Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.
Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Dysprosium. An element of the rare earth family that has the atomic symbol Dy, atomic number 66, and atomic weight 162.50. Dysprosium is a silvery metal used primarily in the form of various salts.
Agents that cause clotting.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.
Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Agents that prevent clotting.

Evidence suggesting the regulation of a coagulation factor levels in rabbits by a transferable plasma agent. (1/674)

New Zealand white rabbits were given 30 ml of goat serum intravenously. This procedure resulted in an immediate decrease in platelet count, fibrinogen, and levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, due to consumption coagulopathy. These factors returned toward baseline levels approximately 12 hr after the injection. Plasma from rabbits who had received goat serum 48 hr previously (donor rabbits) was injected into recipient rabbits. This procedure resulted in a slight rise in the level of coagulation factor II (range, 20%-30%) and a significant rise in factors V (35%-75%), VII (35%-235%), and X (35%-75%) in the recipients. When plasma from control donor rabbits who had not received goat serum was injected into recipients, there was no change in these coagulation factors. It is postulated that the reduction in coagulation factor levels in donor rabbits induces a "coagulopoietin" for each factor or one "coagulopoietin" for all factors which stimulates increased synthesis and/or release of these factors in recipient rabbits.  (+info)

Plasmin converts factor X from coagulation zymogen to fibrinolysis cofactor. (2/674)

Known anticoagulant pathways have been shown to exclusively inhibit blood coagulation cofactors and enzymes. In the current work, we first investigated the possibility of a novel anticoagulant mechanism that functions at the level of zymogen inactivation. Utilizing both clotting and chromogenic assays, the fibrinolysis protease plasmin was found to irreversibly inhibit the pivotal function of factor X (FX) in coagulation. This was due to cleavage at several sites, the location of which were altered by association of FX with procoagulant phospholipid (proPL). The final products were approximately 28 and approximately 47 kDa for proPL-bound and unbound FX, respectively, which did not have analogues when activated FX (FXa) was cleaved instead. We next investigated whether the FX derivatives could interact with the plasmin precursor plasminogen, and we found that plasmin exposed a binding site only on proPL-bound FX. The highest apparent affinity was for the 28-kDa fragment, which was identified as the light subunit disulfide linked to a small fragment of the heavy subunit (Met-296 to approximately Lys-330). After cleavage by plasmin, proPL-bound FX furthermore was observed to accelerate plasmin generation by tissue plasminogen activator. Thus, a feedback mechanism localized by proPL is suggested in which plasmin simultaneously inhibits FX clotting function and converts proPL-bound FX into a fibrinolysis cofactor. These data also provide the first evidence for an anticoagulant mechanism aimed directly at the zymogen FX.  (+info)

Coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and factor V Leiden in coronary artery disease: high factor V clotting activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. (3/674)

Increased levels of hemostatic factors and genetic mutations of proteins involved in coagulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated clotting activity of factors II (FII:C), V (FV:C), VII (FVII:C), and X (FX:C), the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and the factor V Leiden mutation in 200 survivors of myocardial infarction and in 100 healthy controls. FV:C (P<0.0001) and FVII:C (P<0.0001) were found to be independent risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FV:C or high FVII:C combined with smoking or arterial hypertension increased the relative risk for myocardial infarction up to 50-fold. One of 177 patients (0.6%) and 4 of 89 controls (4.5%) had the prothrombin 20210 AG genotype. Eleven of 177 patients (6.2%) and 6 of 89 controls (6.7%) were heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation. No homozygous carrier for these mutations was found. Neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition (odds ratio [OR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 1.1) nor the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.8) were associated with an increased relative risk for myocardial infarction. In conclusion, our data indicate that neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition nor the factor V Leiden mutation are risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FVII:C was confirmed to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. Moreover, we describe for the first time that high FV:C is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction.  (+info)

Domain identification of hormone-sensitive lipase by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. (4/674)

Structure-function relationship analyses of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have suggested that this metabolically important enzyme consists of several functional and at least two structural domains (Osterlund, T., Danielsson, B., Degerman, E., Contreras, J. A., Edgren, G., Davis, R. C., Schotz, M. C., and Holm, C. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 411-420; Contreras, J. A., Karlsson, M., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H., Svensson, A., and Holm, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31426-31430). To analyze the structural domain composition of HSL in more detail, we applied biophysical methods. Denaturation of HSL was followed by circular dichroism measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy, revealing that the unfolding of HSL is a two-step event. Using limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry, several proteolytic fragments of HSL were identified, including one corresponding exactly to the proposed N-terminal domain. Major cleavage sites were found in the predicted hinge region between the two domains and in the regulatory module of the C-terminal, catalytic domain. Analyses of a hinge region cleavage mutant and calculations of the hydropathic pattern of HSL further suggest that the hinge region and regulatory module are exposed parts of HSL. Together, these data support our previous hypothesis that HSL consists of two major structural domains, encoded by exons 1-4 and 5-9, respectively, of which the latter contains an exposed regulatory module outside the catalytic alpha/beta-hydrolase fold core.  (+info)

The A1 and A2 subunits of factor VIIIa synergistically stimulate factor IXa catalytic activity. (5/674)

Factor VIIIa, the protein cofactor for factor IXa, is comprised of A1, A2, and A3-C1-C2 subunits. Recently, we showed that isolated A2 subunit enhanced the kcat for factor IXa-catalyzed activation of factor X by approximately 100-fold ( approximately 1 min-1), whereas isolated A1 or A3-C1-C2 subunits showed no effect on this rate (Fay, P. J., and Koshibu, K. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19049-19054). However, A1 subunit increased the A2-dependent stimulation by approximately 10-fold. The Km for factor X in the presence of A2 subunit was unaffected by A1 subunit, whereas the kcat observed in the presence of saturating A1 and A2 subunits ( approximately 15 min-1) represented 5-10% of the value observed for native factor VIIIa (approximately 200 min-1). An anti-A1 subunit antibody that blocks the association of A2 eliminated the A1-dependent contribution to factor IXa activity. Inclusion of both A1 and A2 subunits resulted in greater increases in the fluorescence anisotropy of fluorescein-Phe-Phe-Arg factor IXa than that observed for A2 subunit alone and approached values obtained with factor VIIIa. These results indicate that A1 subunit alters the A2 subunit-dependent modulation of the active site of factor IXa to synergistically increase cofactor activity, yielding an overall increase in kcat of over 1000-fold compared with factor IXa alone.  (+info)

Targeted inhibition of intrinsic coagulation limits cerebral injury in stroke without increasing intracerebral hemorrhage. (6/674)

Agents that restore vascular patency in stroke also increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). As Factor IXa is a key intermediary in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, targeted inhibition of Factor IXa-dependent coagulation might inhibit microvascular thrombosis in stroke without impairing extrinsic hemostatic mechanisms that limit ICH. A competitive inhibitor of native Factor IXa for assembly into the intrinsic Factor X activation complex, Factor IXai, was prepared by covalent modification of the Factor IXa active site. In a modified cephalin clotting time assay, in vivo administration of Factor IXai caused a dose-dependent increase in time to clot formation (3.6-fold increase at the 300 micrograms/kg dose compared with vehicle-treated control animals, P < 0.05). Mice given Factor IXai and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion demonstrated reduced microvascular fibrin accumulation by immunoblotting and immunostaining, reduced 111In-labeled platelet deposition (42% decrease, P < 0.05), increased cerebral perfusion (2.6-fold increase in ipsilateral blood flow by laser doppler, P < 0.05), and smaller cerebral infarcts than vehicle-treated controls (70% reduction, P < 0.05) based on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of serial cerebral sections. At therapeutically effective doses, Factor IXai was not associated with increased ICH, as opposed to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or heparin, both of which significantly increased ICH. Factor IXai was cerebroprotective even when given after the onset of stroke, indicating that microvascular thrombosis continues to evolve (and may be inhibited) even after primary occlusion of a major cerebrovascular tributary.  (+info)

Dietary lipid lowering reduces tissue factor expression in rabbit atheroma. (7/674)

