Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Mice, Inbred BALB CEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Aeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Ralstonia solanacearum: A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.HomoserinePlant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Francisella: The lone genus of bacteria in the family Francisellaceae, frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic in humans, other MAMMALS; BIRDS; and ARTHROPODS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Erwinia amylovora: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.Mice, Inbred C57BLVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Edwardsiella tarda: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Virulence factors are the attributes of microorganisms that enable it to colonise a particular niche in its host, overcome the ... Fives-Taylor, P. M.; Meyer, D. H.; Mintz, K. P.; Brissette, C. (June 1999). "Virulence factors of Actinobacillus ... 2000) have categorised the virulence factors of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as follows. Samaranayake notes the ... Removal of plaque retentive factors: Local plaque retentive factors such as mal-positioned teeth, overhanging restorations, ...
The toxin may be considered a virulence factor, since it is crucial for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Listeriolysin O is a ... Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria. "Pathogenicity islands in Listeria: LIPI-1." State Key Laboratory for Molecular ... as well as other virulence factors of L. monocytogenes within LIPI-1, is activated by the protein encoded by prfA gene. prfA is ... as well as listeriolysin O and other virulence factors regulated by PrfA, is only produced when L. monocytogenes is in a host. ...
... is a putative virulence factor of the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a pore-forming toxin ... Nov 27, 1998). "The molecular mechanism of pneumolysin, a virulence factor from Streptococcus pneumoniae". Journal of Molecular ... Rubins, JB; Janoff, EN (January 1998). "Pneumolysin: A multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor". The Journal of ...
Motility is another major virulence factor. Since E. amylovora is not an obligate biotroph, it is able to survive outside the ... "Virulence Factors of Erwinia Amylovora: A Review." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16.6 (2015): 12836-2854. Web. 15 ... In the long-run, fire blight is a very important factor of economy and society. Pathogenicity depends on many different factors ... The factors that determine whether or not cankers become active are not well known, but it is thought that cankers found on ...
... is the concept of blocking virulence factors. In regards to bacteria, the idea is to design agents that block ... "Two-for-one bacterial virulence factor revealed". phys.org. Retrieved 17 January 2016. ... virulence rather than kill bacteria en masse, as the current regime results in much more selective pressure (on antibiotic ...
Bacterial blight of soybean
The expression of these virulence factors depends on the environmental conditions at the time of infection (see "environment ... expression of virulence factors will only take place when a sufficiently large population of bacteria is present, which is ... "Pathogenicity and virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae". Journal of General Plant Pathology. 79: 285-296. doi:10.1007/ ... "Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors of Phytobacteria" (PDF). Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences. Agrios, George N. (2005 ...
P. syringae isolates carry a range of virulence factors called type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins. These ... Ichinose, Yuki; Taguchi, Fumiko; Mukaihara, Takafumi (2013). "Pathogenicity and virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae". J ... the bacteria change their pattern of gene expression to form a biofilm and begin expression virulence-related genes. The ...
... also acts as a virulence factor. It has an antioxidant action that helps the microbe evade death by reactive ... "Staphylococcus aureus golden pigment impairs neutrophil killing and promotes virulence through its antioxidant activity". J Exp ... "A cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor blocks Staphylococcus aureus virulence". Science. 319 (5868): 391-94. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120-145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag ... Yamaoka Y (November 2010). "Mechanisms of disease: Helicobacter pylori virulence factors". Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 7 (11 ... This phenotype mimics an effect produced by hepatocyte growth factor which may participate in various aspects of cancer, ...
Identified Virulence Factors of UPEC : Adherence, State Key Laboratory for Moleclular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Beijing ... The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. "A large number of ... This prevalence marks them as key microbial virulence factors in addition to a bacterium's ability to produce toxins and resist ... Adhesins are a type of virulence factor. Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for ...
Schaller M, Borelli C, Korting HC, Hube B (November 2005). "Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans". ... Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal ... The response protects U. maydis from the host defense, and is necessary for the pathogen's virulence. Furthermore, U. maydis ... Molina L, Kahmann R (July 2007). "An Ustilago maydis gene involved in H2O2 detoxification is required for virulence". The Plant ...
In bacteria, elastase is considered a virulence factor. Elastase breaks down elastin, an elastic fibre that, together with ... Elastase also has the important immunological role of breaking down Shigella virulence factors. This is accomplished through ... Together, all these factors contribute to human pathology. Bieth JG (2001). "[The elastases]". J. Soc. Biol. (in French). 195 ( ...
