Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological: Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Cystocele: A HERNIA-like condition in which the weakened pelvic muscles cause the URINARY BLADDER to drop from its normal position. Fallen urinary bladder is more common in females with the bladder dropping into the VAGINA and less common in males with the bladder dropping into the SCROTUM.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Ostomy: Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Rectocele: Herniation of the RECTUM into the VAGINA.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.United StatesTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Cognitive Dissonance: Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hemipelvectomy: Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.AmputeesSchizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.VirginiaROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Capgras Syndrome: A psychotic disorder characterized by the patient's belief that acquaintances or closely related persons have been replaced by doubles or imposters.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.BrazilAnxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
... the use of figural rating scales to evaluate body dissatisfaction and the ideal body standards of women. Body Image, 2, 207-212 ... Body dissatisfaction is also influenced by a variety of different factors. Other research that involves the figure rating scale ... Cardinal, T.M., Karciroti, N., & Lumeng, J.C. (2006). The figure rating scale as an index of weight status of women on ... In S. Kety, L.P. Rowland, R.L. Sidman, & S.W. Matthysse (Eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New ...
2nd edition Psychiatric rating scales for depression from Neurotransmitter.net. ... negative body image, school-work difficulty, sleep disturbance, fatigue, reduced appetite, somatic concerns, loneliness, school ... The 27 items on the assessment are grouped into five major factor areas. Clients rate themselves based on how they feel and ... "sensitive to changes in independently determined psychiatric diagnostic status." Test data also reflects that the test is ...
Body image Body schema End-of-history illusion Face (self image) Fear of negative evaluation Figure rating scale The Honest ... Negative self-images can arise from a variety of factors. A prominent factor, however, is personality type. Perfectionists, ... Caucasians had larger disparities and higher ideal self images than Blacks, and socioeconomic status (SES) affected self-images ... Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 37(11), 544-550. Spencer, S.J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C.T., Fong, C., Duinn, M.A. ( ...
Sex drive is strongly tied to biological factors such as "chromosomal and hormonal status, nutritional status, age, and general ... with lower sexual desire responded to sexual stimuli in the picture recognition task more quickly but rated the sexual images ... Several scales have been developed in recent years to measure the various factors influencing the development and expression of ... Women may be more prone to desire fluctuation due to the many phases and biological changes the woman's body endures through a ...
In an experiment that studied women's body image after comparing themselves to different types of models, body image was ... The test consisted of 10-point Likert scale ratings on 10 individual social comparison dimensions (e.g. intelligence, social ... Whether it is on social networking sites, in the media, in society regarding wealth and social status or in the school system. ... Low self-esteem is one of the main factors in suicide ideation. Mainstream media is also a main contributor to social ...
Body Image. 4 (4): 353-360. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.06.007. Garner, DM; Garfinkel, PE (2009). "Socio-cultural factors in the ... Up to 1.3% of short term psychiatric admissions may be attributable to neurosyphilis, with a much higher rate in the general ... Socioeconomic status (SES) has been viewed as a risk factor for eating disorders, presuming that possessing more resources ... Some of the general tests that may be used are the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. ...
In most cases, rates of organ dysfunction increase with age, with low rates in adolescents and young adults, and the highest ... 105-27 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). 2000. ... In support of this suggestion imaging studies reveal that the third ventricle is enlarged in depressives, which is indicative ... While certain mental disorders may have psychological traits that can be explained as 'adaptive' on an evolutionary scale, ...
The WPI counts up to 19 general body areas in which the person has experienced pain in the preceding two weeks. The SS rates ... new people with fibromyalgia found that disease-related factors such as pain and psychological factors such as work status, ... The revised criteria use a widespread pain index (WPI) and symptom severity scale (SS) in place of tender point testing under ... Accordingly, a study that employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate brain responses to experimental pain among ...
Kurtzke JF (1983). "Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS)". Neurology ... The soluble factors released might stop neurotransmission by intact neurons. These factors could lead to or enhance the loss of ... "Positron emission tomography imaging in multiple sclerosis-current status and future applications". Eur. J. Neurol. 18 (2): 226 ... a kind of lymphocyte that plays an important role in the body's defenses. T cells gain entry into the brain via disruptions in ...
