The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.

No data available that match "factor superovulation"

The fertilized ovum or egg is then allowed to grow for some time in a special culture medium, before being implanted in the ... Embryo culture is implemented in case the ovum is fertilized. This allows the embryo to divide into several cells - this phase ... This is also called superovulation.. *Egg retrieval is achieved by aspiration of the follicle, to remove the ova from the body ... IVF is usually performed when other less expensive techniques to help a couple conceive have failed, usually because of:. * ...
Male factor infertility. The techniques utilized in the treatment of male factor infertility are dependent on the severity of ... while embryo culture studies have been able to improve the development of embryos to the blastocyst stage in vitro (17, Sakkas ... As a possible alternative to the need for induction of superovulation the possibility now exists to recover immature oocytes ... The technique adopted for the treatment of a male factor patient should attempt to utilize the least drastic measure of ...
Publications] Takahashi M et al.: Effect of activin on mouse early embryos in culture. (in Japanese) Anitex. 4. 83-88 (1992) ... Publications] Lu R-Z et al: Embryonal development and growth factors : Effect of activin on mouse fertilized ova in vitro. (in ... Publications] Tojo H: Toward the aplication of transgenic techniques to animal industry. (in Japanese) J Reprod Dev. 38. j133 ... Publications] Sakai, R. et al.: Induction of superovulation in acutely hypophysectomized rats and presence of ovulable ...
Stimulation/ Super Ovulation. *Egg Retrieval. *Insemination and Fertilization. *Embryo Culture. *Embryo Transfer. IVF failure ... In such cases, the embryos consistently fail to implant. There are several factors which causes the failure of in vitro ... This is a procedure where special medical techniques are used to help a woman conceive. There are five steps in this treatment: ... Difficult Embryo Transfer: In some cases, technical difficulties in embryo transfer can cause the IVF to become a failure. It ...
Embryo Culture Techniques.- In Vitro Maturation of Human Oocytes.- Integrating Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) into the ... Clinical Evaluation of Female Factor Infertility.- Polycystic Ovarian Disease.- The Current Status for Metformin Use in ... Clinical Aspeccts of Ovulation Induction and Super Ovulation.- Ultrasound Monitoring of Ovulation Establshing the IVF ... Embryo Transfer in IVF Evidence-based Clinical Practice.- Cryopreservation of Human Oocytes and Embryos.- Preserving Fertility ...
Embryo culture. *When the fertilized egg divides, it becomes an embryo. Laboratory staff will regularly check the embryo to ... Outlook of live birth rates depend on certain factors such as mother age, prior live birth, and single embryo transfer during ... IVF is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This means special medical techniques are used to help a woman become ... Step 1: Stimulation, also called super ovulation. *Medicines, called fertility drugs, are given to the woman to boost egg ...
In order to obtain a molecular basis for an efficient superovulation technique applicable to a wide range of animal species and ... After 24 hr in culture, some four to eight cell embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant females. Normal ... These results indicate that CD40L on B cells causes lupus-like disease in the presence of yet unknown environmental factors ... the embryos were exposed serially to EFS20 and EFS40 and then vitrified. After liquefying (thawing), late two-cell embryos ( ...
The extended period during which ovulation occurs may be a contributory factor. ... Gonadotrophin stimulation of donor females decreases post-implantation viability of cultured one-cell hamster embryos.. Susan H ... Induction of superovulation by immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin in immature rats.. Harumichi Ishigame, Mohamed Sabry ... Modification of behavioural oestrus in the ewe by social and hormonal factors.. D. Lindsay ...
... in relation between the embryo and the endometrium. It is possible that the time is approaching when the disorders of the ... time-lapse embryo monitoring allows continuous embryo observation without the need to remove the embryo from optimal culturing ... insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and epithelial cell growth factor to the endometrium. Our group ... The new invasive and noninvasive techniques of embryo quality assessment have been developed. Nowadays, the invasive technology ...
Laboratory Techniques -- one innovation is prolonged culture of embryos before transfer to the uterus. More prolonged culture ( ... It excludes techniques such as artificial insemination and superovulation drug therapy. The large majority of ART cycles are in ... Demographic Factors -- a womans age is the most important factor affecting the chances of live birth after ART. From 2002 CDC ... Human embryos cultured in vitro. 1) Embryos after 2 days of culture at the 4 cell stage of development. 2) An 8 cell embryo on ...
... in relation between the embryo and the endometrium. It is possible that the time is approaching when the disorders of the ... time-lapse embryo monitoring allows continuous embryo observation without the need to remove the embryo from optimal culturing ... insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and epithelial cell growth factor to the endometrium. Our group ... the quality of spermatogenesis is the condition for the formation of a good embryo. The advanced sperm selection techniques are ...
The technique, which bypassed the need for culture-dish fertilization, was developed by Gianpiero Palermo, currently at the ... "Lo and behold, they got five out of six embryos developing, and the couple is currently pregnant!" Muller says.. This example ... "A lot of things have been done to tweak superovulation regimens and things like that. But little has been done about the sperm ... There is no template." This has implications for older men, because age has been suggested to be a factor in creating more ...
... culture of the resulting embryos, and finally, embryo transfer into recipients of the same or a highly related species ( ... A two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury. Evidence from Chinese hamster tissue-culture cells. Experimental Cell Research, 71 ... animals or by the use of ovum pick-up techniques in live animals. The latter techniques are presently mainly in use in cattle ... can be improved by hormonal induction of superovulation. ... Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus ...
Superovulation, Ovum Collection, Culture and Transfer. A Review1, 2. Tur-Kaspa et al. 1998. Difficult or repeated sequential ... The technique for human embryo transfer. Coroleu et al. 2002. The influence of the depth of embryo replacement into the uterine ... Transcervical embryo transfer as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. US5904665A (en) 1999-05-18. Automated prolonged slow ... Optimizing the embryo transfer technique. Shrivastav et al. 1994. Andrology: percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration for ...