Some of these genes include important virulence factors. The role of fis is well studied in E. coli, but its role in ... Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence Factors ... Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence Factors ... Koch,C. and Kahmann,R. (1986) Purification and properties of the Escherichia coli host factor required for inversion of the G ...
Many exoenzymes are also used as virulence factors. Pathogens, both bacterial and fungal, can use exoenzymes as a primary ... Some pathogenic species also use exoenzymes as virulence factors to assist in the spread of these disease causing ... Favero D, Furlaneto-Maia L, França EJ, Góes HP, Furlaneto MC (February 2014). "Hemolytic factor production by clinical isolates ...
Ho Sui, S.J., Fedynak, A., Langille, M.G.I., Hsiao, W.W., and F.S.L. Brinkman (2009). The association of virulence factors with ... She confirmed the anecdotal assumption that virulence factors (disease-causing genes in pathogens) are disproportionately ... "Pathogen bioinformatics and the evolution of microbial virulence - Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research". Msfhr.org. ... and better factor in the important role of societal changes and the environment in shaping microbiomes Thomson Reuter's Highly ...
M. Neal Guentzel
Motility as a virulence factor for Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1975 May;11(5):890-7. Guentzel MN, Berry LJ. Protection of ... Virulence factors involved in the intraperitoneal infection of adult mice with Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1976 Feb;13(2): ... The protective efficacy of chlamydial protease-like activity factor vaccination is dependent upon CD4+ T cells. Cell Immunol. ... Chlamydial protease-like activity factor induces protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection in transgenic mice ...
... enzymes such as urease are considered virulence factors in some organisms. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ... Cox, Gary M.; Mukherjee, Jean; Cole, Garry T.; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R. (2000-02-01). "Urease as a Virulence Factor ... Reports show that both the nickel-induced activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and the up-regulation of hypoxia- ... "Helicobacter pylori Virulence and Genetic Geography". Science. 284 (5418): 1328-1333. Bibcode:1999Sci...284.1328C. doi:10.1126/ ...
P. aeruginosa uses the virulence factor exotoxin A to inactivate eukaryotic elongation factor 2 via ADP-ribosylation in the ... "Down regulation of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by salicylic acid attenuates its virulence on Arabidopsis ... Pyocyanin is a virulence factor of the bacteria and has been known to cause death in C. elegans by oxidative stress. However, ... The associations of virulence factors are the same for plant and animal infections. Regulation of gene expression can occur ...
Emsley, P.; Charles, I. G.; Fairweather, N. F.; Isaacs, N. W. (1996). "Structure of Bordetella pertussis virulence factor P.69 ... Emsley P, Charles IG, Fairweather NF, Isaacs NW (May 1996). "Structure of Bordetella pertussis virulence factor P.69 pertactin ... In molecular biology, pertactin (PRN) is a highly immunogenic virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that ...
They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... "Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF). "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved March 24 ... and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, ... It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ...
Many point and Δatt mutants show an attenuated virulence. Gene attR is a transcriptional factor including a helix-turn-helix ... Virulence in R. fascians is controlled by genes on a plasmid (strains lacking that plasmid are not virulent) and on the ... Because deletions of some fas genes give a non-virulent phenotype, for fas a main role in virulence was proposed . Gene fasR is ... Also, hyp is involved in post transcriptional control of virulence-related genes, maybe on fas products. Operon vic is an ...
Saf pilin N-terminal extension
... s are important virulence factors, and are required for pathogenesis in many biological models of infection. Their ... regulation of other virulence factors (including exotoxin A and the protease PrpL), supporting the formation of biofilms, and ... "Siderophore-mediated signaling regulates virulence factor production in Pseudomonasaeruginosa". Proceedings of the National ... Pyoverdine has been reported to be required for virulence in a variety of disease models, including C. elegans and various ...
Enterotoxin type B
"Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, ... It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ...
Smoking is a known risk factor. This refers to a group of rare syndromes characterized by chronic candidal lesions on the skin ... "Candida infection and colonization among non-trauma emergency surgery patients." Virulence 1.5 (2010): 359-366. Lalla, RV; ... The HIV/AIDs global pandemic has been the greatest factor in the increased incidence of oral candidiasis since the 1980s. The ... Individuals continue to be at risk of the condition if underlying factors such as reduced salivary flow rate or ...
Selectional pleiotropy occurs when the resulting phenotype has many effects on fitness (depending on factors such as age and ... Since a single toxin gene or virulence allele can grant the ability to colonize the host, adaptation and reproductive isolation ... "CACNA1C as a risk factor for schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy in healthy individuals". Psychiatry Research. 206 ...
