The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Parotid diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the parotid glands, which are the largest salivary glands located in the face, near the ears, and responsible for producing saliva.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Injuries to the lower jaw bone.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Fenestra or oval opening on the lateral wall of the vestibular labyrinth adjacent to the MIDDLE EAR. It is located above the cochlear round window and normally covered by the base of the STAPES.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.

Electrical stimulation as a therapeutic option to improve eyelid function in chronic facial nerve disorders. (1/372)

PURPOSE: To establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS: Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy were recruited into the study. Voluntary and spontaneous eyelid movements were assessed, using an optical measuring system, before, during, and after a 3-month treatment period. Voluntary and spontaneous lid velocities were also measured and compared with eyelid kinematic data in normal subjects (12 women, 18 men; age range, 22-56 years). RESULTS: Therapeutic electrical stimulation applied over 3 months produced improvement in eyelid movement (>2 mm) in 8 of 10 patients during voluntary eyelid closure. However, there was no significant improvement recorded in spontaneous blink amplitudes or peak downward-phase velocity of the upper eyelid. This regimen of stimulation failed to recover function well enough that a functional blink could be induced in the paretic eyelid by electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Electrical stimulation using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators units can improve voluntary eye closure, apparently because of a reduction in stiffness of eyelid mechanics, rather than an improvement of muscle function. Investigation of alternative stimulation regimens is warranted.  (+info)

Spontaneous CSF otorrhea caused by abnormal development of the facial nerve canal. (2/372)

In two patients with surgically proved CSF fistula through the facial nerve canal, MR and CT examinations showed smooth enlargement of the geniculate fossa with CSF signal. In the clinical setting of CSF otorrhea or rhinorrhea, the presence of an enlarged labyrinthine facial nerve canal and enlarged geniculate fossa on CT scans and CSF intensity on MR images strongly suggests a CSF fistula through the facial nerve canal.  (+info)

Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with brain stem enhancement. (3/372)

Postcontrast T1-weighted MR images in a patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome showed an enhancing lesion in the region of the nucleus of the pontine facial nerve and abnormal enhancement of the intrameatal, labyrinthine, and tympanic facial nerve segments and of the geniculate ganglion, as well as enhancement of the vestibulocochlear nerve and parts of the membranous labyrinth. This enhancement most probably resulted from a primary neuritis of the intrameatal nerve trunks of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves.  (+info)

Cardiac inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic actions of subretrofacial neurons of cat RVLM. (4/372)

The cardiac actions of microinjecting sodium glutamate (0.5-2 nmol) among sympathetic premotor neurons of the subretrofacial nucleus in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were studied in chloralose-anesthetized cats after bilateral vagotomy, sinoaortic denervation, adrenalectomy, and alpha1-receptor blockade. Glutamate microinjections increased heart rate by 25.9 +/- 1.8 beats/min (17. 5%), systolic rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (LVdP/dt) by 1,443 +/- 110 mmHg/s (119%), and arterial blood pressure by 26.9 +/- 1.7 mmHg (50%), whereas they shortened the electrocardiogram P-R interval in 85 of 103 cases by 7.5 +/- 1.2 ms (11.4%), triggering junctional rhythms on five occasions. The increase in LVdP/dt usually led the rise in blood pressure, and its magnitude greatly exceeded any increase attributable to changes in heart rate, diastolic filling, or afterload. Right-sided microinjections caused significantly greater tachycardias than did left-sided microinjections, but only left-sided microinjections triggered junctional rhythms (5 of 52 vs. 0 of 51; P < 0.05), whereas microinjections on either side raised LVdP/dt equally. Subretrofacial neurons thus drive positive chronotropic, inotropic, and dromotropic actions via the cardiac sympathetic nerves, whereas subsets among them preferentially control different aspects of cardiac function.  (+info)

Isolated dysarthria due to extracerebellar lacunar stroke: a central monoparesis of the tongue. (5/372)

OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of dysarthria can preferentially be studied in patients with the rare lacunar stroke syndrome of "isolated dysarthria". METHODS: A single study was carried out on seven consecutive patients with sudden onset of isolated dysarthria due to single ischaemic lesion. The localisation of the lesion was identified using MRI. The corticolingual, cortico-orofacial, and corticospinal tract functions were investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Corticopontocerebellar tract function was assessed using 99mTc hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-single photon emission computerised tomography (HMPAO-SPECT) in six patients. Sensory functions were evaluated clinically and by somatosensory evoked potentials. RESULTS: Brain MRI showed the lesions to be located in the corona radiata (n=4) and the internal capsule (n=2). No morphological lesion was identified in one patient. Corticolingual tract function was impaired in all patients. In four patients with additional cortico-orofacial tract dysfunction, dysarthria did not differ from that in patients with isolated corticolingual tract dysfunction. Corticospinal tract functions were normal in all patients. HMPAO-SPECT showed no cerebellar diaschisis, suggesting unimpaired corticopontocerebellar tract function. Sensory functions were not affected. CONCLUSION: Interruption of the corticolingual pathways to the tongue is crucial in the pathogenesis of isolated dysarthria after extracerebellar lacunar stroke.  (+info)

MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease. (6/372)

We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies.  (+info)

Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 control dorsoventral patterns of neuronal development in the rostral hindbrain. (7/372)

Little is known about how the generation of specific neuronal types at stereotypic positions within the hindbrain is linked to Hox gene-mediated patterning. Here, we show that during neurogenesis, Hox paralog group 2 genes control both anteroposterior (A-P) and dorsoventral (D-V) patterning. Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 differentially regulate, in a rhombomere-specific manner, the expression of several genes in broad D-V-restricted domains or narrower longitudinal columns of neuronal progenitors, immature neurons, and differentiating neuronal subtypes. Moreover, Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 can functionally synergize in controlling the development of ventral neuronal subtypes in rhombomere 3 (r3). Thus, in addition to their roles in A-P patterning, Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 have distinct and restricted functions along the D-V axis during neurogenesis, providing insights into how neuronal fates are assigned at stereotypic positions within the hindbrain.  (+info)

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve transection in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice. (8/372)

The immune system functions to protect an organism against microbial infections and may be involved in the reparative response to nerve injury. The goal of this study was to determine whether the immune system plays a role in regulating motoneuron survival after a peripheral nerve injury. After a right facial nerve axotomy, facial motoneuron (FMN) survival in C.B-17 (+/+) wild-type mice was found to be 87 +/- 3.0% of the unaxotomized left side control. In contrast, facial nerve axotomy in C.B-17 (-/-) severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice, lacking functional T and B lymphocytes, resulted in an average FMN survival of 55 +/- 3.5% relative to the unaxotomized left side control. This represented an approximately 40% decrease in FMN survival compared with wild-type controls. The reconstitution of scid mice with wild-type splenocytes containing T and B lymphocytes restored FMN survival in these mice to the level of the wild-type controls. These results suggest that immune cells associated with acquired immunity play a role in regulating motoneuron survival after a peripheral nerve injury.  (+info)

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

Facial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, eyelid movement, and taste sensation in the front two-thirds of the tongue.

There are two main types of facial nerve injuries:

1. Peripheral facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve outside the skull base, usually due to trauma from cuts, blunt force, or surgical procedures in the parotid gland or neck region. The injury may result in weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, known as Bell's palsy, and may also impact taste sensation and salivary function.

