Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factor Brn-3B: A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.POU Domain Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Transcription Factor Brn-3A: A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein A: A basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is highly homologous to ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 2. It binds the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element in partnership with either PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN or activating transcription factor 2.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genes, rel: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2: A ubiquitously expressed ets proto-oncogene protein that may play a role in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.MafK Transcription Factor: A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1: A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Mice, Inbred C57BLIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Nerve Tissue ProteinsRegulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 184.108.40.206.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 220.127.116.11.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Farmer SR (January 2003). "The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1: a possible link between obesity and insulin resistance". ... FOXO1 belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors that are characterized by a distinct fork head domain. The ... Rena G, Guo S, Cichy SC, Unterman TG, Cohen P (June 1999). "Phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead family member ... "Ligand-dependent interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha with members of the forkhead transcription factor family". The Journal ...
GATA-1 is a member of the GATA transcription factor family and is a key mediator of the development of specific types of blood ... null embryos implicate GATA family of transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (5): 3585-92. doi: ... Pine SR, Guo Q, Yin C, Jayabose S, Druschel CM, Sandoval C (Sep 2007). "Incidence and clinical implications of GATA1 mutations ... Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Like other BET protein family members, BRD3 associates with acetylated lysine residues on histones and transcription factors. ... "Structural basis and specificity of acetylated transcription factor GATA1 recognition by BET family bromodomain protein Brd3". ... Gamsjaeger R, Webb SR, Lamonica JM, Billin A, Blobel GA, Mackay JP (Jul 2011). " ... BRD3 is a member of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal motif (BET) protein family. Like other BET family members it contains ...
"Differential regulation of different human papilloma virus variants by the POU family transcription factor Brn-3a". Oncogene. ... Eng SR, Dykes IM, Lanier J, Fedtsova N, Turner EE (2007). "POU-domain factor Brn3a regulates both distinct and common programs ... Budhram-Mahadeo V, Parker M, Latchman DS (Feb 1998). "POU transcription factors Brn-3a and Brn-3b interact with the estrogen ... Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1, Pou1f1), Oct1 (Pou2f1), and the Caenorhabditis elegans factor Unc86, and ...
2008). "BORIS, a paralogue of the transcription factor, CTCF, is aberrantly expressed in breast tumours". Br. J. Cancer. 98 (3 ... is regulated by three alternative promoters modulated by CpG methylation and by CTCF and p53 transcription factors". Nucleic ... Woloszynska-Read A, James SR, Link PA, et al. (2008). "DNA methylation-dependent regulation of BORIS/CTCFL expression in ... CTCF gene family is uniquely involved in the epigenetics of normal biology and cancer". Semin. Cancer Biol. 12 (5): 399-414. ...
... leading to activation of Gli family of transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) transcription factors. In this context Shh ... These induce sensory interneurones by activating Sr/Thr kinases and altering SMAD transcription factor levels. Signals that ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor. ... Gorski JA, Zeiler SR, Tamowski S, Jones KR (July 2003). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for the maintenance of ... Jones KR, Reichardt LF (October 1990). "Molecular cloning of a human gene that is a member of the nerve growth factor family". ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. ... Gorski JA, Zeiler SR, Tamowski S, Jones KR (July 2003). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for the maintenance of ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ...
doi: 10.1186/s13046-014-0105-6. Sun SR, Sun WJ, Xia L, et al. The T-box transcription factor Brachyury promotes renal ... This process is at least partially mediated by the transcription factors AKT and Snail. Overexpression of brachyury has been ... T is the founding member of the T-box family which in mammals currently consists of 18 T-box genes. The gene brachyury appears ... Brachyury is a transcription factor within the T-box complex of genes. It has been found in all bilaterian animals that have ...
Is a Chromatin-Acetylating Transcription Coactivator That Interacts with Pre-mRNA Splicing and DNA Damage-Binding Factors In ... This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ... 2002). "Identification of novel SH3 domain ligands for the Src family kinase Hck. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), WASP ... Jurica MS, Licklider LJ, Gygi SR, et al. (2002). "Purification and characterization of native spliceosomes suitable for three- ...
... which includes the activation of transcription factors in the SMAD family - SMAD2 and SMAD3. These factors then induce ... Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF beta protein family. Animals either lacking ... and increases its sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimuli by enhancing Ca2+ release from the SR during EC coupling. Also, ... This process includes mitogen-activated protein kinases and binding of the MEF2 transcription factor within the promoter region ...
Most of the flanking genes of the αr35 loci encode transcription factors and proteins related to nitrogen and glutamine ... We built PSWM for each transcription factor from the RegPredict sequences using the Consensus/Patser program, choosing the best ... αr35 is a family of bacterial small non-coding RNAs with representatives in a reduced group of α-proteobacteria from the order ... MacLellan SR, MacLean AM, Finan TM (2006). "Promoter prediction in the rhizobia". Microbiology. 152: 1751-1763. doi:10.1099/mic ...
