Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase: A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.PeptidoglycanPeptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Penicillin Amidase: An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 3.5.1.11.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
... and the transpeptidase enzymes that bind to them are sometimes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Meticillin is ... of the ortho-dimethoxyphenyl group directly attached to the side-chain carbonyl group of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the ... is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It should not be confused with the antibiotic metacycline. ... It does this by binding to and competitively inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme (also known as penicillin-binding proteins ( ...
"Isolation of the membrane-bound 26 000-Mr penicillin-binding protein of Streptomyces strain K15 in the form of a penicillin- ... Thus β-lactam antibiotics force these enzymes to behave like penicillin binding proteins. Kinetically, the interaction between ... a proton must be removed from the active site serine hydroxyl group and one must be added to the amine leaving group. A similar ... proton movement must be facilitated in deacylation. The identity of the general acid and base catalysts involved in these ...
Thus, it is able to bind to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibit peptidoglycan crosslinking, but is not bound by or ... The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side chain of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to ... which has developed resistance to flucloxacillin and other penicillins by having an altered penicillin-binding protein. Beta- ...
Thus, it is able to bind to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and inhibit peptidoglycan crosslinking, but is not bound by or ... The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side chain of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since ... Dicloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to treat infections caused by ... Dicloxacillin is insensitive to beta-lactamase (also known as penicillinase) enzymes secreted by many penicillin-resistant ...
The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). ... Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are ... History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group, ISBN 978-1-84129-012-6 , Wikidata Q29581637 Dash CH (1975). "Penicillin allergy ... PBPs bind to the D-Ala-D-Ala at the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam ...
Plus, it has a higher affinity to target penicillin-binding proteins. The reactive site is a beta-lactam nucleus, while the ... It is less than 5% protein bound and is excreted unchanged in the urine. Many studies have been conducted, mostly for animal ... Groups of albino mice, weighing 191 g, were dosed with 10 and 40 mg of cefquinome per kg. Blood samples were obtained from a ... Of concern, the use of the drug in animals may lead to increases in antibiotic resistance. Humans can be exposed to bacteria ...
... a β-lactam antibiotic, targets cells by inhibiting transpeptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). This prevents synthesis of ... which are also known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)), enzymes that facilitate peptide cross-links during cell wall ... The β-lactam family of antibiotic molecules consists of four groups: cephalosporins, monobactam, penicillins, and carbapenems. ... These enzymes cleave the β-lactam ring, an essential component of β-lactam antibiotics that are recognized by and bound to PBPs ...
... penicillin interfere with the production of peptidoglycan by binding to bacterial enzymes known as penicillin-binding proteins ... In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl ... it is actually the MreB protein that facilitates cell shape. Peptidoglycan is also involved in binary fission during bacterial ... Mutations in genes coding for transpeptidases that lead to reduced interactions with an antibiotic are a significant source of ...
... some bacteria have evolved penicillin binding proteins with novel structures. β-lactam antibiotics cannot bind as effectively ... The structural similarity between β-lactam antibiotics and d-alanyl-d-alanine facilitates their binding to the active site of ... β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of ... β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents ...
Ligands can have varying affinities for binding across a particle. Differential binding within a particle can result in ... Hence NPs can be designed with proteins that specifically detect drug resistant cells with overexpressed transporter proteins ... Once bound, some of the silver passes through to the inside, and interacts with phosphate-containing compounds like DNA and RNA ... For example, glucose has an aldehyde functional group that is able to reduce silver cations to silver atoms and is then ...
... which differs from other penicillin-binding proteins as its active site does not bind methicillin or other β-lactam antibiotics ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad spectrum group which includes some penams - penicillin derivatives such as methicillin and ... SpeG-positive ACME compensates for the polyamine hypersensitivity of S. aureus and facilitates stable skin colonization, wound ... PBP2a is a variant penicillin-binding protein that imparts the ability of S. aureus to be resistant to oxacillin. Antimicrobial ...