A number of factors contributed to this increase, including the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved ... between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence ... Another critical factor for such an estimate is the question of pre-modern infant mortality rates; these figures are very ... It has been undertaken as a response to factors including high or increasing levels of poverty, environmental concerns, and ...
Terapi belatung bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
One such exotoxin is alpha toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens and is the key virulence factor in its pathogenesis. ... In animals, disability and distress caused by all of these factors markedly increase the chance of predation. ... "Virulence studies on chromosomal alpha-toxin and theta-toxin mutants constructed by allelic exchange provide genetic evidence ...
A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between ... Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations ... "Risk factors for human disease emergence". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 356 (1411 ...
It is often speculated that Streptococcus and Staphylococcus pathogens use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the ... "spreading factors", having a function akin to bacterial hyaluronidases. ... although most hyaluronidase preparations are contaminated with large amounts of angiogenic growth factors. ...
Increased travel due to the Northern Hemisphere winter holiday season may also play a role. Another factor is that cold ... One study estimated that if a strain with similar virulence to the 1918 influenza emerged today, it could kill between 50 and ... Kark JD, Lebiush M, Rannon L (October 1982). "Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for epidemic a(h1n1) influenza in young men". ... such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells. In contrast to the rhinovirus that ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... "Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells". PLoS ... Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... The yeast prion PSI is generated by a conformational change of a translation termination factor, which is then inherited by ...
Another factor is the duration of exposure. Some drugs or supplements have a slow-release feature in which portions of the ... Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Frank, Steven A (2017-04-07). "Pathogenesis, Virulence, and Infective Dose". PLoS Pathogens. 3 (10). doi: ... A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. ...
Several other bacterial virulence effectors like VirB5, VirB7 (the minor components of the T-complex), VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and ... Agrobacterium has been known to evolve a control system that hijacks host factors and cellular processes for several pathways ... The bacterial virulence genes expression of approximately 10 operons is activated by perception of phenolic compounds such as ... To interact with host plant proteins many Agrobacterium virulence proteins encoded by vir genes. Agrobacterium vir genes ...
His biographer, Hans Trefousse, suggested that another reason for Stevens's virulence was an attack of disease in the late ... also suggested that Stevens's feelings towards the downtrodden were a factor, combined with remorse over the Butler case, but ... "virulence toward the South" and was "bitter and vindictive". This view of a vengeful Stevens originated during ...
... a virulence factor binding circulating immunoglobulins, and thus interfering with the host antibody response. DrsG, a virulence ... Several virulence factors have been identified, but predominantly by screening S.dysgalactiae isolates for homologues of well- ... The emm-gene encodes the M-protein, a major virulence factor in both S.pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. It is ... The M-protein, the most extensively studied SDSE virulence factor, has been documented to facilitate both adherence to and ...
Selective pressures exist however in the aquatic environment that may reduce the virulence of V. cholerae. Specifically, ... "Sources of Infection & Risk Factors". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original ... Researchers have discovered a complex cascade of regulatory proteins controls expression of V. cholerae virulence determinants. ... ToxT then directly activates expression of virulence genes that produce the toxins, causing diarrhea in the infected person and ...
Design of experiments
How many factors does the design have, and are the levels of these factors fixed or random? ... What is the relevance of interactions between factors?. *What is the influence of delayed effects of substantive factors on ... Use of factorial experiments instead of the one-factor-at-a-time method. These are efficient at evaluating the effects and ... An experimental design or randomized clinical trial requires careful consideration of several factors before actually doing the ...
Additionally, T4SS also secrete virulence factor proteins directly into host cells as well as taking up DNA from the medium ... Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, ... Lawley TD, Klimke WA, Gubbins MJ, Frost LS (July 2003). "F factor conjugation is a true type IV secretion system". FEMS ... These were identified when mutations in the Hcp and VrgG genes in Vibrio Cholerae led to decreased virulence and pathogenicity ...
Patients in the early stage of disease showed a decrease in coagulation factors (e.g. platelets, prothrombin, and globulin) and ... depending on the virulence of the smallpox strain. Cases with flat lesions had a higher fatality rate than those with ... Such disruption and population losses were an important factor in the Spanish achieving conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas.[ ... Circulating immune complexes, overwhelming viremia, or an uncontrolled immune response may be contributing factors. In ...
Other factors such as a Malthusian catastrophe, overpopulation or resource depletion might be the proximate cause of collapse. ... between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence ... Common factors that may contribute to societal collapse are economical, environmental, social and cultural, and disruptions in ... Destratification: Complex societies stratified on the basis of class, gender, race or some other salient factor become much ...
