Parasympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Vagus Nerve Stimulation: An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Vagus Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Facial DermatosesOphthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.

*Parasympathetic nervous system

... specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and vagus nerve. Three spinal nerves in the sacrum (S2 ... Nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system arise from the central nervous system. Specific nerves include several ... The pain is also usually referred to dermatomes that are at the same spinal nerve level as the visceral afferent synapse. ... Several parasympathetic nerves come off the vagus nerve as it enters the thorax. One nerve is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... facial artery facial bone facial colliculus facial nerve facial nucleus facial vein falciform ligament Fallopian tube false ... primum septum secundum serous serous membrane serous pericardium sesamoid bone sex organ Sharpey's fibres short ciliary nerves ... vagina vagus ganglia vagus nerve vallate papillae vallecula Valsalva maneuver varicocele varus deformity vasa recta vascular ... tendon acoustic nerve acromion adenohypophysis adenoids adipose aditus aditus ad antrum adrenal gland adrenergic afferent ...
Purpose: We recently discovered that azithromycin (AZM), a macrolide antibiotic, can act directly on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGEC) to stimulate their differentiation, enhance their lipid production and promote their holocrine secretion. Because AZM is a cationic amphiphilic drug, we hypothesize that AZMs mechanism of action involves an increase in cholesterol and phospholipid levels, the formation of lamellar bodies, and the accumulation of lipids in these lamellar lysosomes of HMGEC. The purpose of this investigation was to test this hypothesis. For comparison, we also examined whether other antibiotics, commonly used to treat meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), can duplicate AZMs action on HMGEC.. Methods: Immortalized HMGEC were cultured in the presence of vehicle, AZM, doxycycline, minocycline or tetracycline (10 µg/ml) for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol (Filipin) and neutral lipid (LipidTox) staining, as well as the appearance of lysosomes (LysoTracker) and ...
This program explains vagus nerve stimulation. Vagus Nerve stimulation is also called VNS. The program includes the following sections: what are the vagus nerves, what is vagus nerve stimulation, what are alternative treatments for epilepsy, what happens during vagus nerve stimulation, how do you activate the VNS device, what are the risks and complications of VNS, and what happens after surgery to place a VNS device.
Vagus Nerve Function Location Damage Symptoms Vagus Nerve Location Vagus Nerve Location Vagus Nerve Anatomy Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy Natural, Vagus Nerve Location Stimulation Disorders And Test Vagus Nerve Location, Vagus Nerve Location Stimulation Disorders And Test Vagus Nerve Location, Vagus Nerve Function Location Damage Symptoms Vagus Nerve Location, ...
0081] To determine whether direct stimulation of efferent vagus nerve activity might suppress the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin, adult male Lewis rats were subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy, or a comparable sham surgical procedure in which the vagus nerve was isolated but not transected. Efferent vagus nerve activity was stimulated in vagotomized rats by application of constant voltage stimuli to the distal end of the divided vagus nerve 10 min before and again 10 min after the administration of a lethal LPS dose (15 mg/kg, i.v.). An animal model of endotoxic shock was utilized in these experiments. Adult male Lewis rats (280-300 g, Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass.) were housed at 22° C. on a 12 h light/dark cycle. All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the National Institute of Health Guidelines under the protocols ...
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used since 1997 for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. More recently, an off-label use of VNS has been explored in animal models and clinical trials for treatment of a number of conditions involving the innate immune system. The underlying premise has been the notion of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway (CAP), mediated by the vagus nerves. While the macroanatomic substrate - the vagus nerve - is understood, the physiology of the pleiotropic VNS effects and the
article{5908163, author = {Martl{\e}, Valentine and Raedt, Robrecht and Waelbers, Tim and Smolders, Ilse and Vonck, Kristl and Boon, Paul and Van Ham, Luc and Duchateau, Luc and Bhatti, Sofie}, issn = {1935-861X}, journal = {BRAIN STIMULATION}, keyword = {CANINE EPILEPSY,PARAFASCICULAR NUCLEUS,NOREPINEPHRINE,MODEL,RATS,EFFICACY,VAGAL-STIMULATION,CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID,LONG-TERM,CSF,Vagus nerve stimulation,REFRACTORY EPILEPSY,Norepinephrine,Canine PTZ model}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {1--6}, title = {The effect of vagus nerve stimulation on CSF monoamines and the PTZ seizure threshold in dogs}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2014.07.032}, volume = {8}, year = {2015 ...
Left vagus nerve aka Nervus vagus sinister in the latin terminology and part of autonomic innervation of the esophagus. Learn more now!
Vagus Nerve. Vagus nerve, also called X cranial nerve or 10th cranial nerve, longest and most complex of the cranial nerves. The vagus nerve runs from the brain through the face and thorax to the abdomen. It is a mixed nerve that contains parasympathetic fibres. The vagus nerve has two sensory ganglia (masses of nerve tissue that transmit sensory impulses): the superior and the inferior ganglia. The branches of the superior ganglion innervate the skin in the concha of the ear. The inferior ganglion gives off two branches: the pharyngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerve branches from the vagus in the lower neck and upper thorax to ...
Its parasympathetic root is derived from the nervus intermedius (a part of the facial nerve) through the greater petrosal nerve. In the pterygopalatine ganglion, the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the greater petrosal branch of the facial nerve synapse with neurons whose postganglionic axons, vasodilator, and secretory fibers are distributed with the deep branches of the trigeminal nerve to the mucous membrane of the nose, soft palate, tonsils, uvula, roof of the mouth, upper lip and gums, and upper part of the pharynx. It also sends postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the lacrimal nerve (a branch of the Ophthalmic nerve, also part of the trigeminal nerve) via the zygomatic nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve (from the trigeminal nerve), ...
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Physicians should inform patients about all potential risks and adverse events discussed in the VNS Therapy physicians manuals.. Prescribing physicians should be experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy and should be familiar with the programming and use of the VNS Therapy System.. Physicians who implant the VNS Therapy System should be experienced performing surgery in the carotid sheath and should be trained in the surgical technique relating to implantation of the VNS Therapy System.. The safety and effectiveness of the VNS Therapy System have not been established for use during pregnancy. VNS should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.. The VNS Therapy System is indicated for use only in stimulating the left vagus nerve in the neck area inside the carotid sheath. The VNS Therapy System is indicated for use only in stimulating the left vagus nerve below where the superior and inferior cervical cardiac branches ...
The etiopathogenesis of depression is a highly complex process characterized by several neurobiological alterations including decreased monoamine neurotransmission in the brain, dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, decreased neuronal plasticity, and chronic inflammation in the brain and peripheral tissues. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that the vagus nerve may influence these processes. The importance of the vagus nerve in the etiopathogenesis of depression is further supported by its involvement in the induction of sickness behavior, as well as by clinical studies confirming a beneficial effect of vagus nerve stimulation in depressed patients. The aim of this article is to describe current knowledge of aferent and efferent vagal pathways role in the development and progression of depression ...
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We have conducted a registry study of almost 15,000 patients who have had the vagus nerve in their stomach severed. Between approximately 1970-1995 this procedure was a very common method of ulcer treatment. If it really is correct that Parkinsons starts in the gut and spreads through the vagus nerve, then these vagotomy patients should naturally be protected against developing Parkinsons disease," explains postdoc at Aarhus University Elisabeth Svensson on the hypothesis behind the study.. A hypothesis that turned out to be correct:. "Our study shows that patients who have had the the entire vagus nerve severed were protected against Parkinsons disease. Their risk was halved after 20 years. However, patients who had only had a small part of the vagus nerve severed where not protected. This also fits the hypothesis that the disease process is strongly dependent on a fully or ...
J Exp Med. 2006 Jul 10;203(7):1623-8. Epub 2006 Jun 19. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression since 2005. The treatment consists of a pacemaker-like device implanted under the skin in the chest that delivers regular, mild electrical pulses to the brain via the left vagus nerve.. A 2017 study by Scott T. Aaronson and colleagues in the American Journal of Psychiatry reports that over a 5-year period, people with treatment-resistant depression who received VNS did better than those who received treatment as usual. The 795 participants at 61 US sites had either a depressive episode that had lasted for at least two years or had had three or more depressive episodes and had failed to respond to at least four treatments, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Over five years, those who received VNS had higher response rates (67.6% versus 40.9%) and higher remission rates ...
