Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Dysprosium: Dysprosium. An element of the rare earth family that has the atomic symbol Dy, atomic number 66, and atomic weight 162.50. Dysprosium is a silvery metal used primarily in the form of various salts.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Factor VII Deficiency: An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.

Evidence suggesting the regulation of a coagulation factor levels in rabbits by a transferable plasma agent. (1/674)

New Zealand white rabbits were given 30 ml of goat serum intravenously. This procedure resulted in an immediate decrease in platelet count, fibrinogen, and levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, due to consumption coagulopathy. These factors returned toward baseline levels approximately 12 hr after the injection. Plasma from rabbits who had received goat serum 48 hr previously (donor rabbits) was injected into recipient rabbits. This procedure resulted in a slight rise in the level of coagulation factor II (range, 20%-30%) and a significant rise in factors V (35%-75%), VII (35%-235%), and X (35%-75%) in the recipients. When plasma from control donor rabbits who had not received goat serum was injected into recipients, there was no change in these coagulation factors. It is postulated that the reduction in coagulation factor levels in donor rabbits induces a "coagulopoietin" for each factor or one "coagulopoietin" for all factors which stimulates increased synthesis and/or release of these factors in recipient rabbits.  (+info)

Plasmin converts factor X from coagulation zymogen to fibrinolysis cofactor. (2/674)

Known anticoagulant pathways have been shown to exclusively inhibit blood coagulation cofactors and enzymes. In the current work, we first investigated the possibility of a novel anticoagulant mechanism that functions at the level of zymogen inactivation. Utilizing both clotting and chromogenic assays, the fibrinolysis protease plasmin was found to irreversibly inhibit the pivotal function of factor X (FX) in coagulation. This was due to cleavage at several sites, the location of which were altered by association of FX with procoagulant phospholipid (proPL). The final products were approximately 28 and approximately 47 kDa for proPL-bound and unbound FX, respectively, which did not have analogues when activated FX (FXa) was cleaved instead. We next investigated whether the FX derivatives could interact with the plasmin precursor plasminogen, and we found that plasmin exposed a binding site only on proPL-bound FX. The highest apparent affinity was for the 28-kDa fragment, which was identified as the light subunit disulfide linked to a small fragment of the heavy subunit (Met-296 to approximately Lys-330). After cleavage by plasmin, proPL-bound FX furthermore was observed to accelerate plasmin generation by tissue plasminogen activator. Thus, a feedback mechanism localized by proPL is suggested in which plasmin simultaneously inhibits FX clotting function and converts proPL-bound FX into a fibrinolysis cofactor. These data also provide the first evidence for an anticoagulant mechanism aimed directly at the zymogen FX.  (+info)

Coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and factor V Leiden in coronary artery disease: high factor V clotting activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. (3/674)

Increased levels of hemostatic factors and genetic mutations of proteins involved in coagulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated clotting activity of factors II (FII:C), V (FV:C), VII (FVII:C), and X (FX:C), the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and the factor V Leiden mutation in 200 survivors of myocardial infarction and in 100 healthy controls. FV:C (P<0.0001) and FVII:C (P<0.0001) were found to be independent risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FV:C or high FVII:C combined with smoking or arterial hypertension increased the relative risk for myocardial infarction up to 50-fold. One of 177 patients (0.6%) and 4 of 89 controls (4.5%) had the prothrombin 20210 AG genotype. Eleven of 177 patients (6.2%) and 6 of 89 controls (6.7%) were heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation. No homozygous carrier for these mutations was found. Neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition (odds ratio [OR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 1.1) nor the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.8) were associated with an increased relative risk for myocardial infarction. In conclusion, our data indicate that neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition nor the factor V Leiden mutation are risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FVII:C was confirmed to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. Moreover, we describe for the first time that high FV:C is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction.  (+info)

Domain identification of hormone-sensitive lipase by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. (4/674)

