Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Method of treating pain associated with the sphenopalatine ganglion located in the PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA, posterior to the middle nasal turbinate. The transnasal approach involves application of suitable local anesthetic to the mucous membrane overlying the ganglion.
A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Dibenzothiepins are a class of tricyclic heterocyclic compounds sharing a common structure of two benzene rings fused to a thiepin ring, which have been used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly as antipsychotic agents, but are not widely used in current clinical practice due to their adverse effects profile.
Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.

Resolution of third nerve paresis after endovascular management of aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery. (1/350)

The effect of endovascular treatment on the recovery of neural function in patients with third nerve palsy caused by an aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery is poorly documented. We report three cases in which third nerve paresis resolved completely within 2 to 3 weeks of endovascular occlusion of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm.  (+info)

Efficacy of mandibular topical anesthesia varies with the site of administration. (2/350)

This study compared the threshold of pain sensitivity in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold with the posterior. This was followed by a comparison of the reduction of needle insertion pain in the anterior mucobuccal fold and the pterygo-temporal depression by either topical anesthesia or nitrous oxide inhalation. The pain threshold was determined by an analgometer, a pain-measuring device that depends on pressure readings; additionally, pain caused by a needle inserted by a normal technique was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold of pain was significantly lower in the incisor and canine regions than in the premolar and the molar regions (P < 0.001). Compared to a placebo, topical anesthesia significantly reduced the pain from needle insertion in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to the mandibular canine (P < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce pain in the pterygotemporal depression. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not significantly alter pain reduction compared to a control of 100% oxygen. These results suggest that topical anesthesia application may be effective in reducing the pain of needle insertion in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold, but may not be as effective for a standard inferior alveolar nerve block. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not lead to a significant improvement.  (+info)

Craniofacial pain and motor function: pathogenesis, clinical correlates, and implications. (3/350)

Many structural, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions imply that favorable treatment effects in musculoskeletal pain states are mediated through the correction of muscle function. The common theme of these interventions is captured in the popular idea that structural or psychological factors cause muscle hyperactivity, muscle overwork, muscle fatigue, and ultimately pain. Although symptoms and signs of motor dysfunction can sometimes be explained by changes in structure, there is strong evidence that they can also be caused by pain. This new understanding has resulted in a better appreciation of the pathogenesis of symptoms and signs of the musculoskeletal pain conditions, including the sequence of events that leads to the development of motor dysfunction. With the improved understanding of the relationship between pain and motor function, including the inappropriateness of many clinical assumptions, a new literature emerges that opens the door to exciting therapeutic opportunities. Novel treatments are expected to have a profound impact on the care of musculoskeletal pain and its effect on motor function in the not-too-distant future.  (+info)

Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates. (4/350)

This paper reviews the recent advances in knowledge of brainstem mechanisms related to craniofacial pain. It also draws attention to their clinical implications, and concludes with a brief overview and suggestions for future research directions. It first describes the general organizational features of the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex (VBSNC), including its input and output properties and intrinsic characteristics that are commensurate with its strategic role as the major brainstem relay of many types of somatosensory information derived from the face and mouth. The VBSNC plays a crucial role in craniofacial nociceptive transmission, as evidenced by clinical, behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological data that have been especially derived from studies of the relay of cutaneous nociceptive afferent inputs through the subnucleus caudalis of the VBSNC. The recent literature, however, indicates that some fundamental differences exist in the processing of cutaneous vs. other craniofacial nociceptive inputs to the VBSNC, and that rostral components of the VBSNC may also play important roles in some of these processes. Modulatory mechanisms are also highlighted, including the neurochemical substrate by which nociceptive transmission in the VBSNC can be modulated. In addition, the long-term consequences of peripheral injury and inflammation and, in particular, the neuroplastic changes that can be induced in the VBSNC are emphasized in view of the likely role that central sensitization, as well as peripheral sensitization, can play in acute and chronic pain. The recent findings also provide new insights into craniofacial pain behavior and are particularly relevant to many approaches currently in use for the management of pain and to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at manipulating peripheral inputs and central processes underlying nociceptive transmission and its control within the VBSNC.  (+info)

Long-term follow-up of clinical symptoms in TMD patients who underwent occlusal reconstruction by orthodontic treatment. (5/350)