The present invention uses electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve to treat epilepsy with minimized or no effect on the heart. Treatment is carried out by an implantable signal generator, one or more implantable electrodes for electrically stimulating a predetermined stimulation site of the vagus nerve, and a sensor for sensing characteristics of the heart such as heart rate. The heart rate information from the sensor can be used to determine whether the vagus nerve stimulation is adversely affecting the heart. Once threshold parameters are met, the vagus nerve stimulation may be stopped or adjusted. In an alternative embodiment, the invention may include a modified pacemaker to maintain the heart in desired conditions during the vagus nerve stimulation. In yet another embodiment, the invention may be simply a modified pacemaker having ...
Depression can be a devastating and unremitting problem.. Researchers of a new study published in the current issue of Biological Psychiatry report successful reduction of depressive symptoms in patients using a novel non-invasive method of vagus nerve stimulation, or VNS.. Despite the growing number of medications and neurostimulation approaches available, residual symptoms may be both distressing and disabling. Traditional vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neurostimulation technique that has been used to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms of depression. Clinical trials suggested that it produced modest benefit that emerged over long periods of time. However, it was also costly and required risky neurosurgery to implant the vagal nerve stimulators.. In this new study, Drs. Peijing Rong and Jiliang Fang at the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, collaborating with Jian Kongs research team at Harvard Medical ...
FMS affects about 5% of the general population and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 50 years old. Overall, more than 80% of FMS patients report that pain is the primary symptom that limits their ability to work, about 30% of patients are disabled, and about 45% collect Social Security Disability insurance. Conventional treatments, which include pharmacological and behavioral interventions, fail to provide adequate pain relief in more than half of FMS patients, strongly suggesting the need for improved treatment options.. One such option is a treatment called vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), in which short bursts of electrical energy are directed into the brain by way of the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that originates in the brainstem, travels through the neck, and then continues down through the thorax and abdomen. The nerve acts as ...
the vagus nerve is one of many cranial nerves. So we have 12 pairs of cranial nerves, or nerves that begin within the head cavity, and they exit to the brainstem at that point.. The vagus nerve is the 10th pair of cranial nerves. So its called the 10th cranial nerve, as well. And theres one on each side. Theres actually one on the left and one on the right. So it is a pair and is the vagus nerves in reality. But the vagus nerve is the only cranial nerve of those 12 pairs that will exit the cranium. Okay. So it does have some function in and around the face and the throat, but it does exit and go into other areas of the body.. And thats what makes the vagus ...
Definition of vagus nerve CN X in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vagus nerve CN X? Meaning of vagus nerve CN X as a legal term. What does vagus nerve CN X mean in law?
In this report, the global Vagus Nerve Stimulation Devices market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Geographically, this report split global into several key Regions, with sales (Units), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Vagus Nerve Stimulation Devices for these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering United States China Europe Japan ...
Glucose is a crucial energy source. In humans, it is the primary sugar for high energy demanding cells in brain, muscle and peripheral neurons. Deviations of blood glucose levels from normal levels for an extended period of time is dangerous or even fatal, so regulation of blood glucose levels is a biological imperative. The vagus nerve, comprised of sensory and motor fibres, provides a major anatomical substrate for regulating metabolism. While prior studies have implicated the vagus nerve in the neurometabolic interface, its specific role in either the afferent or efferent arc of this reflex remains elusive. Here we use recently developed methods to isolate and decode specific neural signals acquired from the surface of the vagus nerve in BALB/c wild type mice to identify those that respond robustly to hypoglycemia. We also attempted to decode neural signals related to ...
the body. The Vagus Nerve is responsible for such varied tasks as heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and quite a few muscle movements in the mouth, including speech (via the recurrent laryngeal nerve) and keeping the larynx open for breathing. It also receives some sensation from the outer ear, via the Auricular branch (also known as Aldermans nerve) and part of the meninges.. The Vagus nerve is used to regulate the heartbeat and the muscle movement necessary to keep you breathing. It is the responsibility of the Vagus nerve to shift blood as needed. It maintains blood flow to the brain at all times to keep us from fainting. This nerve also regulates the chemical levels in the digestive system so that the intestines can process food and keep track of what types of nutrients are being gained from the food that is taken in. As late as the ...
Looking for online definition of vallecula for petrosal ganglion in the Medical Dictionary? vallecula for petrosal ganglion explanation free. What is vallecula for petrosal ganglion? Meaning of vallecula for petrosal ganglion medical term. What does vallecula for petrosal ganglion mean?
The ability of vagal nerve stimulation to modulate the intestinal response to inflammation is just beginning to be understood. In this series of experiments, we investigated changes in small intestine enteric glia activation in a model of intestinal injury caused by severe burn. The enteric glia may, at least in part, be responsible for restoring intestinal barrier integrity following injury. Here we propose that the response of the enteric glia to intestinal injury may be modulated by the CNS via the vagus nerve. Our findings suggest that stimulating the vagus nerve at the time of injury may augment enteric glia cell activation and either prevent intestinal barrier injury or speed its recovery.. The results of this study demonstrated that severe burn injury increases activation of enteric glia cells as measured by increased intestinal GFAP mRNA expression, by confocal microscopy of intestinal segments stained for GFAP, and ...
Objectives: At present, there is no cure for tinnitus. Neurostimulation techniques have shown great promise, but it is uncertain whether they will gain acceptance because of their invasive nature. We have previously demonstrated that pairing acoustic stimuli with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) also has potential as a viable tinnitus treatment approach. Methods: We conducted a survey on tinnitus sufferers that emphasized questions related to a willingness to pay for the treatment of tinnitus, including VNS. Four hundred thirty-nine individuals responded to an Internet survey modeled after a recent study by Tyler. Results: The average age was about 47 years. Ninety-four percent reported that they had health insurance. Almost 40% had spent between $500 and $10,000 on tinnitus therapies. Almost three-fourths said that they would be willing to have a device implanted if it reduced tinnitus annoyance by half. About 70% of those with very loud tinnitus would be willing to have a ...
Electrical neuromodulation offers a novel therapeutic approach for a number of disparate disorders in which central nervous system effects are thought to play a role.26-29 This short-term proof-of-concept study was based on evidence that implantable GES improved symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant gastroparesis.30 Several mechanisms of action have been proposed for gastrointestinal neurostimulation including central, autonomic and enteric effects.31-33 The central mechanisms of GES have been demonstrated via activation of gastric-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, and the effects of GES on the autonomic nervous system have been shown through direct measures of cholinergic and adrenergic effects.34 Considering the central effects of VNS, it seemed reasonable to explore this treatment in a cohort of patients with severe gastroparesis who had failed to respond to pharmacological treatment and were considered suitable candidates for implantable GES.. The vagus ...
Background: The vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) is an accepted treatment for epileptic seizures, although its mechanism of action has yet to be established (Background: The vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) is an accepted treatment for epileptic seizures, although its mechanism of action has yet to be established (1). A surgeon places the VNS under the skin on the chest wall and runs a wire to the left vagus nerve in the neck. The stimulator produces electrical impulses, and a neurologist programs the strength and timing of the impulses by using a programming wand connected to a laptop computer to create a sequence-such as 30 seconds of stimulation followed by 5 minutes of no stimulation-that is repeated endlessly. Settings typically include a stimulation amplitude of 1.0 to 3.0 mA. Commonly reported complications are local surgical trauma and the consequences of vagus nerve stimulation, such as bradycardia and ...