Protein A, an IgG-binding protein, binds to the Fc region of an antibody. In fact, studies involving mutation of genes coding ... or both groups) of the antibiotic. This changes the charge or sterically hinders the antibiotic, decreasing its ribosomal ... which codes for an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a or PBP2') that has a lower affinity for binding β-lactams ( ... Transmission of the pathogen is facilitated in medical settings where healthcare worker hygiene is insufficient. S. aureus is ...
β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. The ... The periplasm contains the peptidoglycan layer and many proteins responsible for substrate binding or hydrolysis and reception ... Bacterial microcompartments are widespread, membrane-bound organelles that are made of a protein shell that surrounds and ... They have O-acetyl groups on carbon-6 of some MA residues. The matrix substances in the walls of gram-positive bacteria may be ...
An enzyme binding site that would normally bind substrate can alternatively bind a competitive inhibitor, preventing substrate ... Many antibiotics such as penicillin and vancomycin inhibit the enzymes that produce and then cross-link the strands of this ... which binds to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions.[1] Natural enzyme inhibitors can also ... Antibiotic drug design is facilitated when an enzyme that is essential to the pathogen's survival is absent or very different ...
This ability to bind albumin in humans, in addition to the previously studied binding ability in domesticated animals, provided ... "Binding activity of Streptococcus canis for albumin and other plasma proteins" (PDF). Journal of General Microbiology. 134 (1 ... Occurrences of group G Streptococcus in animals are mostly associated with S. canis, which normally infects domesticated dogs ... This species, in general, is highly susceptible to antibiotics, and plans to develop a vaccine to prevent human infections are ...
Binding with proteins. Some drugs such as sucralfate binds to proteins, especially if they have a high bioavailability. For ... Absence of use in at-risk groups, such as hospitalized and polypharmacy patients, who tend to have the majority of drug ... Or the combination of clavulanic acid with amoxicillin in order to overcome bacterial resistance to the antibiotic. It should ... Examples of these types of interactions include the mixing of penicillins and aminoglycosides in the same serum bottle, which ...
... the protein is shown as a ribbon-diagram). Antibiotic drug design is facilitated when an enzyme that is essential to the ... Some reversible inhibitors bind so tightly to their target enzyme that they are essentially irreversible. These tight-binding ... Many antibiotics such as penicillin and vancomycin inhibit the enzymes that produce and then cross-link the strands of this ... but the lower one is bound covalently as it has reacted with an amino acid residue through its nitrogen mustard group. New ...
This SRs and LRs region allows formation of cell wall binding motifs that help to bind sugar moieties of the cell surfaces. In ... Many early studies have suggested that toxin A (also known as TcdA) is the major toxin protein causing antibiotic-associated ... Another group has shown that acidification leads to conformational changes of the toxin and, more importantly, helps to form ... As a result, studies were able to conclude that the subinhibitory nature of vancomycin and penicillin levels were increasing ...
... which inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding 23S rRNA. Administration of antibiotics has been proven to reduce the ... All mycoplasmas of the pneumoniae group possess similar 16s rRNA variations unique to the group, of which M. pneumoniae has a ... pneumoniae infections to antibiotics like penicillin. Eaton's agent could be grown in chicken embryos and passed through a ... which bind to fibronectin. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is known to evade host immune system detection, resist antibiotic treatment, ...
The ligands in these approaches are usually much smaller, and they bind to the target protein with weaker binding affinity than ... The classic example of an antibiotic discovered as a defense mechanism against another microbe is penicillin in bacterial ... a tool to facilitate the identification of inhibitors for protein targets". Chemical Society Reviews. 44 (8): 2455-88. doi: ... Gertrude Elion, working mostly with a group of fewer than 50 people on purine analogues, contributed to the discovery of the ...
... an RNA-binding protein, has been found in ALS/MND patients, and mutations in the genes coding for these proteins have been ... The lack of a cell wall means it is not susceptible to conventional antibiotics such as penicillin, which target cell wall ... "The cellular prion protein binds copper in vivo". Nature. 390 (6661): 684-7. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..684B. doi:10.1038/37783. ... Susan Lindquist's group at the Whitehead Institute has argued some of the fungal prions are not associated with any disease ...