... in vitro and in vivo development of embryos; factors affecting embryo development in vitro, and embryo culture, embryo freezing ... Animal tissue culture and Hybridoma technology†Cell culture techniques, culture of different tissues and organs and its ... Embryo transfer technology†Folliculogenesis, superovulation, hormonal control of ovulation, fertilization and embryo ... Embryo Transfer†Collection, preservation, transport and transplantation of zygotes, oocyte culture and in vitro fertilization ...
Superovulation is a technique used in order to have a female release more oocytes than normal. This can be achieved by using ... Vitrification is the preferred method of embryo freezing because it yields higher quality embryos. It is crucial technicians ... Another beneficial factor in cryoconservation of indigenous livestock is in terms of food security and economic development. ... their importance in local traditions and their value to the culture identity and heritage of the area. The loss of regional ...
Find technique details on Reproduction: oocyte collection in horses including requirements, preparation, procedure, aftercare ... and culture of blastocysts prior to either embryo cryopreservation or immediate transfer in a recipient mare. Oocyte aspiration ... other factor in those parts of the reproductive system is limiting fertility and the mares ability to either donate an embryo ... Oocyte recovery from pre-ovulatory follicles is limited to one or two follicles per cycle; superovulation does not help, as ...
... of the methods for fertilization in vitro and embryo culture that form the basis for todays artificial reproductive techniques ... Superovulation technique. This brief article reviews the technique and considerations for superovulating female mice. ... and basic genetic factors crucial for determining the normal chromosomal constitution of both gametes and embryos. These ... Work by the Center scientists includes studies on genetic factors determining gestation length, mechanisms of cell division of ...
... and the embryos that grow in a special culture media are then implanted into the uterus. ... IUI plus superovulation is the least expensive option but does not work as well as IVF or ICSI. IUI may be successful when ... Technological advances such as these, along with ever-improving IVF techniques, make it possible for more women than ever ... Candidates for IVF include couples with tubal factor infertility; couples where the male partner has severely compromised semen ...
THE MICROMANIPULATION TECHNIQUE.. Under visualization on the stage of an inverted microscope, oocytes in culture medium ... Hughes EG, King C, Wood ED: A prospective study of prognostic factors in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil ... In a group of patients with male-factor infertility or abnormal postcoital tests, IUI plus superovulation resulted in a ... The desire to bypass poor cervical mucus, or to assist sperm transit in male-factor infertility has led to the technique of IUI ...
... results are better with fresh embryos than frozen embryos. Success rates depend on many factors, especially the age of the ... Fertilization and Embryo Culture.. The doctor will examine the eggs to evaluate their quality and maturity. Selected eggs are ... Risks for Superovulation. Superovulation is the process of using fertility drugs to stimulate the development of multiple ... Ultrasound is the standard imaging technique for evaluating the uterus and ovaries. It uses a probe placed in the vagina to ...
Embryo Incubation Volume and the Role of Growth Factors. Effect of Embryo Culture on Gene Expression. Important Considerations ... Production of Embryo Recipients. Pregnancy with Manipulated Embryos. Setting up Natural Matings. Inducing Superovulation. ... General Techniques for Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization of Mouse Embryo Sections. Immunohistochemistry of Embryo ... Preparing Embryos. Roller Culture of Postimplantation Embryos. Static Culture of Postimplantation Embryos. Static Culture of ...
This is done by a method called co-culture in which the embryo is cultured along with "feeder cells" in the culture dish . ... Intravaginal culture: This is a technique for IVF , which provides the same rate of fertilization which conventional IVF does, ... the superovulation regime used. Of course, there are some variables about which nothing can be done - such as the wifes age. ... Factors Affecting the Success of IVF Treatment Cycle Thursday, March 7, 2019 ...
... sexing embryo, etc. should not be neglected in order to make the technique of embryo transfer more simple and convenient. For ... induction of superovulation, non-surgical recovery of embryos, synchronization between the estrus such cycles of donor and ... It is anticipated that the result of a study on the detection method of EPF(early pregnancy factor) would be a, pp.icable to ... Simultaneously, the basic studies such as harvesting oocytes from ovary, in vitro culture of oocytes, in vitro capacitation of ...
Culture tubes and Embryo transfer catheters. *Oocyte retrieval needles and tubes. *Culture dishes. *Organ culture dishes. * ... Cervical factor *Male factor *Ovarian disorders *Uterine disorders *In association with donor eggs and donor embryos ... The laboratory personnel should be well-versed with the techniques of cryopreservation. Batches of culture media must be ... The use of superovulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology entails the risk of Hyperstimulation for some women (0.2 -8.0 ...
Following an overnight culture 2-cell-embryos will be obtained and are subsequently subjected to an embryo transfer. In case of ... she earned a PhD further specializing herself in cell culture techniques (hESC) and cryopreservation/thawing techniques. Since ... Therefore, the yield of embryos should be optimized; factors negatively influencing these yields must be determined and ... We have already published several studies on assessment strategies and on parameters influencing superovulation and embryo ...
Prentice, J.R., Singh, J., Dochi, O., et Anzar, M. (2011). « Factors affecting nuclear maturation, cleavage and embryo ... Effect of cryopreservation technique and season on the survival of in vitro produced cattle embryos. », Animal Reproduction ... Superovulation and embryo collection in wood bison during the anovulatory season. », 38th Annual Conference of International ... Beck, K.L., Singh, J., et Anzar, M. (2014). « The avian chorio-allantoic membrane: a suitable short-term culture system for ...
Cultivation and transfer of embryos, using a wide variety of modern culture media ... Efficiency of cryoembryonic transfer depending on the technique of preparation of the endometrium and embryological stage ... Perfection of protocols for stimulation of superovulation in various forms of infertility ... Determination of blood type and Rh factor. * Hemostasiogram (coagulogram). *Investigation of the hormonal profile (LH, FSH, ...
For GIFT technique normal Fallopian tubes are required. The indications are the same as in IVF except the tubal factor. Best ... In this technique zygote or early embryo (with up to 8 blastomeres) is transferred into the Fallopian tube. ... In this procedure the super ovulation is done as in IVF. Two collected oocytes along with about 200,000-500,000 motile sperms ... Washing in culture media removes the proteins and prostaglandins from semen. ...