Objective: To describe the outcomes of a consecutive series of depressed patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) following US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of this intervention.. Method: We implanted a VNS device in 15 consecutive outpatients with treatment-resistant major depressive episodes, including 10 with major depressive disorder and 5 with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria), between November 2005 and August 2006. Existing antidepressant treatment remained fixed as far as clinically possible. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months postimplant and compared to those of the VNS pivotal efficacy trial that led to FDA approval of VNS.. Results: The BDI score decreased significantly compared to baseline at 6 months (P , .05) and 12 months (P , .01), from a mean of 37.8 (SD = 7.8) before VNS activation to a mean of 24.6 (SD = 11.4) at 12 months. By 1 year, ...
The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers innervating most of the palate and pharynx. (Larynx, which is innervated by superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve from vagus nerve (CN X), is not included) It is located on the surface of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Although the Terminologia Anatomica name of the plexus has "vagus nerve" in the title, other nerves make contributions to the plexus. It has the following sources: CN IX - pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve - sensory CN X - pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve - motor superior cervical ganglion sympathetic fibers - vasomotor Because the cranial part of accessory nerve (CN XI) leaves the jugular foramen as joining the CN X, it is sometimes considered part of the plexus as well. The pharyngeal plexus provides sensory ...
Aim. To study the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in a highly drug-resistant childhood epilepsy patient group and to investigate the effect of age at implantation on efficacy. Methods. The efficacy of VNS treatment was analysed in a cohort of 70 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Both children with focal (n=16) and generalized epilepsies (n=54) were included. Age at implantation varied between 19 months and 25 years. Results. Overall, responder rate was 54% with 5.7% children becoming seizure-free. The only factor in our analysis that could predict good outcome was age at implantation. In the youngest group ...
Decreased circulating melatonin is implicated in depression. We recently found that Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, fa/fa) develop depression-like behaviors and that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is antidepressive in ZDF rats. Here we studied whether the ZDF rats could be used as a depression rodent model and whether the antidepressive effect of taVNS is mediated through modulation of melatonin secretion. Adult male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were used. 30 min-taVNS procedures (2/15 Hz, 2 mA) were administered once daily under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in pineal intact ZDF (n = 8) and ZL (n = 6) rats, as well as in pinealectomized ZDF rats (n = 8). Forced swimming test (FST) was used to determine depression-like behavior and ELISA to detect plasma melatonin concentration on day 35. We found that naïve ZDF rats had a longer immobility time in FST and that long-term (34 days) taVNS treatment ameliorated the depression-like ...
Acute vagus nerve stimulation does not suppress spike and wave discharges in "Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg" ...
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is not considered a major health concern. However, other arrhythmias can sometimes indicate heart disease.. An older person with a severe arrhythmia may require a pacemaker. People with sleep apnea are also more likely to experience arrhythmias, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia.. Cases of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in children and young people will often improve without treatment, as someone ages. This is because a childs heart is still growing and developing and changes to the heart can lead to respiratory sinus arrhythmia.. If a child has a respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a doctor may wish to monitor it but will probably not offer any treatment unless the problem becomes severe, causes symptoms, or continues into adolescence.. However, cases in older people are more unusual and may require further examination. If respiratory sinus arrhythmia is caused by an underlying heart disease, then that will need to be treated separately.. ...
Adenosine is the first drug of choice in the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias. While the effects of adenosine on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) have been investigated, no information is available on the effects on cardiac vagal nerve activity (VNA). We assessed in rats the responses of cardiac VNA, SNA and cardiovascular variables to intravenous bolus administration of adenosine. in 34 urethane-anaesthetized rats, cardiac VNA or cervical preganglionic sympathetic fibres were recorded together with ECG, arterial pressure and ventilation, before and after administration of three doses of adenosine (100, 500 and 1000 mu g kg-1). the effects of adenosine were also assessed in isolated perfused hearts (n= 5). Adenosine induced marked bradycardia and hypotension, associated with a significant dose-dependent increase in VNA (+204 +/- 56%, P , 0.01; +275 +/- 120%, P , 0.01; and +372 +/- 78%, P , 0.01, for the three doses, respectively; n= 7). Muscarinic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vagally mediated effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. T2 - In vitro and in vivo gastric actions. AU - Holmes, Gregory M.. AU - Browning, Kirsteen N.. AU - Tong, Melissa. AU - Qualls-Creekmore, Emily. AU - Travagli, R. Alberto. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuropeptide released following meal ingestion that, among other effects, decreases gastric tone and motility. The central targets and mechanism of action of GLP-1 on gastric neurocircuits have not, however, been fully investigated. A high density of GLP-1 containing neurones and receptors are present in brainstem vagal circuits, suggesting that the gastroinhibition may be vagally mediated. We aimed to investigate: (1) the response of identified gastric-projecting neurones of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) to GLP-1 and its analogues; (2) the effects of brainstem application of GLP-1 on gastric tone; and (3) the vagal pathway utilized by GLP-1 to induce ...
One of the most characteristic features of pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is that they present a slow afterhyperpolarizing current (IsAHP) that plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. This current is modulated by receptors acting via GΑq/11 G proteins, thus it is thought that neurotransmitters regulate neuronal excitability through the inhibition of this current. IsAHP is known to be mediated by calcium-activated potassium channels, however, neither the identity of the channel underlying this current nor its mechanism of activation are yet well understood. Recent reports have questioned a direct role of calcium in the activation of the channels underlying the IsAHP in hippocampus, suggesting the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein hippocalcin as one of the plausible proteins involved in the triggering of IsAHP; therefore, one of the aims of this work will be to examine the role of hippocalcin and other NCS proteins in the development of IsAHP in pyramidal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats. AU - de Lartigue, Guillaume. AU - Barbier de la Serre, Claire. AU - Espero, Elvis. AU - Lee, Jennifer. AU - Raybould, Helen E. PY - 2012/3/7. Y1 - 2012/3/7. N2 - Background and Aims: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN). Leptin enhances CCK signaling in VAN via an early growth response 1 (EGR1) dependent pathway thereby increasing their sensitivity to CCK. In response to a chronic ingestion of a high fat diet, VAN develop leptin resistance and the satiating effects of CCK are reduced. We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. Results: Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following ...
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Looking for Postganglionic neuron? Find out information about Postganglionic neuron. specialized cell in animals that, as a unit of the nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the... Explanation of Postganglionic neuron
A 35-year-old man who had been in a vegetative state for 15 years after a car accident has shown signs of consciousness after neurosurgeons implanted a vagus nerve stimulator into his chest. The findings reported in Current Biology on September 25 show that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)-a treatment already in use for epilepsy and depression-can help to restore consciousness even after many years in a vegetative state.. The outcome challenges the general belief that disorders of consciousness that persist for longer than 12 months are irreversible, the researchers say. . . [Full text]. Corazzol and Lio et al. Current Biology, "Restoring consciousness with vagus nerve stimulation." DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.060. ...
Vagal projecting (VP) neurons were localized by intraneural injections of fluorescent dyes or cholera toxin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) or by intraperitoneal injection of fluorescent dyes. Spinal projecting (SP) neurons were localized by injecting CT-HRP or contrasting dyes into the C4/C5 cord segments. No doubly labelled neurons were seen in the three nuclei known to project to both vagus nerve and spinal cord, viz., dorsal nucleus of the vagus (DNV), nucleus ambiguous complex (NAc) and the intermediate region (NI) between DNV and NAc. VP and SP neurons intermingled in the caudal parts of the NAc and DNV. In the middle part of the NAc, VP neurons congregated mostly dorsal to the SP neurons. In the rostral extremity of the NAc, SP neurons were rarely encountered. No SP neurons were seen in the rostral end of the DNV. In contradistinction to the few VP neurons in the NI, there were many SP neurons in this region. The ratios of VP to SP neurons ...