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which lipid lowering reduces the incidence of acute thrombotic complications of coronary atheroma in clinical trials remains unknown. Tissue factor (TF) overexpressed in atheroma may accelerate thrombus formation at the sites of plaque disruption. A cell surface cytokine CD40 ligand (CD40L) enhances TF expression in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the hypothesis that lipid lowering reduces TF expression and activity, we produced atheroma in rabbit aortas by balloon injury and cholesterol feeding for 4 months (Baseline group, n=15), followed by either a chow diet (Low group, n=10) or a continued high-cholesterol diet for 16 months (High group, n=5). Immunolocalization of TF, CD40L, and its receptor CD40 was quantified by computer-assisted color image analysis. Macrophages in atheroma of the Baseline and High groups strongly expressed TF. Intimal smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells also contained immunoreactive TF. Regions of expression of CD40L and CD40 colocalized with TF. Protein expression of TF diminished substantially in the Low group in association with reduced expression of CD40L and CD40. In situ binding of TF to factors VIIa and X, detected by digoxigenin-labeled factors VIIa and X, colocalized with TF protein in atheroma and decreased after lipid lowering. We also determined reduced TF biological activity in the Low group by use of a chromogenic assay. The level of TF mRNA detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also decreased after lipid lowering. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest decreased expression and activity of TF as a novel mechanism of reduced incidence of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis by lipid lowering.  (+info)

"Normal" thrombin generation. (8/674)

We have investigated the influence of alterations in plasma coagulation factor levels between 50% and 150% of their mean values for prothrombin, factor X, factor XI, factor IX, factor VII, factor VIII, factor V, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III (AT-III), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as well as combinations of extremes, eg, 50% anticoagulants and 150% procoagulants or 50% procoagulants and 150% anticoagulants in a synthetic "plasma" system. The reaction systems were constructed in vitro using purified, natural, and recombinant proteins and synthetic phospholipid vesicles or platelets with the reactions initiated by recombinant tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex (5 pmol/L). To investigate the influence of the protein C system, soluble thrombomodulin (Tm) was also added to the reaction mixture. For the most extreme situations in which the essential plasma procoagulants (prothrombin, and factors X, IX, V, and VIII) and the stoichiometric anticoagulants (AT-III and TFPI) were collectively and inversely altered by 50%, a 28-fold difference in the total available thrombin generated was observed. Variations of most of these proteins 50% above and below the "normal" range, with the remainder at 100%, had only modest influences on the peak and total levels of thrombin generated. The dominant factors influencing thrombin generation were prothrombin and AT-III. When these 2 components were held at 100% and all other plasma procoagulants were reduced to 50%, there was a 60% reduction in the available thrombin generated. No increase in the thrombin generated was observed when the 150% level of all plasma procoagulants other than prothrombin was evaluated. When only prothrombin was raised to 150%, and all other factors were maintained at 100%, the thrombin generated increased by 71% to 121%. When AT-III was at 50% and all other constituents were at 100%, thrombin production was increased by 104% to 196%. The additions of protein C and protein S over the 50% to 150% ranges with Tm at 0.1 nmol/L concentration had limited influence on thrombin generation. Individual variations in factors VII, XI, and X concentrations had little effect on the duration of the initiation phase, the peak thrombin level achieved, or the available thrombin generated. Paradoxically, increases in factor IX concentration to 150% led to lowered thrombin generation, while decreases to 50% led to enhanced thrombin generation, most likely a consequence of factor IX as a competitive substrate with factor X for factor VIIa-TF. Reductions in factor V or factor VIII concentration led to prolongations of the initiation phase, while the reduction of TFPI to 50% led to shortening of this phase. However, none of these alterations led to significant changes in the available thrombin generated. Based on these data, one might surmise that increases in prothrombin and reductions in AT-III, within the normal range, would be potential risk factors for thrombosis and that algorithms that combine normal factor levels may be required to develop predictive tests for thrombosis.  (+info)

Factor X is a protein that is essential for blood clotting, also known as coagulation. It is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a blood clot. Factor X is activated by one of two pathways: the intrinsic pathway, which is initiated by damage to the blood vessels, or the extrinsic pathway, which is triggered by the release of tissue factor from damaged cells. Once activated, Factor X converts prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin to form a stable clot.

Inherited deficiencies in Factor X can lead to bleeding disorders, while increased levels of Factor X have been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis or blood clots. Therefore, maintaining appropriate levels of Factor X is important for the proper balance between bleeding and clotting in the body.

Factor Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of reactions that lead to the formation of a blood clot. It is one of the activated forms of Factor X, a pro-protein that is converted to Factor Xa through the action of other enzymes in the coagulation cascade.

Factor Xa functions as a key component of the prothrombinase complex, which also includes calcium ions, phospholipids, and activated Factor V (also known as Activated Protein C or APC). This complex is responsible for converting prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a stable clot.

Inhibitors of Factor Xa are used as anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These drugs work by selectively inhibiting Factor Xa, thereby preventing the formation of the prothrombinase complex and reducing the risk of clot formation.

Factor IXa is a protein that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of biochemical reactions involved in blood clotting. It is an activated form of Factor IX, which is one of the coagulation factors that help convert prothrombin to thrombin, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot and stopping bleeding at the site of injury.

Factor IXa works by activating Factor X in the presence of calcium ions, phospholipids, and Factor VIIIa, which is another activated coagulation factor. This complex is called the tenase complex. The activation of Factor X leads to the formation of thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a stable clot.

Deficiencies or dysfunctions in Factor IXa can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, which is characterized by prolonged bleeding times and spontaneous bleeding episodes.

Factor IX is also known as Christmas factor, which is a protein that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. It is one of the essential components required for the proper functioning of the body's natural blood-clotting mechanism.

Factor IX is synthesized in the liver and activated when it comes into contact with an injured blood vessel. Once activated, it collaborates with other factors to convert factor X to its active form, which then converts prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin is responsible for converting fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a stable fibrin clot that helps stop bleeding and promote healing.

Deficiencies in Factor IX can lead to hemophilia B, a genetic disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding and an increased risk of spontaneous bleeding. Hemophilia B is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning it primarily affects males, while females serve as carriers of the disease. Treatment for hemophilia B typically involves replacing the missing or deficient Factor IX through infusions to prevent or manage bleeding episodes.

Factor VIIa is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor VIIa is the activated form of factor VII, which is normally activated by tissue factor (TF) when there is damage to the blood vessels. Together, TF and Factor VIIa convert Factor X to its active form, Factor Xa, which then converts prothrombin to thrombin, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot.

In summary, Factor VIIa is an important protein in the coagulation cascade that helps to initiate the formation of a blood clot in response to injury.

Hypoprothrombinemia is a medical condition characterized by a decreased level of prothrombin (coagulation factor II) in the blood, which can lead to an increased bleeding tendency. Prothrombin is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade that helps to form blood clots and stop bleeding.

Hypoprothrombinemia can be caused by various factors, including vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, inherited or acquired disorders of prothrombin synthesis, or the use of certain medications such as warfarin. Symptoms may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts or injuries, nosebleeds, and in severe cases, internal bleeding. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include vitamin K supplementation, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, or other specific therapies depending on the etiology of the condition.

Thromboplastin is a substance that activates the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of a clot (thrombus). It's primarily found in damaged or injured tissues and blood vessels, as well as in platelets (thrombocytes). There are two types of thromboplastin:

1. Extrinsic thromboplastin (also known as tissue factor): This is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is primarily found in subendothelial cells and released upon injury to the blood vessels. It initiates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation by binding to and activating Factor VII, ultimately leading to the formation of thrombin and fibrin clots.
2. Intrinsic thromboplastin (also known as plasma thromboplastin or factor III): This term is used less frequently and refers to a labile phospholipid component present in platelet membranes, which plays a role in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

In clinical settings, the term "thromboplastin" often refers to reagents used in laboratory tests like the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). These reagents contain a source of tissue factor and calcium ions to initiate and monitor the coagulation process.

Prothrombin is a protein present in blood plasma, and it's also known as coagulation factor II. It plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex series of reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot.