However, rounded cell types triggered by an antibody binding to the OspB surface protein are damaged and dying forms of the ... Some studies have suggested persistence of infection despite antibiotic therapy, although others suggested antibiotics rapidly ... Although OspD has been shown to bind to tick gut extracts in vitro, as well as OspA and OspB, it is not essential for the ... Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19)". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (4): 926-932. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-4-926. PMID 9336888 ...
... meaning the amino group is not attached to the alpha carbon so it is not incorporated into proteins.[54] ... This binding causes the opening of ion channels to allow the flow of either negatively charged chloride ions into the cell or ... The β-cells secrete GABA along with insulin and the GABA binds to GABA receptors on the neighboring islet α-cells and inhibits ... "GABA expression dominates neuronal lineage progression in the embryonic rat neocortex and facilitates neurite outgrowth via ...
... and the transpeptidase enzymes that bind to them are sometimes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Meticillin is ... of the ortho-dimethoxyphenyl group directly attached to the side-chain carbonyl group of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the ... is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It should not be confused with the antibiotic metacycline. ... It does this by binding to and competitively inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme (also known as penicillin-binding proteins ( ...
"Isolation of the membrane-bound 26 000-Mr penicillin-binding protein of Streptomyces strain K15 in the form of a penicillin- ... Thus β-lactam antibiotics force these enzymes to behave like penicillin binding proteins. Kinetically, the interaction between ... a proton must be removed from the active site serine hydroxyl group and one must be added to the amine leaving group. A similar ... proton movement must be facilitated in deacylation. The identity of the general acid and base catalysts involved in these ...
β-Lactamases, serine hydrolases that bind and cleave penicillin-type antibiotics, are believed to have evolved rapidly from the ... so-called penicillin-binding proteins, carboxypeptidases, which, being capable of binding but not hydrolyzing antibiotics, are ... Two groups working independently have proposed an intriguing alternative.. Image credit: Hubble Space Telescope - NASA, ESA, ... Arg-163 stabilizes the phosphate and facilitates the second esterification reaction. Constraints were imposed on the distances ...
Thus it is able to bind to penicillin binding protein. s (PBPs) and inhibit peptidoglycan. crosslinking, but is not bound by or ... The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side chain. of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since ... beta-lactam antibiotic. of the penicillin. class. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive. bacteria ... Ampicillin/flucloxacillin - Combination of Ampicillin Moderate spectrum penicillin Flucloxacillin Antistaphylococcal penicillin ...
The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan strands) and a ... penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain (cross-linking of the peptide subunits). ... "Effects of furazlocillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic which binds selectively to penicillin-binding protein 3, on Escherichia coli ... Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.,p>,a href=/help/ ...
The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is no more a local problem and calls for global action. It h.. ... 1988) Mechanism of action of cephalosporins and resistance caused by decreased affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in ... This nature also facilitates deletion of functional groups that can be used to reduce the toxicity of the compound [89]. This ... D-captopril binds to the active site of recombinant NDM-1 with high binding affinity, and inhibits its enzymatic activity [44 ...
PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING Some drugs that bind To albumin NSAIDs Barbiturates Phenytoin Penicillins Tetracyclines To alpha 1 acid ... The carriers for polar molecules appear to form a hydrophobic coating over the hydrophyllic groups and thus facilitate passage ... MICROBIAL SOURCE OF DRUGS Microbes provide an important source of drugs especially the antibiotics. All the antibiotics used ... Factors affecting plasma protein binding include o Drug concentration o Number of drug binding sites on the protein o Protein ...
... biochemical studies of these pneumococcal virulence factors have facilitated the development of novel antibiotics or protein ... After heptamerization, domains 1 and 2 form a flat ring, in which all carbohydrate-binding sites remain bound to cell surface ... Point group symmetries are observed in many protein oligomers whose three-dimensional atomic structures have been elucidated by ... Antimicrobial drugs such as penicillin have diminished the risk from pneumococcal disease. Several pneumococcal proteins ...