Hunt, R.F., Scheff, S.W., and Smith, B.N. (2009) Posttraumatic epilepsy after controlled cortical impact injury in mice. Exp. Neurol. 215(2):243-52.. Gao, H. and Smith, B.N. (2010) Tonic GABA-mediated inhibition in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. J. Neurophysiol. 103:904-14.. Hunt, R.F., Scheff, S.W., and Smith, B.N. (2010) Regionally localized recurrent excitation in the dentate gyrus of a cortical contusion model of posttraumatic epilepsy. J. Neurophysiol. 103:1490-1500.. Hunt, R.F., Scheff, S.W., and Smith, B.N. (2011) Increased local excitatory input to hilar GABAergic interneurons accompanies reduced synaptic inhibition of granule cells after traumatic brain injury. J. Neuroscience 31:6880-6890.. Zsombok, A., Bhaskaran, M.D., Gao, H., Derbenev, A.V., and Smith, B.N. (2011) Functional plasticity of central TRPV1 Receptors in brainstem dorsal vagal complex circuits of streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic mice. J. Neuroscience 31:14024-31.. Bach, E.C. and Smith, B.N. (2012) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acetylcholine on action potential characteristics of atrial and ventricular myocardium after bilateral cervical vagotomy in the cat.. AU - Kovacs, R. J.. AU - Bailey, J. C.. PY - 1985/4. Y1 - 1985/4. N2 - Acetylcholine, the parasympathetic neurotransmitter, shortens the action potential duration of cat atrial muscle cells, but not ventricular muscle cells. In mammalian species, atrial tissue receives a richer cholinergic nerve supply than ventricular tissue. To determine whether chronic withdrawal of cholinergic tone might influence the subsequent response of these tissues to cholinergic stimulation, we examined the effect of acetylcholine on the action potentials of atrial and ventricular myocytes from cats with intact vagi and cats after chronic bilateral cervical vagotomy. Following bilateral cervical vagotomy, physostigmine (10(-6) M) failed to alter atrial tension development or action potential duration. Acetylcholine produced shortening of ...
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What is the difference between Preganglionic and Postganglionic Neurons? Preganglionic neurons fibers connect central nervous system; Postganglionic neurons...
Pelvic floor electrical stimulation (PFES) has been used for the treatment of urinary incontinence since 1952.2 The treatment of PFES using a vaginal probe was not reported in the literature until 1967 when interest in this therapy resurfaced.3 Since then the use of electrical stimulation for incontinence has grown, and many insurances reimburse for this treatment.. Electrical stimulation is commonly used as part of a treatment program for women with urge urinary incontinence. There are several methods and parameters that can be used to improve urge incontinence, however the magnitude of the alleged benefits and best parameters is not completely established.. Studies have suggested that the use of electrical stimulation to inhibit an overactive bladder functions to modulate unwanted detrusor contractions by way of sensory afferent stimulation of S2 and S3. This causes parasympathetic inhibition.4 In addition to this effect, contraction of the pelvic floor muscles results in ...
Knowledge of the principles of oxygen delivery and consumption is important for understanding shock. Arterial oxygen content is the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin plus the amount dissolved in plasma. Oxygen is delivered to the tissues by the pumping function [cardiac output (CO)] of the heart. This is dependent upon the interplay of cardiac inotropy (speed and shortening capacity of myocardium), chronotropy (heart contraction rate), and lusitropy (ability to relax and fill heart chambers). Determinants of inotropy include autonomic input from sympathetic activation, parasympathetic inhibition, circulating catecholamines, and short-lived responses to an increase in afterload (Anrep effect) or heart rate (Bowditch effect).7 Increases in inotropic state help to maintain stroke volume at high heart rates.7 Under certain conditions, such as shock states, higher levels of ...
METHODS AND RESULTS Six female patients aged 23 to 38 years with IST and 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects were assessed with the following autonomic function tests: (1) sympathovagal balance to the sinus node assessed by calculating the LF/HF (low frequency/high frequency) ratio using power spectral analysis both in the supine position and after 10 minutes of head-up tilt to 60 degrees, (2) cardiovagal reflex assessed by cold face test (CFT), (3) beta-adrenergic sensitivity as determined by calculating isoproterenol dose-response curves and isoproterenol chronotropic dose 25 (CD25), and (4) intrinsic heart rate (IHR) assessed after autonomic blockade with atropine 0.04 mg/kg and propranolol 0.2 mg/kg administered as an intravenous bolus. No significant differences in the LF/HF ratio both in the supine position (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 2.6 +/- 0.4) and during upright tilt (8.7 +/- 1.3 versus 8.5 +/- 0.5) were observed between control subjects and IST patients. Cardiovagal response to CFT was ...
Chronic tinnitus is a persistent ringing in the ears that affects about 23 million Americans and one-third of active duty military veterans. Scientists from UT Dallas recently demonstrated that chronic tinnitus is not in the ears but results from pathological activity in the hearing part of the brain. UT Dallas researchers have demonstrated that treating tinnitus using vagus nerve stimulation-tone therapy is safe and brought significant improvement to some of the participants in a clinical trial. Researchers used a new method pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with auditory tones to alleviate the symptoms of chronic tinnitus. VNS is an FDA-approved method for treating various illnesses, including depression and epilepsy. It involves sending a mild electric pulse through the vagus nerve, which relays information about the state of the body to the brain.. VIDEO: Innovations in Neuro Technology… From Hearing ...
The parasympathetic nervous system consists of cells with bodies in one of two locations:. mediating digestion of food and,.Balancing the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous.Dysautonomia - Autonomic Nervous System. of the sympathetic nervous system and underactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Food sensitivities.The Parasympathetic Nervous System. is that we can improve our digestive wellness by simply shifting out of the ...
Is a reduction in parasympathetic activity the "canary in the coal mine" at the onset of many cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure? Listen as Associate Editor Kaushik Patel (University of Nebraska Medical Center) interviews lead author David Mendelowitz (George Washington University) and content expert Helio Salgado (University of São Paulo) about why Cauley et al set out to understand what changes cardiac vagal activity at the level of the brainstem using an aortic constriction model of heart failure. While much is known about alterations in sympathetic nerve activity, the knowledge of parasympathetic activity is still in its infancy. Could leveraging the diverse populations of neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus provide a mechanism to alter the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance? Would stimulating parasympathetic activity, either at the level of the ganglia or ...
The Oculocardiac reflex, also known as Aschner phenomenon, Aschner reflex, or Aschner-Dagnini reflex, is a decrease in pulse rate associated with traction applied to extraocular muscles and/or compression of the eyeball. The reflex is mediated by nerve connections between the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal cranial nerve via the ciliary ganglion, and the vagus nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. Nerve fibres from the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve have also been documented. These afferents synapse with the visceral motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, located in the reticular formation of the brain stem. The efferent portion is carried by the vagus nerve from the cardiovascular center of the medulla to the heart, of which increased stimulation leads to ...
The cauda equina conveys sensory fibres from the sacral dermatomes, motor nerve fibres innervating lower sacral myotome skeletal muscles, and sacral parasympathetic fibres.11 Thus in patients with cauda equina lesions the finding of pronounced sexual dysfunction, perineal sensory deficit, and EMG abnormalities is not unexpected.11. Cell bodies of motor and sacral parasympathetic neurones reside within the Onuf and intermediolateral nuclei of the conus medullaris, respectively, and these also receive input from afferent sacral nerve fibres. The effects of lesions to the cauda equina and the conus medullaris are, as a result, similar and it is difficult to distinguish between them clinically. In particular, on multiple linear regression analysis our patients with spinal fractures-most of whom had L1 fractures-probably had at least some involvement of the conus ...
The complete arterial baroreceptor reflex pathway is a control system made up of two distinct portions as shown in Figure E-1: (1) an effector portion, including the heart and peripheral blood vessels, and (2) a neural portion, including the arterial baroreceptors, their afferent nerve fibers, the medullary cardiovascular centers, and the efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. Mean arterial pressure is the output of the effector portion and simultaneously the input to the neural portion. Similarly, the activity of the sympathetic (and parasympathetic) cardiovascular nerves is the output of the neural portion of the arterial baroreceptor control system and, at the same time, the input to the effector portion. For convenience, we omit continual reference to parasympathetic nerve activity in the following discussion. Throughout, however, an indicated change in ...
So…whats the big deal with the Vagus Nerve?. Well, the Vagus Nerve is the biggest cranial nerve (translation: head nerve) and starts in the brain, moves through the head and throat, down through the chest to the abdomen.. It contains parasympathetic fibres that supply some muscles along the way, but it also helps with a calming control of things like heart rate, breathing, and digestion.. ...