Structure-function relationship analyses of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) have suggested that this metabolically important enzyme consists of several functional and at least two structural domains (Osterlund, T., Danielsson, B., Degerman, E., Contreras, J. A., Edgren, G., Davis, R. C., Schotz, M. C., and Holm, C. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 411-420; Contreras, J. A., Karlsson, M., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H., Svensson, A., and Holm, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31426-31430). To analyze the structural domain composition of HSL in more detail, we applied biophysical methods. Denaturation of HSL was followed by circular dichroism measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy, revealing that the unfolding of HSL is a two-step event. Using limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry, several proteolytic fragments of HSL were identified, including one corresponding exactly to the proposed N-terminal domain. Major cleavage sites were found in the predicted hinge region between the two domains and in the regulatory module of the C-terminal, catalytic domain. Analyses of a hinge region cleavage mutant and calculations of the hydropathic pattern of HSL further suggest that the hinge region and regulatory module are exposed parts of HSL. Together, these data support our previous hypothesis that HSL consists of two major structural domains, encoded by exons 1-4 and 5-9, respectively, of which the latter contains an exposed regulatory module outside the catalytic alpha/beta-hydrolase fold core.  (+info)

The A1 and A2 subunits of factor VIIIa synergistically stimulate factor IXa catalytic activity. (5/674)

Factor VIIIa, the protein cofactor for factor IXa, is comprised of A1, A2, and A3-C1-C2 subunits. Recently, we showed that isolated A2 subunit enhanced the kcat for factor IXa-catalyzed activation of factor X by approximately 100-fold ( approximately 1 min-1), whereas isolated A1 or A3-C1-C2 subunits showed no effect on this rate (Fay, P. J., and Koshibu, K. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19049-19054). However, A1 subunit increased the A2-dependent stimulation by approximately 10-fold. The Km for factor X in the presence of A2 subunit was unaffected by A1 subunit, whereas the kcat observed in the presence of saturating A1 and A2 subunits ( approximately 15 min-1) represented 5-10% of the value observed for native factor VIIIa (approximately 200 min-1). An anti-A1 subunit antibody that blocks the association of A2 eliminated the A1-dependent contribution to factor IXa activity. Inclusion of both A1 and A2 subunits resulted in greater increases in the fluorescence anisotropy of fluorescein-Phe-Phe-Arg factor IXa than that observed for A2 subunit alone and approached values obtained with factor VIIIa. These results indicate that A1 subunit alters the A2 subunit-dependent modulation of the active site of factor IXa to synergistically increase cofactor activity, yielding an overall increase in kcat of over 1000-fold compared with factor IXa alone.  (+info)

Targeted inhibition of intrinsic coagulation limits cerebral injury in stroke without increasing intracerebral hemorrhage. (6/674)

Agents that restore vascular patency in stroke also increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). As Factor IXa is a key intermediary in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, targeted inhibition of Factor IXa-dependent coagulation might inhibit microvascular thrombosis in stroke without impairing extrinsic hemostatic mechanisms that limit ICH. A competitive inhibitor of native Factor IXa for assembly into the intrinsic Factor X activation complex, Factor IXai, was prepared by covalent modification of the Factor IXa active site. In a modified cephalin clotting time assay, in vivo administration of Factor IXai caused a dose-dependent increase in time to clot formation (3.6-fold increase at the 300 micrograms/kg dose compared with vehicle-treated control animals, P < 0.05). Mice given Factor IXai and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion demonstrated reduced microvascular fibrin accumulation by immunoblotting and immunostaining, reduced 111In-labeled platelet deposition (42% decrease, P < 0.05), increased cerebral perfusion (2.6-fold increase in ipsilateral blood flow by laser doppler, P < 0.05), and smaller cerebral infarcts than vehicle-treated controls (70% reduction, P < 0.05) based on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of serial cerebral sections. At therapeutically effective doses, Factor IXai was not associated with increased ICH, as opposed to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or heparin, both of which significantly increased ICH. Factor IXai was cerebroprotective even when given after the onset of stroke, indicating that microvascular thrombosis continues to evolve (and may be inhibited) even after primary occlusion of a major cerebrovascular tributary.  (+info)

Dietary lipid lowering reduces tissue factor expression in rabbit atheroma. (7/674)