Face (self image). *Fear of negative evaluation. *Figure rating scale. *The Honest Body Project ... Negative self-images can arise from a variety of factors. A prominent factor, however, is personality type. Perfectionists, ... Phillips, D.A., & Zigler, E.F. (1980). Children's self-image disparity: Effects of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and ... Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 37(11), 544-550. *^ Spencer, S.J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C.T., Fong, C., Duinn, M.A ...
2003). "Age-associated prevalence and risk factors of Lewy body pathology in a general population: the Hisayama study". Acta ... There is about a 1% fatality rate directly related to the procedure with a 3% major complication rate. The percentage of people ... Hales, Robert E. (2008). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 311. ISBN ... Again, imaging studies cannot necessarily make the diagnosis of DLB, but some signs are particularly common. A person with DLB ...
The studies Body Image Concerns of Breast Augmentation Patients (2003) and Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Cosmetic Surgery (2006 ... Because a breast implant is a Class III medical device of limited product-life, the principal rupture-rate factors are its age ... In the study Long-term Health Status of Danish Women with Silicone Breast Implants (2004), the national healthcare system of ... Likewise, in Denmark, 8.0 per cent of breast augmentation patients had a pre-operative history of psychiatric hospitalization. ...
List of diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry List of diseases List of disorders List of medical ... the structure of the human body), physiology (how the body works), pathology (what can go wrong with the anatomy and physiology ... Causes and factors of error in diagnosis are: the manifestation of disease are not sufficiently noticeable a disease is omitted ... Using optical coherence tomography to produce detailed images of the brain or other soft tissue, through a "window" made of ...
... however another large-scale study found no difference in rates of birth anomalies in PCE and non-PCE infants. It has been ... another factor that has been suggested as a possible mechanism for its contribution to increased prematurity rates. Increased ... Pregnant women in urban parts of the US and who are of a low socioeconomic status use cocaine more often. However, the real ... PCE newborns have smaller heads and shorter bodies. PCE effects are more severe when the amounts of cocaine are greater. As ...
The condition is often rated on a scale from "slight" to "catastrophic" according to the effects it has, such as interference ... vitamin B12 deficiency iron deficiency anemia psychiatric disorders depression anxiety disorders other factors: vasculitis Some ... If certain problems are found, medical imaging, such as with MRI, may be performed. Other tests are suitable when tinnitus ... There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that some tinnitus is a consequence of neuroplastic alterations in the central ...
... scaling factor = (molecular masstotal / molecular massbase) × scaling factor. The values in this column were scaled to a 30 mg ... In addition to the factors listed in the boxes, the levels of ATP, CoASH, and glycine may influence the overall rate of the ... Image legend Ion channel G proteins & linked receptors (Text color) Transcription factors Stahl SM (March 2017). "Amphetamine ( ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ...
In the study researchers used three dimensions of the APZ questionnaire to describe ASC (rating scales of ASC). First, oceanic ... Lower doses (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg, read "mg DMT per kg body weight") produced somaesthetic and emotional responses, but not ... In September 2008, the three Santo Daime churches filed suit in federal court to gain legal status to import DMT-containing ... Journal of Psychiatric Research. 13 (1): 23-30. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(76)90006-6. PMID 1067427. Morgan M.; Mandell A.J. (August ...
In the United States, termination rates are around 67%, but this rate varied from 61% to 93% among different populations. Rates ... In 1.0 to 2.5% of cases, some of the cells in the body are normal and others have trisomy 21, known as mosaic Down syndrome. ... The father's older age is also a risk factor in women older than 35, but not in women younger than 35, and may partly explain ... 2008). "Psychiatric Genetics". Current diagnosis & treatment psychiatry (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 3 ...
Detection rate False positive Description Combined test 10-13.5 wks 82-87% 5% Uses ultrasound to measure nuchal translucency in ... Steinbock, Bonnie (2011). Life before birth the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford ... Ultrasound imaging can be used to screen for Down syndrome. Findings that indicate increased risk when seen at 14 to 24 weeks ... 2008). "Psychiatric Genetics". Current diagnosis & treatment psychiatry (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 3 ...
... scaling factor = (molecular masstotal / molecular massbase) × scaling factor. The values in this column were scaled to a 30 mg ... Image legend Ion channel G proteins & linked receptors (Text color) Transcription factors Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE ( ... In addition to the factors listed in the boxes, the levels of ATP, CoASH, and glycine may influence the overall rate of the ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ...