PAS domain protein 3 is a brain-enriched transcription factor belonging to the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors, ... Kamnasaran D, Muir WJ, Ferguson-Smith MA, Cox DW (May 2003). "Disruption of the neuronal PAS3 gene in a family affected with ... Salama SR, Lambert N, Lambot MA, Coppens S, Pedersen JS, Katzman S, King B, Onodera C, Siepel A, Kern AD, Dehay C, Igel H, Ares ... Pickard BS, Malloy MP, Porteous DJ, Blackwood DH, Muir WJ (Jul 2005). "Disruption of a brain transcription factor, NPAS3, is ...
Rb is able to bind to transcription factors in the E2F family and thereby inhibit their function. When Rb is chronically ... "Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its Interactions with Transcription Factor E2F-1 and the Rb Family of Proteins". ... Miyake S, Sellers WR, Safran M, Li X, Zhao W, Grossman SR, Gan J, DeCaprio JA, Adams PD, Kaelin WG (December 2000). "Cells ... which are transcription factors of the E2F family that push the cell into S phase. By keeping E2F-DP inactivated, RB1 maintains ...
... oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1". Zhou Q, Wang S, Anderson DJ (Feb 2000). "Identification of a novel family of ... Jakovcevski I, Zecevic N (Nov 2005). "Olig transcription factors are expressed in oligodendrocyte and neuronal cells in human ... Arnett HA, Fancy SP, Alberta JA, Zhao C, Plant SR, Kaing S, Raine CS, Rowitch DH, Franklin RJ, Stiles CD (Dec 2004). "bHLH ... Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLIG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The human ETV6 protein is a member of the ETS transcription factor family; however, it more often acts to inhibit than ... Sizemore GM, Pitarresi JR, Balakrishnan S, Ostrowski MC (2017). "The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid ... Chakrabarti SR, Sood R, Ganguly S, Bohlander S, Shen Z, Nucifora G (Jun 1999). "Modulation of TEL transcription activity by ... transcription factor genes MN1 and PER1; d) homeobox protein transcription factor CDX2; e) Protein tyrosine phosphatase ...
... a new member of the CITED family, functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2". The Journal of Biological ... "Physical and functional interactions among AP-2 transcription factors, p300/CREB-binding protein, and CITED2". The Journal of ... Haase M, Schott M, Bornstein SR, Malendowicz LK, Scherbaum WA, Willenberg HS (Feb 2007). "CITED2 is expressed in human ... a new member of the CITED family, functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2". The Journal of Biological ...
... which are transcription factors of the E2F family that push the cell into S phase. By keeping E2F-DP ... transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding ... Miyake S, Sellers WR, Safran M, Li X, Zhao W, Grossman SR, Gan J, DeCaprio JA, Adams PD, Kaelin WG (December 2000). "Cells ... transcription factor complex. • spindle. • cyclin/CDK positive transcription elongation factor complex. • chromatin. • cell ...
Klemsz MJ, McKercher SR, Celada A, Van Beveren C, Maki RA (1990). "The macrophage and B cell-specific transcription factor PU.1 ... transcription factors of the Ets family, form homo, heterodimers and ternary complexes via two distinct domains". Oncogene. 16 ... "The activation domain of transcription factor PU.1 binds the retinoblastoma (RB) protein and the transcription factor TFIID in ... "The transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 interacts with the potential splicing factor TLS". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (9): 4838-42. doi: ...
Long, JC; Caceres, JF (1 January 2009). "The SR protein family of splicing factors: master regulators of gene expression". The ... as with the Twist transcription factor. Other genes reported as master regulators code for SR proteins, which function as ... Most genes considered master regulators code for transcription factor proteins, which in turn alter the expression of ... Canonical examples of master regulators include Oct-4 (also called POU5F1), SOX2, and NANOG, all transcription factors involved ...
This region was used to determine transcription factor interactions. Some of the main transcription factors predicted to bind ... mesoderm developmental factor, EGR/nerve growth factor induced protein C & related factors, and GLI zinc finger family. ... known as RS domains and is involved in the phosphorylation of SR splicing factors and the regulation of splicing. Zebrafish ... Domain Family, Member 1 BC1 (Tre-2/USP6, BUB2, Cdc16) Domain Family, Member 1 Function STRING - Known and Predicted Protein- ...
These complexes are recruited to sites throughout the genome by cell lineage-defining transcription factors (LDTFs) that ... which was the result of SMAD3/SMAD4-dependent upregulation of the transcription factor SLUG. MED15 is a mediator molecule that ... SMAD3 is a member of the SMAD family of proteins. It acts as a mediator of the signals initiated by the transforming growth ... Shi X, DiRenzo D, Guo LW, Franco SR, Wang B, Seedial S, Kent KC (2014). "TGF-β/Smad3 stimulates stem cell/developmental gene ...
