Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Acellular Dermis: Remaining tissue from normal DERMIS tissue after the cells are removed.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hand Transplantation: The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Heart-Lung Transplantation: The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
  • In December, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the interim final rule requiring the screening and testing of tissue donors for certain transmissible diseases such as HIV and hepatitis, as well as the screening of donors for behavioral risk factors. (liveonny.org)
  • In September, the FDA proposed that manufacturers of tissue-based products screen and test donors for relevant communicable diseases as safeguards to prevent the transmission of communicable diseases from infected donors. (liveonny.org)
  • The American Transplant Foundation's programs provide emotional, educational, and financial support to living donors, transplant recipients, and their families across the country. (donoralliance.org)
  • The Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Bank is dedicated to fulfilling the altruistic wish of their eye donors and their families and helping others in need through transplantation of donated eye tissues. (donoralliance.org)
  • Both meetings agreed minimum criteria for suitability of live donors and defined the obligations of transplant professionals to treat donors as patients, including that of providing appropriate follow-up and treatment for problems caused by the donation. (who.int)
  • Likewise, commercial trade in cells, tissues and organs - and even trafficking involving human beings who are kidnapped or lured into other countries where they are forced to be "donors" - continues to be a serious problem, particularly in countries with substantial transplant tourism. (who.int)
  • Although DCD was the initial form of deceased organ donation, it was eclipsed by recovery of organs from individuals declared dead according to neurologic criteria after these criteria were established and evidence showed improved graft function from such donors. (aappublications.org)
  • 12 The United Network for Organ Sharing has articulated Model Elements for Controlled DCD Recovery Protocols 13 and requires its member hospitals that perform solid organ transplants to develop protocols which address the required elements to facilitate the recovery of organs from donors in cases of DCD. (aappublications.org)
  • all 18 hospitals provide deceased donors for solid organ transplantation. (lww.com)
  • Although the procurement of organs such as livers, kidneys and lungs is permitted after either brain death or circulatory death according to Acts in all jurisdictions, the procurement of hearts has traditionally only been from brain dead donors with functioning hearts. (mja.com.au)
  • Indeed, circulatory death as the source of solid organs has increased from 10% of 204 donors in 2005 to 28% of 378 donors in 2014. (mja.com.au)
  • 1 , 2 More total organs have been procured (from 726 to 1193) but the number of hearts has increased only slightly from 72 of 204 donors (35%) to 79 of 378 donors (21%) over the same period. (mja.com.au)
  • Conclusions The presence of an embedded SN:OD in the ED and the adoption of a collaborative care pathway to establish clinical triggers for referral to the ODT have significantly increased the rate of referral of adult potential organ donors to organ donation services. (bmj.com)
  • When Policy Topic is covered Transplantation of cord blood stem cells from related or unrelated donors may be considered medically necessary in patients with an appropriate indication for allogeneic stem-cell transplant. (docplayer.net)
  • Transplantation of cord blood stem cells from related or unrelated donors is considered investigational in all other situations. (docplayer.net)
  • The persistent mismatch between the supply of and need for transplantable organs has led to efforts to increase the supply, including controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD). (aappublications.org)
  • 1 One effort to increase the supply of transplantable organs has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD), which is the retrieval of organs from individuals declared dead after the irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions. (aappublications.org)
  • In the practice of organ donation after circulatory death (DCD), life-sustaining treatment such as mechanical ventilation is commonly withdrawn because of a devastating neurological injury that has not progressed to brain death. (mja.com.au)
  • The Company estimates that it provided approximately 70% of the cryopreserved human tissue implanted in the U.S. in 1998. (cryolife.com)
  • In addition to the specific organ criteria, transplant candidates must also meet the following general criteria, including, but not limited to: Since compliance is a major factor in transplant graft survival, the patient (or legal guardian) must have the ability to accept and understand the transplant procedure and to maintain compliance with long-term medical management and immunosuppression. (docplayer.net)
  • Renal function at conception, pregnancy outcomes, and short- and long-term graft outcomes were collected for women who were pregnant after renal transplantation and had transplant and obstetric care at the participating centers. (uah.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Preeclampsia commonly complicates pregnancies after renal transplantation but is not associated with long-term renal dysfunction or graft loss. (uah.edu)
  • The present invention relates in general to surgical instruments, surgical techniques, and cell and tissue isolation techniques. (google.com)
  • It is envisaged that the development of methods enabling controlled differentiation of mouse ES cell counterparts from human blastocysts would enable the provision of an unlimited supply of tissue for cell and tissue transplantation therapies for the repair and replacement of diseased, injured, and senescent tissue. (currentprotocols.com)
  • We aim to fill in this lacuna in the literature by illustrating how regional differences in SUS human resources, medical infrastructure, waiting periods for medical attention and neurological exams lead to disparities in transplantation processes and provisions between the states. (springer.com)
  • The transfer of methods such as EB formation to human systems should, by association, facilitate a more advanced understanding of similar processes associated with early human development. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Kidney and liver transplantations are predominantly performed at 2 academic medical centers (AMC): Singhealth Duke National University of Singapore (SDNUS) and the National University Health System (NUHS) as part of the public sector. (lww.com)