2. Central facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve within the skull base, often due to stroke, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries. Central facial nerve injuries typically result in weakness or paralysis only on the lower half of the face, as the upper motor neurons responsible for controlling the upper face receive innervation from both sides of the brain.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage. For mild to moderate injuries, physical therapy, protective eyewear, and medications like corticosteroids and antivirals may be prescribed. Severe cases might require surgical intervention, such as nerve grafts or muscle transfers, to restore function. In some instances, facial nerve injuries may heal on their own over time, particularly when the injury is mild and there is no ongoing compression or tension on the nerve.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

An acoustic neuroma, also known as vestibular schwannoma, is not actually a neuroma but rather a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops on the vestibular nerve. This nerve is one of the two nerves that transmit sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. The tumor arises from an overproduction of Schwann cells, which normally provide a protective covering for the nerve fibers. As the tumor grows, it can press against the hearing and balance nerves, causing symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), unsteadiness, and disequilibrium. In some cases, acoustic neuromas can become quite large and cause additional symptoms by pressing on nearby cranial nerves. Treatment options include observation, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of the tumor.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Bell palsy is a peripheral facial nerve palsy, which means that it is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerves (cranial nerve VII) that causes sudden asymmetric weakness on one side of the face. The symptoms can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face
* Drooping of the mouth, causing difficulty with smiling, eating, drinking, or speaking
* Inability to close one eye
* Dryness of the eye and mouth
* Changes in taste sensation
* Discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear
* Headache
* Increased sensitivity to sound

The exact cause of Bell palsy is not known, but it is believed to be related to inflammation or swelling of the facial nerve. It may also be associated with viral infections such as herpes simplex virus or HIV. In most cases, Bell palsy resolves on its own within a few weeks to months, although some people may experience residual symptoms such as facial weakness or asymmetry. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and antiviral medications, which can help reduce inflammation and speed up recovery.

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary, irregular contractions or twitching of the muscles on one side of the face. These spasms typically begin around the eye and may progress to involve the muscles of the lower face, including those around the mouth.

The primary cause of hemifacial spasm is pressure on or irritation of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) as it exits the brainstem, often due to a blood vessel or tumor. This pressure can lead to abnormal electrical signals in the facial nerve, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions.

In some cases, hemifacial spasm may be associated with other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Treatment options for hemifacial spasm include medications to help relax the muscles, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections to paralyze the affected muscles temporarily, and, in rare cases, surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

Facial asymmetry refers to a condition in which the facial features are not identical or proportionate on both sides of a vertical line drawn down the middle of the face. This can include differences in the size, shape, or positioning of facial features such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks, and jaw. Facial asymmetry can be mild and barely noticeable, or it can be more severe and affect a person's appearance and/or functionality of the mouth and jaw.

Facial asymmetry can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life due to various factors such as injury, surgery, growth disorders, nerve damage, or tumors. In some cases, facial asymmetry may not cause any medical problems and may only be of cosmetic concern. However, in other cases, it may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.

Depending on the severity and cause of the facial asymmetry, treatment options may include cosmetic procedures such as fillers or surgery, orthodontic treatment, physical therapy, or medication to address any underlying conditions.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrow space located at the junction of the brainstem and the cerebellum, where the pons and cerebellum meet. This region is filled with several important nerves, blood vessels, and membranous coverings called meninges. The CPA is a common site for various neurological disorders because it contains critical structures such as:

1. Cerebellum: A part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
2. Pons: A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in several vital functions, including facial movements, taste sensation, sleep regulation, and respiration.
3. Cranial nerves: The CPA is home to the following cranial nerves:
* Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This nerve has two components - cochlear and vestibular. The cochlear part is responsible for hearing, while the vestibular part contributes to balance and eye movement.
* Facial nerve (CN VII): This nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, salivary gland function, and lacrimation (tear production).
4. Blood vessels: The CPA contains critical blood vessels like the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which supplies blood to various parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cranial nerves.
5. Meninges: These are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In the CPA, the meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Disorders that can affect the structures in the cerebellopontine angle include acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas), meningiomas, epidermoids, and arteriovenous malformations. These conditions may cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), facial weakness or numbness, difficulty swallowing, and imbalance.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

Axotomy is a medical term that refers to the surgical cutting or severing of an axon, which is the long, slender projection of a neuron (nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body and toward other cells. Axons are a critical component of the nervous system, allowing for communication between different parts of the body.