Toxin tiếng Việt
Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment which attempts to eliminate subjective, unrecognized biases carried by an experiment's subjects (usually human) and conductors. Double-blind studies were first used in 1907 by W. H. R. Rivers and H. N. Webber in the investigation of the effects of caffeine. In most cases, double-blind experiments are regarded to achieve a higher standard of scientific rigor than single-blind or non-blind experiments. In these double-blind experiments, neither the participants nor the researchers know which participants belong to the control group, nor the test group. Only after all data have been recorded (and, in some cases, analyzed) do the researchers learn which participants were which. Performing an experiment in double-blind fashion can greatly lessen the power of preconceived notions or physical cues (e.g., placebo effect, observer bias, experimenter's bias) to distort the results (by making researchers or participants ...
Microbial factors. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune ... Consequentially, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1, will up-regulate the expression ... Several factors determine the most appropriate choice for the initial antibiotic regimen. These factors include local patterns ... Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 may activate procoagulation factors in the cells ...
... antioxidants are only found in a few organisms and these compounds can be important in pathogens and can be virulence factors.[ ... Exposure to oxygen and sunlight are the two main factors in the oxidation of food, so food is preserved by keeping in the dark ... Mosha TC, Gaga HE, Pace RD, Laswai HS, Mtebe K (June 1995). "Effect of blanching on the content of antinutritional factors in ... Concerns over elevated UA's contribution to gout must be considered as one of many risk factors. By itself, UA-related risk ...
Host genetic factors. The organism that is the target of an infecting action of a specific infectious agent is called the ... The relationship between virulence versus transmissibility is complex; if a disease is rapidly fatal, the host may die before ... Immunity mediated by these two factors may be manifested by: *a direct effect upon a pathogen, such as antibody-initiated ... Knowledge of the protective antigens and specific acquired host immune factors is more complete for primary pathogens than for ...
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a enciclopedia libre
Brubaker RR (1983). "The Vwa+ virulence factor of yersiniae: the molecular basis of the attendant nutritional requirement for ... Lindler, L. (2004). "Virulence plasmids of Yersinia: characteristics and comparison". En Funnell, B.E.; Phillips, G.J. Plasmid ... Correlation with its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (25): 15920-7. PMID ... Estruturalmente, é diferente a calquera outro superantíxeno, mais é moi similar ao factor de necrose tumoral e a proteínas de ...
Virulence factor | microbiology | Britannica
... produce a variety of so-called virulence factors that permit them to evade the defense mechanisms of the host and thus cause ... These factors include polysaccharide capsules and M proteins that impede phagocytosis, enzymes that degrade host tissues, and ... Other articles where Virulence factor is discussed: necrotizing fasciitis: … ... Virulence factor. microbiology. Learn about this topic in these articles:. necrotizing fasciitis. * In necrotizing fasciitis. … ...
Virulence factor BrkB (IPR017039) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Virulence factors of Francisella tularensis. - PubMed - NCBI
Virulence factors of Candida species. - PubMed - NCBI
Virulence factors of Candida species.. Yang YL1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biological Science and Technology, ... This review will focus on the molecular dissection of virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, proteinases ... This review will also describe briefly the virulence factors in non-albicans Candida spp. ...
Putative virulence factors of Plesiomonas shigelloides | SpringerLink
In addition to several virulence factors which have been previously reported, we are proposing new candidate virulence factors ... Plesiomonas shigelloides Draft genome Virulence factors Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis PATRIC Electronic ... Phenotypic characterization and putative virulence factors of human, animal and environmental isolates of Plesiomonas ... Payne SM (1988) Iron and virulence in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Crit Rev Microbiol 16:81-111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Factors Influencing the Virulence of Acinetobacter | SpringerLink
Virulence factor - Wikipedia
... it is an example of a virulence factor from a fungus. Other virulence factors include factors required for biofilm formation (e ... When placed at random, the transposon may be placed next to a virulence factor or placed in the middle of a virulence factor ... Small molecules being investigated for their ability to inhibit virulence factors and virulence factor expression include ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
Chagas disease: virulence factor identified
... is a virulence factor that plays a pivotal role in the infection mechanism. Combining different in-vitro and in-vivo approaches ... cruzi genes which code for the factors responsible for the virulence, in particular a protein called Tc52. As in any parasitic ... analysis of the amino acid sequence important to the immunoregulatory function of Trypansosma cruzi Tc52 virulence factor. ... Knowledge of the biological activity of this factor raises the prospects for developing vaccination strategies or drugs to ...
virulence factors | Journal of Bacteriology
Swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is a Complex Adaptation Leading to Increased Production of Virulence Factors and Antibiotic ... Putative Quorum-Sensing Regulator BlxR of Brucella melitensis Regulates Virulence Factors Including the Type IV Secretion ... Twitching Motility Is Essential for Virulence in Dichelobacter nodosus Xiaoyan Han, Ruth M. Kennan, John K. Davies, Leslie A. ... Effects of Oxygen on Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans Sang-Joon Ahn, Zezhang T. Wen, Robert A. Burne ...