Fifty-eight patients (mean age 18.4 years) who had received splint therapy for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were examined retrospectively to investigate the efficacy of occlusal reconstruction by orthodontic treatment. The subjects were divided into three groups: 18 patients (mean age 18.6 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment combined with the use of splints (ST group); 27 patients (mean age 18.2 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment without the use of splints (NST group); and 13 patients (mean age 17.9 years) who received only splint therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD; control group). TMJ sound, pain on movement and restriction of mandibular movement were examined at the initial examination (T1), at the end of the splint therapy for TMD or beginning of orthodontic treatment (T2), at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3), and at recall or 1 year after orthodontic treatment (T4). The following results were found. (1) The percentage of patients with no joint sound at T2 was 20-30 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 50 per cent at T3, but slightly decreased to 39-50 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (2) The number of patients who had no pain on movement at T2 was 60-80 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 90 per cent at T3, but then slightly decreased to 80 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (3) None of the patients showed restriction of movement of the TMJ at T2 or T4. One patient in the ST group was found to have restriction at T3. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (4) The most frequent type of malocclusion in both ST and NST groups was anterior open bite. These results suggest that TMD symptoms that have been eliminated by splint therapy are not likely to recur due to subsequent orthodontic treatment, but it cannot be concluded that orthodontic treatment itself had a positive effect on TMD symptoms. The results also indicate that there is a relationship between anterior open bite and TMD.  (+info)

Neurovascular compression of the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerve: three case reports. (6/350)

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a frequent cause of paroxysmal facial pain and headache in adults. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is less common, but can cause severe episodic pain in the ear and throat. Neurovascular compression of the appropriate cranial nerve as it leaves the brain stem is responsible for the symptoms in many patients, and neurosurgical decompression of the nerve is now a well accepted treatment in adults with both TN and GPN who fail to respond to drug therapy. Neither TN nor GPN are routinely considered in the differential diagnosis when assessing children with paroxysmal facial or head pain, as they are not reported to occur in childhood. Case reports of three children with documented neurovascular compression causing severe neuralgic pain and disability are presented. The fact that these conditions do occur in the paediatric population, albeit rarely, is highlighted, and appropriate investigation and management are discussed.  (+info)

Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: the role of arthroscopic surgery and arthrocentesis. (7/350)

Arthroscopic surgery appears to be a safe, minimally invasive and effective method for treating internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), reducing pain and increasing mandibular range of motion for approximately 80% of patients. Although these results are encouraging, they are largely based on retrospective, uncontrolled and short-term studies. The landmark observation that lysis and lavage in only the upper compartment of the TMJ produce successful clinical results without repositioning the disc has prompted clinicians to question the importance of disc position as a significant factor in the etiology of TMJ pain dysfunction. Although there are prospective, controlled, randomized short-term studies indicating that arthrocentesis and arthroscopic surgery have comparable success rates in the management of acute TMJ closed lock, similar long-term studies are lacking. Until they have been done, the roles of arthroscopic surgery and arthrocentesis in the management of TMJ internal derangements remain unclear.  (+info)

Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in young Nigerian adults. (8/350)

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD in young Nigerian adults and to establish a baseline for comparison with other studies. It consisted of a cross-sectional study at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria in 1997. The subjects consisted of 308 medical and dental students (207 males and 101 females) randomly selected from a Nigerian University. Their ages ranged from 17 to 32 years with a mean age of 23 +/- 3.0 years. They were assessed according to the criteria of Helkimo (1974). Whilst 26.3 per cent of the subjects reported mild symptoms (Ai I) of TMD, only 2.9 per cent reported severe symptoms (Ai II). Similarly, 46 per cent showed mild dysfunction signs (Di I), whilst 16.5 and 0.3 per cent exhibited moderate (Di II) and severe (Di III) signs of TMD, respectively. No significant relationships were found between sex, anamnestic index, and the clinical dysfunction index scores. However, there were low but significant correlations between ananmestic index scores (Ai) and the recorded signs (Di), as well as the clinical dysfunction scores (CDS). There is some evidence to show that signs and symptoms of TMD occur amongst Nigerians, although restricted lateral and protrusive mandibular movements contributed significantly to clinical dysfunction scores. This report contrasts with what is found in western societies regarding the low prevalence of TMJ pain. Refereed Scientific Paper  (+info)

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Facial neuralgia is a general term that refers to painful conditions affecting the facial nerves. It is often used to describe two specific disorders: trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

1. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, one of the major nerves of the face. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal neuralgia causes intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed: the lower jaw, upper jaw, and cheek. The pain usually affects one side of the face, is triggered by light touch or other stimuli, and can last from a few seconds to several minutes.

2. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a similar but less common condition that involves the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is responsible for sensations in the throat, tongue, and ear on one side of the face. GPN causes sharp, stabbing pain in these areas, often triggered by swallowing, talking, or coughing.

Both trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia can be debilitating and significantly impact a person's quality of life. The exact cause of these conditions is not always clear, but they are often associated with nerve compression by blood vessels or tumors, age-related changes in the nerves and blood vessels, multiple sclerosis, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options may include medications to manage pain, surgical procedures to decompress the affected nerves, or, in some cases, radiofrequency ablation or gamma knife radiosurgery to destroy a portion of the nerve and reduce pain signals.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Dothiepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was commonly used in the past to treat depression and anxiety disorders. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, in the brain. However, due to its side effects and the availability of safer and more effective antidepressants, dothiepin is not commonly prescribed anymore.

Dothiepin has a sedative effect, which can help people with depression who have trouble sleeping. It also has an analgesic effect, which can be helpful in treating chronic pain conditions. However, its use is associated with several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and weight gain. In addition, dothiepin can cause orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing), which can increase the risk of falls and fractures in older adults.

Dothiepin is available in immediate-release and sustained-release formulations, and it is usually taken orally once or twice a day. The dosage depends on the individual's response to treatment and the severity of their symptoms. It is important to follow the doctor's instructions carefully when taking dothiepin and to report any bothersome side effects promptly.

Like other TCAs, dothiepin has a potential for overdose and can be fatal if taken in large quantities. Therefore, it should be stored in a safe place, away from children and pets. People who are taking dothiepin should inform their healthcare provider about any other medications they are taking, as well as any medical conditions they have, to avoid dangerous interactions and complications.

Trigeminal nerve injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal nerve injuries can result in various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the injury, including:

1. Loss or reduction of sensation in the face, lips, gums, teeth, or tongue.
2. Pain, often described as burning, aching, or stabbing, in the affected areas.
3. Numbness or tingling sensations.
4. Difficulty with biting, chewing, or performing other motor functions.
5. Impaired taste sensation.
6. Headaches or migraines.
7. Eye dryness or excessive tearing.

Trigeminal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during facial surgeries, accidents, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the injury and may include medication, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or pain management strategies.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome, often abbreviated as TMJD or TMD, is a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by pain, clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ; limited movement or locking of the jaw; and/or painful chewing movements. The condition may be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle tension, joint inflammation, structural problems with the joint itself, or injury to the head, neck, or jaw.

Symptoms of TMJD can include:
- Pain or tenderness in the face, jaw joint area, neck, and/or shoulders
- Limited ability to open the mouth wide
- Jaw locking, making it difficult to close or open the mouth
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ when opening or closing the mouth
- A significant change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together
- Headaches, earaches, dizziness, and hearing problems

Treatment for TMJD can vary depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. It may include self-care practices such as eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and practicing relaxation techniques; physical therapy; medication to reduce pain and inflammation; dental treatments such as mouthguards or bite adjustments; and, in rare cases, surgery.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Rhizotomy is a surgical procedure where the root(s) of a nerve are cut. It is often used to treat chronic pain, spasticity, or other neurological symptoms that have not responded to other treatments. In some cases, only a portion of the nerve root may be severed (selective rhizotomy), while in others the entire root may be cut (root transaction). The specific nerves targeted during a rhizotomy depend on the individual patient's condition and symptoms.

This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon, and it can be done through an open surgical approach or using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. After the surgery, patients may require physical therapy to help regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Potential risks of rhizotomy include numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the areas served by the severed nerves.

A Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block (SPG Block) is a medical procedure that involves the injection of a local anesthetic agent near the sphenopalatine ganglion, a collection of nerve cells located in the upper part of the nasopharynx, near the sphenoid bone. This procedure is typically used to diagnose or treat various types of headaches and facial pain, including cluster headaches, migraines, and trigeminal neuralgia.

The injection is usually administered through the nose using a long, thin needle, although it can also be performed via the roof of the mouth (greater palatine foramen) or the side of the face (via the infraorbital foramen). Once the needle is in position, the anesthetic agent is injected, which numbs the sphenopalatine ganglion and interrupts the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

The effects of the SPG Block can be immediate and may last for several hours or days, depending on the individual and the type of anesthetic used. Some people may require repeated blocks over time to achieve lasting relief from their symptoms. Potential risks and complications associated with this procedure are generally low but may include bleeding, infection, or trauma to surrounding tissues.

The pterygopalatine fossa is a small, irregularly shaped space located in the skull, lateral to the nasal cavity and inferior to the orbit. It serves as a critical communications center for several important nerves, arteries, and veins that provide sensory innervation, vasomotor control, and blood supply to various structures in the head and neck region.

The following are some key components of the pterygopalatine fossa:

1. Nerves: The pterygopalatine ganglion is a major component of this fossa, which contains postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers, and sensory fibers from various nerves, including the maxillary nerve (V2), greater petrosal nerve, deep petrosal nerve, and nerve of the pterygoid canal.

2. Arteries: The maxillary artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, enters the fossa through the foramen rotundum and divides into several branches that supply various structures in the head and neck region, such as the sphenopalatine artery, posterior superior alveolar artery, infraorbital artery, and greater palatine artery.

3. Veins: The pterygoid venous plexus is a complex network of veins located in and around the fossa that communicates with various venous systems, including the facial vein, cavernous sinus, and inferior ophthalmic vein.

The pterygopalatine fossa plays an essential role in several physiological functions, such as lacrimation, salivation, and vasodilation of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Additionally, it is a potential site for the spread of infection or neoplasm from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, or paranasal sinuses to other regions of the head and neck.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Dibenzothiepins are a class of chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiepin ring structure. This ring structure is composed of two benzene rings fused to a thiepin ring, which is a six-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond.

In the medical field, dibenzothiepins are primarily known for their use as antipsychotic drugs. The first dibenzothiepin antipsychotic, clopenthixol, was synthesized in the 1960s and found to have potent antipsychotic effects. Since then, several other dibenzothiepins have been developed for use as antipsychotics, including flupentixol and thiothixene.

These drugs work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. However, they can also cause side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, and weight gain.

It's worth noting that while dibenzothiepins have been used as antipsychotics for several decades, they are not commonly prescribed today due to the availability of newer antipsychotic drugs with fewer side effects.

A vascular headache is a type of headache that is primarily caused by disturbances in the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain and surrounding tissues. The two most common types of vascular headaches are migraines and cluster headaches.

Migraines are characterized by intense, throbbing pain on one or both sides of the head, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances known as auras. They can last from several hours to days.

Cluster headaches, on the other hand, are characterized by severe, one-sided pain around the eye or temple that occurs in clusters, meaning they occur several times a day for weeks or months, followed by periods of remission. Cluster headaches are often accompanied by symptoms such as redness and tearing of the eye, nasal congestion, and sweating on the affected side of the face.

Other types of vascular headaches include toxic headaches caused by exposure to certain substances or drugs, and headaches associated with high blood pressure or other medical conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain.

Central nervous system (CNS) sensitization refers to a state in which the CNS, specifically the brain and spinal cord, becomes increasingly hypersensitive to stimuli. This heightened sensitivity results in an amplified response to painful or non-painful stimuli.

In CNS sensitization, there is an increased responsiveness of neurons in the CNS, leading to a lower threshold for activation and an enhanced transmission of nociceptive (pain) signals. This can occur due to various factors such as tissue injury, inflammation, or nerve damage, which trigger changes in the nervous system that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain conditions.

CNS sensitization is associated with functional and structural reorganization within the CNS, including alterations in neurotransmitter release, ion channel function, and synaptic plasticity. These changes can result in long-term modifications in the processing and perception of pain, making it more difficult to manage and treat chronic pain conditions.

The Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus, also known as the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract or spinal trigeminal nucleus, is a component of the trigeminal nerve sensory nuclear complex located in the brainstem. It is responsible for receiving and processing pain and temperature information from the face and head, particularly from the areas innervated by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The neurons within this nucleus then project to other brainstem regions and ultimately to the thalamus, which relays this information to the cerebral cortex for conscious perception.

Osteoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that is made up of mature bone tissue. It usually grows slowly over a period of years and is most commonly found in the skull or jaw, although it can occur in other bones of the body as well. Osteomas are typically small, but they can grow to be several centimeters in size. They may cause symptoms if they press on nearby tissues or structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. In some cases, osteomas may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered during routine imaging studies. Treatment for osteoma is typically not necessary unless it is causing problems or growing rapidly. If treatment is needed, it may involve surgical removal of the tumor.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Facial asymmetry refers to a condition in which the facial features are not identical or proportionate on both sides of a vertical line drawn down the middle of the face. This can include differences in the size, shape, or positioning of facial features such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks, and jaw. Facial asymmetry can be mild and barely noticeable, or it can be more severe and affect a person's appearance and/or functionality of the mouth and jaw.

Facial asymmetry can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life due to various factors such as injury, surgery, growth disorders, nerve damage, or tumors. In some cases, facial asymmetry may not cause any medical problems and may only be of cosmetic concern. However, in other cases, it may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.

Depending on the severity and cause of the facial asymmetry, treatment options may include cosmetic procedures such as fillers or surgery, orthodontic treatment, physical therapy, or medication to address any underlying conditions.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