... of nine tissue-specific transcription factors of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 3/forkhead DNA-binding-domain family". ... Vidarsson H, Westergren R, Heglind M, Blomqvist SR, Breton S, Enerbäck S (2009). Callaerts P, ed. "The forkhead transcription ... This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which is characterized by a distinct forkhead domain. The ... factor Foxi1 is a master regulator of vacuolar H-ATPase proton pump subunits in the inner ear, kidney and epididymis". PLoS One ...
The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a ... Eberhard D, Busslinger M (Apr 1999). "The partial homeodomain of the transcription factor Pax-5 (BSAP) is an interaction motif ... Wheat W, Fitzsimmons D, Lennox H, Krautkramer SR, Gentile LN, McIntosh LP, Hagman J (Mar 1999). "The highly conserved beta- ... "Pax-5 encodes the transcription factor BSAP and is expressed in B lymphocytes, the developing CNS, and adult testis". Genes & ...
"Expression of the members of the Ptx family of transcription factors in human pituitary adenomas". The Journal of Clinical ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... Hiroi N, Kino T, Bassett M, Rainey WE, Phung M, Abu-Asab M, Fojo T, Briata P, Chrousos GP, Bornstein SR (May 2003). "Pituitary ... transcription factor complex. • nucleolus. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • skeletal system development. • pituitary gland ...
SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors. ... Mantyh CR, Gates TS, Zimmerman RP, Welton ML, Passaro EP, Vigna SR, Maggio JE, Kruger L, Mantyh PW (May 1988). "Receptor ... Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. ...
Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification. Proc Natl ... under inflammatory settings where both factors are triggered [117, 118]. This emphasizes the role of FOXO1 transcription factor ... Datta SR, Brunet A, Greenberg ME. Cellular survival: a play in three AKTS. Genes Dev. 1999;13(22):2905-27. ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1 is a pleiotropic transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in a variety of ...
The T-box family of genes is among the most important developmental transcription factors present in Metazoa. This family is ... Eddy SR. (1998) Profile hidden Markov models. Bioinformatics 14(9):755-763. ... Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family. Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Ana Ariza-Cosano, Matthew T. Weirauch, Sven ... Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are ...
2003) Update on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 15: 2497-2502. ... Wessler SR. (1989) Lc, a member of the maize R gene family responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin production, encodes a ... 2006b) Genome-wide analysis of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in rice and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 141: ... 2009) Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors. Plant Physiol 149: 981-993. ...
2012) The trihelix family of transcription factors--light, stress and development. Trends Plant Sci 17: 163-171. ... Turner SR. (2005) Identification of novel genes in Arabidopsis involved in secondary cell wall formation using expression ... The trihelix family is a large transcription factor family that contains 54 members in B. distachyon. One member, BdTHX2, has ... A Trihelix Family Transcription Factor Is Associated with Key Genes in Mixed-Linkage Glucan Accumulation. Mingzhu Fan, Klaus ...
microphthalmia, a critical factor in melanocyte development, defines a discrete transcription factor family. Genes Dev 1994;8: ... Selitsky SR, *Savich GL, *et al.. Identification of driver genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by exome sequencing. Hepatology ( ... The MiT/TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors recognizes the transcription initiation or E-box ( ... The MiTF/TFE Family of Transcription Factors: Master Regulators of Organelle Signaling, Metabolism, and Stress Adaptation. ...
Sr, an EGR family transcription factor, is known to regulate muscle migration. In this study, we show that Sr ectodermal cells ... family of vertebrate transcription factors. The sr transcripts and their protein products are exclusively expressed in the ... The transcription factor Stripe was reported to induce both the precursor cell phenotype, as well as the terminal ... This interaction results in elevated levels of the transcription factor Stripe in the future tendon cells. Here we show that ...
... also termed Erythroid transcription factor) is the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors. This protein is ... Gamsjaeger R, Webb SR, Lamonica JM, Billin A, Blobel GA, Mackay JP (Jul 2011). "Structural basis and specificity of acetylated ... transcription factor regulating cell cycle progression), TAL1 (a transcription factor), FOG2 (a transcription factor ... null embryos implicate GATA family of transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (5): 3585-92. doi: ...
Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical ... Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense ... Members of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene families appear to be over- ... and serum response factor (SRF)) and C2C2-YABBY appear to be under-represented. Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene ...
Comprehensive interaction map of the Arabidopsis MADS box transcription factors. Plant Cell. 2005;17(5):1424-33.CrossRefPubMed ... A brassinolide-suppressed rice MADS-box transcription factor, OsMDP1, has a negative regulatory role in BR signaling. Plant J. ... Yadav SR, Prasad K, Vijayraghavan U. Divergent regulatory OsMADS2 functions control size, shape and differentiation of the ... In the plant ABC (DE) model, MADS-box genes are critical transcription factors that are involved in floral organ identity ...