Axotomy is often used in research settings to study the effects of axonal injury on neuronal function and regeneration. This procedure can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and potential therapies for nerve injuries. However, it is important to note that axotomy can also have significant consequences for the affected neuron, including changes in gene expression, metabolism, and overall survival.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

A nerve transfer is a surgical procedure where a functioning nerve is connected to an injured nerve to restore movement, sensation or function. The functioning nerve, called the donor nerve, usually comes from another less critical location in the body and has spare nerve fibers that can be used to reinnervate the injured nerve, called the recipient nerve.

During the procedure, a small section of the donor nerve is carefully dissected and prepared for transfer. The recipient nerve is also prepared by removing any damaged or non-functioning portions. The two ends are then connected using microsurgical techniques under a microscope. Over time, the nerve fibers from the donor nerve grow along the recipient nerve and reinnervate the muscles or sensory structures that were previously innervated by the injured nerve.

Nerve transfers can be used to treat various types of nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, facial nerve palsy, and peripheral nerve injuries. The goal of the procedure is to restore function as quickly and efficiently as possible, allowing for a faster recovery and improved quality of life for the patient.

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Eyelids are the thin folds of skin that cover and protect the front surface (cornea) of the eye when closed. They are composed of several layers, including the skin, muscle, connective tissue, and a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. The upper and lower eyelids meet at the outer corner of the eye (lateral canthus) and the inner corner of the eye (medial canthus).

The main function of the eyelids is to protect the eye from foreign particles, light, and trauma. They also help to distribute tears evenly over the surface of the eye through blinking, which helps to keep the eye moist and healthy. Additionally, the eyelids play a role in facial expressions and non-verbal communication.

Möbius syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by congenital facial palsy and abducens palsy, which are paralyses of the muscles that control lateral movement of the eye and facial expression. The condition is present at birth and is thought to be caused by underdevelopment of the cranial nerves (VI and VII) during embryonic development.

Individuals with Möbius syndrome may have a variety of symptoms, including:

* Inability to move the eyes from side to side
* Absent or weak facial expressions
* Difficulty with sucking, swallowing, and speaking
* Dental abnormalities
* Hearing loss
* Limb abnormalities

Möbius syndrome is typically diagnosed based on physical examination and medical history. There is no cure for the condition, but treatment may include physical therapy, speech therapy, and surgical interventions to improve function and appearance. The exact cause of Möbius syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic or environmental factors during fetal development.

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as the auditory-vestibular nerve or cranial nerve VIII, is a paired peripheral nerve that transmits sensory information from the inner ear to the brain. It has two distinct parts: the cochlear part and the vestibular part.

The cochlear part is responsible for hearing and transmits sound signals from the cochlea to the brain. The vestibular part, on the other hand, is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation by transmitting information about head movement and position from the vestibular apparatus (utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals) in the inner ear to the brain.

Together, these two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve play a crucial role in our ability to hear and maintain balance. Damage to this nerve can result in hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), or balance problems.

Herpes zoster oticus, also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2, is a viral infection that affects the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). It is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which is the same virus responsible for chickenpox. After an initial chickenpox infection, the virus can remain dormant in the body and later reactivate, causing herpes zoster oticus.

In this condition, the virus affects the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve, leading to inflammation and damage to the nerve fibers. This results in various symptoms, including:

1. Painful rash around the ear, on the face, or in the mouth
2. Facial weakness or paralysis on one side of the face
3. Hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), or vertigo (dizziness)
4. Loss of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
5. Difficulty closing one eye, leading to dryness and irritation

Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment, which typically involves antiviral medications and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and speed up recovery. Early treatment can help minimize the risk of complications, such as permanent facial nerve damage or hearing loss.

The middle ear is the middle of the three parts of the ear, located between the outer ear and inner ear. It contains three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains the Eustachian tube, which helps regulate air pressure in the middle ear and protects against infection by allowing fluid to drain from the middle ear into the back of the throat.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

The geniculate ganglion is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located in the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). It is responsible for the special sense of taste for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the sensation of skin over the external ear and parts of the face. The term "geniculate" means "knee-shaped," which describes the appearance of this part of the facial nerve.