When an injury occurs, the coagulation cascade is initiated to prevent excessive blood loss. Prothrombin is converted into its active form, thrombin, by another factor called factor Xa in the presence of calcium ions, phospholipids, and factor Va. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, forming a stable clot.

Prothrombin levels can be measured through a blood test, which is often used to diagnose or monitor conditions related to bleeding or coagulation disorders, such as liver disease or vitamin K deficiency.

Factor VIIIa is a protein that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is the series of biochemical reactions involved in blood clotting. Specifically, Factor VIIIa is an activated form of Factor VIII, which is one of the essential clotting factors required for normal hemostasis (the process that stops bleeding).

Factor VIIIa functions as a cofactor for another protein called Factor IXa, and together they form the "tenase complex." This complex activates Factor X to Factor Xa, which ultimately leads to the formation of a fibrin clot.

Deficiencies or dysfunctions in Factor VIII or Factor VIIIa can result in bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A, a genetic condition characterized by prolonged bleeding and spontaneous hemorrhages.

Factor VII, also known as proconvertin, is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor VII is synthesized in the liver and is activated when it comes into contact with tissue factor, which is exposed when blood vessels are damaged. Activated Factor VII then activates Factor X, leading to the formation of thrombin and ultimately a fibrin clot.

Inherited deficiencies or dysfunctions of Factor VII can lead to an increased risk of bleeding, while elevated levels of Factor VII have been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis (blood clots).

Blood coagulation, also known as blood clotting, is a complex process that occurs in the body to prevent excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. This process involves several different proteins and chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a clot.

The coagulation cascade is initiated when blood comes into contact with tissue factor, which is exposed after damage to the blood vessel wall. This triggers a series of enzymatic reactions that activate clotting factors, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrin is a protein that forms a mesh-like structure that traps platelets and red blood cells to form a stable clot.

Once the bleeding has stopped, the coagulation process is regulated and inhibited to prevent excessive clotting. The fibrinolytic system degrades the clot over time, allowing for the restoration of normal blood flow.

Abnormalities in the blood coagulation process can lead to bleeding disorders or thrombotic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

1-Carboxyglutamic acid, also known as γ-carboxyglutamic acid, is a post-translational modification found on certain blood clotting factors and other calcium-binding proteins. It is formed by the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in these proteins, which enhances their ability to bind to calcium ions. This modification is essential for the proper functioning of many physiological processes, including blood coagulation, bone metabolism, and wound healing.

Factor VIII is a protein in the blood that is essential for normal blood clotting. It is also known as antihemophilic factor (AHF). Deficiency or dysfunction of this protein results in hemophilia A, a genetic disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding and easy bruising. Factor VIII works together with other proteins to help form a clot and stop bleeding at the site of an injury. It acts as a cofactor for another clotting factor, IX, in the so-called intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Intravenous infusions of Factor VIII concentrate are used to treat and prevent bleeding episodes in people with hemophilia A.

Blood coagulation factors, also known as clotting factors, are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the blood coagulation process. They are essential for maintaining hemostasis, which is the body's ability to stop bleeding after injury.

There are 13 known blood coagulation factors, and they are designated by Roman numerals I through XIII. These factors are produced in the liver and are normally present in an inactive form in the blood. When there is an injury to a blood vessel, the coagulation process is initiated, leading to the activation of these factors in a specific order.

The coagulation cascade involves two pathways: the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The intrinsic pathway is activated when there is damage to the blood vessel itself, while the extrinsic pathway is activated by tissue factor released from damaged tissues. Both pathways converge at the common pathway, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot.

Blood coagulation factors work together in a complex series of reactions that involve activation, binding, and proteolysis. When one factor is activated, it activates the next factor in the cascade, and so on. This process continues until a stable fibrin clot is formed.

Deficiencies or abnormalities in blood coagulation factors can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia or thrombosis. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that affects one or more of the coagulation factors, leading to excessive bleeding and difficulty forming clots. Thrombosis, on the other hand, occurs when there is an abnormal formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, which can lead to serious complications such as stroke or pulmonary embolism.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in blood clotting and bone metabolism. It is essential for the production of several proteins involved in blood clotting, including factor II (prothrombin), factor VII, factor IX, and factor X. Additionally, Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of osteocalcin, a protein that contributes to bone health by regulating the deposition of calcium in bones.

There are two main forms of Vitamin K: Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), which is found primarily in green leafy vegetables and some vegetable oils, and Vitamin K2 (menaquinones), which is produced by bacteria in the intestines and is also found in some fermented foods.

Vitamin K deficiency can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemorrhage and excessive bruising. While Vitamin K deficiency is rare in adults, it can occur in newborns who have not yet developed sufficient levels of the vitamin. Therefore, newborns are often given a Vitamin K injection shortly after birth to prevent bleeding problems.

Blood coagulation tests, also known as coagulation studies or clotting tests, are a series of medical tests used to evaluate the blood's ability to clot. These tests measure the functioning of various clotting factors and regulatory proteins involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex process that leads to the formation of a blood clot to prevent excessive bleeding.

The most commonly performed coagulation tests include:

1. Prothrombin Time (PT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of calcium and tissue factor, which activates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The PT is reported in seconds and can be converted to an International Normalized Ratio (INR) to monitor anticoagulant therapy.
2. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of calcium, phospholipid, and a contact activator, which activates the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. The aPTT is reported in seconds and is used to monitor heparin therapy.
3. Thrombin Time (TT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of thrombin, which directly converts fibrinogen to fibrin. The TT is reported in seconds and can be used to detect the presence of fibrin degradation products or abnormalities in fibrinogen function.
4. Fibrinogen Level: Measures the amount of fibrinogen, a protein involved in clot formation, present in the blood. The level is reported in grams per liter (g/L) and can be used to assess bleeding risk or the effectiveness of fibrinogen replacement therapy.
5. D-dimer Level: Measures the amount of D-dimer, a protein fragment produced during the breakdown of a blood clot, present in the blood. The level is reported in micrograms per milliliter (µg/mL) and can be used to diagnose or exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

These tests are important for the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of various bleeding and clotting disorders. They can help identify the underlying cause of abnormal bleeding or clotting, guide appropriate treatment decisions, and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It is essential to interpret these test results in conjunction with a patient's clinical presentation and medical history.

Thrombin is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex series of biochemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) to prevent excessive bleeding during an injury. Thrombin is formed from its precursor protein, prothrombin, through a process called activation, which involves cleavage by another enzyme called factor Xa.

Once activated, thrombin converts fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into fibrin, an insoluble protein that forms the structural framework of a blood clot. Thrombin also activates other components of the coagulation cascade, such as factor XIII, which crosslinks and stabilizes the fibrin network, and platelets, which contribute to the formation and growth of the clot.

Thrombin has several regulatory mechanisms that control its activity, including feedback inhibition by antithrombin III, a plasma protein that inactivates thrombin and other serine proteases, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), which inhibits the activation of factor Xa, thereby preventing further thrombin formation.

Overall, thrombin is an essential enzyme in hemostasis, the process that maintains the balance between bleeding and clotting in the body. However, excessive or uncontrolled thrombin activity can lead to pathological conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

Dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element that belongs to the lanthanide series. Dysprosium is a naturally occurring, silvery-white, malleable, and ductile metal. It is not found in its free form in nature, but it is often found combined with other elements in minerals such as monazite and bastnasite.

Dysprosium has a number of important uses due to its unique magnetic properties. It is used in the production of high-strength magnets, which are used in various applications including electric motors, generators, and wind turbines. Dysprosium is also used in the nuclear industry as a neutron absorber in control rods for nuclear reactors.

In medical terms, dysprosium has no known therapeutic uses or health benefits. However, it may be used in some medical devices or equipment due to its magnetic properties. For example, dysprosium is sometimes used in the production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.

Coagulants are substances that promote the process of coagulation or clotting. They are often used in medical settings to help control bleeding and promote healing. Coagulants work by encouraging the formation of a clot, which helps to stop the flow of blood from a wound or cut.

There are several different types of coagulants that may be used in medical treatments. Some coagulants are naturally occurring substances, such as vitamin K, which is essential for the production of certain clotting factors in the body. Other coagulants may be synthetic or semi-synthetic compounds, such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), which is used to treat bleeding disorders and prevent excessive bleeding during surgery.