  • However, in addition to in situ conservation, methods or techniques to maintain live animals outside their production or natural environment (ex situ live) or through cryopreservation of germplasm (ex situ) are set up to preserve (germplasm of) rare breeds as well as the more widely used commercial breeds. (
  • Semen, embryos, oocytes, somatic cells, nuclear DNA, and other types of biomaterial such as blood and serum can be stored using cryopreservation, in order to preserve genetic materials. (
  • There are two common techniques of cryopreservation: slow freezing and vitrification. (
  • Oocyte aspiration is most commonly performed to obtain oocytes for in vitro maturation, fertilization with intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and culture of blastocysts prior to either embryo cryopreservation or immediate transfer in a recipient mare. (
  • With increased success rates of ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval and invitro fertilization and development, the problem of dealing with excess oocytes and embryos has been tackled effectively by cryopreservation. (
  • Effect of cryopreservation technique and season on the survival of in vitro produced cattle embryos. (
  • Recent progress in cryopreservation of cattle embryos. (
  • Another advantage of the rabbit as a laboratory species is that reproductive techniques such as superovulation, in vitro fertilization, sperm injection, embryo cryopreservation, sperm freeze-drying, and nuclear transfer cloning are well established. (
  • The first pregnancy resulting from transferring a thawed cryopreserved human embryo was reported in 1983 in Australia (2), and the first live birth following embryo cryopreservation was reported in 1984 in The Netherlands (3). (
  • Cryopreservation is a method that requires cells and embryos to be exposed to non-physiological ultra-low temperatures (from -20°C to -196°C) (Fig.2). (
  • Cryopreservation of frozen embryos in liquid nitrogen. (
  • In spite of this, recent developments in cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos have led to substantial improvement in IVF outcomes. (
  • For example, most "excess" human IVF embryos in the U.S.A. are destined for cryopreservation or for use in a donor program and are thus unsuitable for any research protocol that might compromise their viability. (
  • Human embryo cryopreservation-methods, timing, and other considerations for optimizing an embryo cryopreservation program. (
  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), cryopreservation of gametes or preimplantation embryos, superovulation, embryo transfer (ET), in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF), in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos, semen sexing and nuclear transfer (NT) continue to be adopted within the livestock production industries [1]. (
  • Depending on the genotype of the transgene a minimum of 200 to 500 embryos are needed for a sufficient cryopreservation, this means an average of 20 to 50 vaginal plug positive donors. (
  • Today two techniques square measure utilized in cryopreservation: The slow cooling technique and also the more modern speedy procedure of vitrification. (
  • Vitrification well-tried to be the longer term of cryopreservation and vital progresses square measure achieved every day during this active domain during a trial to line the best protocol for cryopreservation of various varieties of gametes, embryos and tissue. (
  • The changes that lead to the deficient implantation should be sought in the preimplantation period, in relation between the embryo and the endometrium. (
  • Gonadotrophin stimulation of donor females decreases post-implantation viability of cultured one-cell hamster embryos. (
  • Embryonic mortality during the pre- and post-implantation periods of pregnancy in mature mice after superovulation. (
  • For each cycle, a woman undergoes hormone injections to stimulate her ovaries, the eggs are fertilized outside the body, and the resulting embryos are then transferred back into the uterus with the hope that an implantation will occur several days later. (
  • Implantation of embryo takes place in the uterus where it develops into a foetus which forms a child. (
  • It mimics more closely the natural stage of the embryo (i.e. blastocyst stage) during implantation. (
  • Involves breaching the outer layer of an embryo by piercing a hole to facilitate its hatching out and implantation. (
  • An IVF laboratory procedure used on embryos to help improve implantation by softening the outer part of some embryos (i.e., older women, frozen embryos), often with a laser. (
  • A procedure in which the zona pellucida (outer covering) of the embryo is partially thinned, usually by application of an acid or laser, to facilitate embryo implantation and pregnancy. (
  • A substance made of natural glycoprotein molecules that when placed with the embryo at the time of transfer can enhance implantation success. (
  • A technique whereby the lining of the uterus (endometrium) is sampled prior to an IVF or Frozen embryo transfer cycle to improve potentially improve subsequent implantation of embryos. (
  • The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo's ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. (
  • It has been reported that implantation rate per embryo transfer in IVF/ICSI programs is 10% to 15% for day 2 or day 3 transfers and 23% to 25% for blastocyst transfers. (
  • Effects of alcohol on H3K9 acetylation in mouse pre-implantation embryos. (
  • increasing blood flow to the reproductive organs (Ho 2009, Anderson 2007), which can improve the thickness of the endometrial lining, so increasing the chances of embryo implantation. (
  • promoting embryo implantation (Liu 2008). (
  • Dr. Lathi is currently performing an observational trial to better understand the implantation potential of mosaic embryos. (
  • Differentially expressed genes in preimplantation human embryos: potential candidate genes for blastocyst formation and implantation. (
  • Human embryos secrete microRNAs into culture media-a potential biomarker for implantation. (
  • The invention provides a protocol leading to improved embryo implantation rates and/or decreased miscarriage rates in which hCG or LH, or a bio-analogue thereof, is administered during the follicular phase. (
  • The fertilized ovum or egg is then allowed to grow for some time in a special culture medium, before being implanted in the womb of the woman who is to undergo the pregnancy. (
  • 3), successfully matured immature oocytes in vitro, fertilized them and then transferred the cleaved embryos leading to a viable pregnancy. (
  • In these women, who receive donated oocytes or embryos, a sequential hormone replacement therapy can mimic the normal menstrual cycle followed by further hormonal support during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy (13,21). (
  • If an embryo sticks to (implants) in the lining of the womb and grows, pregnancy results. (
  • A number of factors affect the pregnancy rate, with the most important being a woman's age. (
  • The American Society for Reproductive Medicine defines ART as treatments and procedures involving the handling of human oocytes and sperm, or embryos, with the intent of establishing a pregnancy (1). (
  • For women with normal ovaries but no functional uterus (Mullerian agenesis, severe intrauterine adhesions, previous hysterectomy) and those with medical disorders in whom pregnancy would pose a serious health risk, IVF with embryo transfer to a gestational surrogate still offers the possibility of genetic offspring. (