2-for-1 bacterial virulence factor revealed | EurekAlert! Science News
Drugs that hobble the production of virulence factors, small molecules that help bacteria to establish an infection in a host, ... In Infectious Diseases he describes recent work on a target virulence factor. ... One class of virulence factors common to many pathogens is siderophores, small molecules whose job is to seek out iron in the ... Virulence factors allow bacteria to evade the human immune system, to infect tissues and cells and to establish a foothold ...
Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug
... Published Tuesday 20 December 2016 Published Tue 20 Dec ... "Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 20 Dec. 2016. ... 2016, December 20). "Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug." Medical News Today. Retrieved from ...
virulence factors | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
A simple model host for identifying Gram-positive virulence factors | PNAS
Conversely, virulence factors that have an effect in one species, but not in another, may be targeting factors specific to that ... only a limited number of enterococcal virulence-related factors have been described, including cytolysin (Cyl), a factor called ... Mammalian virulence factors enhance E. faecalis killing of C. elegans. (A) Survival of C. elegans placed on lawns of E. ... A simple model host for identifying Gram-positive virulence factors. Danielle A. Garsin, Costi D. Sifri, Eleftherios Mylonakis ...
Coping with Multiple Virulence Factors: Which Is Most Important?
Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio | PNAS
Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio. Macarthur Charles, Marisa Pérez, Jessica H. ... Polar targeting of Shigella virulence factor IcsA in Enterobacteriacae and Vibrio Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Kanazawa University Research: Virulence Factor of the Influenza A Virus Mapped in Real-time
Virulence factors: Virulence factors are typically proteins found within microorganisms and viruses. These factors facilitate ... Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. One of ... Kanazawa University Research: Virulence Factor of the Influenza A Virus Mapped in Real-time. News provided by ... Inactivating virulence factors can thus significantly weaken the infectivity of pathogens.. High-speed atomic force microscopy ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review
In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial ... Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp ... Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the ... network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors ...
Researchers map virulence factor of influenza A virus in real-time
Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. ... Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. One of ... Researchers map virulence factor of influenza A virus in real-time. *Download PDF Copy ... virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). Researchers at Kanazawa University have recently ...
Candida dubliniensis: phylogeny and putative virulence factors
... Microbiology. 1998 Apr;144 ( Pt 4):829-38. doi: 10.1099/00221287 ... In vivo virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that C. dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans ... study the phylogenetic relationship between these two species was investigated and a comparison of putative virulence factors ...
The Clinical Correlations of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
The Clinical Correlations of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
International Conference on Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy (ICMIVFT)
Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and ... Virulence Factors and Therapy. International Conference on Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy. ... Mycobacterial Infections, Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, ... Virulence Factors and Therapy Conference. It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners ...
Pseudomonas-Candida Interactions: An Ecological Role for Virulence Factors | Science
Many of the virulence factors that we study in the context of human disease may also have an ecological role within microbial ... Several P. aeruginosa virulence factors that are important in disease are involved in the killing of C. albicans filaments. We ... Pseudomonas-Candida Interactions: An Ecological Role for Virulence Factors Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... 3F) (23). Last, inactivation of several virulence-factor regulators including GacA, LasR, RhlR, and RpoN, resulted in either ...
Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans
This enzyme has been postulated to be a cryptococcal virulence factor. We cloned a phospholipase-enc … ... Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jan;39(1):166-75. ... This enzyme has been postulated to be a cryptococcal virulence factor. We cloned a phospholipase-encoding gene (PLB1) from C. ... These data demonstrate that secretory phospholipase is a virulence factor for C. neoformans. ...
virulence factors | Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Evaluation of Virulence Factor Profiling in the Characterization of Veterinary Escherichia coli Isolates Donna E. David, Aaron ... Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Factors, and Genetic Profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Seafood The presence of V. ... Associations between the Presence of Virulence Determinants and the Epidemiology and Ecology of Zoonotic Escherichia coli K. M ... Phylogenetic Backgrounds and Virulence-Associated Traits of Escherichia coli Isolates from Surface Waters and Diverse Animals ...