Coagulants are often administered through injection or infusion, but they can also be applied topically to wounds or cuts. In some cases, coagulants may be used in combination with other treatments, such as compression or cauterization, to help control bleeding and promote healing.

It is important to note that while coagulants can be helpful in controlling bleeding and promoting healing, they can also increase the risk of blood clots and other complications. As a result, they should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Factor V, also known as proaccelerin or labile factor, is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor V acts as a cofactor for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, which is a critical step in the coagulation process.

Inherited deficiencies or abnormalities in Factor V can lead to bleeding disorders. For example, Factor V Leiden is a genetic mutation that causes an increased risk of blood clots, while Factor V deficiency can cause a bleeding disorder.

It's worth noting that "Factor Va" is not a standard medical term. Factor V becomes activated and turns into Factor Va during the coagulation cascade. Therefore, it is possible that you are looking for the definition of "Factor Va" in the context of its role as an activated form of Factor V in the coagulation process.

Antithrombin III is a protein that inhibits the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the body. It does this by inactivating several enzymes involved in coagulation, including thrombin and factor Xa. Antithrombin III is produced naturally by the liver and is also available as a medication for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. It works by binding to and neutralizing excess clotting factors in the bloodstream, thereby reducing the risk of clot formation.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's more specifically a measure of the intrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade, which are the series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot.

The test involves adding a partial thromboplastin reagent (an activator of the intrinsic pathway) and calcium to plasma, and then measuring the time it takes for a fibrin clot to form. This is compared to a control sample, and the ratio of the two times is calculated.

The PTT test is often used to help diagnose bleeding disorders or abnormal blood clotting, such as hemophilia or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy, such as heparin. Prolonged PTT results may indicate a bleeding disorder or an increased risk of bleeding, while shortened PTT results may indicate a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thrombosis.

Factor V, also known as proaccelerin or labile factor, is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor V acts as a cofactor for the activation of Factor X to Factor Xa, which is a critical step in the coagulation cascade.

When blood vessels are damaged, the coagulation cascade is initiated to prevent excessive bleeding. During this process, Factor V is activated by thrombin, another protein involved in coagulation, and then forms a complex with activated Factor X and calcium ions on the surface of platelets or other cells. This complex converts prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin to form a stable clot.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Factor V can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia B or factor V deficiency, while mutations in the gene encoding Factor V can increase the risk of thrombosis, as seen in the Factor V Leiden mutation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ytterbium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol "Yb" and atomic number 70. Ytterbium is a rare earth metal that is silvery white, soft, malleable, and has many uses in scientific research, particularly in the field of laser technology.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Prothrombin time (PT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's often used to evaluate the functioning of the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation system, which is responsible for blood clotting. Specifically, PT measures how long it takes for prothrombin (a protein produced by the liver) to be converted into thrombin, an enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin and helps form a clot.

Prolonged PT may indicate a bleeding disorder or a deficiency in coagulation factors, such as vitamin K deficiency or the use of anticoagulant medications like warfarin. It's important to note that PT is often reported with an international normalized ratio (INR), which allows for standardization and comparison of results across different laboratories and reagent types.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Factor VII deficiency is a bleeding disorder that is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of coagulation factor VII, which is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade and is necessary for the initiation of blood clotting. This condition can lead to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, easy bruising, and spontaneous bleeding. The severity of the disorder varies widely, depending on the level of factor VII activity. In severe cases, factor VII activity may be less than 1% of normal, leading to a high risk of bleeding. In milder cases, factor VII activity may be between 5-40% of normal, leading to a lower risk of bleeding. Treatment typically involves replacement therapy with fresh frozen plasma or recombinant factor VIIa to control bleeding episodes and prevent complications.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

Carbon-carbon ligases are a type of enzyme that catalyze the formation of carbon-carbon bonds between two molecules. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of natural products and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids.

Carbon-carbon ligases can be classified into several categories based on the type of reaction they catalyze. For example, aldolases catalyze the condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with another molecule to form a new carbon-carbon bond and a new carbonyl group. Other examples include the polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which are large multienzyme complexes that catalyze the sequential addition of activated carbon units to form complex natural products.

Carbon-carbon ligases are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play critical roles in the biosynthesis of many disease-relevant molecules. Inhibitors of these enzymes have shown promise as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and metabolic disorders.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Antithrombins are substances that prevent the formation or promote the dissolution of blood clots (thrombi). They include:

1. Anticoagulants: These are medications that reduce the ability of the blood to clot. Examples include heparin, warfarin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) such as apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
2. Thrombolytic agents: These are medications that break down existing blood clots. Examples include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase.
3. Fibrinolytics: These are a type of thrombolytic agent that specifically target fibrin, a protein involved in the formation of blood clots.
4. Natural anticoagulants: These are substances produced by the body to regulate blood clotting. Examples include antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S.

Antithrombins are used in the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is important to note that while antithrombins can help prevent or dissolve blood clots, they also increase the risk of bleeding, so their use must be carefully monitored.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Blood coagulation disorders, also known as bleeding disorders or clotting disorders, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots properly. Normally, when a blood vessel is injured, the body's coagulation system works to form a clot to stop the bleeding and promote healing.

In blood coagulation disorders, there can be either an increased tendency to bleed due to problems with the formation of clots (hemorrhagic disorder), or an increased tendency for clots to form inappropriately even without injury, leading to blockages in the blood vessels (thrombotic disorder).

Examples of hemorrhagic disorders include:

1. Hemophilia - a genetic disorder that affects the ability to form clots due to deficiencies in clotting factors VIII or IX.
2. Von Willebrand disease - another genetic disorder caused by a deficiency or abnormality of the von Willebrand factor, which helps platelets stick together to form a clot.
3. Liver diseases - can lead to decreased production of coagulation factors, increasing the risk of bleeding.
4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) - a serious condition where clotting and bleeding occur simultaneously due to widespread activation of the coagulation system.

Examples of thrombotic disorders include:

1. Factor V Leiden mutation - a genetic disorder that increases the risk of inappropriate blood clot formation.
2. Antithrombin III deficiency - a genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to break down clots, increasing the risk of thrombosis.
3. Protein C or S deficiencies - genetic disorders that lead to an increased risk of thrombosis due to impaired regulation of the coagulation system.
4. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) - an autoimmune disorder where the body produces antibodies against its own clotting factors, increasing the risk of thrombosis.

Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific diagnosis and may include medications to manage bleeding or prevent clots, as well as lifestyle changes and monitoring to reduce the risk of complications.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Samarium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a silvery-white metallic element that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table.

However, samarium-153 (Sm-153) is a radioactive isotope of samarium that has medical applications. It is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of painful bone metastases, particularly in patients with prostate or breast cancer. Sm-153 is combined with a chelating agent to form a complex that can be injected into the patient's bloodstream. The chelating agent helps to ensure that the samarium is distributed throughout the body and is not taken up by healthy tissues. Once inside the body, Sm-153 emits beta particles, which can destroy cancer cells in the bones and relieve pain.

Therefore, while samarium is not a medical term itself, it does have medical applications as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases.

Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in the blood that functions as a natural anticoagulant. It plays a crucial role in regulating the body's clotting system by inhibiting the activation of coagulation factors, thereby preventing excessive blood clotting. Protein S also acts as a cofactor for activated protein C, which is another important anticoagulant protein.

Protein S exists in two forms: free and bound to a protein called C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Only the free form of Protein S has biological activity in inhibiting coagulation. Inherited or acquired deficiencies in Protein S can lead to an increased risk of thrombosis, or abnormal blood clot formation, which can cause various medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Regular monitoring of Protein S levels is essential for patients with a history of thrombotic events or those who have a family history of thrombophilia.

Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protease that functions as an important regulator of coagulation and inflammation. It is a plasma protein produced in the liver that, when activated, degrades clotting factors Va and VIIIa to limit thrombus formation and prevent excessive blood clotting. Protein C also has anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing endothelial cell activation. Inherited or acquired deficiencies in Protein C can lead to an increased risk of thrombosis, a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation within blood vessels.