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which lipid lowering reduces the incidence of acute thrombotic complications of coronary atheroma in clinical trials remains unknown. Tissue factor (TF) overexpressed in atheroma may accelerate thrombus formation at the sites of plaque disruption. A cell surface cytokine CD40 ligand (CD40L) enhances TF expression in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the hypothesis that lipid lowering reduces TF expression and activity, we produced atheroma in rabbit aortas by balloon injury and cholesterol feeding for 4 months (Baseline group, n=15), followed by either a chow diet (Low group, n=10) or a continued high-cholesterol diet for 16 months (High group, n=5). Immunolocalization of TF, CD40L, and its receptor CD40 was quantified by computer-assisted color image analysis. Macrophages in atheroma of the Baseline and High groups strongly expressed TF. Intimal smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells also contained immunoreactive TF. Regions of expression of CD40L and CD40 colocalized with TF. Protein expression of TF diminished substantially in the Low group in association with reduced expression of CD40L and CD40. In situ binding of TF to factors VIIa and X, detected by digoxigenin-labeled factors VIIa and X, colocalized with TF protein in atheroma and decreased after lipid lowering. We also determined reduced TF biological activity in the Low group by use of a chromogenic assay. The level of TF mRNA detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also decreased after lipid lowering. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest decreased expression and activity of TF as a novel mechanism of reduced incidence of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis by lipid lowering.  (+info)

"Normal" thrombin generation. (8/674)

We have investigated the influence of alterations in plasma coagulation factor levels between 50% and 150% of their mean values for prothrombin, factor X, factor XI, factor IX, factor VII, factor VIII, factor V, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III (AT-III), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as well as combinations of extremes, eg, 50% anticoagulants and 150% procoagulants or 50% procoagulants and 150% anticoagulants in a synthetic "plasma" system. The reaction systems were constructed in vitro using purified, natural, and recombinant proteins and synthetic phospholipid vesicles or platelets with the reactions initiated by recombinant tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex (5 pmol/L). To investigate the influence of the protein C system, soluble thrombomodulin (Tm) was also added to the reaction mixture. For the most extreme situations in which the essential plasma procoagulants (prothrombin, and factors X, IX, V, and VIII) and the stoichiometric anticoagulants (AT-III and TFPI) were collectively and inversely altered by 50%, a 28-fold difference in the total available thrombin generated was observed. Variations of most of these proteins 50% above and below the "normal" range, with the remainder at 100%, had only modest influences on the peak and total levels of thrombin generated. The dominant factors influencing thrombin generation were prothrombin and AT-III. When these 2 components were held at 100% and all other plasma procoagulants were reduced to 50%, there was a 60% reduction in the available thrombin generated. No increase in the thrombin generated was observed when the 150% level of all plasma procoagulants other than prothrombin was evaluated. When only prothrombin was raised to 150%, and all other factors were maintained at 100%, the thrombin generated increased by 71% to 121%. When AT-III was at 50% and all other constituents were at 100%, thrombin production was increased by 104% to 196%. The additions of protein C and protein S over the 50% to 150% ranges with Tm at 0.1 nmol/L concentration had limited influence on thrombin generation. Individual variations in factors VII, XI, and X concentrations had little effect on the duration of the initiation phase, the peak thrombin level achieved, or the available thrombin generated. Paradoxically, increases in factor IX concentration to 150% led to lowered thrombin generation, while decreases to 50% led to enhanced thrombin generation, most likely a consequence of factor IX as a competitive substrate with factor X for factor VIIa-TF. Reductions in factor V or factor VIII concentration led to prolongations of the initiation phase, while the reduction of TFPI to 50% led to shortening of this phase. However, none of these alterations led to significant changes in the available thrombin generated. Based on these data, one might surmise that increases in prothrombin and reductions in AT-III, within the normal range, would be potential risk factors for thrombosis and that algorithms that combine normal factor levels may be required to develop predictive tests for thrombosis.  (+info)