"Enhanced tolerance to freezing in tobacco and tomato overexpressing transcription factor TERF2/LeERF2 is modulated by ethylene ... AP2-ERF transcription factors mediate Nod factor dependent Mt ENOD11 activation in root hairs via a novel cis-regulatory motif ... hormonal or environmental responsiveness of the Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP transcription factor gene family ... SR; Cook, DR; Kiss, GB; Oldroyd, GE ... Two transcription factors, DREB1 and DREB2, with an EREBP/AP2 ...
... transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the ... We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 ... This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and biological functions. ... Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members ...
The SR family of related ligand-activated transcription factors includes androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid ... highlighting the importance of nutrient-responsive growth signaling pathways involving insulin/insulin-like growth factor ... However, the upstream factors regulating the subcellular localization of Yki are unclear. We found that the steroid hormone 20- ... The majority of hormone-independent tumors retain some level of SR expression, but sidestep hormone ablation treatments. SRs ...
Farmer SR (January 2003). "The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1: a possible link between obesity and insulin resistance". ... FOXO1 belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors that are characterized by a distinct fork head domain. The ... Rena G, Guo S, Cichy SC, Unterman TG, Cohen P (June 1999). "Phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead family member ... "Ligand-dependent interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha with members of the forkhead transcription factor family". The Journal ...
... including the novel transcription factor SR and phospholipase D (PLD) families. All SR genes in tomato will be isolated by ... A yeast one-hybrid system will be used to screen a cDNA library for transcription factors that bind to AFS1 EREs. Five ... A family of seven tomato SR genes was cloned and characterized, providing a good explanation for the benefits of calcium on ... Three members of the SR gene family in tomato, which are involved in metabolic regulation by calcium, were further ...
DEGs related to transcription factors (TFs). We have found 120 DEGs coding for TFs, distributed in several large TF families, ... Number of differentially expressed genes belonging to the different transcription factor and protein kinase gene families in ... Hou XJ, Li SB, Liu SR, Hu CG, Zhang JZ. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB ... transcription factor families in sweet orange. PLoS One. 2014;9:e112375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Htra2-beta is a human homologue of Drosophila transformer-2 and a member of the SR-like protein family. Here we report the ... The region upstream of the transcription initiation codon contains an Alu element and several potential transcription factor ... Htra2-beta is a human homologue of Drosophila transformer-2 and a member of the SR-like protein family. Here we report the ... Finally, we show that htra2-beta3 is expressed in the nucleus and interacts with a subset of SR proteins in a yeast two-hybrid ...
1994) Targeted mutation of the CREB gene: compensation within the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... 2004) Defining the CREB regulon: a genome-wide analysis of transcription factor regulatory regions. Cell 119:1041-1054. ... 2002) Function and regulation of CREB family transcription factors in the nervous system. Neuron 35:605-623. ... Transcription factors within the CREB family [including CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating ...
... including the novel transcription factor SR and phospholipase D (PLD) families. All SR genes in tomato will be isolated by ... A yeast one-hybrid system will be used to screen a cDNA library for transcription factors that bind to AFS1 EREs. Five ... Three members of the SR gene family in tomato, which is involved in metabolic regulation by calcium, were identified as the ... A family of compounds (HCAA), including two regarded as beneficial to human health (hydroxycinnamic acids and polyamines), were ...
PPAR is a ligand-inducible transcription factor and belongs to the nuclear receptor family. PPAR and RXR combine to form a ... SR-BI. SR-BI, a member of the scavenger receptor class B family, is primarily expressed in the liver and steroidogenic tissues ... 6. HDL metabolism-associated transcription factors. Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathway. LXR is a type of ligand which is ... PPARγ is a pleiotropic transcription factor. Caveolin-1, ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI and apoE are target genes of PPARγ. PPARγ can also ...
Scarb1 transcription is activated by C/EBP family TFs and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (Malerod et al., 2002) ... Messina, D. N., Glasscock, J., Gish, W. and Lovett, M. (2004). An ORFeome-based analysis of human transcription factor genes ... Rigotti, A., Miettinen, H. E. and Krieger, M. (2003). The role of the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI in the lipid ... Kim, B. M., Buchner, G., Miletich, I., Sharpe, P. T. and Shivdasani, R. A. (2005). The stomach mesenchymal transcription factor ...
... and the signaling pathways and splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing in T cells are poorly defined. Here we show ... Collectively, our findings suggest that nuclear PKC-θ is a novel regulator of the key splicing factor SC35 in T cells. ... Collectively, our findings suggest that nuclear PKC-θ is a novel regulator of the key splicing factor SC35 in T cells. ... and the signaling pathways and splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing in T cells are poorly defined. Here we show ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Family Member A9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... This gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The encoded protein is a transcription factor involved in limb ... Phadke SR … Dalal A (American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2016) 4 58 ... Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family: genomic approach to ...
2010). ABI4 is also a member of a large transcription factor family which includes the Drought Response Element Binding factors ... Cutler SR (2009) Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins. Science 324:1068 ... including the transcription factors ABA insensitive (ABI)4 and ABI5. The genes encoding these factors are expressed ... Choi H, Hong J, Ha J, Kang J, Kim SY (2000) ABFs, a family of ABA-responsive element binding factors. J Biol Chem 275:1723-1730 ...
