  • During leaf ontogeny, the PVM is the 1st tissue to differentiate and at maturity these cells 6-8 times larger than other mesophyll cells, are highly vacuolate and are interconnected by tubular arms. (eurekamag.com)
  • Tissue-specific effects of the nuclear factor kappaB subunit p50 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Compartmentation and tissue/organ variation of biochemicals and processes. (dkit.ie)
  • We believe MRI diffusion-weighted water imaging (DWI) may be an ideal candidate for this purpose because the free diffusion of water in tissue is known to be constrained by intra- and extracellular structures and cell walls. (urotoday.com)
  • Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • 1990). Establishment of a pancreatic beta cell line that retains glucose-inducible insulin secretion: special reference to expression of glucose transporter isoforms. (core.ac.uk)
  • 2000). Glucose-regulated anaplerosis and cataplerosis in pancreatic -cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • Objective- We hypothesized that GLUT4 is a predominant facilitative glucose transporter in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and GLUT4 is necessary for agonist-induced VSMC contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5,11 These data suggest that GLUT4 is an important glucose transporter in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • 12,13 However, there is scant information concerning the role of GLUT4 transporters in VSMC contraction and whether glucose transporters play a role in the compartmentation of glucose utilization. (ahajournals.org)
  • Comparison of in vitro and in planta acp1 expression suggests that glucose and nitrogen starvation together with acidification can be considered as key factors controlling Scl. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mast cells are best-known for the role they play in allergic diseases after stimulation through IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Groups of bioindications and their distribution within cells and tissues are thus characterised in order to decipher the plant's response to physiological changes caused by the investigated stress factor. (wsl.ch)
  • Microscopical changes in cells and tissues in response to various environmental stress factors are investigated in trees to develop diagnosis tools and understand the mechanistic link between stress and injury. (wsl.ch)
  • Tissues are often viewed as tight packings of practically impermeable cells. (ismrm.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected ex vivo. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected in vivo by direct injection of the isolated nucleic acid molecule. (google.com)
  • 5. The physiological effects of serotonin on spontaneous and amino acid-induced activation of cerebellar nuclear cells: an in vivo study in the cat. (elsevier.com)
  • Consistently, we showed that suppression of IMD/ADM2 signaling in growing rat ovaries in vivo leads to oocyte atresia and aberrant cell cycle progression in follicular cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. (jci.org)
  • No other retinal cell types were affected by GDF-11 knockout, but a slight reduction in photoreceptor cells was observed by GDF-15 knockout in the developing retina in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • associated cAMP signaling by isoform-specific displacement of bound phosphodiesterase is demonstrated to increase retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo in mice of both sexes following optic nerve crush injury. (stanford.edu)
  • that is necessary and sufficient for the induction of neurite outgrowth in vitro and for the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vivo following optic nerve injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Immunomagnetic removal ex vivo of malignant B-cells from human bone marrow 1100 Blom Per Conrad Søren (dr.med. (docplayer.net)
  • Christian Pike (Abstract 17) presented cell culture models of amyloid-β toxicity to analyze whether amyloid-β-related death is mediated by oxidative stress. (alzforum.org)
  • Assimilate translocation and membrane transport as limiting factors for plant growth4. (indigo.ca)
  • At various times after stimulation with 10 μM 2′ deoxy-cAMP, 2 × 106 cells/ml (final) were lysed in L buffer containing 0.5% Triton X-100 alone (A and B), or L buffer containing 20 μM phalloidin (C and D). Low speed Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton pellets (A and C) were recovered by centrifugation in a microfuge for 3 min at 8,700 g. (nih.gov)
  • 1993) and tetanus toxin- mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs the recycling of Tfn-R-containing vesicles in CHO cells (Galli et al. (nih.gov)
  • 1988). Effects of arterial pH and carbon dioxide on pancreatic exocrine H/HCO3 secretion and secretin-dependent translocation of cytoplasmic vesicles in pancreatic duct cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • Growth, turgor, cell-wall properties, and microfibril orientation along the growing-zone transduction in living plant cells17. (indigo.ca)
  • Not discussed is that vulnerable neurons in AD are heterotypic regarding growth factors, making an argument for a single growth factor abnormality difficult to understand. (alzforum.org)
  • How do hormones and growth factors regulate animal growth in the developing embryo and after injury? (nhbs.com)
  • This state-of-the-art review will be of significant interest to graduate students and research scientists in the fields of animal growth, endocrinology and cell biology. (nhbs.com)
  • Conversion Factors Relating Thymidine Uptake to Growth Rate with Rhizosphere Bacteria. (weltbild.de)
  • An expression cloning method which allows direct isolation of cDNAs encoding substrates for tyrosine kinases was applied to the study of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The formation of the hepatic cells begins after the endodermal epithelium interacts with the cardiogenic mesoderm, probably via fibroblast growth factors. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Among these, high soil salinity, contributed largely by Na + and often compounded with drought, is the main factor that adversely limits the growth and productivity of the major crop plants, including rice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In adult EphB3(-/-) mice, Paneth cells do not follow their downward migratory path, but scatter along crypt and villus. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of unresponsiveness and impaired T cell expansion by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in CD28-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • 4. The distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF binding sites and CRF1 receptor mRNA in the mouse cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • showed that the digestive cells of the hard tick Boophilus microplus have specific receptor-mediated endocytic pathways for hemoglobin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stem cell development involves divergent thyroid hormone receptor subtype expression and epigenetic modifications in the Xenopus metamorphosing intestine. (genefrontier.com)
  • While initial therapeutic strategies aiming to restrict mast cell activation largely focused on blocking the activation of the IgE receptor and its early signaling events, targeting the late signaling steps has become a suitable alternative strategy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large cation channel family that has been implicated in HPV, specifically in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) Ca 2+ and contractile response to hypoxia. (asahq.org)
  • These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells use surface receptor systems to survey their environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5,6 In rodents as in humans, cerebral ischemia upregulates COX-2 expression in neurons, glia, vascular cells, and in inflammatory cells invading the ischemic brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Following ocular trauma or in diseases such as glaucoma, irreversible vision loss is due to the death of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Although strategies to replace these lost cells include stem cell replacement therapy, few differentiated stem cells turn into RGC-like neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Although the concept of cAMP compartmentation is well-established, the function and identity of these compartments remain poorly understood in neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. (prolekare.cz)
  • In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. (prolekare.cz)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • ROS overproduction is a feature of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. (jci.org)
  • Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. (frontiersin.org)