"Facial Pain experts establish a new pain classification". TNA Facial Pain Association. Archived from the original on 22 June ... Atypical facial pain (AFP) is a type of chronic facial pain which does not fulfill any other diagnosis. There is no consensus ... The IHS now use the term "Persistent idiopathic facial pain" in the ICHD-2, defining it as "persistent facial pain that does ... and diffuse pain." "a continuous unilateral deep aching pain sometimes with a burning component." "facial pain not fulfilling ...
... originally known as atypical facial pain, refers to pain along the territory of the trigeminal nerve that does not fit the ... The pain is usually of long duration, lasting most of the day (if not continuous), is unilateral, and is without autonomic ... Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), originally known as atypical facial pain, refers to pain along the territory of the ... Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), originally known as atypical facial pain, refers to pain along the territory of the ...
Joining forces to tackle facial pain. Pain is your bodys way of telling you that something might be wrong and is the most ... Shedding light on facial pain March 15, 2023 , Author: Medline , Categories: Pain ... Facial and oral pain (in the face, mouth, and jaw) can be a symptom of injury, illness, or infection. It is one of the most ... NIDCR scientists used fluorescence microscopy to visualize pain signaling in mices facial nerves. Here, the flickers show how ...
Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry. / Grunau, R V; Craig, K D. In: Pain, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1987, p. 395-410.. ... Grunau, R V ; Craig, K D. / Pain expression in neonates : facial action and cry. In: Pain. 1987 ; Vol. 28, No. 3. pp. 395-410. ... title = "Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry",. abstract = "Pain expression in neonates instigated by heel-lance ... Grunau, R. V., & Craig, K. D. (1987). Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry. Pain, 28(3), 395-410. ...
Facial Burning & Pain. Often thought of as a genuine symptom of rosacea, the facial burning and stinging that rosacea sufferers ... Prescription Pain Killers for Burning/Stinging Pain? Last post by jlorenc6790 « Fri Jun 24, 2016 3:41 pm. ... Facial burning, bump, and broken blood vessels Last post by Moira Mae « Tue Feb 11, 2014 1:20 pm. ... sharp knife like pain in my jaw Last post by RuthS « Mon Oct 19, 2009 8:58 pm. ...
Facial Pain Center. We work diligently to address our patients concerns and identify solutions to alleviate jaw pain. Schedule ... While you may be able to ignore pain coming from your jaw, tight jaw muscles can lead to additional pain in your head, teeth, ... Jaw pain: A persistent, aching feeling in your jaw area is a clear sign of muscle tension. ... Facial discomfort: Discomfort in the cheeks or around the ears can be linked to jaw tension. ...
Any normal habit, mostly at a young age, can tip this balance causing facial or jaw discomfort. Our faces mold around these ... At Oral-Facial Advantage, we guide your childs growth towards a more balanced oral-facial foundation. Aiding to prevent, or ... At What Age Can My Child Begin Oral-Facial Muscle Therapy?. The younger the child the more flexible their physiology and ... The Oral-Facial Advantage Program uses toning of the muscles and tissues of the mouth and face to bring your childs growth ...
Are you experiencing oral or facial pain? Westwind Dental works with you for the care you need, like TMJ treatment. Call our ... Your oral and facial pain may seem untreatable, but our highly-qualified team is experienced and equipped for facial pain ... and muscles is very effective at managing or resolving related facial pain. For more severe facial and oral pain, we provide ... If your facial and oral pain is a result of muscle issues, we start with our oral-facial exercise protocol. Next, we address ...
Living With Facial Pain Newer Members, Chutes and Ladders, Acceptance Archive Blogs (Read Only) ... Turning the head to the left or right generates bad pain. Little dots of slight pain in the cheek increase and then connect to ... TN, The Pain And The Emotional Roller Coaster,HELP I WANT OFF!i Blogs (Read Only) ... After nearly a pain free month;meds working so well that even brushing teeth was a breeze (oops breeze can be a bad TN word) a ...
... wanted to explore new ways to treat facial pain without unwanted side effects. Using an innovative technique, they were able to ... Joining forces to tackle facial pain. Pain is your bodys way of telling you that something might be wrong and is the most ... Pain "Ouch, that hurts!" The science of pain. Almost all of us have experienced pain of some kind. Its the most common reason ... Facial and oral pain (in the face, mouth, and jaw) can be a symptom of injury, illness, or infection. It is one of the most ...
PAIN. PAIN Reports. Pain Research Forum. Papers of the Week. Webinars and Podcasts. Events ... Pain Research Forum. / Papers of the Week. / Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes of Facial Sensation following Cranial Vault ... Resources for Living with Pain. Global Alliance of Partners in Pain Advocacy (GAPPA). Events ... Despite numerous studies demonstrating successful esthetic outcome after FOA, there are no long-term studies assessing facial ...
... or facial pain.. Reasons You May Be Suffering From Facial Pain or Lack of Sleep. If you are left wondering about your pains and ... Other people tend to have facial pain from their TMJ diagnosis or jaw arthritis. There is also facial pain management available ... Do you have any unexplained facial pains or headaches that bother you periodically? Not knowing why you are in pain can be a ... TMJ related or not, 15% of American adults state that they have some sort of chronic facial pain. That can be very ...
The facial expression of pain can provoke different behavioral reactions. However, it is not clear whether the face of pain ... FERNANDES, Ana Mércia et al. How do women evaluate facial expressions of happiness and pain?. Psicol. pesq. [online]. 2020, vol ... Palabras clave : Facial expression; Pain; Reaction Time. · resumen en Español , Portugués · texto en Portugués · Portugués ( ... 32 students classified dynamic facial emotions of men and women among the options of happiness and pain, and manual reaction ...