... lactis secreted proteins and their transcription factors are presented. It consists of 109 ORFs and 23 transcription factors. A ... Most of the transcription factors are related to responses to stress such as drug, acid and heat resistance, as well as ... we predicted protein subcellular locations and correlated the resulting extracellular secretome with the transcription factors ... The transcription regulators of the putative extracellular proteins were investigated by searching for DNA binding sites in ...
Trieu M, Ma A, Eng SR, et al. (2003). "Direct autoregulation and gene dosage compensation by POU-domain transcription factor ... Xiang M, Zhou L, Macke JP, et al. (1995). "The Brn-3 family of POU-domain factors: primary structure, binding specificity, and ... Activating transcription factor (AATF, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) · AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) · BACH (1, 2) ... General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF (1, 2), TFIIH (1, 2, 4, 2I, 3A, 3C1, 3C2)). ATBF1 · BCL (6, ...
RegulateTranscriptional factorForkheadFOXO1ProteinsBHLHEvolutionarily conservedPhosphorylationEukaryoticActivatesDownstreamGene transcriptionBasic helixInducesTarget genesReverse transcriptionSplicingGeneticPutativePolymeraseFunctionalMammalianGATALigand-dependentCellularRegulatoryInhibitionSteroidBindChromatin immunoprecipitationTranscriptionallySubsetNuclear FactorMechanismsCytoplasmCharacterizationViral transcriptionPhospholipaseInteractionsCREBAbioticSerine rich
- Basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs) are found throughout the three eukaryotic kingdoms and constitute one of the largest families of transcription factors. (plantphysiol.org)
- Phosphorylation is reversed by calcineurin (CaN), although no reports have yet investigated whether this is true for MITF, and the dephosphorylated proteins are free to enter the nucleus, where they bind to E-boxes, CLEAR sequences, and M-boxes to promote transcription of associated genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prior studies on the genomic contents of plants have tackled uncovering the content and complexity of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs, syn. (biomedcentral.com)
- Huang, Rongfeng 2010-02-05 00:00:00 Increasing numbers of investigations indicate that ethylene response factor (ERF) proteins play important roles in plant stress responses via interacting with GCC box and/dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat to modulate expression of downstream genes, but the detailed regulatory mechanism is not well elucidated. (deepdyve.com)
- Primary focus will be on several genes/proteins already known to be regulated by Ca/calmodulin and believed to play roles in enhancement or loss of produce quality, including the novel transcription factor SR and phospholipase D (PLD) families. (usda.gov)
- Finally, we show that htra2-beta3 is expressed in the nucleus and interacts with a subset of SR proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system and in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Several genes related to cell metabolism, including those involved in the metabolisms of cell wall, carbohydrates and antioxidants, light reactions, biotic and abiotic stress responses, as well as genes coding for transcription factors (TFs), protein kinases (PKs) and proteins involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling pathways, were differentially regulated by drought stress. (springer.com)
- In addition to effector genes involved in seed maturation and reserve storage, several signaling proteins and transcription factors were identified as targets of ABI4 and/or ABI5. (springer.com)
- Differential expression of four members of the POU family of proteins in activated and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated Jurkat T cells. (thefullwiki.org)
- The transcription regulators of the putative extracellular proteins were investigated by searching for DNA binding sites in their putative promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
- A public database of K. lactis secreted proteins and their transcription factors are presented. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most of the transcription factors are related to responses to stress such as drug, acid and heat resistance, as well as nitrogen limitation, and may be useful for inducing maximal expression of potential extracellular proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Serine/arginine (SR) protein-specific kinase (SRPK), a family of cell cycle-regulated protein kinases, phosphorylate SR domain-containing proteins in nuclear speckles and mediate the pre-mRNA splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
- It occurs in the splicesome complex, which contains two classes of splicing factors: small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles and non-snRNP splicing factors consisting of a serine/arginine (SR)-rich domain (SR proteins). (aacrjournals.org)
- SR protein-specific kinase 1 (SRPK1) and SRPK2 are regulated by the cell cycle and are specific for SR proteins ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- For instance, HIV expression is significantly increased when one of SR proteins, Srp75, is phosphorylated by SRPK2 ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The SRPK family of kinases, containing bipartite kinase domains separated by a unique spacer, is mainly localized in the cytoplasm, which is critical for nuclear import of SR proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
- SR proteins, such as SF2/ASF, 9G8, and acinus, constitute a highly conserved family of splicing factors that play a role in selection at 5′ splice sites. (aacrjournals.org)
- SR proteins usually contain RNA-binding domain and a COOH terminal region enriched in repeating SR dipeptide (SR domains). (aacrjournals.org)
- Artemis is a group of proteins that belongs to the beta-CASP family, a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. (iscb.org)
- Currently, we are working on multiple projects, which aim at the understanding of how cellular and viral genes are expressed focusing on the role that RNA binding proteins have on transcription and splicing. (fau.edu)