PLOS Pathogens: Coping with Multiple Virulence Factors: Which Is Most Important?
Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development | EurekAlert! Science News
virulence-factor-made-by-influenza-a-viruses-is-potential-new-target-for-vaccine-and-anti-viral-drug-development/. 2230/. ... Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic ... Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development ...
Discovery and Characterization of Novel Virulence Factors from Pathogenic Bacteria | Graduate Programs in Bioinformatics
Random insertional mutagenesis in fungal genomes to identify virulence factors
Frontiers | Effect of Photodynamic Therapy on the Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus | Microbiology
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential ... The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential ... The results indicate that the expression of some external virulence factors is affected by PDI and enterotoxin producing ... The surviving bacteria neither developed resistance nor recovered the expression of the virulence factors after 10 cycles of ...
EscherichiaCharacterizationRole in virulenceInhibited the expression of virulence factorsCandidaMicrobiologyVitroPathogenic BacteriaMajor virulence factorsVarious virulence factorsMultiple Virulence FactorsEnterococcal virulence factorsSpeciesMarkedly reduced virulenceBacteriaAureusInfluenzaOrganismImportance of virulenceAlbicansAssayPotential virulenceMicrobial virulenceAnti-virulencePrevalentInhibitionAeruginosaEffectorsExpressionBiotypesAbstractAntimicrobialBiofilmRegulatorImportantFrancisella
- Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. (wikipedia.org)
- Hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips (microarrays) was used for discrimination among strains of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic enteric bacteria harboring various virulence factors. (asm.org)
- The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers ( stx1 , stx2 , eae , ehxA ) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). (cambridge.org)
- Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. (asm.org)
- Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are characterized by the expression of distinctive bacterial properties, products, or structures referred to as virulence factors because they help the organism overcome host defenses and colonize or invade the urinary tract. (asm.org)
- Reiland, H. , Omolo, M. , Johnson, T. and Baumler, D. (2014) A Survey of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence Factors: The First 25 Years and 13 Genomes. (scirp.org)
- Chicago-Virulence factors among strains of Escherichia coli thatcause prostatitis are more prevalent than among strains that cause pyelonephritisor cystitis, according to a study by Spanish researchers presented at theannual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapyhere. (urologytimes.com)
- Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice Rck outer membrane protein of the S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis virulence plasmid Ail, a product of the Yersinia enterocolitica chromosome capable of mediating bacterial adherence to and invasion of epithelial cell lines OmpX from Escherichia coli that promotes adhesion to and entry into mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Functional genomic characterization of virulence factors from necrotizing fasciitis-causing strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Genotypic characterization, based on the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of virulence factor fragment products was performed on members of the X. vasicola pv. (academicjournals.org)
Role in virulence2
- and S. aureus secrete a SMase C that plays an important role in virulence by increasing Cer, which changes the physical properties of the membrane and could also participate in signal transduction leading to cell death. (asm.org)
- Gene expression analysis revealed that PeSte12 was induced over time during apple infection compared to axenic growth, particularly from 2 dpi, reinforcing its role in virulence. (csic.es)
Inhibited the expression of virulence factors1
- PDI, contrarily to traditional antibiotics, inhibited the expression of virulence factors, efficiently inactivating either highly virulent strains and low virulent S. aureus strains, inactivating also antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains, without development of photoresistance after at least 10 consecutive cycles of treatment, and so this therapy may become a strong promising alternative to antibiotics to control pathogenic microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
- Virulence factors of Candida species. (nih.gov)
- This review will also describe briefly the virulence factors in non-albicans Candida spp. (nih.gov)
- HSP90COCHAPERONES (Are Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Co-Chaperones Virulence Factors in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans? (europa.eu)
- We developed a conditional overexpression/suppression genetic strategy in Candida albicans to enable simultaneous testing of gain or loss of function in order to identify new virulence factors. (asm.org)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility and virulence factors of strains Candida spp isolated of urine in Ceara - Brazil. (aspergillus.org.uk)
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- The 3rd year student, investigating the role of Hsp90 co-chaperones in virulence, selected five co-chaperones that are not essential for growth, to not elicit selective pressure for drug resistance, and examined their contributions to growth in in vivo and in vitro virulence assays. (europa.eu)
- These strains were assessed for growth and survival in vitro and in macrophages and for virulence in mice. (aber.ac.uk)