American Psychiatric Association 2003 Lifetime Achievement Award, International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2000 Annual ... The personality ratings of Cloninger were based on his tridimensional model of temperament. The personality model also helped ... The TCI Self-Transcendence scale is often used as a measure of spirituality. Cloninger proposed that the psyche is the aspect ... Just as people can become stronger in the body through physical exercise, he has found they can become mentally and spiritually ...
Altered mental status Fever Increased heart rate Generalized edema Increased cardiac output Increased rate of metabolism ... "Comparison of whole-body computed tomography vs selective radiological imaging on outcomes in major trauma patients: a meta- ... While it decreases blood use, it does not appear to decrease the mortality rate. In those without previous factor VII ... The abbreviated injury scale and the Glasgow coma scale are used commonly to quantify injuries for the purpose of triaging and ...
In the face of the changes that unfolded in the rest of Eastern Europe in 1988 and 1989, the PCR retained its image as one of ... This marked a toning down in the violence and scale of repression, after almost twenty years during which the Party had acted ... As a result of these new policies, the Central Committee, which acted as the main PCR body between Congresses, had increased to ... This was due to a number of factors: the country's lack of industrial development, which resulted in a relatively small working ...
Types of psychosis in psychiatric disorders may be established by formal rating scales. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( ... Factor analysis of symptoms generally regarded as psychosis frequently yields a five factor solution, albeit five factors that ... In honor of such contributions, Benjamin Rush's image is in the official seal of the American Psychiatric Association. Early ... primary psychological or psychiatric disorders). The materialistic or naturalistic (i.e. scientific) view of the mind-body ...
"A confirmatory factor analysis of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: invariant factor structure across clinical and non-clinical ... The neurotic triad personality, scoring high on scales 1, 2 and 3, also expresses exaggerated concern over body feelings and ... Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-58562-275-7. Fishbain, David A.; Cole, Brandly; Cutler, R. ... People who score highly on measures of catastrophization are likely to rate a pain experience as more intense than those who ...
... to the body, which can then be imaged outside the body by a gamma camera or a PET scanner. Each radiopharmaceutical consists of ... Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen ... Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought).. It is to likely focus on areas of ... The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback ...
The questions on the Beck Depression Inventory that measure irritability, indecisiveness, body image and ability to work were ... Results: Depression was diagnosed more often in the subject group than in the control group according to the psychiatric ... The prevalence of depression was measured with a personal psychiatric interview and the Beck Depression Inventory (21). Male ... Additionally, there were significant findings regarding the outcome of depression for every classification in the psychiatric ...
... the use of figural rating scales to evaluate body dissatisfaction and the ideal body standards of women. Body Image, 2, 207-212 ... Body dissatisfaction is also influenced by a variety of different factors. Other research that involves the figure rating scale ... Cardinal, T.M., Karciroti, N., & Lumeng, J.C. (2006). The figure rating scale as an index of weight status of women on ... In S. Kety, L.P. Rowland, R.L. Sidman, & S.W. Matthysse (Eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New ...
The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (abbreviated as TFEQ) is a questionnaire often applied in food intake-behavior related ... This scale has also been developed for measuring adolescent body image. This type of measurement was originally developed and ... The figure rating scale (FRS) also known as the Stunkard scale is a psychometric measurement developed in 1983 as a tool to ... It was adapted by Stice et al. in 2000 from the validated structured psychiatric interview: The Eating Disorder Examination ( ...
The prevalence of MetS was 36.8% and was correlated with higher body mass index (BMI), older age, unemployment status and ... 16] found that "the observer-rated psychiatric symptom score did not determine QoL, although self-reported psychopathology and ... PANSS Scale: Positive and negative syndrome scale, divided into positive (PANSS-P), negative (N) and general (G) symptomatology ... 6] and others [8-13]. Factors associated with a higher number of needs were low socioeconomic class, older age, poorer global ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Psychological Tests, Psychology, Psychometrics, Psychophysiologic Disorders, Psychophysiology ... Body Image, Body Mass Index, Body Temperature Regulation, Brain Injuries, Breast Neoplasms, Bruxism, Bulimia Nervosa, Carcinoma ... Time Factors, Torticollis, Trauma, Nervous System, Treatment Outcome, Truth Disclosure, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Type A ... Health Status, Health Surveys, Heart Diseases, Heart Rate, Helplessness, Learned, Hip, Hip Joint, Hispanic Americans, History, ...