Factor XIa is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in blood coagulation. It is formed through the activation of Factor XI, which is one of the key components in the intrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. The activation of Factor XI to Factor XIa occurs via either autoactivation or through the action of thrombin. Once activated, Factor XIa can cleave and activate Factor IX, leading to the formation of Factor IXa, which further amplifies the coagulation cascade.

In summary, Factor XIa is a vital enzyme in the blood coagulation process, contributing to the formation of a stable fibrin clot that helps prevent excessive bleeding during injury or trauma.

Benzamidines are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to an amidine functional group. They are commonly used as antimicrobial agents, particularly in the treatment of various gram-negative bacterial infections. Benzamidines work by inhibiting the enzyme bacterial dehydrogenases, which are essential for the bacteria's survival.

Some examples of benzamidine derivatives include:

* Tempanamine hydrochloride (Tembaglanil): used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
* Chlorhexidine: a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used as a disinfectant and preservative in various medical and dental applications.
* Prothiobenzamide: an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug used to treat gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

It is important to note that benzamidines have a narrow therapeutic index, which means that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Viperidae is not a term that has a medical definition per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and zoology. Viperidae is the family name for a group of venomous snakes commonly known as vipers. This family includes various types of pit vipers, adders, and rattlesnakes.

While Viperidae itself may not have direct medical relevance, understanding the biology and behavior of these creatures is important in the context of medical fields such as toxicology and emergency medicine. Knowledge about the venomous properties of viper snakes and their potential to cause harm to humans is crucial for appropriate treatment and management of snakebites.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