  • Oocyte collection and subsequent fertilization by ICSI can also overcome some cases of stallion infertility, where standard insemination techniques are not sufficient to obtain good pregnancy rates or in cases where there is very limited availability of semen, eg dead stallions. (
  • Pregnancy rates are related directly to how many embryos are transferred. (
  • For example, when 3 good quality embryos are transferred, the chance of pregnancy is about 40% in that cycle. (
  • The number of embryos transferred needs also to be balanced against the risk of multiple pregnancy, which naturally increases with more embryos. (
  • It is anticipated that the result of a study on the detection method of EPF(early pregnancy factor) would be a, pp.icable to various animals within 6 hours after conception. (
  • Devroey reported the first pregnancy and birth by the technique of Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer in 1986. (
  • Trounson reported the first human pregnancy following thawing of frozen embryos in 1983. (
  • The first pregnancy was reported by this technique in 1988. (
  • The success rates in KKIVF are expressed as the percentage of embryo transfer procedures which result in a clinical pregnancy. (
  • A clinical pregnancy is determined when a pregnancy sac with a heartbeat is visible on ultrasound at around 4 weeks after the embryo transfer procedure. (
  • The dialogue between the endometrium and the embryo is a crucial step to achieve successful trophoblastic invasion, thus ensuring a non-complicated pregnancy and healthy offspring. (
  • In some cases, it results in embryonic growth arrest but, when the development of the embryo continues, the placenta could bring adaptive responses throughout pregnancy. (
  • So the benefit of blastocyst transfer is to reduce number of embryos replaced and still maintain high chance of pregnancy. (
  • We are examining whether pregnancy rates differ based on day of embryo transfer in patients who replace all available embryos after an In vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycle. (
  • Unprotected intercourse 6 days prior to egg retrieval resulted in a spontaneous pregnancy before the opportunity for embryo transfer. (
  • Once an embryo or embryos are formed, they are then transferred into the uterus, with the aim of attaining pregnancy. (
  • Embryos exposed to 300 μM ammonium are retarded by 1.5 days developmentally at Day 15 of pregnancy. (
  • It is therefore essential that culture conditions for mammalian embryos are designed to minimize the buildup of ammonium to prevent abnormalities in embryo physiology, genetic regulation, pregnancy, and fetal development. (
  • Other factors such as adding extra weight, taking new meds, or having surgery since your last pregnancy can be an issue. (
  • It was hypothesized that Brahman cows have greater in vitro embryo production than Simmental cows, and that regardless of breed, antral follicle count (AFC) and vulvar width (VW) are positively associated with oocyte quality, embryo number and pregnancy rate. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the transfer side, transfer location, cervix transfer score, type and diameter of corpus luteum (CL) during embryo transfer on pregnancy rates in beef heifers. (
  • Most clinical trials to date suggest that acupuncture may be useful in the embryo transfer stage of in vitro fertilisation, and results in an increased pregnancy rate and a greater number of live births (Cheong 2008, Manheimer 2008, Kong 2009, Chen 2009, Smith 2006, Westergaard 2006), though there have been exceptions (Domar 2009) (see Table overleaf). (
  • However, the price you pay for transferring more embryos is that the risk of a multiple pregnancy increases as well. (
  • Some clinics in Scandinavia have now started transferring only one embryo ( this is called SET or single embryo transfer) in young women, in order to reduce the risk of a multiple pregnancy. (
  • Doctors have tried to develop an embryo score ( based on the number of embryos and embryo quality ) in order to predict the chances of a pregnancy after embryo transfer, but this is still not precise. (
  • Transferring more embryos increases the chances of getting pregnant, and also increases the risk of a multiple pregnancy. (
  • Ram and Ewe factors Compromising the Pregnancy rates and lamb survival rates under field Condition. (
  • The goal of the program is to allow dairymen to improve pregnancy rates in problem-breeder and heat-stressed cows through the use of an affordable embryo transfer scheme. (
  • Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows. (
  • (6) (7) Indeed, these workers soon demonstrated that not only was it possible to produce pregnancies in cycles in which the patient received ovulation - inducing agents, but actually the percentage of patients successfully undergoing oocyte recovery and ultimately embryo replacement and pregnancy was substantially higher. (
  • The first pregnancy obtained by IVF and embryo transfer was obtained using ovarian stimulation but it proved to be an ectopic pregnancy (3) . (
  • The large majority of ART cycles are in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, performed by culturing embryos for variable numbers of days before transferring the embryos through the cervix to the uterus. (
  • IVF -- In Vitro Fertilization: extraction of oocytes, fertilization in the laboratory, transcervical transfer of embryos into the uterus. (
  • This ART procedure retrieves multiple eggs, mixes them with sperm in the laboratory, and the embryos that grow in a special culture media are then implanted into the uterus. (
  • This embryo is then implanted in uterus where it develops into a foetus which in turn develops into a child. (
  • If the embryo is with more than 8 blas-tomeres it is transferred into the uterus (IUT - Intra Uterine Transfer) to complete its further development. (
  • In addition to age, results will depend on the condition of the uterus, the number of eggs obtained, the number of eggs fertilised, and the number of eggs or embryos transferred. (
  • The fertilised embryo will rapidly divide into the 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stages, at which point, about 3 or 4 good embryos are selected and transferred into the uterus through the cervix. (
  • Now, the embryo that would originally have ceases to grow at the hatching stage has a better chance of further development in the uterus. (
  • The fertilized egg (embryo) is cultured for 2 to 6 days and is then transferred into the woman's uterus. (
  • Placement of an embryo into the uterus, typically under ultrasound guidance. (
  • Pelvic factor infertility is caused by conditions that affect the fallopian tubes, peritoneum , or uterus. (
  • The donor is then required to undergo a thorough medical examination, including a pelvic exam, blood tests to check hormone levels and to test for infectious diseases, Rh factor, blood type, and drugs and an ultrasound to examine her ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs. (
  • Ovarian function and early embryo development in immature rats given a superovulatory dose of PMSG, later neutralized by antiserum. (
  • Lack of carbon air filtration impacts early embryo development. (
  • Possible programming pathways include changes in testicular and sperm epigenetic regulation and status, seminal plasma composition, and maternal reproductive tract responses regulating early embryo development. (
  • The techniques utilized in the treatment of male factor infertility are dependent on the severity of semen parameters. (
  • Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of Male Factor Infertility Semen Analysis Essentials for the Clinician. (
  • Washing in culture media removes the proteins and prostaglandins from semen. (
  • Cervical factor infertility is suggested when well-timed PCTs are consistently abnormal in the presence of a normal semen analysis. (
  • In addition, oocytes collected from several donor females can be fertilized with very little semen thereby reducing the semen cost for embryo production. (
  • In-vitro fertilization is also the best method for utilizing sexed-sorted semen in embryo production. (
  • The relative advantages and disadvantages of importing animals, semen and embryos are summarized in Table 1. (
  • induction of superovulation, non-surgical recovery of embryos, synchronization between the estrus such cycles of donor and recipient, non-surgical transfer of embryos, etc. (
  • While the range of applications of in vitro fertilization now cover a wide spectrum, this chapter will predominantly deal with two techniques, one that is utilized to treat severe male infertility and the other used to diagnose for genetic defects in the preimplantation embryo. (
  • Clinical Evaluation of Female Factor Infertility. (
  • Couples with unexplained infertility who do not get pregnant during several cycles of superovulation plus IUI are often quite successful with an IVF procedure. (
  • Fertility testing should especially be performed if a woman is over 35 years old or if either partner has known risk factors for infertility. (
  • Infertility seems to have increased in the past decade, yet this may be related to the following factors: voluntary delay in childbearing with an age-correlated decline in fertility status, use of contraceptive techniques, increased number of sexual partners with an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, and an increasing willingness to obtain medical assistance for infertility. (
  • Male factor infertility is involved in approximately 50% of infertile couples, and in 30% of the cases, an abnormality is discovered solely in the man. (
  • However, with the improvement in technology in the past few decades, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), micro-assisted fertilization such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), as well as improved techniques in surgical manipulation, have revolutionized the treatment of male infertility. (
  • In this chapter, the evaluation and medical treatment of male infertility are reviewed, beginning with the physiology and diagnostic workup of the various etiologies of the infertile male, followed by the presentation of the empirical interventions and finally the introduction of assisted reproduction techniques. (
  • Best result is obtained in unexplained infertility but the result is poor in male factor abnormality. (
  • Even if co-existing maternal risk factors (such as BMI, maternal age and infertility status) may affect placental development, the artificial manipulation of gametes and/or embryos could also play a role. (
  • It includes a thorough evaluation not a detailed questionnaire, which has been prepared to bring all the possible factors that could cause infertility in couples. (
  • When the infertility in the couple is due to very low sperm count, the technique of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection provides a solution to getting pregnant. (
  • IVF is generally used in the treatment of infertility when other cheaper fertility techniques have failed. (
  • Tubal factor infertility is a common sequela of salpingitis. (
  • 3. The mainstay of treatment of pelvic factor infertility relies on laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. (
  • Cervical factor infertility results from inadequate mucus production by the cervical epithelium, poor mucus quality, or the presence of antisperm antibodies. (
  • If all tests give normal reports then couple is asked to consult infertility and go in for (A.R.T.) Assisted reproductive techniques. (
  • The metaphase II(MII) oocytes, zygotes and blastocyst stage embryos were collected. (
  • The transfer of blastocysts during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles offers several advantages to the transfer of cleavage stage embryos. (
  • It is difficult to predict which cleavage stage embryos (days 2-3), if any, will become viable blastocysts (days 5-6). (
  • It is also impossible to know which of those cleavage stage embryos, if any, will become high-quality blastocysts. (
  • It has also been demonstrated that the embryonic genome of human embryos is activated during the 4- to 8-cell stage (1). (
  • Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. (
  • CAMUS M. and VANDERZWALMEN P. Preliminary data on an animal model for the study of combined in vitro fertilization and embryo storage. (
  • Collected oocytes are then transported to our IVF laboratory for fertilization and embryo culture. (
  • It excludes techniques such as artificial insemination and superovulation drug therapy. (
  • There are numerous contributing factors, some of which can be helped by resorting to Assisted Reproductive Technology or ART, which comprises artificial insemination, in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes, in vitro fertilization (IVF), embryo culture and embryo transfer. (
  • With imported embryos, the resulting offspring have 100 percent of the desired genes, but as with artificial insemination, it will be several years until the resulting animals become producers. (
  • Laboratory staff will regularly check the embryo to make sure it is growing properly. (
  • Laboratory scientists remove a single cell or cells from each embryo and screen the material for specific genetic disorders. (
  • In addition, the wealth of essential information on mouse laboratory strains, mouse housing and breeding, surgical procedures, assisted reproduction, handling of embryos, and micromanipulation setups has been entirely updated. (
  • The first edition of Manipulating the Mouse Embryo appeared in 1986 as an outgrowth of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory courses on the molecular embryology of the mouse held in the early 1980s, and authors of the first two editions included Brigid Hogan, Rosa Beddington, Frank Costantini, and Liz Lacy. (
  • Treatments that require handling of oocytes in the laboratory, and often including eventual fertilization of the oocyte by sperm to produce embryos. (
  • In order to raise embryo up to day 5, you need a skillful embryologist and sophisticated laboratory. (
  • Consequently, there are several techniques that would ensure fertilisation based on the laboratory assessments of the sperm and eggs. (
  • Several culture techniques have been developed to ensure that fertilisation takes place in an IVF laboratory. (
  • Growth of the embryo in a laboratory (culture) dish. (
  • These treatments include In Vitro Fertilization and other assisted laboratory techniques designed to improve fertilization. (
  • In such cases, the embryos consistently fail to implant. (
  • According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, PGD can help parents decide which embryos to implant. (
  • These can result in failed fertilisation, failure of the embryo to implant, and early miscarriage. (
  • MASSIP A., VANDERZWALMEN P., PUISSANT F., CAMUS M. and LEROY F. Effect of in vitro fertilization, culture, freezing and transfer on the ability of mouse embryos to implant and survive. (
  • Furthermore, of those embryos that manage to implant, fetal growth is significantly impaired. (
  • Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. (