Facial droop and difficulty making facial expressions • Pain around the jaw or in or behind your ear on the affected side • ... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial paralysis) ,Trigeminal Neuralgi.... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial ... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial paralysis) ,Trigeminal Neuralgi.... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial ... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial paralysis) ,Trigeminal Neuralgi.... Cranial nerve disorders Bells palsy (facial ...
Decreasing facial lift, causing the corners of your mouth to drop *Facial pain ... Dull pain located around your temples that may extend to the bottom of your jaw ...
Facial Pain. Facial pain is common. Many people have long standing pain associated with the sinuses, mouth, temples, eyes, etc ... Do you or someone you love suffer from jaw pain, headaches, facial pain, or pain in the jaw joints (TMJ)? At Ponte Vedra ... Our facial nervous system is extremely complex and there can be many reasons for facial pain to be created. The good news is ... Jaw Pain. Similar to the other problems listed above, jaw pain can be multifactorial. Jaw pain can originate from the nerves, ...
rf anti-aging wrinkle remover & skin tightening beauty care with the current radio frequency facial lifting for anti aging sold ... Improves constipation and increases elasticity; * Tightened postpartum relaxation and relieves muscle pain; * To relax the ... Facial wrinkle removal: head-up lines, eyebrow lines, crow's feet lines, nasolabial grooves, anterior ear wrinkles, lower ... New technology RF Anti-aging Wrinkle Remover slimming Beauty Care Face Skin Tightening radio frequency Facial Lifting Anti ...
Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they affect sight, speech, breathing and ... Face pain (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... nerve diseases like trigeminal neuralgia or Bells palsy sometimes cause facial pain, spasms and trouble with eye or facial ... Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment (American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) ...
Facial burns[91] *An "open wound" to the head causing "severe pain"[92] ... He was in acute pain from a clearly visible swelling in his leg from a previous injury and repeatedly asked to see a doctor, ... "such a threat or display of physical aggression toward the officer as to inspire fear of pain, bodily harm, or death."[89] ...
facial pain. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Pain management including neuropathic and back pain, chronic pain, facial pain. ... facial aesthetic surgery. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Rhinology, facial aesthetic surgery. facial pain. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns* ... facial plastic surgery. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Head and neck surgery, facial plastic surgery, paediatric ENT, thyroid ... Head and neck oncology, salivary gland disease, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, facial pain, dentoalveolar surgery - ...
Headache and facial pain are common complaints in the emergency and outpatient setting. The lifetime prevalence of headache is ... Two main idiopathic disorders that cause headache and facial pain are midfacial segment pain and atypical facial pain. [31] ... Secondary Facial Pain and Headache. Vascular headache. Headache and facial pain can be a presenting sign of a cerebrovascular ... Atypical facial pain. This is also known as persistent idiopathic facial pain, as classified by the International Headache ...
Five things our experts want you to know about pain management ... 3. Improving facial pain Orofacial pain refers to pain felt in ... 5. Pain clinics will help you manage pain. Around 40 - 70% of Australians have pain that is not well managed. However, 80% of ... You should visit a pain clinic to devise a pain management plan that best suits your type of pain and your lifestyle. ... While acute pain is brief and short-term, acting as a warning for the body to seek help. If pain persists for more than a few ...
986-3888 Acupuncture For Pain Relief and Pain Management in New York The theory behind acupunctures ability to treat pain and ... Acupuncture For Facial Rejuvenation and Other Cosmetic Purposes Many factors contribute to the visible signs of aging including ... Acupuncture For Pain Relief and Pain Management in New York The theory behind acupunctures ability to treat pain and disease ... This treatment helps improve chronic back pain, shoulder pain, those stubborn arthritic knees, shoulder pain, and many other ...
lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), insomnia; facial pallor; anorexia, weight loss, malnutrition; constipation, abdominal pain, ...
Here are the most sought-after facial contouring treatments such as filler, botox, coolsculpting and many more! ... Still, patients often feel a slight pinching feeling rather than pain.. The strategic jabs of Botox slim down or lessen visible ... From facials, crystal rollers, and makeup to facial contouring whether non-surgical or surgical… The thought of improving your ... Yes, there may be innovative facial tools such as crystal facial rollers that can be used every day to achieve temporary ...
Buy Michael Todd Beauty Soniclear Elite Sonic Facial Cleansing System at Macys today. FREE Shipping and Free Returns available ... Acne has always been a pain for me to handle. With this tool, it has help me manage it and Im super duper happy! ...
Here are the facial services that many dentists provide to patients. ... Facial treatments are available at our dental offices for a variety of reasons. ... 3. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Facial Treatment. When you have pain in the jaws joints, it is often caused by the ... A facial treatment is available at our dental offices for a variety of reasons. Here are the facial services that many dentists ...
Cosmetic facial and body procedures. *Microsurgical breast reconstruction. *Scar revision. *Nerve pain ...
Ive had facial hair since like 12. Its a pain. I did have a lil spike thing going on on my chin... I had like 3 little spikes ... I posted mine like that on purpose, so that you could see, even fully zoomed in, that I have NO facial hair whatsoever. Plus ...
Jaw Pain / Clenching/ Grinding. Fibromyalgia. Used Retin -A within the past 10 days?. Heart condition. Epilepsy. Asthma. ...

No FAQ available that match "facial pain"