Weight and Shape Concern and Body Image as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders ... Binge Eating Scale (BES) Binge-Eating Disorder Bipolar Disorder and Eating Disorders Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ) Body ... Current Status of Eating Disorder Prevention Research Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Eating Disorders Depressive ... Impact of Psychiatric Comorbidity on Eating Disorder Outcomes Implicit Measures Intensive Treatments Internalizing Symptoms, ...
Neil, Janice A. "The Stigma Scale: Measuring Body Image and the Skin." Plastic Surgical Nursing 21 (Summer 2001): 79. ... s perceived status. A high-status group that one competes for resources with, for example, tends to be viewed as competent and ... Similar studies of obese people have found that the stigmatization of obesity is the single most important factor in the ... Thesen, J. "Being a Psychiatric Patient in the Community-Reclassified as the Stigmatized Other." Scandinavian Journal of ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychomotor Agitation, Psychomotor Performance, Psychotic Disorders, ... Health Status, Hospitalization, Humans, Hypertension, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Indans, Indazoles, Intelligence, ... Adaptation, Psychological, Administrative Personnel, Adolescent, Adult, Age, Age Factors, Aged, Agranulocytosis, Alternative ... Splicing, Antipsychotic Agents, Attitude to Health, Basal Ganglia Diseases, Benzodiazepines, Bicyclo Compounds, Body Weight, ...
Anxiety Inventory: State-Trait IDARE; Body Image Questionnaire (BSQ); Weight; BULIT Bulimia Test; Three Food Factors ... HOMA-IR; Systemic Hypertension; Heart rate and heart rate variability; hsCRP; Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales; Child ... heart rate control, fitness, physical activity and sedentary behaviour status, self esteem and health related quality of life. ... associated psychiatric co-morbidities; Percentage of patients that accept treatment of somatic co-morbidities; Predictors of ...
... excluded by a self-rating depression scale), or other psychiatric or neurological illness (excluded by case history and ... the most important genetic risk factor for sporadic AD, the status of ApoE ε4 was also assessed. Genomic DNA was extracted from ... WMH lesions were segmented from T2 FLAIR images and T1 images in each subject (Figure ​(Figure1B).1B). As presented in Table ​ ... and body mass index (DAgostino et al., 2008). The Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk was assessed for each subject at ...
2nd edition Psychiatric rating scales for depression from Neurotransmitter.net. ... negative body image, school-work difficulty, sleep disturbance, fatigue, reduced appetite, somatic concerns, loneliness, school ... The 27 items on the assessment are grouped into five major factor areas. Clients rate themselves based on how they feel and ... "sensitive to changes in independently determined psychiatric diagnostic status." Test data also reflects that the test is ...
Testicular Imaging. Grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography of the testes was obtained in longitudinal and transverse ... W. Arlt, D. S. Willis, S. H. Wild et al., "Health status of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a cohort study of 203 ... Sexual well-being might be an additional factor; however, no data exists. Patients and Methods. Prospective longitudinal ... H. Falhammar, H. F. Nyström, A. Wedell, and M. Thorén, "Cardiovascular risk, metabolic profile, and body composition in adult ...
Nausea was defined as feeling the urge to vomit, and nausea scores were collected using an 11-point verbal rating scale (0 = no ... One contributing factor to IONV is the exteriorization of the uterus following delivery.24,25 Interestingly, in this study, ... The impact of body mass index on the risk of high spinal block in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery: a retrospective ... physical status II-III, non-labouring, obese (current BMI , 35-55 kg·m−2) females, with singleton gestation, ≥ 36 weeks, ...
Fatigue, avoiding the sun, alteration in appearance (and possibly body image) from skin involvement or steroid therapy, and ... Arthritis Rheum 22:1382-1385, 1979 Holmes TH, Rahe RH: The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosom Res 11:213-218, 1967 ... Whether psychiatric symptoms are an integral part of lupus, are related to the stress of having a serious chronic illness, From ... Changes in financial and work status were also noteworthy. Approximately 50% of the patients with SLE and RA reported that the ...