... has been administering public money since 1986 when it began to grow significantly. From an inaugural budget of $200,000 ... FACTOR (the Foundation to Assist Canadian Talent on Records) is a private non-profit organization "dedicated to providing ... The merit-based approach of monetary distribution used by FACTOR and Canadian music video funding organization VideoFACT, is ... LeBlanc, Larry (May 8, 2004). "Canadian Indies Hold Breath For FACTOR". Billboard. Vol. 116, no. 19. p. 52. ISSN 0006-2510. ...
The Y-factor method is a widely used technique for measuring the gain and noise temperature of an amplifier. It is based on the ... In the Y-factor technique, Pout is measured for two different, known values of TR. Pout is then converted to an effective ... Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy - The Y-Factor Method (PDF), Application Note 57-2, Keysight Technologies, 2010, retrieved 2 ...
Ben Blish, Damping Factor Audioholics. AV University. Amplifier Technology. Dick Pierce, Damping factor: Effects on System ... damping factor is about 0.37 dB. However, the amplifier with the low damping factor is acting more like a subtle graphic ... The damping factor D F {\displaystyle DF} is: D F = Z L + Z S Z S {\displaystyle DF={\frac {Z_{\mathrm {L} }+Z_{\mathrm {S} }}{ ... Damping factor with an 8 Ω load becomes more than 50 when this control is set to NORMAL. Likewise, it is 5 at MEDIUM position, ...
... or fibrin stabilizing factor is a zymogen found in blood of humans and some other animals. It is activated by ... Factor XIII is a transglutaminase that circulates in human blood as a heterotetramer of two A and two B subunits. Factor XIII ... Factor XIII Deficiency is also known as Laki-Lorand factor, after Kalman Laki and Laszlo Lorand, the scientists who first ... "Factor XIII: a coagulation factor with multiple plasmatic and cellular functions". Physiological Reviews. 91 (3): 931-72. doi: ...
... the phase factor is the complex exponential factor (eiθ). The phase factor is a unit complex number, i.e. a complex number of ... Multiplying the equation of a plane wave Aei(k·r − ωt) by a phase factor shifts the phase of the wave by θ: e i θ A e i ( k ⋅ r ... In optics, the phase factor is an important quantity in the treatment of interference. Berry phase Bra-ket notation Euler's ... However, differences in phase factors between two interacting quantum states can sometimes be measurable (such as in the Berry ...
... whom Factor served). Stracke, Richard (2015-10-20). "Nicholas Factor". Christian Iconography. "Blessed Nicolás Factor-Estaña". ... Pope Pius VI beatified Factor on 27 August 1786. Nicolás Factor was born in Valencia in Spain on 29 June 1520 as one of five ... La primera biografia de Nicolás Factor, Libro de la vida y obras maravillosas del Padre Fray Pedro Nicolás Factor de Cristóbal ... "Blessed Nicholas Factor". Roman Catholic Saints. Retrieved 28 September 2016. Saint Nicholas Factor Saints SQPN Ceán Bermúdez, ...
Risk factors may be used to identify high-risk people. Risk factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily ... Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such ... The term "risk factor" was coined by former Framingham Heart Study director, William B. Kannel in a 1961 article in Annals of ... Risk Factors. ISBN 1-55009-113-1. Retrieved 27 January 2011. Giordano SH, Cohen DS, Buzdar AU, Perkins G, Hortobagyi GN (July ...
The branching factor can be cut down by a pruning algorithm. The average branching factor can be quickly calculated as the ... Chess's branching factor is 35. Go's is 250. Games with high branching factors make classic search algorithms like minimax ... By comparison, the average branching factor for the game Go is 250. Higher branching factors make algorithms that follow every ... For example, in chess, if a "node" is considered to be a legal position, the average branching factor has been said to be about ...
... is a moth in the family Gelechiidae.[failed verification] It is found in North America, where it has been ...
... factor XII, factor XI, and factor IX). Factor XIa activates factor IX by selectively cleaving arg-ala and arg-val peptide bonds ... Factor IXa, in turn, forms a complex with Factor VIIIa (FIXa-FVIIIa) and activates factor X. Physiological inhibitors of factor ... "Activation of human blood coagulation factor XI independent of factor XII. Factor XI is activated by thrombin and factor XIa in ... The zymogen factor is activated into factor XIa by factor XIIa (FXIIa), thrombin, and FXIa itself; due to its activation by ...
... is based upon Themerson's theory that the eternal tragedy (factor T) of humanity is found in the conflict between the ... Factor T is a book first published in 1956 written by the Polish writer, philosopher, filmmaker, composer and poet Stefan ...
On Unix, Plan 9, and Unix-like computer systems, factor is a utility for factoring an integer into its prime factors. factor ... In 2008, GNU factor started to use the GNU MP library for arbitrary-precision arithmetic, allowing it to factor integers of any ... GNU's factor manual page FreeBSD's factor man page (Unix software, Plan 9 commands). ... factor [number] The command can be used by supplying an integer value. Various projects, including simple ones such as printing ...
Look up form factor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Form factor or form-factor may refer to: Form factor (design), an ... or atomic scattering factor, a measure of the amplitude of a wave scattered from an isolated atom Electric form factor, the ... or view factor, the proportion of energy transmitted by that object which can be transferred to another object Form factor in ... Computer form factor, the specifications of computer motherboards Hard disk drive form factor FormFactor (company), a ...
In the field of Preventive Medicine and Health Psychology, Protective Factors refer to any factor that decreases the chances of ... we can examine how many Protective and Risk factors contribute to the likelihood of an illness occurring. Protective factors ... Conversely, a Risk factor will increase the chances of a negative health outcome occurring. Just as statistical correlations ... Protective factors are conditions or attributes (skills, strengths, resources, supports or coping strategies) in individuals, ...
Factor faked the kidnapping of his son, Jerome, for the same day. Eight days later, Factor himself and several members of the ... Factor's wife, Rella, then asked a U.S. federal district court to dismiss the extradition on the grounds that Factor had been ... 1934). Factor was convicted of mail fraud in 1942, and served six years of a 10-year sentence. In 1955, Factor took over the ... Factor lost his extradition battle when, on December 4, 1933, the U.S. Supreme Court held in Factor v. Laubenheimer, 290 U.S. ...
ISBN 0-9647938-4-9. BayesFactor -an R package for computing Bayes factors in common research designs Bayes factor calculator - ... the Bayes factor is equal to the ratio of the posterior probabilities of M1 and M2. If instead of the Bayes factor integral, ... Online calculator for informed Bayes factors Bayes Factor Calculators Archived 2015-05-07 at the Wayback Machine -web-based ... The Bayes factor is a ratio of two competing statistical models represented by their evidence, and is used to quantify the ...
... (Turkish: Kocan Kadar Konuş) is a 2015 Turkish comedy film directed by Kivanç Baruönü. Ezgi Mola - Efsun Murat ... Husband Factor at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2015 films, ...
"Welsh Factor's Kelsey, 16, a rising star". Wales Online. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. "July 2011 Welsh Factor News ... "Victoria has the Welsh Factor". County Times. Retrieved 10 October 2011. "Welsh Factor star Dai Faulkner tries out for The ... The Welsh Factor helps aspired singers, dancers and performers to overcome their fears and gain feedback from professionals on ... The Welsh Factor is a talent competition run by entertainment agencies GT Management Promotions (GTMP) and Artiste Management. ...
Factor premiums are also documented in corporate bond markets and also across markets. The earliest theory of factor investing ... A factor-based investment strategy involves tilting investment portfolios towards or away from specific factors in an attempt ... Carhart four-factor model Fama-French three-factor model Low-volatility investing Momentum investing Style investing Value ... Factor investing is an investment approach that involves targeting quantifiable firm characteristics or "factors" that can ...
... is activated, by hydrolysis, into factor Xa by both factor IX (with its cofactor, factor VIII in a complex known as ... The result is a Factor VIIa/TF complex, which catalyzes the activation of Factor X and Factor IX. Factor Xa formed on the ... Factor XIa activates free Factor IX on the surface of activated platelets. The activated Factor IXa with Factor VIIIa forms the ... And they may be more effective against Factor Xa in that they inhibit both free Factor Xa and Factor Xa in the prothrombinase ...
If repeated attempts to factor fail we can try again using a different factor base. Factor bases are used in, for example, ... has all of its prime factors in the pre-chosen factor base. We represent each x 2 ( mod n ) {\displaystyle x^{2}{\pmod {n}}} ... can be completely factorized over the chosen factor base-that is, all their prime factors are in P. In practice, several ... expression as a vector of a matrix with integer entries being the exponents of factors in the factor base. Linear combinations ...
... is greatest at high angles of attack and high power, for example during take-off or in slow flight. If using a ... P-factor is insignificant during the initial ground roll, but will give a pronounced nose-left tendency during the later stages ... P-factor, also known as asymmetric blade effect and asymmetric disc effect, is an aerodynamic phenomenon experienced by a ... However, if both engines rotate in the same direction, or if one engine fails, P-factor will cause a yaw. As with single-engine ...
... while velocity factor is used for the ratio. Velocity factor is an important characteristic of communication media such as ... The velocity factor for a lossless transmission line is given by: V F = 1 c 0 L ′ C ′ {\displaystyle \mathrm {VF} ={\frac {1}{c ... The velocity factor (VF), also called wave propagation speed or velocity of propagation (VoP or v P {\displaystyle v_{\mathrm { ... The speed of radio signals in vacuum, for example, is the speed of light, and so the velocity factor of a radio wave in vacuum ...
The other factors that can reduce the winding factor are pitch factor k p {\displaystyle k_{p}} and skew factor k s {\ ... is the distribution factor. k p {\displaystyle k_{p}} is the pole factor. k s {\displaystyle k_{s}} is the skew factor ... Most of 3-phase motors have winding factor values between 0.85 and 0.95. The winding factor (along with some other factors like ... Winding factor also applies to other electric machines, but this article focuses on winding factor as it applies to alternators ...
... dividing by the integrating factor on both sides to achieve the final result. A third order usage of integrating factors gives ... Integrating factors are useful for solving ordinary differential equations that can be expressed in the form y ′ + P ( x ) y = ... An integrating factor is any expression that a differential equation is multiplied by to facilitate integration. For example, ... To derive this, let M ( x ) {\displaystyle M(x)} be the integrating factor of a first order linear differential equation such ...
These factors consist of certain cell surface proteins and transcription factors that induce the uptake of DNA. Natural ... All cellular components that are involved in sensing extracellular factors affect the srfA operon. The expression of srfA will ... When this reading frame is expressed, it will activate the transcription factor ComK. After ComK is activated, transcription of ... Golz, Julia C (21 September 2021). ""Take It or Leave It"-Factors Regulating Competence Development and DNA Uptake in ...
In algebra, the factor theorem connects polynomial factors with their zeros. Specifically, if f ( x ) {\displaystyle f(x)} is a ... Two problems where the factor theorem is commonly applied are those of factoring a polynomial and finding the roots of a ... Use the factor theorem to conclude that ( x − a ) {\displaystyle (x-a)} is a factor of f ( x ) {\displaystyle f(x)} . Compute ... is factored completely, which all its factors is irreducible on R [ x ] {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} [x]} or C [ x ] {\ ...