The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to sub...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator that was initially described as the mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation (endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF). It is now known that NO is produced by a variety of other cell types.. Endothelium produces NO (EDRF) under basal conditions and in response to a variety of vasoactive stimuli in large cerebral arteries and the cerebral microcirculation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired in the presence of several pathophysiological conditions. This impairment may contribute to cerebral ischemia or stroke. Activation of glutamate receptors appears to be a major stimulus for production of NO by neurons. Neuronally derived NO may mediate local increases in cerebral blood flow during increases in cerebral metabolism. NO synthase-containing neurons also innervate large cerebral arteries and cerebral arterioles on the brain surface. Activation of parasympathetic fibers that innervate cerebral vessels produces NO-dependent increases in ...
Question 6: The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all the organs except the suprarenal (________) glands, from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. ...
A detailed study of the origin and distribution of sympathetic fibres in the distal colon of the guinea-pig has been made using the fluorescent histochemical method for localizing catecholamines. The extrinsic adrenergic fibres of the colonie sympathetic nerves follow the inferior mesenteric artery and its branches to the colon. Some of the extrinsic adrenergic fibres are associated with the parasympathetic fibres of the pelvic nerves near the colon. Complete adrenergic denervation follows the removal of the inferior mesenteric ganglion or the destruction of the nerves running with the inferior mesenteric artery. No fluorescent fibres, other than those associated with blood vessels, were observed in air-dried stretch preparations of the isolated longitudinal muscle. However, a substantial number of varicose, ...
as it emerges from the petrotympanic fissure and passes anteriorly to join the lingual nerve (Figure 27.3). This nerve carries special sensory taste fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion. Links and References: ...
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers). All carry sympathetic fibers except for the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which carry parasympathetic fibers.. ...
Now, take a look at what I call cranial nerve maps. These are icons of cranial nerves, their branches, what they supply and what foramina they use. Sensory is yellow and motor is red. Solid red is for skeletal muscle. Dashed red is for parasympathetic fibers. You sort of have to memorize which nerves have motor or sensory or both modalities, then consider what part of the head and neck is involved with each nerve. For example, when you look at the olfactory road map, you will see that it is yellow which means it is purely sensory. Then you consider what kind of sensation of picked up in the periphery which, in this case, is smell. The smell impulses then go back to the central nervous system. If there is red included in the map, that means that something will receive efferent fibers and will either contract or secrete. The impulse starts out in the central nervous system and passes out to a ...
PRV tracing from adipose tissue before denervation), since both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers are intact, PRV is seen to spread via the vagus and the sympathetic nerves. Interestingly, the route via the IML is favored in intact animals such that second-order neurons in the brain stem are already evident when the first-order parasympathetic motor neurons appear in the DMV (arrow). In ...
Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. ELLANSÉ™ with its four distinctive versions, lasting from 12 months up to 4 years, allow you to choose how long you would like the results to last, eliminating the need for frequent repeat treatments. Herpes infections are common among women of reproductive age (i.e., aged 15-44 years). Patients older than 65 years are usually considered ineligible for ASCT. In U. The sympathetic fibres parallel the parasympathetic fibres as they supply the same areas. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) is widely used in gene therapy.. TheBody. First, a lot of time and energy worrying that your partner will get herpes. The culprit responsible for cold sores is the herpes simplex virus. IgM antibodies are produced immediately after infection. What electrodesiccation uses in destroying chlamydia is an electric current. Make research projects and school reports about Canker ...
The nerve fibers from the vagus nerve establish connection with the nerve cells of ganglion of Remak and with other intrinsic cardiac ganglia, from which the nervous impulses are carried to the cardiac muscle. The sympathetic fibers from stellate and inferior cervical ganglia penetrate in the superficial and deep cardiac plexuses, where they intertwine with the parasympathetic vagal fibers. ...
From a neuro-physiological perspective, the chakras are represented as nerve plexuses from the spinal column and endocrine glands that connect with the internal organs. At the base of the spine is the first chakra, which is connected to the sacral plexus, the rectum, the prostate gland, and the male reproductive organs. The second chakra, below the navel, is related to the prostatic plexus, the adrenal glands, the female reproductive organs, and the kidneys. The third chakra is associated with the solar plexus, the spleen, the pan-creas, the liver, and the gall bladder. The fourth is called the heart chakra. It is connected to the cardiac plexus, the thymus gland, and the pericardium. The fifth chakra relates to the thyroid gland at the level of the throat, which regulates the basal metabolism-the amount of energy used by the body at rest. The fifth chakra is connected by the vagus nerve and the cervical ganglion. The sixth chakra is associated with the ...
Also known as: Living Love Center, AnahataBody Mind Associations: Location: Center of the chestColor: Emerald GreenParts of the body: This Chakra is associated with the heart and the blood circulatory system, and the cardiac plexus, as well as the lungs and the entire chest area.Endocrine Gland: Thymus Gland, controlling the immune system.Sense: Sense of touch, in its aspect of relating to the person inside the body, and distinct from the sensation of the Orange Chakra, which is more about the sensation one feels from their own body. Hugging, therefore, is a Heart Chakra activity. When one hugs, one is aware of what the person inside the other body feels, and they are aware of what you feel inside your body, and there is a sense of relating to the person inside the body. Sensitivity about being touched indicates heart chakra sensitivity.Consciousness: Perceptions of love, relationships (relating) with people close to your heart, e.g. partner, siblings, parents, children. Difficulty with ...
Finding the right diet and developing an interest in alternate.Parasympathetic regulation of mitosis induced in rat parotid by. less than normal to normal by replacing liquid diet with a diet.Note from Andrew: We are privileged to have this guest post from Pat Davidson today.You get someone who is great at removing foods from her diet,. and my digestive system to successfully re-introduce foods after an.Rest and Digest. Its biological opposite is the parasympathetic system.. ...
The nasopalatine nerve (also known as the long sphenopalatine nerve) is a branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and contributes to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Gross anatomy The nasopalatine nerve divides off the maxillary d...
Interventions directed at the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG, also called the pterygopalatine ganglion) with the intention of treating headache dates back over 100 years to work done by Dr. Sluder [1]....
Medical definition of nasopalatine nerve: a parasympathetic and sensory nerve that arises in the pterygopalatine ganglion, passes through the…
Definition of Inferior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Katelyn Ebner: "Sir, I can promise you, I have never -- please -- I have never smoked marijuana.". Officer Carroll: "Okay. Well, maam, youre giving me indicators -- several, several indicators -- that you have, okay?". Katelyn Ebner: "Okay, so when I do a drug test, Ill be free to go, correct?". Officer Carroll: "Youre going to jail, maam. Okay? I dont have a magical drug test that I can give you right now.". "But he just did the magical drug test that resulted in your arrest," Keefe said.. "Yes," Ebener said. "Theyre ruining peoples lives.". Katelyn Ebner filed an Internal Affairs complaint against Officer Carroll.. Cobb County Investigators exonerated the officer and doubted Ebners innocence, insisting, the marijuana could have already metabolized out of the blood.. "When you brought up that you had a clean blood test when complaining to Internal Affairs, their answer was what?" Keefe asked.. "They said, Yeah, we see this happen all the time. Um, the test results come back wrong ...
Fig. 1. - Longitudinal section of the fr.imewoik encircling a kidney tubule digested in pancreatin, stained witli acid fuchsin, and differentiated with picric acid. Enlarged SiS times. The work of Eiihle, which is very accurate and extensive, shows quite conclusively that the fibrils obtained by his method, as well as by the freezing method, are identical with those which form the interstitial tissue as seen in ordinary sections. The observations given above have been confirmed by Disse, who states, however, that the basement membranes of the kidney which have been isolated by means of strong acids always appear to be homogeneous. This he explains by as.suming that pancreatic digestion resolves the membrane into fibrils by dissolving the cement substance between them. The strong acids, however, dissolve the interstitial connective tissue but do not affect those fibrils which are stuck together by the cement substance to form basement membranes. Von Ebner is of the opinion that the fibrillar ...