In addition, the presence and co-existence of myoclonus and dystonia was recorded in four body regions (neck, arms, legs and ... In addition, the presence and co-existence of myoclonus and dystonia was recorded in four body regions (neck, arms, legs and ... Co-existence of myoclonus and dystonia in the same body part with action was more commonly seen in the mutation negative cohort ... p ConclusionTruncal action dystonia and co-existence of myoclonus and dystonia in the same body part with action might suggest ...
The aim of this instrumental work was to study the reliability and validity of the psychosis-proneness scales Perceptual ... The Wisconsin- Madison psychosis-proneness scales are among the most extensively used self-reports for its measurement; however ... Aberration Scale (PAS) and Magical Ideation Scale (MIS) in its adaptation into Spanish. ... Psychometric properties of the Perceptual Aberration Scale and the Magical Ideation Scale in Spanish college students - Free ...
... in the 17 items of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) at the second week of the tr... ... Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) at the second week of the treatment of major depression disorder (MDD), can arguably predict ... Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, ... MRI to finding factors which infuencing early improvemrnt, respone and remission of antidepressants. ...
... the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) [34] and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) [35] were used to evaluate the emotional ... Patient has risk factors and history for psychogenic ED and has normal androgen status and normal findings on penile duplex ... for a difference between two groups of structural mr images of the brain," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 18, no. 1 ... Twenty-seven right-handed and age-matched healthy subjects (HS) without urosexual symptoms or signs, psychiatric or neurologic ...
Body shape satisfaction was evaluated using the Stunkard scale. Body shape dissatisfaction was defined as the difference ... The analysis adjusted for confounding factors revealed that women with increased BMI z-scores were less prone to feel thinner ... from childhood to adulthood on body image satisfaction at 23 years of age in members of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort in ... Individuals exhibiting increased BMI z-scores between 4 and 23 years of age reported higher risks of body dissatisfaction at 23 ...
No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Perinatal HBV transmission ... Under guidance of image on the computer, Kirschner wires were inserted into the pedicles of four vertebral bodies. Restriction ... Validation of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale Dutch language version in patients with ... strength alkaline buffer containing protease inhibitors resulted in the isolation of a 17,400 molecular weight growth factor. ...
... body shape, and employment status. Furthermore, Odds Ratio for patients with heart disease and tobacco was calculated and found ... Results: Factors associated with heart disease, as identified in the univariate regression analysis, were tobacco use, ... body shape, and tobacco use on heart disease patients. Background: Heart disease is a condition that can be prevented with ... 21. Stunkard, A., Sorenson, T. and Schlusinger, F. (1983) Male Respondents Mean Figure Rating Scale Choices for Ideal Figure ...
Gait disturbance features related to INPH were determined using the Gait Status Scale (GSS)27. This scale focuses on 8 factors ... Estimating the validity of the Korean version of expanded Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. J Korean Neurol Assoc 19, 585- ... Generally, lower body parkinsonism is characteristic in INPH39. The aberrant ambulation observed in INPH is characterized by a ... The images or other third party material in this article are included in the articles Creative Commons license, unless ...
Tai-chi, a mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, emphasizes the motor coordination and relaxation. With these ... Patients with schizophrenia are characterized by high prevalence rates and chronicity that often leads to long-term ... as well as a 40-minute semi-structured psychiatric interview with the patient. The patient will then be rated on a scale of 1 ... This is thought to be due to physical factors (such as higher rates of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including obesity ...
Studies have found that such factors as race, sex, socioeconomic status, and even previous psychiatric history have little to ... a complex interplay among several systems of the body that leads to increased blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate; ... the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale , and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). ... Among the most troubling symptoms of PTSD are flashbacks, which can be triggered by sounds, smells, feelings, or images. During ...