  • Xu L, Daly T, Gao C, Flotte TR, Song S, Byrne BJ, Sands MS, Parker Ponder K. CMV-beta-actin promoter directs higher expression from an adeno-associated viral vector in the liver than the cytomegalovirus or elongation factor 1 alpha promoter and results in therapeutic levels of human factor X in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • The purified zymogen is supplied in 50% (vol/vol) glycerol/H2O and should be stored at -20°C. Purity is determined by SDS-PAGE analysis and activity is measured in a factor X clotting assay. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images Contestants 1432 attend Fox's "The X-Factor" Finalists Party at The Bazaar at the SLS Hotel Beverly Hills on Nov. 5, 2012, in Los Angeles. (cbsnews.com)
  • Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images From left to right contestants Jemelle Joseph, Julien Joseph, and Lyric Da Queen attend Fox's "The X-Factor" Finalists Party at The Bazaar at the SLS Hotel Beverly Hills on Nov. 5, 2012, in Los Angeles. (cbsnews.com)
  • All the The X-Factor contestants actually do is make you talk about Simon Cowell. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The draft directive delegates the right to define one apportionment factor, the term 'Employee' to the Member States, which can choose a narrow or a broad definition, the latter including also atypical employment schemes. (ssrn.com)
  • Furthermore we show how Member States could use the 'Employee' definition to both minimize factor emigration and maximize factor immigration, if the factor definitions remain unchanged. (ssrn.com)
  • According to the definition given by dictionaries, 'factor' (1816) means "an agent, cause, or influence that contributes to a particular result or situation" as in "Poverty is one of the factors in crime. (wordwizard.com)
  • The X Factor" fans may be looking forward to next week's finals, when a male country singer, a girl band and a female soloist battle it out for a $5 million record contract. (cnn.com)
  • A factor that hurt Bernie Sanders during Tuesday night's elections: the shift away from time-consuming caucuses, which favor committed activists, toward higher-turnout primaries. (newsday.com)
  • Irish singer Brendan Murray's X Factor dream ended during Saturday night's semi-final, when he was voted out of the competition. (rte.ie)
  • With multiple form factors, you'll find a desktop that works perfectly within your workspace. (dell.com)
  • The good news is factor investing can offset potential risks by targeting broad, persistent, and long recognized drivers of returns. (investopedia.com)
  • Do Woon Lee, a cleantech journalist with the Seoul Daily News in South Korea, discusses the factors contributing the the country's push to develop clean, domestic sources of energy. (renewableenergyworld.com)
  • In this video, you will get the right information about how you can add lovely factor with exquisite succul. (metacafe.com)
  • In this video, you will get the right information about how you can add lovely factor with exquisite succulents to your special occasions. (metacafe.com)
  • Built by economists Eugene Fama and Kenneth French, the Fama and French model utilizes three factors: size of firms, book-to-market values, and excess return on the market. (investopedia.com)
  • Total factor productivity growth in foreign and domestic firms in Malaysian manufacturing ," Journal of Asian Economics , Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 251-280. (repec.org)
  • These factors include something you know, like a username and password, and something you have, such as a smartphone or security key. (duq.edu)
  • It can also arise if forecasting power is provided by a factor that is dominant in a small dataset but is a dominated factor in a larger dataset. (psu.edu)
  • Thus to identify the factor adoption the opinion from the employee that have experiences in using cloud-based network environment is needed. (easychair.org)
  • The data gathering among the experiences employee in using cloud-based network environment is conducted to get the important success factor adoption needed. (easychair.org)
  • The analysis was identifying the interaction of the factor adoption that will be present by the experiences employee. (easychair.org)
  • The analysis of the employee context was driven with shown the awareness, benefit and motivation as a success factor adoption. (easychair.org)
  • Using a game-theoretic approach we show that defining 'Employee' broadly so as to maximize the Member State's share in the apportionment factor is only optimal when tax rate differences and different sizes of atypical employment schemes are disregarded. (ssrn.com)
  • Real Like You show they can talk the talk AND walk the walk with a powerful performance of Demi Lovato's 'Sorry Not Sorry' on The X Factor: The Band Final! (itv.com)