... (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF). In humans, factor VIII ... It is a cofactor to factor IXa in the activation of factor X, which, in turn, with its cofactor factor Va, activates more ... The active protein (sometimes written as coagulation factor VIIIa) interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. ... the incidence of these inhibitors is dependent of various factors, including the factor VIII product itself. Factor VIII ...
The crop factor is sometimes referred to as "magnification factor", "focal length factor" or "focal length multiplier". This ... Since crop factor is inversely proportional to the square root of sensor area (to within a small aspect ratio-dependent factor ... In digital photography, the crop factor, format factor, or focal length multiplier of an image sensor format is the ratio of ... crop factors. The larger sensor has the smaller crop factor and the higher signal-to-noise ratio. Most SLR camera and lens ...
Learn more about stroke risk factors from the CDC. ... Stroke risk factors include age and behaviors such as smoking. ... Genetic factors likely play some role in high blood pressure, stroke, and other related conditions. Several genetic disorders ... Trends in stroke hospitalizations and associated risk factors among children and young adults, 1995-2008. Annals of Neurology. ... People with a family history of stroke are also likely to share common environments and other potential factors that increase ...
Factor X deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies in severity among affected individuals. Explore symptoms, ... The inherited form of factor X deficiency, known as congenital factor X deficiency, is caused by mutations in the F10 gene, ... Factor X deficiency: clinical manifestation of 102 subjects from Europe and Latin America with mutations in the factor 10 gene ... Some F10 gene mutations that cause factor X deficiency reduce the amount of coagulation factor X in the bloodstream, resulting ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Impact Factor with F. Perry Wilson. ... ICYM: Beethovens Hair, Inside the Dying Brain, and More Impact Factor, with Dr F. Perry Wilson, is taking a break this week. ... When we cant explain something with genes or traditional risk factors, we turn to good old-fashioned epidemiology.. Medscape, ...
Risk Factors for Type 2 Violence Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence Unit 5: Prevention Strategies for Organizations Unit ... Unit 4: Risk Factors for Type 3 Violence Workplace Violence Prevention for Nurses About This Course Unit 1: Definitions, Types ... Contributing Factors. The Joint Commission has acknowledged that "intimidating and disruptive behaviors" among co-workers in ... "Systemic factors stem from the unique health care cultural environment, which is marked by pressures that include increased ...
Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal disorder that may be associated with bleeding. Other terms for this disorder include ... Factor XI deficiency. Diagram from the traditional cascade-waterfall model of coagulation shows the place of factor XI in the ... Factor XI deficiency. Diagram from the traditional cascade-waterfall model of coagulation shows the place of factor XI in the ... encoded search term (Factor XI Deficiency) and Factor XI Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Account for these factors when estimating site-specific doses. In addition, some people, such as asthmatics or the elderly, ... Before excluding a contaminant from further evaluation, be sure to consider these other factors:. *Community concerns. As ... The In-Depth Toxicological Effects Analysis section expands on how you should weigh these factors in your evaluation of site ... This section explains the other factors health assessors need to consider during the EPC and exposure calculation process ...
FACTOR has been administering public money since 1986 when it began to grow significantly. From an inaugural budget of $200,000 ... FACTOR (the Foundation to Assist Canadian Talent on Records) is a private non-profit organization "dedicated to providing ... The merit-based approach of monetary distribution used by FACTOR and Canadian music video funding organization VideoFACT, is ... LeBlanc, Larry (May 8, 2004). "Canadian Indies Hold Breath For FACTOR". Billboard. Vol. 116, no. 19. p. 52. ISSN 0006-2510. ...
The Y-factor method is a widely used technique for measuring the gain and noise temperature of an amplifier. It is based on the ... In the Y-factor technique, Pout is measured for two different, known values of TR. Pout is then converted to an effective ... Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy - The Y-Factor Method (PDF), Application Note 57-2, Keysight Technologies, 2010, retrieved 2 ...
Studies of child maltreatment risk factors. The triangles show the relative importance of different risk factors for child ... They are based on a measure of association (median odds ratios) between child maltreatment and the risk factor in question ... Not all risk factors are found in all social and cultural contexts. ... Use the following URL to embed the risk-factors-of-child-maltreatment visualization into your webpage:. ...
... The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data for health assessment ...
Shop for mobile form factor at Best Buy. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up. ... "Great form factor, limited support...Im so glad I took a chance and got this device. The form factor is great also. Its not ... "Great form factor, limited support...Im so glad I took a chance and got this device. The form factor is great also. Its not ... I love the form factor. I actually enjoy using the front screen now. ...This is a great form factor for a folding phone. I ...
or factor loadings estimated with factoran. .. B = rotatefactors(A,Method,orthomax,Coeff,gamma). rotates A. to maximize ... correspond to variables and columns correspond to factors, for example, the (i, j)th element of A. is the coefficient for the i ... You can find the correlation matrix of the rotated factors by using inv(T*T). . For orthogonal rotation, this is the identity ... the rotation is orthogonal, and the factors remain uncorrelated. If Type. is oblique. (the default), the rotation is ...
... factor( a , K ) factor( f , method=Wang ) Parameters a - expression K - field extension over which to factor... ... factor factor a multivariate polynomial Calling Sequence Parameters Description Examples References Compatibility Calling ... The factor function does NOT factor integers. Nor does it factor integer coefficients in a polynomial. Use the ifactor function ... Thus factor does not necessarily factor into linear factors. Note that any integer content (see first example below) is not ...
Multi-factor authentication. ESET Secure Authentication. An easy-to-use and effective mobile-based multi-factor authentication ... Multi-factor authentication. Effective mobile-based multi-factor authentication (MFA) solution protects your organisation from ... Effective mobile-based multi-factor authentication (MFA) solution protects your organisation from weak passwords, unauthorised ...
Gerard ODonovan reviews the third episode of The X Factor, which liberally ladeled on the wrung-out emotion. ... The X Factor: week two auditions, Saturday, review. Gerard ODonovan reviews the third episode of The X Factor, which liberally ... Has the prospect of being thrashed by Strictly brought a more compassionate edge to The X Factor? Granted, the idea of the show ... X Factor judges Louis Walsh, Sharon Osbourne, Gary Barlow and Nicole Scherzinger Credit: Photo: ITV ...
Browse the Marvel Comics issue X-Factor (2005) #232. Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, ...
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) adds an extra layer of security to your Namecheap account. See how 2FA can help you and get ... Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) adds a vital extra step on top of your username and password, and it costs nothing at Namecheap ... Choose from some of the most rock-solid 2FA methods in the market now, including the world-leading U2F (Universal 2nd Factor) ... With U2F (Universal 2nd factor) you dont need to type in codes from an app on your smartphone. Instead, this technology uses a ...
Britney Spears -- Chewing Gum During X Factor Interview. Britney Spears Chewing Gum During X Factor Interview * ... Britney Spears You Might Want to Rethink Beauty Hot Mamas X-Factor ...
Why is factoring the reverse of multiplication, you ask? Its because factoring is the process of taking what was once a ... now its time to throw the whole process in reverse and learn factoring. ... product and breaking it into the original pieces (called factors) that multiply together to get that product. ...
Guidance on how to manage your multi-factor authentication (MFA) preferences in VAMS. ... VAMS is required to use multi-factor authentication (MFA) to meet federal security requirements. MFA confirms a users identify ...
Family health history is a non-modifiable risk factor-or is it?. "I met three different women who had been tested [genetic ... risk factors - Genomics and Precision Health Blog ...
Are you closing your eyes and hoping your marketing plan will work itself? Well you better take a look, asap.
von Willebrand factor. Names. Factor VIII related antigen. coagulation factor VIII VWF. ... Coagulation factor VIII regulates von Willebrand factor homeostasis invivo. Title: Coagulation factor VIII regulates von ... VWC; von Willebrand factor type C domain. cl17735. Location:350 → 394. VWC; von Willebrand factor type C domain. pfam00092. ... VWA; von Willebrand factor type A domain. pfam00094. Location:1950 → 2102. VWD; von Willebrand factor type D domain. pfam08742 ...
Find out how to calculate the factor for regular insulin, short-acting insulin, and more. ... The insulin sensitivity factor tells you how many points, in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), your blood sugar will drop for ... The insulin sensitivity factor is also sometimes called a "correction factor." You need to know this number to correct a blood ... From the insulin sensitivity factor calculation, you know that your rapid-acting insulin sensitivity factor is 1:60. In other ...
Upping the fear factor. There is a disturbing gap between actual crime in Japan and public worry over it. ...
Detailed drug Information for Antihemophilic factor. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and ... Antihemophilic factor (Intravenous). Generic name: antihemophilic factor [ an-tee-hee-moe-FIL-ik-FAK-tor ]. Brand names: Advate ... Detailed Antihemophilic factor dosage information Precautions while using antihemophilic factor. It is very important that your ... Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant) (AHFS Monograph). *Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), Fc-VWF-XTEN Fusion Protein-ehtl ( ...
Small Form Factor PCs by Duane Wessels, Matthew Weaver is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor ... Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be ... Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They ...
  • Now that you are used to multiplying polynomials (in my metaphor, the equivalent of driving), now it's time to throw the whole process in reverse and learn factoring. (factmonster.com)
  • The inherited form of factor X deficiency, known as congenital factor X deficiency, is caused by mutations in the F10 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called coagulation factor X. This protein plays a critical role in the coagulation system, which is a series of chemical reactions that forms blood clots in response to injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some F10 gene mutations that cause factor X deficiency reduce the amount of coagulation factor X in the bloodstream, resulting in a form of the disorder called type I. Other F10 gene mutations result in the production of a coagulation factor X protein with impaired function, leading to type II factor X deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reduced quantity or function of coagulation factor X prevents blood from clotting normally, causing episodes of abnormal bleeding that can be severe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagram from the traditional cascade-waterfall model of coagulation shows the place of factor XI in the intrinsic pathway, which leads to the common pathway. (medscape.com)
  • The coagulation defect in plasma from these patients was corrected on mixing with plasma from patients with hemophilia, indicating that these patients lacked a factor different from those involved in hemophilia. (medscape.com)