- We utilize a combination of genomic, cellular and biochemical approaches to characterize functions and pathways regulated by members of multiple families of RNA binding proteins. (fau.edu)
- Expression of the viral genome is dependent on the interactions between the viral promoter, RNA sequences, viral proteins and host cell factors. (fau.edu)
- SR proteins modulation of cellular gene transcription. (fau.edu)
- The Myc proteins are short-lived nuclear transcription factors that regulate cell growth and apoptosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Two distinct families of cap binding proteins (CBPs) mediate the stimulatory effects of the cap structure. (asm.org)
- Results exhibited that GATA factors were hydrophilic proteins. (kib.ac.cn)
- The plant-specific homeodomain-leucine (HD-Zip) proteins transcriptional factors affect various biological processes including development, cell division, and responses to abiotic stresses in plants ( Elhiti & Stasolla, 2014 ). (peerj.com)
- Ct-RSF has several properties in common with SR proteins, a family of conserved splicing factors. (diva-portal.org)
- We have shown that Ct-RSF interacts with SR proteins, but in contrast to the splicing factors, Ct-RSF represses splicing in vitro . (diva-portal.org)
- Our data suggest that Ct-RSF binds to exon sequences co-transcriptionally in vivo and that it represses the activation of splicing by SR proteins. (diva-portal.org)
- It is conceivable that Ct-RSF is a protein that balances the action of SR proteins and avoids the formation of spliceosomes at aberrant splice sites in exons. (diva-portal.org)
- SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. (uni-koeln.de)
- We performed database searches for SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which included taxa from plants, animals, fungi and basal eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. (uni-koeln.de)
- Furthermore, RRMs are in highly conserved positions within SR proteins within sub-families, yet their predicted RNA binding residues are degenerate. (uni-koeln.de)
- Additional trans -acting factors including SR proteins bind the cis -regulatory sequences (exonic and intronic silencers and enhancers) to promote or prevent spliceosome assembly. (bloodjournal.org)
- Rb belongs to the pocket protein family , whose members have a pocket for the functional binding of other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- RB/E2F-family proteins repress transcription. (wikipedia.org)
- Transcription factors (TFs) are a major class of DNA-binding proteins and are a crucial element in the regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- These features are maintained ex vivo in mouse ESCs (mESCs) using leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine capable of activating STAT signaling, in concert with either serum or bone morphogenic protein (BMP) to induce inhibitor-of-differentiation (Id) proteins ( 1 , - 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However shoot branching controlled by the BRANCHED1 transcription factor is reliant on the ABCB19 auxin export protein and is not significantly influenced by the activity of PIN proteins. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
- When pre-mRNAs emerge from the transcription sites, they are associated with trans -acting proteins and RNAs, to form the RNA-protein complexes also referred as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. (mdpi.com)
- SR proteins function in nuclear pre-mRNA processing, mRNA export, and translation. (rupress.org)
- Our findings indicate that posttranslational modification of SR proteins underlies the regulation of their mRNA export activities and distinguishes pluripotent from differentiated cells. (rupress.org)
- SR proteins are essential RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with important functions in constitutive and alternative splicing ( Änkö, 2014 ). (rupress.org)
- SR proteins contain one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at their N termini as well as a region of repeated serine-arginine dipeptides (RS domain) at their C termini. (rupress.org)
- Distinct phosphorylation states determine the different biological functions of SR proteins. (rupress.org)
- 1992). The associates of this family members are commonly known as SR proteins splicing elements and are extremely conserved between and human beings (Mayeda et al. (cylch.org)
- Acinus S422D, an SRPK2 phosphorylation mimetic, enhances cyclin A1 transcription, whereas acinus S422A, an unphosphorylatable mutant, blocks the stimulatory effect of SRPK2. (aacrjournals.org)
- c-Myc activity contributes to progression of the G 1 -S phase through induction of cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 or cyclin E/Cdk2 or both, leading to the phosphorylation and inactivation of retinoblastoma family members and the liberation of E2F ( 1 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The t-Darpp expression led to an increase in expression and phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-1 transcription factors that were required for up-regulating Bcl2 levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- Most biological processes in a eukaryotic cell or organism are finely controlled at the transcriptional level by transcription factors. (plantphysiol.org)
- As modulators of gene expression, transcription factors (TFs) act on all eukaryotic biochemical systems, driving 'networks' or 'regulatory programs' that define the developmental stages of life and maintain cells in dynamically changing microenvironments. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using cross-linking and coimmunoprecipitation, we show that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), in addition to its function in the cytoplasm, is a nuclear CBC-interacting protein. (asm.org)
- In eukaryotic cells, multiple and coordinated processes contribute to the fine-tuning of the transcription and translation of selected genes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
- Cytosine-5-methylation has been associated with repression of transcription across eukaryotic phyla. (mit.edu)