  • As part of his deal with ITV for The X-Factor , Cowell has first dibs on signing any of the show's acts to Syco, his entertainment company which has the backing of Sony and has scooped up almost every headline-grabbing X-Factor act since the show started, including the 2006 winner Leona Lewis and last year's winner, Alexandra Burke. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Estimated at bringing in £1 million for the last X-Factor show in December when two million votes are expected to be cast, John and Edward are clearly worth far more to him in the competition than out. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The debate on the role of total factor productivity (TFP) in China's rapid economic growth has led to the emergence of a large pool of papers on this topic. (repec.org)
  • Total factor productivity growth in China: a review ," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies , Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-126. (repec.org)
  • This paper will focus on the issues of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) for both 3 and 5-digit level and the performance of resource-based industries (RBIs) in Malaysia for the period 1981-1997. (repec.org)
  • Total Factor Productivity in the Malaysian Resource-Based Industries ," MPRA Paper 1010, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • Total Factor Productivity in the Malaysian Resource-Based Industries ," Economics Bulletin , AccessEcon, vol. 15(16), pages 1-8. (repec.org)
  • something that helps cause a result According to the police report of the accident, excessive speed was a contributing factor . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Thus the outcome of the study was shown the result of descriptive data analysis in identifying the important factor that contributed for the successful adoption of e-learning cloud-based network environment. (easychair.org)
  • Smart beta is a common application of a factor investing strategy. (investopedia.com)
  • This paper presents a new approach to estimation and inference in panel data models with a multifactor error structure where the unobserved common factors are (possibly) correlated with exogenously given individual-specific regressors, and the factor loadings differ over the cross section units. (psu.edu)
  • The basic idea behind the proposed estimation procedure is to filter the individual-specific regressors by means of (weighted) cross-section aggregates such that asymptotically as the cross-section dimension ( N) tends to infinity the differential effects of unobserved common factors are eliminated. (psu.edu)
  • One important feature of the proposed CCE mean group (CCEMG) estimator is its invariance to the (unknown but fixed) number of unobserved common factors as N and T →∞(jointly). (psu.edu)
  • Rather than look at complex attributes, such as momentum, beginners to factor investing can focus on simpler elements, such as style (growth vs. value), size ( large cap vs. small cap ), and risk (beta). (investopedia.com)
  • Load factor increased as traffic growth outpaced capacity expansion in May. (yahoo.com)
  • In this paper, we question whether it is possible to use more series to extract the factors and that yet the resulting factors are less useful for forecasting, and the answer is yes. (psu.edu)
  • After considering these four factors, federal agencies can determine whether it is reasonable to improve access to its services to LEP persons. (fdic.gov)
  • Another feature of the building is its lobby which has access through an impressive entrance off Queen St. "This has a real X-factor," Binning says. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • The Fama and French Three-Factor model expanded the CAPM to include size risk and value risk to explain differences in diversified portfolio returns. (investopedia.com)
  • High Minus Low (HML), also referred to as the value premium, is one of three factors used in the Fama-French three-factor model. (investopedia.com)
  • ARTICLE{Duffie96ayield-factor, author = {Darrell Duffie}, title = {A yield-factor model of interest rates}, journal = {Math. (psu.edu)
  • Last week I went into some of the factors determining how the Model for IndieFilmFinanceV2011.1 may be set . (indiewire.com)
  • Unwritten Rule have an earthquake of a debut performance as they make Billie Eilish's 'Bad Guy' their own on the X Factor: The Band LIVE Final! (itv.com)
  • Some of these best practices make up the "12 Factor Apps" (12factor.net). (redhat.com)
  • For instance, after practice, many mathematicians are able to know that the expression 4x 2 + 4x + 1 has the factors (2x + 1) and (2x + 1) just from having seen it so much. (wikihow.com)
  • This setting is same as the MaxAgeMultiFactor setting, but for single-factor refresh tokens. (microsoft.com)
  • However, little is known about how the size and composition of the data affect the factor estimates. (psu.edu)
  • In the model's terminology, the three factors used are SMB (small minus big), HML (high minus low) and the portfolio's return less the risk free rate of return. (investopedia.com)
  • Essential business tower and small form factor desktops that deliver best-in-class security and manageability. (dell.com)