- This work thus aimed to address whether CLI improves necrotizing fasciitis outcome by modulating virulence factors of CLI-susceptible and CLI-resistant GAS in vitro and in vivo. (uzh.ch)
- In this study, 389 transcription factors (TFs) were mined from the complete genome sequence of S. sclerotiorum and their in planta expression patterns were determined in susceptible and partially resistant pea lines and compared to in vitro expression patterns on culture medium. (asm.org)
- One of the transcription factors was significantly induced in planta at 24 and 48 h postinfection compared to the expression in vitro . (asm.org)
- This study profiled genome-wide expression for S. sclerotiorum transcription factors in planta and in vitro and functionally characterized a novel transcription factor, SsC 6 TF1, which positively regulates sclerotial development and virulence on pea. (asm.org)
- This study investigated expression levels of transcription factors in S. sclerotiorum in planta (pea lines) and in vitro (culture medium). (asm.org)
Major virulence factors2
- Expression of the two major virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), as well as that of a number of other virulence factors, is regulated by environmental stimuli resulting in little to no expression outside the host but high levels of expression within the host intestine. (asm.org)
- Lipase, protease, and biofilm as the major virulence factors in staphylococci isolated from acne lesions. (ebscohost.com)
Various virulence factors1
Multiple Virulence Factors2
- Coping with Multiple Virulence Factors: Which Is Most Important? (plos.org)
- A well established statistical tool known as multivariate linear regression may offer a new approach in determining contributions of multiple virulence factors to the overall virulence of pathogenic microbes say researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York and Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah. (rxpgnews.com)
Enterococcal virulence factors1
- In this study the phylogenetic relationship between these two species was investigated and a comparison of putative virulence factors was performed. (nih.gov)
- Functional genomic analysis provided data that allowed us to correlate the highly infectious nature of Aeromonas pathotypes belonging to several different species with virulence signatures and their potential ability to cause NF. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- For each sigma factor, when applicable, examples are drawn from multiple species. (asm.org)
- This study confirmed the predicted presence or absence of virulence factors especially effectors across bacterial strains and within strains of the same species and other clusters conserved in gram negative bacteria. (academicjournals.org)
- Differences have been reported among these species in antifungal susceptibility and virulence characteristics. (aspergillus.org.uk)
- We show that GT induces apoptotic cell death by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak, but not Bax, to elicit the generation of reactive oxygen species, the mitochondrial release of apoptogenic factors, and caspase-3 activation. (rupress.org)
Markedly reduced virulence2
- Disruption of IcsA leads to loss of bacterial intracellular actin assembly, loss of cell-to-cell spread, and markedly reduced virulence in humans and animal models ( 2 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Moreover, all three strains showed markedly reduced virulence in mice, with those carrying only rpfB or rpfD being unable to maintain chronic infection in vivo. (aber.ac.uk)
- Another group of virulence factors possessed by bacteria are immunoglobulin (Ig) proteases. (wikipedia.org)
- Virulence factors allow bacteria to evade the human immune system, to infect tissues and cells and to establish a foothold within the body. (eurekalert.org)
- Tim Wencewicz, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, thinks we should be looking for agents that block virulence factors rather than continuing to search for ones to kill bacteria outright. (eurekalert.org)
- Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. (prnewswire.com)
- mADP-RTs are well established as important virulence factors of bacteria that infect mammals. (frontiersin.org)
- The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of PDI on virulence factors of S. aureus and to assess the potential development of resistance of this bacterium as well as the recovery of the expression of the virulence factors after successive PDI cycles. (frontiersin.org)
- Our purpose was to investigate the effect of PDAT on the neutralization and or inhibition of S. aureus virulence factors. (arvojournals.org)
- Impact of PDAT on S. aureus secreted virulence factors is strain dependent. (arvojournals.org)
- The objective was to study potential bacterial virulence factors in S. aureus endocarditis. (diva-portal.org)
- One of virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). (prnewswire.com)
- Influenza A Virus: Is Virulence Attributable to Virulence Factors? (evmedreview.com)
- It would be quite reasonable to suppose that this activity qualifies PA-X as an influenza A virus virulence factor. (evmedreview.com)
- This organism expresses a number of virulence factors which allow it to colonize the human intestine and cause disease. (asm.org)
- Researchers led by Dr Joan Smyth performed basic research on the organism to determine the factors which allow it to cause the disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
- however, they are often time-consuming and do not directly characterize virulence factors of the organism identified. (asm.org)
- We present several examples of alternative sigma factors that have been shown to contribute to virulence in at least one organism. (asm.org)