Both reactions are catalyzed by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), a form of peptidoglycan synthases. There are two types of ... These mutations and modifications decrease the binding stability of the antibiotics stopping them from binding to the bacterial ... The protein, luxI, makes the autoinducer, acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). The autoinducer of luxR enters the cell and binds to ... They are also one of the smallest groups of bacteria ranging from 0.2 - 0.3 μm long. In addition, having no cell wall makes ...
... the same aromatic ligand binds to the binding pocket of porcine-odorant-binding protein in more than one orientation (41), ... This will facilitate the lateral diffusion and binding of the drug in the central cavity (Fig. 5). One of us has shown earlier ... They can thus bind cationic ligands easily by utilizing the head groups of acidic phospholipids. The presence of these anionic ... Multidrug transporters and antibiotic resistance in Lactococcus lactis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1555:1-7. ...
... inhibiting protein synthesis [65]. On the other hand, beta-lactam antibiotics attach to penicillin-binding proteins and ... The Ag-NPs have selectivity when binding to protein groups, but do not bind enough to Page 17 of 20Slavin et al. J ... Because this class of antibiotic facilitates a breakdown of the cell wall, it is possible that NPs are more effective combined ... suggesting a hierarchical binding to proteins [85]. The non-enzymatic proteins that Ag-NPs bind to are involved in membrane ...
After the bacterial binding, these sensors have been further exposed to the penicillin-binding protein antibody latex beads. ... In nature, these membranes are heterogeneous mixtures of many types of lipids, contain membrane-bound proteins and are ... to functionalize the surface of CNT with oxygenated functional groups. These oxygenated functional groups allow hydrogen bond ... To facilitate the discovery of new therapeutics for NET patients, we have developed an in vitro 3D multicellular spheroids ...
... penicillin-binding proteins; AAC(2′), 2′-N-acetyltransferase; Eis2, enhanced intracellular survival protein 2; APH(3″), ... A diverse group of enzymes that differ in the aminoglycosides that they can modify as well as in the region of the antibiotic ... This repression is relieved in the presence of tetracycline and doxycycline which can bind the repressor protein thereby ... We also discuss how this knowledge could facilitate the discovery and development of new improved antimicrobial agents or help ...
Covalent binding to proteins to form neoantigens is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of penicillin hypersensitivity ( ... β-Lactams such as the penicillins remain a very important group of antibiotics for the treatment of a wide variety of ... Scheme showing the two potential pathways by which BP covalently bound to protein. Pathway 1: direct binding of BP (1) with ... with noncovalent interaction positioning the drugs in favorable orientations to facilitate covalent binding with adjacent ...
... a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria, has broad significance in medicine and industry. Various streptococci are ... The Fc portion of group-specific antibody binds to the protein A of dead staphylococci, leaving the Fab portion free to react ... Treatment is usually with penicillin. However, strains resistant to penicillin and multiple antibiotics are rapidly emerging. A ... This resistance is not β-lactamase mediated but due to alteration in PBP which results in decreased binding of penicillin by ...
Generally, a candidate antibiotic agent will be found to exhibit antibiotic activity if the luminescence detected from the ... G01N33/53-Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor * G01N33/569-Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; ... Methods and kits for detecting protein kinases US6660489B2 (en) * 2000-12-01. 2003-12-09. Becton, Dickinson And Company. ATP ... To facilitate completion of the luciferase-catalyzed reaction, a substrate for the luciferase, such as luciferin, may be ...
ATIII binding activity per surface area of substrate material is defined as the number of picomoles of ATIII bound per apparent ... Examples of antibiotics include, but are not limited to, penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, minocycline, doxycycline, ... Conjugates of anticoagulant and protein US4745180A (en) * 1986-06-27. 1988-05-17. Cetus Corporation. Solubilization of proteins ... Most of the anti-coagulant activity of heparin is associated with a pentasaccharide sequence that facilitates this binding. ...