  • We assess how equity challenges within the transplantation system can be explained by wider problems within SUS. (springer.com)
  • Colon tissues were collected 72 hours after TNBS administration to assess the effects of MSC treatments on the level of inflammation and damage to the ENS by immunohistochemical and histological analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MSCs derived from WJ display promising transplantable features, including ease of sourcing, in vitro expandability, differentiation abilities, immune-evasion and immune-regulation capacities. (mdpi.com)
  • The host immune system recognizes a transplanted cell either via direct or indirect antigen presentation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that a combinatorial drug formulation delivered by a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) dual-sized microparticle (dMP) system would facilitate tunable drug delivery to elicit immune tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • For over a century, immunology researchers have speculated that the immune mechanisms that are able to provide protection from pathogens, destroy transplanted allogeneic organs, or cause tissue destruction in the form of auto-immune disorders, might be directed selectively against cancer in the form of cancer immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 25.Pierpaoli, W. and Sorkin, E. Effect of growth hormone and anti-growth hormone serum on the lymphatic tissue and the immune response. (bioclock.it)
  • To fulfill this mission, the AATB publishes Standards to ensure that the conduct of tissue banking meets acceptable norms of technical and ethical performance. (healthfinder.gov)
  • bodies that are responding to the technical and ethical considerations raised by the various means of increasing transplantation. (who.int)
  • Two central ethical issues in DCD are when organ recovery can begin and how to manage conflicts of interests. (aappublications.org)
  • Victims of accidents or sudden medical traumas are declared to be "brain dead" even though this profit-making myth that was invented by a team of supposed physicians at the Harvard Medical School in 1968 in order to provide an "ethical" justification for the vivisection of living human beings for their vital bodily organs so that they could be transplanted into other human beings. (christorchaos.com)
  • Specifically, we utilized 30 µm MPs to provide local sustained release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) along with 1 µm MPs to facilitate phagocytic uptake of encapsulated antigen and 1α,25(OH) 2 Vitamin D 3 (VD3) followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Company estimates that the potential U.S. market for implantable products targeting indications addressed by the Company's cryopreserved tissues was approximately $950 million in 1997. (cryolife.com)
  • The Division of Transplantation (DoT) is within the Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration's Healthcare Systems Bureau (HSB). (healthfinder.gov)
  • The first completely documented human tissue grafting was performed by a Swiss surgeon, Dr. Jacques Reverdin. (liveonny.org)
  • In February, the FDA proposed a new, comprehensive approach to the regulation of human cellular and tissue-based products. (liveonny.org)
  • In May, the FDA proposed regulations creating a new, unified system for registering establishments that manufacture human cellular and tissue-based products and for listing their products. (liveonny.org)
  • Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation. (who.int)
  • These Principles were the outcome of a process that began in 1987 when the Health Assembly first expressed concern, in resolution WHA40.13, about the commercial trade in human organs. (who.int)
  • States to take appropriate measures to prevent the purchase and sale of human organs for transplantation (resolution WHA42.5). (who.int)
  • The law defines death in all Australian jurisdictions (eg, in s 41 of the Human Tissue Act 1982 [Vic]) as either "irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain" (brain death) or as "irreversible cessation of circulation of blood in the body" (circulatory death), but it does not define irreversible or how to determine irreversibility ( Box ). (mja.com.au)
  • Relatively little is known regarding the corresponding development of the early human embryo due to limitations associated with the acquisition of relevant tissue material for study. (currentprotocols.com)
  • It has been shown that conventional static cold storage (SCS) techniques are incapable of providing sufficient oxygen to the core of a large (human-sized) organ, and can only oxygenate to a maximum approximate depth of a millimeter from the surface [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the number of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with potentially damaging effects on organs increases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, demands for transplantation services will inevitably rise. (springer.com)
  • This process was initially referred to as "nonheartbeating organ donation" and then as "donation after cardiac death. (aappublications.org)
  • There are many instances in which families want the opportunity to donate their loved ones organs, but do not wish to prolong the process by awaiting the onset of brain death, or cannot because criteria for formal brain death declaration might never be met prior to cardiac death. (nap.edu)
  • The Rocky Mountain Division works to support the American Liver Foundation national mission to facilitate, advocate and promote education, support and resources for the prevention, treatment and cure of liver disease. (donoralliance.org)
  • Controlled DCD involves organ recovery after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and the declaration of death according to the cardiorespiratory criteria. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 ) There are several forms of DCD, and the current statement focuses on "controlled" DCD: the recovery of organs after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining medical treatment. (aappublications.org)
  • To date, few studies have assessed how Brazil's universal healthcare system's (SUS, Sistema Único de Saúde) systemic, infrastructural, and geographical challenges affect individuals' abilities to access organ transplantation services and receive quality treatment. (springer.com)
  • Yet, studies have paid insufficient attention to how SUS' systemic, infrastructural, and geographical challenges affect individuals' abilities to access transplantation services and receive quality treatment. (springer.com)
  • 23. Pierpaoli, W. an Sorkin, E. Effect of gonadectomy on the peripheral lymphatic tissue of neonatally thymectomized mice. (bioclock.it)
  • I: Effect of heterologous anti-growth hormone (ASTH) antiserum on thymus and peripheral lymphatic tissue in mice. (bioclock.it)