  • Recently several reports have cleotide (designated as 0/10 bp) in the pro- focused on the association between the moter region of the gene at position -323 factor VII of the cascade coagulation and [ 13,14 ]. (who.int)
  • Diagnosis and treatment of inherited factor X deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antihemophilic factor (AHF) injection is used to treat, control, prevent, and decrease the frequency of bleeding episodes, and prevent bleeding during surgery in patients with hemophilia A (congenital Factor VIII deficiency). (drugs.com)
  • Effective mobile-based multi-factor authentication (MFA) solution protects your organisation from weak passwords, unauthorised access and compliance with regulations. (eset.com)
  • An easy-to-use and effective mobile-based multi-factor authentication (MFA) solution that protects organisations from weak passwords and unauthorised access. (eset.com)
  • VAMS is required to use multi-factor authentication (MFA) to meet federal security requirements. (cdc.gov)
  • Factor X deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies in severity among affected individuals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Factor X deficiency commonly causes nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding under the skin, bleeding of the gums, blood in the urine (hematuria), and prolonged or excessive bleeding following surgery or trauma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women with factor X deficiency can have heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) or excessive bleeding in childbirth, and may be at increased risk of pregnancy loss (miscarriage). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Factor X deficiency occurs in approximately 1 per million individuals worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A non-inherited form of the disorder, called acquired factor X deficiency, is more common than the congenital form. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acquired factor X deficiency can be caused by other disorders such as severe liver disease or systemic amyloidosis, a condition involving the accumulation of abnormal proteins called amyloids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acquired factor X deficiency can also be caused by certain drugs such as medicines that prevent clotting, or by a deficiency of vitamin K. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acquired factor X deficiency is not inherited, and generally occurs in individuals with no history of the disorder in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Greifswald Factor X Deficiency Study Group. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Factor X deficiency: clinical manifestation of 102 subjects from Europe and Latin America with mutations in the factor 10 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare autosomal disorder that may be associated with bleeding. (medscape.com)
  • Rosenthal and colleagues first described factor XI deficiency in 1953. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] They identified the abnormality as a deficiency in a clotting factor, which they termed plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA). (medscape.com)
  • Powerful two-factor authentication for safe access to networks and data. (eset.com)
  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) adds a vital extra step on top of your username and password, and it costs nothing at Namecheap. (namecheap.com)
  • You get top-notch Two-Factor Authentication (industry-leading U2F and TOTP) to keep your account secure, as well as domain privacy protection - all free of charge. (namecheap.com)
  • Our friendly customer support team are on hand 24/7 to answer any queries you may have about Two-Factor Authentication. (namecheap.com)
  • FXI remains on the surface and activates factor IX in plasma. (medscape.com)
  • We studied FVII gene poly- then activates factors IX and X leading to morphisms in healthy Tunisians with the the generation of thrombin [ 2 ]. (who.int)
  • Girolami A, Scarparo P, Scandellari R, Allemand E. Congenital factor X deficiencies with a defect only or predominantly in the extrinsic or in the intrinsic system: a critical evaluation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Girolami A, Vettore S, Scarparo P, Lombardi AM. Persistent validity of a classification of congenital factor X defects based on clotting, chromogenic and immunological assays even in the molecular biology era. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The factor function computes the factorization of a multivariate polynomial with integer, rational, (complex) numeric, or algebraic number coefficients. (maplesoft.com)
  • Nor does it factor integer coefficients in a polynomial. (maplesoft.com)
  • If the second argument K is not given, the polynomial is factored over the field implied by the coefficients. (maplesoft.com)
  • For example, if the coefficients are all integers then factor computes all irreducible factors with integer coefficients. (maplesoft.com)
  • If a is a series but not an exact series, then factor is applied recursively to the components of a (that is, its coefficients). (maplesoft.com)
  • They are based on a measure of association (median odds ratios) between child maltreatment and the risk factor in question across the relevant studies. (who.int)
  • It is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and cancer4. (who.int)
  • Family health history is a non-modifiable risk factor-or is it? (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic factors levels vary significantly in the general pop- contribute significantly to the development ulation and are influenced by environmental of these diseases. (who.int)
  • Beautiful form factor . (bestbuy.com)
  • Best form factor ever! (bestbuy.com)
  • The small form factor is a welcome change from all of the huge phones out there. (bestbuy.com)
  • This provides a fully factored form which can be used to simplify an expression in the same way the normal function is used. (maplesoft.com)
  • Upon contact with tissue ferences in FVII activity levels and in geno- factor exposed by vascular injury, FVII is type frequencies depend on the ethnic cleaved to its two-chain active form, which groups [ 15 ]. (who.int)
  • Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs by Duane Wessels, Matthew Weaver is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs - from kits and from scratch - that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. (makezine.com)
  • Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. (makezine.com)
  • Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. (makezine.com)
  • Through the agreement, Serendex Pharmaceuticals has secured access to a unique form of Factor VIIa and the agreement provides Serendex Pharmaceuticals with exclusive rights for the development and commercialization of Factor VIIa for pulmonary administration. (prnewswire.com)
  • Vascular endothelial-derived Von Willebrand factor inhibits lung cancer progression through the αvβ3/ERK1/2 axis. (nih.gov)
  • Hidden behind thromboinflammation: revealing the roles of von Willebrand factor in sickle cell disease pathophysiology. (nih.gov)
  • Antihemophilic factor (AHF) is a protein that is produced naturally in the body. (drugs.com)
  • ABSTRACT Factor VII gene polymorphisms may contribute to elevations in factor VII coagulant (FVIIc) levels that have been associated with cardiovascular risk. (who.int)
  • The Q353 allele of the factor VII gene polymorphism is associated with decreased factor VII and could be protective against cardiovascular disease. (who.int)
  • Note that any integer content (see first example below) is not factored. (maplesoft.com)
  • The Surprising Jobs With More-Than-Expected Ovarian Cancer When we can't explain something with genes or traditional risk factors, we turn to good old-fashioned epidemiology. (medscape.com)
  • 10976 in exon 8 in the catalytic region of ing factors that may increase cardiovascu- the FVII gene and an insertion of a decanu- lar disease. (who.int)
  • The Y-factor method is a widely used technique for measuring the gain and noise temperature of an amplifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solution to Factor Multiple Chains is to find the smallest chain of the factors and multiples is 2, 4, 8, 16 and then the biggest is 5, 25, 50,100. (maths.org)
  • Lifestyle related risk factors such as tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diet, and insufficient physical activity are known modifiable contributors to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health issues2. (who.int)
  • Systemic factors stem from the unique health care cultural environment, which is marked by pressures that include increased productivity demands, cost containment requirements, embedded hierarchies, and fear of or stress from litigation. (cdc.gov)
  • This section explains the other factors health assessors need to consider during the EPC and exposure calculation process before excluding a contaminant from further evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • The In-Depth Toxicological Effects Analysis section expands on how you should weigh these factors in your evaluation of site exposures and determining public health implications. (cdc.gov)
  • But the size is the main factor for me. (bestbuy.com)
  • von Willebrand factor: from figurant to main character in the scene of inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • We see a high unmet need within acute bleeding in the lungs as well as a high level of documentation on patient cases covering the use of Factor VIIa for this indication, so we look forward to explore and realize the full potential of Factor VIIa in collaboration with CMC Biologics. (prnewswire.com)
  • With U2F (Universal 2nd factor) you don't need to type in codes from an app on your smartphone. (namecheap.com)
  • Performance varies by use, configuration and other factors. (intel.com)
  • Factor models of security returns decompose the random return on each of a cross section of assets into factor-related and asset-specific returns. (oreilly.com)
  • Because the scope and scale of the burns were unprecedented in modern times, they provided the research team a unique opportunity to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the high severity of burns in these rainforests, including those on the western slopes of the Cascades. (eurekalert.org)
  • To find out how much insulin you need, it may help to calculate the insulin sensitivity factor. (healthline.com)
  • How can you find your insulin sensitivity factor? (healthline.com)
  • Account for these factors when estimating site-specific doses. (cdc.gov)
  • Options include factor replacement with fresh frozen plasma, antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid, and fibrin glue. (medscape.com)
  • Choose from some of the most rock-solid 2FA methods in the market now, including the world-leading U2F (Universal 2nd Factor) service and TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password). (namecheap.com)
  • The factor function does NOT factor integers. (maplesoft.com)
  • Use the ifactor function to factor integers. (maplesoft.com)
  • Changes in von Willebrand Factor Multimers, Concentration, and Function During Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (nih.gov)
  • The Factor" generated more than $178 million in ad revenue in 2015, according to Kantar Media. (cnn.com)
  • It highlights the interrelationships between the economic and policy factors, media influences, community factors, peer influences and familial factors that impact on youth smoking. (who.int)
  • 1] Harman, H. H. Modern Factor Analysis . (mathworks.com)
  • Add correction factor plot to the analysis view. (lu.se)
  • Gerard O'Donovan reviews the third episode of The X Factor, which liberally ladeled on the wrung-out emotion. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Paul Rittenberg, the network's executive vice president of advertising sales, said earlier this week that the ad buys of the clients to raise concerns about "The O'Reilly Factor" "have been re-expressed into other FNC programs. (cnn.com)
  • ICYM: Beethoven's Hair, Inside the Dying Brain, and More Impact Factor, with Dr F. Perry Wilson, is taking a break this week. (medscape.com)
  • They then examined how the forest structure and topography influenced high-burn severity patterns, whether winds affected the relationship between those factors, and how high burn severity was affected by land management practices associated with land ownership. (eurekalert.org)