The mechanism of methicillin resistance is not via β-lactamase production but via altered penicillin binding proteins ... Agents known generically as β-lactam antibiotics share mechanisms with cephazolin, and constitute the various penicillin groups ... walls and capsular membranes and layers of bacteria could facilitate entry and access to sites of action of other antibiotics ... Without wishing to be bound by any proposed mechanism for the observed advantages of the invention, the novel action of ...
Examination of the amounts of protein bound to TiO2 NPs revealed that comparable TiO2 binding capabilities were observed for ... 2 mM L-glutamine and antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin), in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37 °C. The cells were shown ... 30 These strong binding of DLDH to TiO2, has been thoroughly investigated by our group and was shown to be reversed only in the ... 46 The RGD-modified DLDH is expected to serve as a molecular bridge and facilitate targeted-delivery of TiO2 to integrin- ...
... fibronectin-binding protein (fnbA and fnbB), and β-toxin (hlb) genes (29). The CDC isolates (n = 18) were chosen from a group ... which encodes the unique penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a or PBP2′) that is most directly associated with oxacillin resistance ... The major concern with regard to the treatment of staphylococcal infections is the continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant ... an increasing number of investigators have employed the tools of molecular biology to facilitate the diagnostic process. Based ...
The presence of Tyr-Asp repeats in TccC proteins has led others to suggest that they may bind carbohydrates [16] and could ... and the ST antibiotic [53]. Whilst Pa can still make the ST antibiotic, both of the loci encoding the carbapenem antibiotic and ... and compared with the protein databases by using BlastP. Artemis [76] was used to collate data and facilitate annotation. ... Kim Y, Ji D, Cho S, Park Y: Two groups of entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, share an inhibitory action ...
... which inhibit peptidoglycan cross-linking by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), are active against many members of the ... PrkC facilitates high-level colonization with antibiotic-resistant enterococci that precedes the onset of infection. ... Separate groups of four mice were given the same inoculum 24 h and 16 h before sacrifice by cervical dislocation. Ceca were ... PASTA domains have been proposed to bind to the free D-Ala-D-Ala peptide termini found in uncross-linked peptidoglycan. This ...
The mecA gene of MRSA encodes for penicillin-binding protein 2a, which does not bind the β-lactam ring and confers resistance ... If the patients clinical status does not improve or worsens, new classes of antibiotics should be added to the regimen, or the ... This leads to the assignment of MS-DRG (Medicare Severity Diagnosis-Related Group) 872 with a relative weight of 1.0283 and APR ... and has facilitated numerous CDI Workshops for Physicians, Clinical Information Specialists, Coders and HIM Professionals in ...
The positive surface charge of the gene delivery complex is essential for binding to the anionic cell surface and facilitates ... The concentration of protein in the cell lysate was measured, and 25 μg of the protein was separated by SDS-PAGE and ... Particularly, a PEI 25K-treated group used as a control group showed a rapid decrease in gene delivery efficiency as the molar ... The vitamin B6 in the vitamin B6-coupled poly(ester amine) (VBPEA) gene carrier of the present invention functions to bind to ...
... the simultaneous detection of multiple protein targets in a single sample. ... that bind selectively and with high affinity to penicillin-binding proteins present on the cytoplasmic membranes of eubacteria. ... a protein with natural binding specificity that can be exploited to facilitate its purification.. Because the GST portion of ... Simple in-gel detection. Proteins containing phosphate groups attached to tyrosine, serine or threonine residues can be ...