- FOXO1 also activates transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which is required for gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- GATA1 was first described as a red blood cell lineage transcription factor that activates the beta-globin gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A cellular target of adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) oncoprotein, p300 also activates bcl-2 transcription in cardiac myocytes and is required for their survival. (ahajournals.org)
- Removal of the spacer in SRPK1 has little effect on the kinase activity, but triggers the nuclear translocation of kinases and consequently induces aggregation of splicing factors in the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
- Over-expression of SRSF1 induces the disruption of both transcription and splicing mechanisms resulting in a strong inhibition of viral replication. (fau.edu)
- Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in granulation tissue myofibroblasts and in quiescent and growing cultured fibroblasts. (naver.com)
- FOG1 powerfully promotes or suppresses the actions that the two transcription factors have on most of their target genes. (wikipedia.org)
- p300 is a transcriptional coactivator that governs gene expression patterns by being recruited to target genes through association with specific transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
- Most plant miRNAs are encoded by gene families, and mature miRNAs often have multiple target genes with similar complementary motifs in their mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
- This will be done by using RNA interference to systematically deplete the endogenous levels of selected coregulators, followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to examine the effects of coregulator depletion on the stepwise modification of histones and assembly of the transcription complex, which occur on endogenous SR target genes in response to the hormone. (grantome.com)
- We will use microarray and bioinformatics analyses to define the subset of SR target genes that require individual coregulators. (grantome.com)
- The findings were validated in independent exon array data sets and by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). (mcponline.org)
- Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen Life Technologies) and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using miScript reverse transcription kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, CA, USA). (lecollege.org)
- Collectively, our findings suggest that nuclear PKC-θ is a novel regulator of the key splicing factor SC35 in T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Splicing machinery concentrates in the nuclear speckles, which act as storage sites for splicing factors while splicing occurs on nascent transcripts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Splicing factors redistribute in response to transcription inhibition or viral infection, and nuclear speckles break down in metaphase and reassemble as cells progress through mitosis ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Two families of kinases, SRPK and Clk/Sty, have been identified that phosphorylate SR domain-containing splicing factors. (aacrjournals.org)
- SR splicing factors activated by its upstream kinases is essential for the alternative splicing machinery. (aacrjournals.org)
- Alteration of the mechanisms regulating transcription and splicing of the viral messenger can dramatically affect viral infectivity and pathogenesis. (fau.edu)
- Utilizing a combination of cell-based and biochemical approaches we have isolated a cellular RNA binding protein, SRSF1, which is an inhibitor of both viral transcription and splicing. (fau.edu)
- We have investigated a possible role for SRSF1 and other members of the Serine argenine rich (SR family of splicing factors) in the transcription of cellular genes utilizing an RNA-Seq approach. (fau.edu)
- Below are the list of possible Splicing factor products. (mybiosource.com)
- Also known as Splicing factor 1 (CW17) (Mammalian branch point-binding protein) (BBP) (mBBP) (Transcription factor ZFM1) (mZFM) (Zinc finger gene in MEN1 locus) (Zinc finger protein 162). (mybiosource.com)
- SF1: a splicing factor necessary for the ATP-dependent first step of spliceosome assembly. (mybiosource.com)
- Also known as Splicing factor 3A subunit 3 (Protein noisette). (mybiosource.com)
- While eIF4G stably associates with spliceosomes in vitro and shows close association with spliceosomal snRNPs and splicing factors in vivo, depletion studies show that it does not participate directly in the splicing reaction. (asm.org)
- The splicing factor SRSF1 and its regulator, the kinase SRPK1 , were found to be deregulated upon Wnt inactivation in colorectal carcinoma cells. (mcponline.org)
- Accordingly, AS of the putative splicing factor REDUCED RED-LIGHT RESPONSES IN CRY1CRY2 BACKGROUND1 , previously identified as a red light signaling component, was shifted to the functional variant under light. (plantcell.org)
- Multiple factors influence the splicing reaction, such as the length and sequence of exons, introns, the presence and levels of transfactors and the rate of transcription. (uni-koeln.de)
- Recurrent mutations in splicing factors have emerged as a hallmark of several hematologic malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
- Splicing factor mutations change the pattern of splicing in primary patient and mouse hematopoietic cells and alter hematopoietic differentiation and maturation in animal models. (bloodjournal.org)
- This review will discuss the implications of aberrant splicing on human disease, with a focus on the impact of somatic mutations in trans -acting splicing factors in hematologic malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
- SC35, a member of SR protein family, is an essential premRNA splicing factor. (creativebiomart.net)
- hyperphosphorylation by Clks is crucial for recruitment to transcription sites and spliceosome assembly, and dephosphorylation by PP1/2A phosphatases during splicing is important for the release of the splicing machinery, recruitment of nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1), and export of mature mRNAs ( Zhou and Fu, 2013 ). (rupress.org)
- that speckles represent storage ICG-001 sites for inactive splicing factors. (cylch.org)