- M. tuberculosis encodes five resuscitation promoting factors, RpfA-E, which share homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, a muralytic enzyme implicated in reactivation of this organism from a dormant state. (aber.ac.uk)
Importance of virulence1
- Multivariate linear regression can be used to identify the relative levels of importance of virulence factors in virulence studies, and this information can be used to prioritize antigen identification for vaccine development and the design of antimicrobial strategies that target virulence mechanisms," say the researchers. (rxpgnews.com)
- This review will focus on the molecular dissection of virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, proteinases secretion, hyphal formation, and phenotypic switching. (nih.gov)
- In vivo virulence assays using a systemic mouse model suggest that C. dubliniensis is marginally less virulent than C. albicans. (nih.gov)
- Several P. aeruginosa virulence factors that are important in disease are involved in the killing of C. albicans filaments. (sciencemag.org)
- In the host, C. albicans exists as both yeast-form and filamentous cells, and the ability to induce filamentation is important for its virulence ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Although most P. aeruginosa CSS systems are involved in the regulation of iron uptake, we have identified a novel system involved in the regulation of virulence. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The virulence factor depressed stimulated adenosine triphosphate release, which to our knowledge is a novel finding with implications for awareness of bladder filling in patients with P. aeruginosa urinary tract infection. (edu.au)
- The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Therefore, our data suggest that PsXEG1 contributes to P. sojae virulence, but soybean recognizes PsXEG1 to induce immune responses, which in turn can be suppressed by RXLR effectors. (oregonstate.edu)
- To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. (mdpi.com)
- The results indicate that the expression of some external virulence factors is affected by PDI and enterotoxin producing strains were more susceptible to PDI than non-toxigenic strains. (frontiersin.org)
- Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT . (asm.org)
- Laboratory conditions which stimulate V. cholerae virulence factor expression have been elucidated and include temperature, osmolarity, pH, CO 2 , amino acids, and bile (for a review, see reference 28 ). (asm.org)
- Differential expression of virulence factors in different biotypes of V. cholerae has been shown to be due to differential toxT expression ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- Moreover, expression of ToxT from an inducible promoter in V. cholerae strains containing mutations in toxR or tcpP leads to high-level expression of CT and TCP even under noninducing laboratory conditions ( 4 , 12 ), whereas there is no expression of either of these factors in a V. cholerae strain lacking toxT ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- These data have been incorporated into a cascade model for virulence where inducing environmental signals within the host stimulate ToxR and TcpP to activate transcription of toxT , whose product then activates virulence factor expression in a constitutive manner ( 28 ). (asm.org)
- Our results illuminate an additional level of environmental control over virulence factor expression in V. cholerae . (asm.org)
- An eps mutant was less efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating a maceration symptom, suggesting that production of EPS is required for the full expression of the E. chrysanthemi virulence. (apsnet.org)
- This reversal of mRNA export block allowed expression of antiviral factors. (rupress.org)
- Its impact in eliminating or inhibiting secreted virulence factor expression is unknown. (arvojournals.org)
- Successful infection by EHEC is determined by the expression of two key virulence factors, flagella and the type three secretion system (T3SS), a bacterially encoded needle-like filament. (gla.ac.uk)
- One transcription factor displaying high expression in planta was found to be involved in sclerotial development and virulence on pea. (asm.org)
- They generally consist of a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor, a sigma factor regulator (or anti-sigma factor) in the cytoplasmic membrane, and an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Furthermore, the sigma factor regulator both inhibits the function of the ECF sigma factor and is required for its activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Borges M, cordeiro-Da-Silva A, Sereno D & Ouaissi A. Peptide-based analysis of the amino acid sequence important to the immunoregulatory function of Trypansosma cruzi Tc52 virulence factor. (innovations-report.com)
- Two E. faecalis virulence-related factors that play an important role in mammalian models of infection, fsr , a putative quorum-sensing system, and cytolysin, are also important for nematode killing. (pnas.org)
- Cysteine proteinases are hypothesized to be important virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. (jci.org)
- The integrations of these various data are contributing in important ways to refining our understanding of the parasite pathobiology and virulent factors. (bmj.com)
- These results suggest that PLB is an important factor in the attack of C. gloeosporioides on avocado fruit, probably as a result of its virulence factor and role in the induction of host defense mechanisms. (apsnet.org)
- Our results allows us to determine which co-chaperones are important for virulence and thus long-term development as drug targets and which co-chaperones Thus, towards fulfilling grant objectives (1) and (3). (europa.eu)
- These results demonstrate the PeSte12 transcription factor could play an important role in P. expansum's virulence and asexual reproduction. (csic.es)