In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that exogenously applied vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) relaxes the smooth muscle cells of cat cerebral arteries, whereas substance P constricts them. Ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques show that a VIP-like substance is present in the large granular vesicles of nonsympathetic nerve axons and terminals in the cerebral arterial walls. These results provide strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that a VIP-like substance is the transmitter for vasodilation in cerebral blood vessels. ...
This is the case of a 42-yo G12 P8 female with a 28 week IUP and a large posterior thigh mass. This case posed unique positioning and monitoring challenges. A MRI of the left thigh showed a large hemorrhagic mass in the adductor magnus muscle. Needle biopsy was positive for leiomyosarcoma. Her life activities were greatly affected by pain and she was scheduled for an excision of the mass. She was obese (BMI 40.3) with a history of depression. She was a former Jehovahs Witness, but on discussion of her situation she accepted blood products. Alternatives for surgical positioning were discussed with the surgeon who insisted on an approach to remove the mass by the prone position. The obstetrical team recommended pre and post procedural monitoring of fetal heart tones. A separate maternal fetal medicine agreed that intraoperative fetal monitoring was not needed as well difficult to perform.. It was decided to position her prone position on an open frame modular table system. This table had a spinal ...
The shell, which retains the phragmocone and siphuncle of its distant ancestors, is used as a buoyancy device. The posterior position of the shell within the body causes the animal to generally orient vertically with the head downward. The unusual general appearance of Spirula with a narrow arm crown, bulging eyes, the peculiar structure of the mantle, the transverse orientation of the fins and the presence of the coiled shell makes this species very different in appearance from all other cephalopods.. The large posterior guard-like sheath of fossil relatives of Spirula seems to be designed to function as a counterweight to maintain the animal in a horizontal position. Such an orientation is particularly important for a bottom-associated animal that swims just above the ocean floor (Naef 1921-23). Presumably the ancestors of Spirula were bottom associated and some remnants of this behavior apparently remains in their life history and distribution (Young, et al., 1998). A small remnant of the ...
Hypoplastic cerebellar vermis Large posterior fossa with cystic dilitation of the 4th ventricle. Elevation of the torcula. No lateral or third ventricular enlargement.
Sagittal T1 pre (A) and post contrast (B), sagittal T2 (C) and Axial T1 post contrast (D) MRI images of the cervical spine demonstrating a large posterior fluid collection with an obvious sinus tract inferiorly and associated gas bubbles. This was proved to be a post-operative seroma and epidural scar (note the thick rind of enhancement) that was partially accounting for this patients residual and worsening symptoms despite the initial decompressive surgery ...
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - CNIX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)
Definition of postganglionic sympathetic blocking agent in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is postganglionic sympathetic blocking agent? Meaning of postganglionic sympathetic blocking agent as a legal term. What does postganglionic sympathetic blocking agent mean in law?
Yang, Q., Merkle, H., Phelps, E., Weisdorf, S., Ogawa, S., Rottenberg, D., Ebner, T., Garwood, M., Ross, B. D., Vaughan, J. T., Strick, P., Kim, S., Bellugi, U., Seaquist, E., Chen, W. W., Hu, X., Gruetter, R., Georgopolous, A., Ugurbil, K., Mitra, P. P., Ashe, J., Georgopoulos, A., Llinas, R., Xiao-Hong, Z., Hwang, T., Dassonville, P., Tsekos, N., Ellermann, J. M., Kadah, Y., Terpstra, M., Ronen, I., He, S., Warren, W. S., Rottenberg, D., Mitra, P. P., Ebner, T., Garwood, M., Ross, B. D., Vaughan, J. T., Strick, P., Ashe, J., Kim, S., Georgopoulos, A., Llinas, R., Bellugi, U., Xiao-Hong, Z., Dae-Shik, K., Choi, I. -., Galuske, R., Tsekos, N., Grohn, O., van De Moortele, P., Chen, W. E. I., Logothetis, N., Pfeuffer, J., Shmuel, A., Lei, H. A. O., Vaughan, J., Gruetter, R., Ashe, J., Goebel, R., Kim, S., Wang, J., Lee, S., Harel, N. Y., Michaeli, S., Duong, T., Ferris, C., Ronen, I., Cohen, E., Cunningham, C., Kayser, C., Jack, C. R., Marjanska, M., Shapiro, E., Wiesinger, F., Lehericy, S., ...
The NFL is going to be represented in the 2016 Rio Olympics by Nate Ebner the special teams ace and safety with the New England Patriots. Ebner was chosen as part of the 12-man U.S. team on Monday that will travel to Rio. Rugby returned to the Olympi ...
In this installment of Sight Lines, J.C. Noreika, MD, MBA, talks with Thomas Ebner, MD, a community-based surgeon from Medina, OH, who, in his retirement after a fulfilling career of more than 30 years, brings his expertise, care, and compassion to the underserved of Kenya. Though Dr. Ebners expertise is in general orthopedic practice, his passion for volunteerism is universal among many professionals in the greater medical community, including ophthalmology. Dr. Ebner shares the challenges and insights he has gained in his second career.
In this installment of Sight Lines, J.C. Noreika, MD, MBA, talks with Thomas Ebner, MD, a community-based surgeon from Medina, OH, who, in his retirement after a fulfilling career of more than 30 years, brings his expertise, care, and compassion to the underserved of Kenya. Though Dr. Ebners expertise is in general orthopedic practice, his passion for volunteerism is universal among many professionals in the greater medical community, including ophthalmology. Dr. Ebner shares the challenges and insights he has gained in his second career.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Pig Cardiac Troponin_1 ELISA \ KT-475 for more molecular products just contact us
What is the difference between SA node and AV node? SA node generates cardiac action potential while AV node receives the action potential from the SA node...
A 6-month-old child with an isolated oculomotor nerve palsy was found to have a papillary meningioma infiltrating the nerve along its intracranial course adjacent to the midbrain. The clinical implications of this unusual histological variant are discussed. ...
A neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. Also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain. Here, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. ...
Norepinephrine definition is - a monoamine C8H11NO3 that is a neurotransmitter in postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and in some parts of the central nervous system, is a vasopressor hormone of the adrenal medulla, and is a precursor of epinephrine in its major biosynthetic pathway.
TY - CONF. T1 - MR nephrography of 10 healthy volunteers - technique and normal standards or renal perfusion. AU - Preidler, K.. AU - Szolar, D.. AU - Horina, J. H.. AU - Ranner, G.. AU - Stollberger, Rudolf. AU - Schreyer, H.. AU - Ebner, F.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Hellmer, H. H., , M. Rhein, G. Heinemann, J. Abalichin, W. Abouchami, O. Baars, U. Cubasch, K. Dethloff, L. Ebner, E. Fahrbach, M. Frank, G. Gollan, R. J. Greatbatch, J. Grieger, V. M. Gryanik, M. Gryschka, J. Hauck, M. Hoppema, O. Huhn, T. Kanzow, B. P. Koch, G. König-Langlo, U. Langematz, G. C. Leckebusch, C. Lüpkes, S. Paul, A. Rinke, B. Rost, M. Rutgers van der Loeff, M. Schröder, G. Seckmeyer, T. Stichel, V. Strass, R. Timmermann, S. Trimborn, U. Ulbrich, C. Venchiarutti, U. Wacker, S. Willmes, D. Wolf-Gladrow (2016): Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean-a review of German achievements from the last decade, Ocean Dynamics ...
Boston has been named the most inspiring city for young artists. [Hyperallergic] Group show, Die Marmory Show II: Impoverishment, curated by Nikola Dietrich and featuring Leidy Churchman, Shannon Ebner, Judith Hopf, Tobias Madison, Park McArthur, Manfred Pernice & Martin Städeli, Chri...
Zanoletti E, Mazzoni A, Martini A, Abbritti RV, Albertini R, Alexandre E, Baro V, Bartolini S, Bernardeschi D, Bivona R, Bonali M, Borghesi I, Borsetto D, Bovo R, Breun M, Calbucci F, Carlson ML, Caruso A, Carlson ML, Caye-Thomasen P, Cazzador D, Champagne PO, Colangeli R, Conte G, DAvella D, Danesi G, Deantonio L, Denaro L, Di Berardino F, Draghi R, Ebner FH, Favaretto N, Ferri G, Fioravanti A, Froelich S, Giannuzzi A, Girasoli L, Grossardt BR, Guidi M, Hagen R, Hanakita S, Hardy DG, Iglesias VC, Jefferies S, Jia H, Kalamarides M, Kanaan IN, Krengli M, Landi A, Lauda L, Lepera D, Lieber S, Lloyd SLK, Lovato A, Maccarrone F, Macfarlane R, Magnan J, Magnoni L, Marchioni D, Marinelli JP, Marioni G, Mastronardi V, Matthies C, Moffat DA, Munari S, Nardone M, Pareschi R, Pavone C, Piccirillo E, Piras G, Presutti L, Restivo G, Reznitsky M, Roca E, Russo A, Sanna M, Sartori L, Scheich M, Shehata-Dieler W, Soloperto D, Sorrentino F, Sterkers O, Taibah A, Tatagiba M, Tealdo G, Vlad D, Wu H, Zanetti D. ...
BROSCH U. 1984: Pollen- und Sporenflug in Graz 1982 und 1983 - wozu Pollenwarndienst ?. - Mitt. naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark 114: 177-194. BORTENSCHLAGER S., BORTENSCHLAGER I., BROSCH U., EBNER M., EHMER U., FRANK A., FRITZ A., JÄGER S. & SCHMIDT R. 1988: Pollenflug in Österreich.- Ber. naturwiss.-med. Ver. Innsbruck, Suppl. 4: 1-70. BORTENSCHLAGER S., BOBEK M., BORTENSCHLAGER I., BROSCH U., CERNY M., EHMER-KÜNKELE U., FRITZ A., JÄGER S. & SCHMIDT R. 1989: Pollensaison 1988 in Österreich.- Ber. naturwiss.-med. Ver. Innsbruck, Suppl. 5: 1-90. BORTENSCHLAGER S., BOBEK M., BORTENSCHLAGER I., BROSCH U., CERNY M., DRESCHER-SCHNEIDER R., EHMER-KÜNKELE U., FRITZ A., JÄGER S. & SCHMIDT R. 1990: Pollenflugsaison 1989 in Österreich.- Ber. naturwiss.-med. Ver. Innsbruck, Suppl. 7: 1-91. BORTENSCHLAGER S., BOBEK M., BORTENSCHLAGER I., BROSCH U., CERNY M., DRESCHER-SCHNEIDER R., EHMER-KÜNKELE U., FRITZ A., JÄGER S. & SCHMIDT R. 1991: Pollenflugsaison 1990 in Österreich.- Ber. naturwiss.-med. Ver. ...
Moderator: Eduardo de Marchena, M.D.. Case Presenters:. Fabio Sandoli Brito, M.D.; Temistocles Diaz, M.D.; Adrian Ebner, M.D.; Pedro Villablanca, M.D.; Franklin Hanna, M.D., Carlos Uribe, M.D., Pedro Echeverria, M.D., On Topaz, M.D.. ...