- In addition, spliceosomes contain a group of non-snRNP protein splicing factors, several of which have been purified and cloned (for review observe Kr?mer, 1996). (cylch.org)
- While AMKL is typically associated with the (1;22) translocation and expression of a mutant fusion protein, the genetic alterations that promote individuals with DS-AMKL are related to the GATA1 mutations, and the formation of a truncated transcription factor (GATA1s). (wikipedia.org)
- Presumably due to the scarcity of UUTUC, the pathophysiology of this disease is not well understood, while some of molecular or genetic factors are similar to those associated with bladder cancer [1, (oatext.com)
- CRC has to be considered a complex disease resulting from a combination of environmental factors, genetic/epigenetic predisposing variants and specific molecular mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to overcome these restrictions, we investigated transcription factor binding sites dependencies in terms of how often their predicted binding sites are found together within a window extending 1.5 Kb 5' and 200 bp 3' of the putative starts of transcription in human, mouse and rat genes, without any further assumption on their binding characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the dipteran Chironomus tentans , RBD-1 (Ct-RBD-1) is mainly located in the nucleolus, in an RNA polymerase I transcription-dependent manner. (diva-portal.org)
- SNAP190 is a transcription factor known to stimulate the activity of both RNA polymerase II and III, and we have found that RNA polymerase III (pol III) also exhibits increased occupancy in piRNA clusters. (yale.edu)
- GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 (also termed Erythroid transcription factor ) is the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors . (wikipedia.org)
- Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- GATA-1 is a member of the GATA transcription factor family and is a key mediator of the development of specific types of blood cells from their precursor cells, termed hematopoietic progenitors or precursors. (wikipedia.org)
- Identification and Characterization of GATA Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis)[J].Plant Diversity, 2015, 37(4): 453-462. (kib.ac.cn)
- To this end, we predicted protein subcellular locations and correlated the resulting extracellular secretome with the transcription factors that modulate the cellular response to a particular environmental stimulus. (biomedcentral.com)
- To investigate their cellular dynamics, we developed a quantitative assay, which detects differences in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling among seven canonical SR protein family members. (rupress.org)
- Is an essential player in the regulatory network governing transcription of genes implicated in limb morphogenesis. (genecards.org)
- We show that the computational analysis of transcription factor site dependencies is a valuable complement to experimental approaches for discovering transcription regulatory interactions and networks. (biomedcentral.com)
- Vertebrate genomes contain six evolutionarily related nuclear receptors for steroid hormones: two for estrogens (ERα and ERβ) and one each for androgens (AR), progestins (PR), glucocorticoids (GR), and mineralocorticoids (MR). These ligand-activated transcription factors mediate the actions of hormones that direct sexual differentiation, reproduction, behavior, immunity, and stress response ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Steroid hormone receptors (SR) are hormone-regulated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor family. (grantome.com)
- A compendium of transcription factor and Transcriptionally active protein coding gene families in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. (biomedcentral.com)
- Heat shock response in eukaryotes is transcriptionally regulated by conserved heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs). (beds.ac.uk)
- With this knowledge we can now progress from coactivator discovery and characterization, which has occupied us and the field for the past 15 years, to the definition of what each coregulator contributes to the process of hormone- stimulated transcription activation and how the recruitment and activities of many of the coregulators are coordinated. (grantome.com)
- In human HDL, the small and dense apoAII-enriched HDL can stimulate paraoxonase1, platelet-activating factor acetyl-hyokolase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and exert a higher anti-LDL-oxidative effect, as compared with HDL that does not contain apoAII ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- This suggests that the subfunctionalization of T-box classes was established at the onset of Metazoa through new interactions with cofactors, concomitantly with the diversification of the T-box family. (pnas.org)
- We therefore suggest that Ma2/d, in association with Msp300 and Amph, mediates interactions between the SR and the nuclear membrane. (weizmann.ac.il)
- N/C interactions are largely lost when AR transiently binds to DNA, predominantly in foci partly overlapping transcription sites. (rupress.org)
- Loss of CREB function in a cell-autonomous manner impairs dendritic development, decreases the expression of the neurogenic transcription factor NeuroD and of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein, doublecortin (DCX), and compromises the survival of newborn neurons. (jneurosci.org)
- The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a rapidly responding intracellular effector of neurotransmitter signaling and growth factor signaling in mature neurons ( Lonze and Ginty, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Hence, we proposed that LcMADS1 , LcMADS2 , LcMADS3 , LcMADS7 and LcMADS9 play a pivotal role in sheepgrass sexual reproduction and may be involved in abiotic stress responses, and our findings provide useful information for further exploration of the functions of this gene family in rice, wheat and other graminaceous cereals. (springer.com)
- The NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (NAC) domain protein family are classic transcription factors (TFs) involved in a variety of abiotic stresses, particularly drought stress. (beds.ac.uk)