  • Assisted hatching (AH) has been proposed as a method for improving the capacity of the embryos to implant. (
  • However, the babies which result from these embryos are completely normal, if they do implant successfully. (
  • In-vitro fertilization can be used to obtain embryos from older donor animals or donors that don't respond well to superovulation procedures. (
  • Extremely fat animals make poor donors, because they do not respond well to superovulation and because their reproductive tracts are more difficult to manipulate. (
  • The changes etiologically and pathophysiologically associated with disturbed placentation and responsible for the perinatal mortality and morbidity should be sought even earlier, in the preimplantation period, in relation between the embryo and the endometrium. (
  • Optimization of the environment will be the key to improving the dialogue between the endometrium and embryo, so as to ensure that placentation after ART is similar to that following natural conception. (
  • If he has at least 5 million active sperm, Dr. Rosenwaks generally recommends intrauterine insemination (IUI) either in a natural cycle or with ovarian stimulation (superovulation) of his female partner. (
  • A fertility injection used to induce ovulation, often of more than one egg, called controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) or superovulation. (
  • ART now also includes methods for assisted fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using sperm isolation from the ejaculate or obtained by microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE), assisted embryo hatching, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (
  • Genetic materials that are typically cryogenically preserved include sperm, oocytes, embryos and somatic cells. (
  • Work by the Center scientists includes studies on genetic factors determining gestation length, mechanisms of cell division of germ cells and embryos, genes regulating formation of the male and female gametes (sperm and eggs), effects of radiation and chemotherapy on production of gametes, and basic genetic factors crucial for determining the normal chromosomal constitution of both gametes and embryos. (
  • Spontaneous Conception during In Vitro Fertilization prior to Embryo Transfer without the Opportunity for Preimplantation Genetic Testing. (
  • We present a case of a patient undergoing IVF with the intention of subsequent frozen embryo transfer after preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). (
  • [email protected]#Combined use of various techniques can enable accurate prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. (
  • Embryo mosaicism (the combination of normal and abnormal cells within an embryo) leads to inaccuracies in preimplantation genetic testing. (
  • Speed up of genetic improvement of indigenous sheep through Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) Technique. (
  • Direct transfer of vitrified embryos for speeding up of genetic improvement in indigenous ewes in Bangladesh. (
  • Ideally, embryo transfer is used to satisfy both genetic and financial objectives simultaneously, i.e. milk or meat production, increase efficiency, and return financial benefits. (
  • There are two broad criteria for selecting donors for most embryo transfer programmes: (1) genetic superiority and (2) producing large numbers of usable embryos. (
  • This technique is in the mouse model available for most of all genetic backgrounds. (
  • Fertilization of rat eggs in vitro at various times before and after ovulation with special reference to fertilization of ovarian oocytes matured in culture. (
  • Oocytes collected from dominant follicles have already reached developmental competence following gonadotropin stimulation and only need to be cultured in vitro until the predicted time of ovulation. (
  • An embryo that has formed a fluid-filled cavity and the cells have begun to form the early placenta and embryo, usually 5-6 days after ovulation or egg retrieval. (
  • Evaluation of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer in the Improved production system in the Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh. (
  • Optimization of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET)------ sheep in Bangladesh. (
  • Accordingly, all established groups today rely on the use of ovulation-inducing agents to increase the number of preovulatory follicles, and thus, ultimately the number of embryos available for replacement. (
  • Oocyte aspiration followed by ICSI and embryo transfer may be used to overcome fertility issues in both the mare and stallion. (
  • These exciting studies rest on a rich foundation of research in the reproductive sciences over the years at JAX, including the first discovery of stem cells, pioneering the methods for cryopreserving sperm and embryos used for fertility preservation in humans today, and development of the methods for fertilization in vitro and embryo culture that form the basis for today's artificial reproductive techniques (ARTs) such as IVF. (
  • The capability to preserve human or animal oocytes, blastocysts, fruitful organ/gonad/sex gland tissue and spermatozoa is a crucial tool in animal assisted reproductive techniques. (
  • ART technology includes the use of donor eggs and cryopreserved embryos. (
  • Superovulation is the most commonly used method to produce multiple embryos from a single female and is a great tool for increasing the number offspring produced from genetically valuable donor animals. (
  • In vitro fertilization also offers some advantages over superovulation for normal, healthy donor females. (
  • Use of this service allows OvaTech personnel to make sure all embryo production protocols are followed correctly and that donor and recipient females are in good health and body condition prior to the start of embryo production services. (
  • OvaTech's donor and recipient management program involves a 30-day pre-embryo production nutrition program and all animals must be health-certified prior to entering our facilities. (
  • One of the most important factors to a successful embryo transfer programme is the management of the donor animals, and the most important aspect of this is nutrition. (
  • Traditionally, embryo freezing has been used to cryopreserve mice, but this is expensive, time consuming, requires large numbers of donor females, and usually involves invasive superovulation procedures. (
  • MASSIP A and VANDERZWALMEN P In vtro survival of mouse embryos frozen in glycerol or glycerol-sucrose. (
  • MASSIP A., VANDERZWALMEN P. and LEROY F. Effect of stage of development on survival of mouse embryos frozen-thawed rapidly. (
  • SCHEFFEN B., VANDERZWALMEN P and MASSIP A A simple and efficient procedure for preservation of mouse embryos by vitrification. (
  • As a possible alternative to the need for induction of superovulation the possibility now exists to recover immature oocytes from unstimulated ovaries. (
  • Induction of superovulation by immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin in immature rats. (
  • Thus this is in vitro fertilization (IVF - fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body) followed by embryo transfer (ET). (
  • There are other spermatozoa enhancer and technique to improve sperm quality to facilitate fertilisation. (
  • The best oocytes are chosen to be matured in the hope of then being implanted using in vitro fertilisation techniques. (
  • 1 For a variety of reasons, research involving the use, creation, alteration, and storage of gametes and embryos is subject to little regulation in the United States. (