  • Therefore empirical therapy for significant cellulitis often involves dual-therapy to cover both staphylococci and streptococci , using either penicillin or ampicillin in addition to flucloxacillin. (academic.ru)
  • Current concepts in the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection are also presented, with emphasis on the interaction between group A Streptococcus virulence factors and host defense mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Many of these epidemics waxed and waned before the advent of antibiotics, suggesting that either changes in socioeconomic conditions or variations in the expression of virulence factors by the pathogen were responsible. (cdc.gov)
  • Cataloging AMR/virulence characteristics, succession, accumulation, and persistence of microorganisms would facilitate the development of suitable countermeasures to reduce their presence in the closed built environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apart from the known virulence factors, this opportunistic pathogen is best known for its formidable reputation due to its antibiotic-resistant phenotype. (intechopen.com)
  • The overall structure of Monalysin displays an elongated shape, which resembles those of beta-pore-forming toxins, such as Aerolysin, but is devoid of a receptor-binding domain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The G glycoprotein binds the viral receptor the F glycoprotein (which must be cleaved by a host cell protease into F1 and F2 to be active) mediates membrane fusion. (powershow.com)
  • The causal mutation, in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ACVR1, has been thought to boost the receptor's activity, triggering inappropriate bone formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mutated ACVR1 receptor, expressed in cultured cells, responded to activin as well as to its natural ligand, bone morphogenetic protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both BMPs and TGF-β bind to related Type I receptors (also known as Activin Receptor-like Kinases or ALKs) and Type II receptors and activate downstream SMAD signaling pathways [ 2 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The osteogenic BMPs can bind to ALKs 1/2/3/6 and BMPRII or ActRII to induce phosphorylation of the receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs) 1/5/8. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These regions contained binding sites for not only VDR and RXR, but also the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The most distant of these regions, termed the distal control region (RL-DCR), conferred both VDR-dependent 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and GR-dependent glucocorticoid (GC) responses. (asm.org)
  • The interaction of RankL with receptor activator of NF-κB (Rank), an integral receptor protein located on the surface of osteoclast precursors, triggers a number of signaling cascades that include the IKK/IKβ/NF-κB transduction pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Src, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways as well ( 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbapenems were the last line of treatment for most Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing resistant organisms, however after the emergence of New Delhi Metallo-beta lactamase 1 (NDM-1) a recently evolved MBL has shown resistance to most classes of antibiotics including carbapenem except tigecycline, and colistin [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • If the patient's clinical status does not improve or worsens, new classes of antibiotics should be added to the regimen, or the entire regimen may need to be modified. (icd10monitor.com)
  • There are specific rationale regarding the use of several classes of antibiotics prescribed for sepsis: Zosyn, Vancocin, Avelox, and Flagyl. (icd10monitor.com)
  • Recently, we explored the extension of the concept of equilibrium in sequence space from protein cores to the functional surface residues of proteins, specifically ligand binding sites and enzyme active sites ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the case of TGF-β and the non-osteogenic BMPs, ligand binding to receptors such as ALKs 4/5/7 and TβRII induces phosphorylation of R-SMADs 2/3. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nowadays, it is no longer recommended against beta-lactamase -producing organisms such as " Staphylococcus aureus ", since like in other penicillin s, it has become not active against such infections. (academic.ru)
  • Risk group or biosafety level 2 microorganisms that persisted among all three flights were Acinetobacter baumannii , Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Salmonella enterica , Shigella sonnei , Staphylococcus aureus , Yersinia frederiksenii , and Aspergillus lentulus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • After binding to the cell surface carbohydrate chains through domains 1 and 2, domain 3 self-associates to form transmembrane pores, leading to cell lysis or death, which resembles other pore-forming toxins of diverse organisms. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • After heptamerization, domains 1 and 2 form a flat ring, in which all carbohydrate-binding sites remain bound to cell surface carbohydrate chains, stabilizing the transmembrane beta-barrel in a position perpendicular to the plane of the lipid bilayer. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Lactose is then taken up by the transmembrane protein, lac permease. (springer.com)