Glossopharyngeal nerveGlossopharyngeal nerve

... Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Course and distribution of the ... It supplies parasympathetic fibres to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion. ... VII: facial. nervus intermedius • geniculate • inside facial canal (greater petrosal, nerve to the stapedius, chorda tympani ... The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve as it is responsible for the afferent limb of ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Glossopharyngeal_nerve.html

Effects of electroacupuncture to the trigeminal nerve area on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow in the...Effects of electroacupuncture to the trigeminal nerve area on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow in the...

These fibres are primarily cholinergic postganglionic fibres from the sphenopalatine ganglion via the facial nerve.4 26 ... Furthermore, both the afferent nerves of the trigeminal nerve and the autonomic nervous system play roles in adjusting flow ... These fibres are primarily noradrenergic postganglionic fibres from the superior cervical ganglia.3 26 The parasympathetic ... Previous research has shown that electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve area reduces heart rate through the vagus nerve ...
more infohttps://aim.bmj.com/content/35/5/339

Ampullar nerve, inferior | definition of ampullar nerve, inferior by Medical dictionaryAmpullar nerve, inferior | definition of ampullar nerve, inferior by Medical dictionary

What is ampullar nerve, inferior? Meaning of ampullar nerve, inferior medical term. What does ampullar nerve, inferior mean? ... Looking for online definition of ampullar nerve, inferior in the Medical Dictionary? ampullar nerve, inferior explanation free ... nerve, vagus (X). n the tenth cranial nerve; a mixed parasympathetic, visceral, afferent, motor, and general sensory nerve with ... n one of the two nerves that branch off of the facial nerve and help control the muscles used in facial expression; this nerve ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ampullar+nerve%2C+inferior

Gluteal nerve, superior | definition of gluteal nerve, superior by Medical dictionaryGluteal nerve, superior | definition of gluteal nerve, superior by Medical dictionary

What is gluteal nerve, superior? Meaning of gluteal nerve, superior medical term. What does gluteal nerve, superior mean? ... Looking for online definition of gluteal nerve, superior in the Medical Dictionary? gluteal nerve, superior explanation free. ... nerve, vagus (X). n the tenth cranial nerve; a mixed parasympathetic, visceral, afferent, motor, and general sensory nerve with ... n one of the two nerves that branch off of the facial nerve and help control the muscles used in facial expression; this nerve ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/gluteal+nerve%2C+superior

Cranial nerve nuclei: Anatomy and embryology | KenhubCranial nerve nuclei: Anatomy and embryology | Kenhub

This is an article covering the anatomy and embryology of the cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem. Learn this topic now at ... Fibres of taste - special visceral afferent, carried by facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves end in the upper part of the ... The nuclei of this column gives origin to preganglionic fibres that contribute to the cranial parasympathetic outflow. These ... The superior salivatory nucleus sends fibres into the facial nerve and these fibres relay in the submandibular ganglion to ...
more infohttps://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/cranial-nerve-nuclei

Cranial Nerve | Oxbridge NotesCranial Nerve | Oxbridge Notes

Cranial Nerve notes and revision materials. We also stock notes on Neuroscience 1 as well as Medicine Notes generally. Why not ... 22 Cranial NervesThere are twelve bilateral pairs of cranial nerves, which have afferent and/or efferent fibres running between ... facial VIII = vestibulo-cochlear (auditory) IX = glossopharyngeal X = vagus XI = (spinal) accessory XII = hypoglossal ... It has parasympathetic functions, containing neurons that synapse in the ciliary ganglion to form short ciliary nerves which ...
more infohttps://www.oxbridgenotes.co.uk/revision_notes/medicine-oxford-neuroscience-1/samples/cranial_nerve_notes

Brainstem And Cerebellum | Oxbridge Notes the United KingdomBrainstem And Cerebellum | Oxbridge Notes the United Kingdom

Trigeminal nerve (5), facial nerve (7), glossopharangeal nerve (9), vagus nerve (10) and acessory nerve (11) ... Inferior olivary nucleus afferent fibres to cerebellum. Core: brainstem nuclei. ****************************End Of Sample ... E.g Facial nerve- three components- sensory, branchiomotor, parasympathetic. Motor componenet has unusual corse looping around ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerve nuclei: cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is ...
more infohttps://www.oxbridgenotes.co.uk/revision_notes/medicine-oxford-neuroscience-1/samples/brainstem_and_cerebellum

The 12 Cranial Nerves and their Functions | Medical LibraryThe 12 Cranial Nerves and their Functions | Medical Library

Olfactory nerve ✓, optic nerve ✓, oculomotor nerve ✓, trochlear nerve ✓, trigeminal and facial nerve ✓. Start to learn now! ... During medical studies, cranial nerves are an essential topic. ... In this article about the 12 cranial nerves youll find a ... sensory and parasympathetic fibres, which exits the medulla oblongata behind the olivary bodies, together with the vagus nerve ... Sensory, visceromotor and vegetative, efferent and afferent. X - vagus nerve ("wandering nerve"). Main nerve of the ...
more infohttps://www.lecturio.com/magazine/12-cranial-nerves/

Session 9 - Oral Cavity, Tongue And Pharynx Flashcards by Emelia Brown | BrainscapeSession 9 - Oral Cavity, Tongue And Pharynx Flashcards by Emelia Brown | Brainscape

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) (afferent limb of the gag reflex). Vagus nerve (CN X) (efferent limb of the gag reflex) ... Chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve). 26 What nerve supplies both general sensation and taste sensation fibres to the ... What nerve supplies special sensory fibres for taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? ... The vagus nerve supplies all muscles of the pharynx and soft palate except for which? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/session-9-oral-cavity-tongue-and-pharynx-6492412/packs/9797092

Cranial Nerve - Neurology - Dr. Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute Pvt. Ltd. - Dr Bhatia Medical Coaching InstituteCranial Nerve - Neurology - Dr. Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute Pvt. Ltd. - Dr Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute

Pure motor cranial nerves - III, IV, VI, XI, XII Pure sensory - I, II, VIII Mixed - V, VII, IX, X. Olfactory nerve -Lesions ... It is characterized by unilateral Horners syndrome without facial anhidrosis (as the pseudomotor fibres to the face are not ... X Cranial nerve - (Vagus nerve) *It is the longest cranial nerve. It supplies ms. of soft palate except tensor palatiQ, pharynx ... Special afferent (taste). Lingual nerve, chorda tympani, geniculate ganglion, nervus intermedius, tractus solitarius ...
more infohttps://gradestack.com/Dr-Bhatia-Medical/Neurology/Cranial-Nerve/16307-3174-10942-study-wtw

Vagus Nerve : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Vagus Nerve : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

80-90% of the nerve fibers in the vagus nerve are afferent (sensory) nerves communicating the state of the viscera to the brain ... The vagus nerve and the heart. Fibres of the vagus nerve (right/bottom of image) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (central ... Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is mediated by the vagus nerve. Specifically, the vagus nerve acts to lower the heart ... facial canal. greater petrosal (pterygopalatine ganglion) · nerve to the stapedius · chorda tympani (lingual nerve, ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Vagus_Nerve

Nervous 1 Flashcards by Jessica Bibby | BrainscapeNervous 1 Flashcards by Jessica Bibby | Brainscape

Facila nerve Taste on rostral 2/3 of tongue, Motor muscles of facial expression, Parasympathetic to mandibular, sublingual, ... 2) Autonomic parasympathetic fibres via pelvic nerves from S1-3. 3) Results in detrusor muscle contracting. 4) Urination ... 2) caudal laryngeal nerve 3) recurrent laryngeal nerve (leave vagus at the level of the thoracic inlet). - right recurrent ... DORSAL ROUTE OF THE SPINAL NERVE - General, somatic, afferent (sensory) -> (muscle, voluntary movement). - General, visceral, ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/nervous-1-6142794/packs/9452428