  • ART encompasses all techniques involving direct manipulation of oocytes outside of the body. (
  • Animal tissue culture and Hybridoma technology†Cell culture techniques, culture of different tissues and organs and its applications, maintenance and preservation of cell culture, nutritional requirements of cells, replica plating, In situ hybridization in cells and micro†manipulation. (
  • New approaches, such as the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and new targeted gene manipulation techniques that enable direct injection of RNA/DNA constructs into zygotes to achieve gene targeting, require new explanations and protocols. (
  • I have also received extensive training in the areas of gamete physiology, manipulation, cell culture and in-vitro gamete manipulation. (
  • In most cases, multiple embryos will be implanted to increase the chances of successful conception. (
  • This is a procedure where special medical techniques are used to help a woman conceive. (
  • MASSIP A., VANDERZWALMEN P., SCHEFFEN B. and ECTORS F. Some significant steps in the cryppreservation of mammalian embryos with a note on a vitrification procedure. (
  • OvaTech uses in-vitro fertilization technology to produce embryos in bulk thereby reducing the cost of embryo production. (
  • Initially, all available embryos were transferred in IVF treatments owing to its low success rate. (
  • It is most often tried when other, less expensive fertility techniques have failed. (
  • oviduct or ovary, where the quality of the mare's oocyte is acceptable, but some other factor in those parts of the reproductive system is limiting fertility and the mare's ability to either donate an embryo, or to carry a foal to term herself. (
  • With this in mind, the Fertility society of Australia recommends that no more than 3 embryos be transferred during any treatment cycle. (
  • In general, the most critical factor in determining a couple's fertility is female age. (
  • regulating fertility hormones - stress and other factors can disrupt the function of the hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian axis (HPOA). (
  • This preservation permits patients undergoing therapy or radiation therapy to preserve their fertility, and helps to achieve all advantages from the pricey sex gland superovulation therapies before ART (Assisted Reproduction Techniques). (
  • The resultant mTOR signaling could trigger polyamine, insulin-like growth factor II, and nitric oxide production in blastocysts and the increased cell motility sometimes associated with synthesis of these bioactive molecules. (
  • In their article, the researchers describe attempts to accomplish what we have previously reported in 2008, i.e., create normal cloned blastocysts by replacing the oocyte nucleus with that of a somatic cell but, unfortunately, those attempts were unsuccessful with all of their embryos arresting prior to progressing beyond the 12-cell stage (blastocysts have approximately 64 cells). (
  • Superovulation of immature hypothyroid rdw rats by thyroxine therapy and the development of eggs after in vitro fertilization. (
  • Almost a quarter of a million babies are born each year through assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures, and nearly 4 million babies have been born worldwide using a remarkable technique that combines sperm and eggs outside the body, known as in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • Eggs and sperms will be put together and cause fertilization, fertilized egg will develop and become embryo. (
  • Patients that are in this group could produce eggs when stimulated during IVF cycle and could transfer some embryos during the four-cell or eight-cell stages. (
  • All treatments which include the handling of eggs, sperm and/or embryos. (
  • Freezing at a very low temperature, using liquid nitrogen (-196°C) to keep embryos, eggs, or sperm viable. (
  • Eggs, sperm and embryos can be kept cryopreserved for many years. (
  • In contrast, there are no prohibitions on the use of fertilized eggs or embryos of nonhuman primates for research, while the reproductive physiology and embryology of the Old-World nonhuman primates are sufficiently similar to humans that direct extrapolation of concepts is possible. (
  • Further, both older and newer techniques raise concerns about the safety of the women who donate the eggs and the women in whom the fertilized eggs are implanted-the egg donors and the gestating mothers. (
  • Women who decide to freeze their eggs for future use will first undergo a range of medical tests, followed by two to four weeks of hormone treatment to stimulate the ovaries (superovulation) to produce multiple follicles/eggs. (
  • Sick animals usually do not produce many good embryos. (
  • MASSIP A, VANDERZWALMEN P, ECTORS F, DE COSTER R, D'IETEREN G and HANZEN C Deep freezing of cattle embryos in glass ampules or french straws. (
  • MASSIP A., VANDERZWALMEN P, SCHEFFEN B. and ECTORS F. Pregnancies following transfer of cattle embryos preserved by vitrification. (
  • Embryos produced by in vitro fertilization can be transferred fresh to synchronized recipients or cryopreserved using a technique called vitrification for transfer at a later date. (
  • superovulation does not help, as aspiration of subsequent follicles can be difficult. (
  • In vitro maturation (IVM) is the technique of letting the contents of ovarian follicles and the oocytes inside mature in vitro. (
  • biopsied human ovarian tissue and achieved a 10% rate of maturation from unilaminar follicles into metaphase II by a multi-step culture system: 8 days of culture in a serum-free medium 8 days of culture in a serum-free medium with activin A 4 days of culture on membranes with activin A and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (
  • This review presents evidence about the potential impact of oxidative stress on the well-being of primordial, growing and preovulatory follicles, as well as oocytes and early embryos, examining cell types and molecular targets. (
  • Depletion of glutathione leads to atresia of antral follicles in vivo and apoptosis of granulosa cells in cultured antral follicles. (
  • Based on the results obtained for the studies of in vitro development of cloned embryos, epigenetic modifications have been widely used for cloning farm animals. (
  • First, ART may induce epigenetic defects in the conceptus by modifying the embryo environment. (
  • Therefore assistant reproduction techniques (ART) have the potential to disrupt epigenetic regulation during embryo development. (
  • Then in a subsequent series of follow-up studies, they were able to show that factors within the egg had apparently completely erased the epigenetic fingerprint that makes a cell a fibroblast. (
  • This case report highlights that spontaneous conception during IVF compromises the ability to transfer embryos that are euploid, unaffected by single gene disorders, or intended for gender balancing within a family when desired. (
  • Nutrition is critical to maximise both the number of transferable embryos recovered and the conception rates following transfer. (
  • A number of studies have been performed on chromosomal abnormalities in oocytes, while embryo culture studies have been able to improve the development of embryos to the blastocyst stage in vitro (17, Sakkas, unpublished data). (
  • This fourth edition of The Mouse Manual - Manipulating the Mouse Embryo - appears 28 years after the first edition and once again is the definitive reference source on mouse development, transgenesis techniques, and molecular biology. (
  • 2018. DNA fragmentation in epididymal freeze-dried ram spermatozoa impairs embryo development, pp. 393-400). (