  • To develop novel diagnostic assays with high sensitivity and specificity, we need to better understand the mechanism underlying penicillin-mediated ADRs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • group D is differentiated from other viridans streptococci by bile solubility and optochin sensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • Based on culture and sensitivity studies, the regimen can be narrowed to one antibiotic. (icd10monitor.com)
  • An E. faecalis mutant lacking PrkC grows at a wild-type rate in the absence of antimicrobial stress but exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cell-envelope-active compounds, including antibiotics that target cell-wall biogenesis and bile detergents. (pnas.org)
  • These Click-iT reagents provide detection sensitivity comparable to that obtained using the radioactive 35 S-methionine method and are compatible with downstream LC-MS/MS and MALDI MS analysis, as well as with total-protein, glycoprotein and phosphoprotein gel stains for differential analyses of newly synthesized protein together with post-translational modifications. (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition, DAG mediates translocation and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which increases myosin light chain phosphorylation and myofilament sensitivity to Ca 2+ and thereby enhances contraction ( 39 ). (physiology.org)
  • PBP2a works in a similar manner to other PBPs, but it binds β-lactams with very low affinity, meaning they do not compete efficiently with the natural substrate of the enzyme and will not inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We recently found that many residues in enzyme active sites can be computationally predicted by the optimization of scoring functions based on substrate binding affinity, subject to constraints on the geometry of catalytic residues and protein stability. (pnas.org)
  • The findings of this work strongly suggested that the enzyme-substrate binding affinity, subject to constraints on the total protein energy and conformations of catalytic residues, should take the place of the folding free energy as the scoring function in active-site sequence space. (pnas.org)
  • The present invention relates to substrate materials having immobilized biologically active entities that maintain their biological activity following exposure to conditions of elevated heat, high humidity, antibiotic agents, and/or mechanical stress. (google.com)
  • This is usually accomplished by treating surfaces of the substrate material to generate a population of chemically reactive elements or groups, followed by immobilization of the biologically active entity with an appropriate protocol. (google.com)
  • With other substrate materials, surfaces of a substrate material are covered, or coated, with a material having reactive chemical groups incorporated therein. (google.com)
  • Biologically active entities are then immobilized on the substrate material through the reactive chemical groups of the covering material. (google.com)
  • Specific area of the enzyme structure where substrate binds and catalysis takes place. (slideserve.com)
  • The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side chain of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since they are relatively intolerant of side-chain steric hindrance . (academic.ru)
  • This classification is based on the absence or presence of organelles bound by membranes like nucleus. (knowswhy.com)
  • This nucleus then remains in the system and grows as more silver atoms diffuse through the solution and attach to the surface When the dissolved concentration of atomic silver decreases enough, it is no longer possible for enough atoms to bind together to form a stable nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Weber says silver ions exhibit their antimicrobial effect by "avidly binding" to negatively charged components in proteins and nucleic acids, thereby affecting structural changes in bacterial cell walls, membranes and other products that are believed to affect the viability of the organism. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Pancreatic fibrosis is a characteristic feature of chronic pancreatic injury and is thought to result from a change in the balance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. (bmj.com)
  • The role of pancreatic stellate cells in extracellular matrix formation and fibrogenesis may be related to their capacity to regulate the degradation as well as the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we propose a novel skin patch that combines antibiotic, cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) and biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. (thno.org)
  • As such, the study of prokaryotic plasmids grants scientists a deeper understanding of the genes and proteins they encode. (wikibooks.org)
  • Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of NPs on the regulation of genes and proteins (transcriptomic and proteomic) profiles is discussed. (ubc.ca)
  • The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan strands) and a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain (cross-linking of the peptide subunits). (uniprot.org)
  • Meticillin is no longer manufactured because the more stable and similar penicillins such as oxacillin (used for clinical antimicrobial susceptibility testing), flucloxacillin, and dicloxacillin are used medically. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etiologic microbes, their susceptibility or lack thereof to antibiotics, the nature of their pathological expression, and dental treatment protocols used to restore function to the patient will be discussed. (netce.com)