  • The aim of this instrumental work was to study the reliability and validity of the psychosis-proneness scales Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and Magical Ideation Scale (MIS) in its adaptation into Spanish. (scribd.com)
  • This was subsequently developed into a multidimensional concept of schizotypy, 14 based on a factor analysis of various psychosis-proneness scales, 15 which has been developed into the "unusual experience," "cognitive disorganization," "introvertive anhedonia," and "impulsive nonconformity" subscales of the Oxford and Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) schizotypy scale. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Factors that might affect your weight include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high- fat foods, and not being physically active. (patientsville.com)
  • Regarding the biopsychosocial model, health and illness could be better understood considering a multiplicity of factors which include biological (e.g. physiological or genetic disorders), psychological (e.g. stress, mood or anxiety) and social (e.g. social support or interpersonal relationships) variables. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of ASD, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are not clear. (nature.com)
  • Speculations about genetic or epigenetic factors are not supported by this analysis. (thejns.org)
  • Psychiatric genetic studies generally have assumed mutations in red blood cells would also appear in the brain, but mutations unique to brain genomes have now been found. (dericbownds.net)
  • ABSTRACT A community health survey was conducted to describe the current health status and preventive health practices of National Guard military employees and their dependants residing in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
  • The Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) was designed to be completed by this professional in free play-situations or during physical education classes to rate students' motor-related behavior using 5-point Likert scales. (bvsalud.org)
  • Responses to all items were on a four-point Likert scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The self-valuation scale included 4 items measured on a 5-point (0-4) Likert scale (summative score range, 0-16). (stanford.edu)
  • The complexity of schizophrenia lies in the combination of psychiatric, somatic and social needs requiring care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now, it is turning out that one organ, like the heart, may be governed by one set of genes (genome) while the brain may be run by a mosaic of other genomes generated by somatic mutations, (as opposed to germline mutations that are inherited and found in every body cell. (dericbownds.net)
  • White matter lesions and cerebral atrophy are factors which induce a cognitive impairment in community dwelling elderly subjects without dementia. (bmj.com)
  • Preventive strategies for premature mortality in those with cognitive impairment should be implemented from the early stages and should include careful evaluation of the individual risk factors for each type of death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there is hardly much known about the specific risk factors of accidental death and the relationship between severities of cognitive impairment and accidental death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Network strength in those regions in SMA of two premotor ICA maps that were also active prior to tic occurrence, correlated significantly with disease severity according to the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTTS) scores. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because social factors cannot cause a trauma outcome directly, there must exist mediating causal factors related to the nature and severity of the injury, the robustness of the victim, access to care, or processes of care. (thejns.org)
  • We herein report our findings which led to the conclusion that abnormal findings on MR images closely reflect a subtle cognitive effect even in non-demented subjects living in a local community. (bmj.com)
  • Potential mechanisms include metabolic neuronal injury [ 11 ] and, perhaps more importantly, subclinical vascular disease [ 4 ], mediated through cardiovascular risk factors such as anemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Narrative data from a subset of respondents from the exposed sample were analysed for content relating television exposure to body image concerns. (cambridge.org)
  • Efforts to understand specific effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on brain development in humans are complicated by high rates of concomitant alcohol use during pregnancy. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of them should be taken into account for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and recovery in the case of illness, and for identifying risk and protection factors in the case of health. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although men and woman suffer from mental illness at similar rate, reluctance for seeking help can be particularly detrimental for men. (ukessays.com)
  • The ratio of bone age to chronological age, a measure of delayed maturity, was significantly lower in girls with AN versus control subjects and correlated positively with duration of illness and markers of nutritional status. (aappublications.org)
  • Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the number of factors based on the 12 outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exploratory factor analysis in a first split-half sample revealed a 3-factor solution similar to the original version, which was then tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a second split-half sample. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Estradiol values correlated positively with insulin-like growth factor-I, a measure of nutritional status essential for growth ( r = 0.28). (aappublications.org)
  • Reported relapse rates ranged between 9 and 52%, and tended to increase with increasing duration of follow-up. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For symptomatic, single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis, MIS TLIF was associated with a lower reoperation rate and superior outcomes for disability, back pain, and patient satisfaction compared with posterior MIS decompression alone. (thejns.org)
  • Patient has risk factors and history for psychogenic ED and has normal androgen status and normal findings on penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • New patient consultation - Low back pain, degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, diabetes, and history of prostate cancer status post radiation. (mtsamples.com)
  • PRRT is internal radiation that is individually dosed according to patient body surface area, kidney function and bone marrow status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 30 and above should have ecgs performed and treatment if all of these findings are the best public as a face, garnished with cherries and raisins for eyes and nose, half of its extremely long persistence in body image relates to deficits in oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal structure or function. (epn.edu.ec)