  • Furthermore, the authors also demonstrated that spermatozoa capable of directing embryo development to the blastocyst stage in vitro originated from rams with the least DNA damage Overall, the impact of sperm DNA damage on embryonic development depends on a balance between the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation, fragmentation type, and the oocyte's repair capacity. (
  • Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid during in vitro culture improves development of dog-pig interspecies cloned embryos but not dog cloned embryos. (
  • However, unfortunately, SAHA treatment for dog to pig iSCNT embryos was not sufficient to improve their in vivo development because three and one clones were successfully produced from the control and SAHA treated groups, respectively. (
  • They include embryo development with a blastocyst culture and cytoplasmic transfer. (
  • These use cAMP as an intracellular second messenger, with growth factors and cytokines also influencing their development in vivo. (
  • Ammonium levels build up linearly over time in the culture medium when media containing amino acids are incubated at 37°C. Ammonium in the culture media significantly reduces blastocyst cell number, decreases inner cell mass development, increases apoptosis, perturbs metabolism, impairs the ability of embryos to regulate intracellular pH, and alters the expression of the imprinted gene H19 . (
  • Studies on Factors Affecting the Development of Embryos from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplantation in the Fish. (
  • In mammals, POU1F1 is a key transcription factor that directly affects the secretion of pituitary hormones (GH, PRL, and TSH) and maintains growth and development. (
  • The preimplantation embryo and the embryonic stem cell culture are two powerful systems to analyze the differentiation process in early mammalian development. (
  • Development of Trans-cervical AI Technique in indigenous ewe. (
  • Research with rodent species continues to provide the bulk of basic information on early development, in large part because of the ready availability of oocytes and embryos, but it is difficult to know to what extent information can be extrapolated to primate species, including humans. (
  • However, the amount and quality of basic scientific data on early development that can be obtained from this source are restricted, in part by ethical constraints (Austin, 1990) and in part by conflicting priorities between research and clinical needs for the supply of oocytes and embryos. (
  • The aim of this research was to study the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on embryo development and oxidative stress changes in the testis of mice treated with MTX. (
  • At its inception 35 years ago, the primary goal of the W171 Regional Research Project (renewed as project #s W1171, W2171 and W3171) was to establish a cooperative, multistate research group comprised of basic and applied scientists that would uncover the mysteries behind germ cell function and embryo development so that these processes could be manipulated for the improvement of livestock. (
  • This has been made possible through the use of refined cryoprotective agents and the development of improved in vitro fertilization techniques. (
  • However, such studies remain few in canids because of the lack of optimal in vitro oocyte maturation, embryo culture, and superovulation system. (
  • Their technique using the spontaneous cycle was based on endocrine abnormalities and luteal phase defects (LPD) associated with stimulation. (
  • The doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) containing the embryos into the woman's vagina, through the cervix , and up into the womb. (
  • Gently, the doctor guides the tip of the loaded catheter through the cervix and deposits the fluid containing the embryos into the uterine cavity. (
  • Progesterone‐based synchronization and superovulation protocol were applied to Simmental cows used as donors (n = 168). (
  • Knowledge of these processes facilitates an understanding of the techniques that can be used to control reproduction (superovulation, estrus synchronization etc.) in the doe. (
  • TET -- Tubal Embryo Transfer: the placement of cleaving embryos into the fallopian tube. (
  • The zygote or early embryo is transferred into the Fallopian tube (ZIFT-Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer). (
  • In this technique, both the sperm and unfertilised oocytes are transferred into the Fallopian tubes. (
  • For GIFT technique normal Fallopian tubes are required. (
  • This research demonstrated the capability of proteins and other factors remaining in the egg after the nucleus is removed are capable of reprogramming somatic cells back to their 'embryonic state. (
  • In vitro embryo production in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) using in vivo matured cumulus-oocyte complexes, 89 122-130. (
  • Embryo formed by in vivo fertilization (fusion of gametes within the female) can also be used for such transfer. (
  • Growth Differentiation Factor-9 Gene Expression of Mice Oocytes in Vitro and in Vivo . (
  • In vitro fertilization techniques were initially adopted for the treatment of couples in which the female suffered from inoperable tubal blockage. (
  • In a randomised trial of 100 male factor patients, that were allocated to either GIFT or tubal embryo stage transfer (TEST), Calderon et al. (
  • The indications are the same as in IVF except the tubal factor. (
  • MASSIP A., VANDERZWALMEN P., HANZEN C. and ECTORS F. Fast freezing of cow embryos in french straws with an automatic program. (
  • This technique seems to be more attractive than slow freezing because it does not require expensive equipment. (
  • If embryo freezing facilities are available, then supernumerary embryos can be stored, and this needs to be factored in as well. (
  • I was chairwoman of the organising committee of the First Nordic Symposium on Embryo Freezing in 1996 followed by several tasks as course masters for continuing education courses both in Norway and internationally. (
  • Sperm freezing circumvents all of these disadvantages and is rapidly becoming the technique of choice for many repositories. (
  • This article describes two popular sperm freezing techniques employed by mouse repositories to archive spermatozoa using cryoprotective agents supplemented with either L ‐glutamine or monothioglycerol. (
  • Embryos left over are frozen and implanted for use at a later time, or donated for the use of others. (
  • Unused embryos may be frozen and implanted or donated at a later date. (
  • Transferring more embryos may cause an increase in the risk of high order multiple pregnancies. (
  • Measuring the estrus cycle and its effect on superovulation in mice. (
  • Thus, more research is still needed to better understand abnormal interactions between the embryo and the milieu in artificial conditions. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether defects in methylation patterns in blastocyst due to superovulation originate from abnormal expression of Dnmts. (
  • Failure to achieve fertilization should therefore lead to one of the micromanipulation techniques, again depending on the number and normality of sperm available. (
  • Micromanipulation of gametes has been utilised for those situations with severe male factor, in the presence of previous failed fertilization and in the presence of antibodies impeding sperm-oocyte interaction. (
  • However, some doctors can use micromanipulation techniques to drill a hole in the zona pellucid lining of the patient. (