  • Empiric antibiotics should be tailored toward treating gram-negative pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • These diseases are often intransigent to initial empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, delaying effective treatment and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in already vulnerable patient populations. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mass spectrometric analysis of human serum albumin exposed to BP and PA in vitro revealed that at low concentrations (drug protein molar ratio 0.001:1) and during short time incubations BP and PA selectively target different residues, Lys199 and Lys525, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ceftriaxone reversibly binds to human plasma proteins, and binding has been reported to decrease from 95% bound at plasma concentrations of less than 25 mcg/mL to 85% bound at 300 mcg/mL. (medscape.com)
  • We isolated host variants that greatly stabilize poorly folded variants of immunity protein 7 (Im7), increasing their steady-state concentrations in the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that K locus polysaccharides facilitate resistance to multiple antibiotics, and, unexpectedly, that the bacterium responds to certain antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations by increasing production of capsule, the principal K locus polysaccharide. (prolekare.cz)
  • Metagenomics coupled with PMA treatment would help future space missions to estimate problematic risk group microbial pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The emergence of Enterococcus faecalis as a significant nosocomial pathogen is a consequence of its inherent resistance to certain antibiotics and of its ability to survive and proliferate in the intestinal tract. (pnas.org)
  • To delay the emergence of resistant strains and prolong the utility of currently available antibiotics, it is imperative that the use of these drugs be restricted to those cases in which they are absolutely necessary, the primary example being a serious infection caused by an oxacillin-resistant strain. (asm.org)
  • Here we examined the K locus, a bacterial disease determinant responsible for the production of protective surface polysaccharides, and asked whether this determinant also contributes to antibiotic resistance. (prolekare.cz)
  • Figure 9.4.1A ) reagents are methionine surrogates that provide nonradioactive alternatives to 35 S-methionine for pulse-chase detection of protein synthesis and degradation. (thermofisher.com)
  • After residual dye is rinsed off, Gram's iodine or Lugol's solution is added to help increase the crystal violet's interaction with the negatively charged surface, increasing the binding. (wikibooks.org)
  • Up to 10% of patients receiving penicillin report allergic reactions, but the incidence of genuine hypersensitivity reactions is found to be only 1 to 2% ( Solensky, 2003 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • A synopsis of these processes will provide insight into the challenges inherent in managing the protean manifestations of sepsis and will facilitate navigation through the medical record, generation of queries, and dialogue with clinicians, with respect to capturing sepsis as a principal or secondary diagnosis. (icd10monitor.com)
  • Associated with these factors is a discussion regarding the administration of antibiotics for the management of sepsis. (icd10monitor.com)
  • Flucloxacillin is more acid-stable than many other penicillins and can be given orally, in addition to parenteral routes. (academic.ru)
  • The carboxysome, a polyhedral protein microcompartment found in all cyanobacteria and in many chemoautotrophs, is filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), the enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of C[O.sub.onto ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and produces two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Folding into the correct shape is crucial for a protein to function properly because many proteins work by binding to certain other proteins or molecules, like a key fitting into a lock. (elifesciences.org)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins, TSST-1 and streptococcal exotoxins have been classified as superantigens which are capable of inducing certain T cell proliferation without processing of the protein toxin by antigen-presenting cells. (pharmacology2000.com)
  • Particulate delivery systems belong to the category of adjuvants that facilitate antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or by increasing the influx of professional APCs into the injection site ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Based on these observations, we introduce the notion of the designability of an enzyme active site, a metric that may be used to guide the search for protein scaffolds suitable for the introduction of de novo activity for a desired chemical reaction. (pnas.org)
  • In both cases, the left-hand partner is a metabolic precursor that can be incorporated into proteins via de novo synthesis or post-translational modification pathways. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2992, SEQ ID NO: 3209, SEQ ID NO: 4536, SEQ ID NO: 4728, SEQ ID NO: 4737, SEQ ID NO: 5089, SEQ ID NO: 5172, SEQ ID NO: 5318, and SEQ ID NO: 5510. (patents.com)
  • 5. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide or fragment thereof, said nucleic acid selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 155, SEQ ID NO: 372, SEQ ID NO: 1699, SEQ ID NO: 1891, SEQ ID NO: 1900, SEQ ID NO: 2252, SEQ ID NO: 2335, SEQ ID NO: 2481, and SEQ ID NO: 2673. (patents.com)
  • In addition, if the aldehydes are bound, it will be stuck in cyclic form and cannot act as a reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)