Week 4- cranial nerves overview  Flashcards by Roshni Timms | BrainscapeWeek 4- cranial nerves overview Flashcards by Roshni Timms | Brainscape

Also has autonomic fibres (parasympathetic): *Short ciliary nerves which supply muscles in the iris which controls constriction ... Because CNVIII is near the facial nerve if this is infiltrated by the tumour this can lead to facial weakness and numbness ... Arises from the medulla then goes through the jugular foramen with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve ... The pair of nerves then cross over at the optic chiasm and there is mixing of fibres between the nerves ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/week-4-cranial-nerves-overview-5771859/packs/8676558

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE SUPPORTING A SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE CHIROPRACTIC SUBLUXATION COMPLEXREVIEW OF THE LITERATURE SUPPORTING A SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE CHIROPRACTIC SUBLUXATION COMPLEX

17] Parkins studied the blocking effects of pressure on the visceral motor and the somatic motor functions of the facial nerve ... 9] The response of sympathetic neurons to various afferent nerves have been observed by many investigators. Coote found certain ... Parasympathetic predominance theory was measured by salivation, heart rates and pulmonary flow rates. [10] Abnormalities in the ... the vagus being unopposed causes bronchiolar constriction. [84]. In order to illustrate the multicausal nature of disease the ...
more infohttps://chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Review_of_the_Literature.shtml

Nerve : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Nerve : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

The tenth nerve or vagus has sensory and motor fibres; the former go to the solitary bundle mentioned in the description of the ... Types of nerves Afferent nerves take messages to the CNS (brain) from the body. They take messages about sensation from the ... geniculate body Abducent nerve Int. geniculate body Pulvinar Facial nerve Pars intermedia Auditory nerve Lateral ventricle Mid ... Nerves - autonomic nervous system (sympathetic nervous system/ganglion/trunks and parasympathetic nervous system/ganglion) (TA ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Nerve

TURNING POINT - BlogTURNING POINT - Blog

Tomé D, Schwarz J, Darcel N, Fromentin G. Protein, amino acids, vagus nerve signaling, and the brain. The American Journal of ... "vagus," "autonomic," or "parasympathetic." Articles were collected from December 2007 to present in each database. The ... Zhou W, Fu LW, Tjen-A-Looi SC, Li P, Longhurst JC (2005) Afferent mechanisms underlying stimulation modality-related modulation ... Impulses generated in sensory fibres in the skin connect with interneurons to modulate activities of the motoneurons ...
more infohttp://www.turningpointonline.info/blog

Cranial Nerves - Anatomy, Names, Functions & Mnemonics | KenhubCranial Nerves - Anatomy, Names, Functions & Mnemonics | Kenhub

This article introduces the cranial nerves, their anatomy, names, functions and mnemonics to help you remember them. Click now ... Cranial Nerve VII. While the facial nerve is principally a motor nerve, it also has sensory and parasympathetic modalities as ... Descending autonomic fibres from the hypothalamus travels to the nucleus in addition to other afferent fibres from the ... Motor Division of Vagus Nerve. The motor nucleus of the vagus nerve arises from the nucleus ambiguus. This structure is found ...
more infohttps://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/the-12-cranial-nerves

Facial Nerve Embryology: Overview, The Mature Facial Nerve, Overview of Hindbrain DevelopmentFacial Nerve Embryology: Overview, The Mature Facial Nerve, Overview of Hindbrain Development

The anatomy and embryology of the facial nerve are complex. A basic understanding of developmental anatomy is necessary to ... fibres from the VIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves. The intermediolateral zone also contains several general somatosensory ... general somatic fibers that synapse in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and special afferent fibers that synapse in ... 6] The caudal part of the intermediolateral zone contains a centers known as lobus vagi or solitary tract nucleus, which ...
more infohttps://emedicine.staging.medscape.com/article/845064-overview

Cranial Nerves and Nuclei ICranial Nerves and Nuclei I

... nuclei are the motor fibres of the facial nerve.. *The facial fibres project dorsomedially and wrap around the abducens nucleus ... General Visceral Afferent (GVA). *These fibres are related to the receptors of the visceral structures such as the walls of the ... This column includes preganglionic parasympathetic neurons (GVE).. *It straddles the midline and projects to the ipsilateral ... X (vagus). GSA. Spinal trigeminal nucleus. Outer ear. SVA. Solitary nucleus. Taste buds of epiglottis. ...
more infohttp://download.videohelp.com/vitualis/med/cranial_nn_and_nuclei_1.htm

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Parasympathetic Reflex Salivary Secretion in the Cat Parotid Gland
 		 		
 		 		
 ...CiNii 論文 - Parasympathetic Reflex Salivary Secretion in the Cat Parotid Gland ...

The involvement of the parasympathetic vasodilator fibres in the trigeminal portion of the distal lingual nerve in reflex ... Convergence of excitatory inputs from the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves onto inferior salivatory nucleus ... The characteristics and regional distribution of afferent fibres in the chorda tympani of the cat ROBINSON PP. ... Reflex parasympathetic vasodilatation in facial skin IZUMI H. Gen. Pharmacol. 26, 237-244, 1995 ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008297273

Peripheral Nervous System - PDFPeripheral Nervous System - PDF

Cranial nerves and spinal nerves, nerve plexuses & ganglia ~10% (10 ... 7 III (oculomotor) VII (facial) IX (glossopharyngeal) X (vagus) and fibers in some sacral (S2-S4) spinal nerves no chain ... around entire nerve 2 kinds of neurons can be found in nerves: sensory (afferent) neurons ~2-3M; 6-8x s more sensory than motor ... Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/20861825-Peripheral-nervous-system.html

Adapting insights from the Social Nervous System model to cranial work | cranial intelligence blogAdapting insights from the Social Nervous System model to cranial work | cranial intelligence blog

Particularly the trigeminal nerve via the dura and teeth and the vagus nerve via interoception. Any interventions that support ... The social nervous system nerves listed by Porges are cranial nerves V (trigeminal), VII (facial), IX (glossopharangeal), X ( ... Approximately 80% of the vagal fibres are afferent and provide important information regarding the visceral state. The ... Parasympathetic overactivation (freeze, dissociation). These reflexes are discussed more fully in Sumner and Haines 2010. It is ...
more infohttps://cranialintelligence.com/2010/10/04/adapting-insights-from-the-social-nervous-system-model-to-cranial-work/

Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the...Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the...

... review last semester notes cranial nerves) a) Oculomotor (III) b) Facial (VII) c) Glossopharyngeal (IX) d) Vagus (X) ... Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse ... Lecture 4 Spinal Cord Organization The spinal cord... connects with spinal nerves, through afferent & efferent axons in spinal ... b. Sympathetic inhibits digestive processes while the parasympathetic stimulates digestive processes. 3. Parasympathetic, ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/21328856-Please-read-chapter-15-the-autonomic-nervous-system-complete-this-study-guide-and-study-this-material-before-coming-to-the-first-class.html

Neuroanatomy Archives - medical library onlineNeuroanatomy Archives - medical library online

... situated lateral to motor nucleus of facial nerve. It has a component called lacrimatory nucleus. Parasympathetic secretomotor ... Migration of neurons of alar lamina: Apart from formation of sensory (afferent) nuclei of cranial nerves, neurons of alar plate ... This is the major decussation point of the descending motor fibres. Roughly 75% of motor fibres housed within the pyramids ... This is called vagal triangle as beneath this area lies dorsal nucleus of vagus.. Inferolateral to vagal triangle, just above ...
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chicago trigeminal neuralia treatment Archives - Sphenopalatine Ganglion - SPG Blocks Chicagochicago trigeminal neuralia treatment Archives - Sphenopalatine Ganglion - SPG Blocks Chicago

... the facial and trigeminal nerves and the Sphenopalatine Ganglion that its on the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. ... Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: A review of the peripheral mechanisms. Surg Neurol Int 2012; 3(Suppl 1): S47-S52. Google ... Ten Tusscher MP, Klooster J, Baljet B, . Pre- and post-ganglionic nerve fibres of the pterygopalatine ganglion and their ... Stimulation of the greater occipital nerve induces increased central excitability of dural afferent input. Brain 2002; 125: ...
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  • It receives sensory fibres from the posterior one-third of the tongue , the tonsils , the pharynx , the middle ear and the carotid body. (bionity.com)
  • The left vagus further gives off thoracic cardiac branches, breaks up into pulmonary plexus, continues into the esophageal plexus and enters the abdomen as the anterior vagal trunk in the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. (thefullwiki.org)