Neuritis is a general term that refers to inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often causing pain, loss of function, and/or sensory changes. It can affect any part of the nervous system, including the peripheral nerves (those outside the brain and spinal cord) or the cranial nerves (those that serve the head and neck). Neuritis may result from various causes, such as infections, autoimmune disorders, trauma, toxins, or metabolic conditions. The specific symptoms and treatment depend on the underlying cause and the affected nerve(s).

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

Blinking is the rapid and repetitive closing and reopening of the eyelids. It is a normal physiological process that helps to keep the eyes moist, protected and comfortable by spreading tears over the surface of the eye and removing any foreign particles or irritants that may have accumulated on the eyelid or the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids).

Blinking is controlled by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which sends signals to the muscles that control the movement of the eyelids. On average, people blink about 15-20 times per minute, but this rate can vary depending on factors such as mood, level of attention, and visual tasks. For example, people tend to blink less frequently when they are concentrating on a visual task or looking at a screen, which can lead to dry eye symptoms.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

Parotid diseases refer to conditions that affect the parotid glands, which are the largest of the salivary glands and are located in front of each ear. These glands produce saliva that helps in digestion and keeps the mouth moist. Parotid diseases can cause swelling, pain, dry mouth, or difficulty swallowing, among other symptoms. Some common parotid diseases include:

1. Parotid gland infection (also called parotitis) - an inflammation of the parotid gland due to bacterial or viral infections.
2. Salivary gland stones (also called sialolithiasis) - calcified deposits that form in the salivary ducts and can block the flow of saliva.
3. Salivary gland tumors - abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and may require surgical removal.
4. Parotid gland inflammation (also called sialadenitis) - an inflammation of the parotid gland due to autoimmune disorders, radiation therapy, or dehydration.
5. Parotid gland cysts (also called ranula or mucocele) - fluid-filled sacs that form in the salivary gland or duct.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of parotid diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging studies, laboratory tests, and biopsies.

The ear canal, also known as the external auditory canal, is the tubular passage that extends from the outer ear (pinna) to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is lined with skin and tiny hairs, and is responsible for conducting sound waves from the outside environment to the middle and inner ear. The ear canal is typically about 2.5 cm long in adults and has a self-cleaning mechanism that helps to keep it free of debris and wax.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

Ankylosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal joining or fusion of bones, typically in a joint. This can occur as a result of various conditions such as injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. The fusion of bones can restrict movement and cause stiffness in the affected joint. In some cases, ankylosis can lead to deformity and disability if not treated promptly and effectively.

There are different types of ankylosis depending on the location and extent of bone fusion. For instance, when it affects the spine, it is called "ankylosing spondylitis," which is a chronic inflammatory disease that can cause stiffness and pain in the joints between the vertebrae.

Treatment for ankylosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, physical therapy or surgery may be necessary to restore mobility and function to the affected joint.

The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve (XI), has both a cranial and spinal component. It primarily controls the function of certain muscles in the back of the neck and shoulder.

The cranial part arises from nuclei in the brainstem and innervates some of the muscles that help with head rotation, including the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The spinal root originates from nerve roots in the upper spinal cord (C1-C5), exits the spine, and joins the cranial part to form a single trunk. This trunk then innervates the trapezius muscle, which helps with shoulder movement and stability.

Damage to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, causing symptoms such as difficulty turning the head, weak shoulder shrugging, or winged scapula (a condition where the shoulder blade protrudes from the back).

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyelids. These spasms can cause frequent blinkings, eye closure, and even difficulty in keeping the eyes open. In some cases, the spasms may be severe enough to interfere with vision, daily activities, and quality of life.

The exact cause of blepharospasm is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that controls movement. It can occur as an isolated condition (known as essential blepharospasm) or as a symptom of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.

Treatment options for blepharospasm may include medication, botulinum toxin injections, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of the spasms, improve symptoms, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) are a family of proteins that play an essential role in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). They were first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956. NGF is particularly crucial for the development and function of the peripheral nervous system, which connects the central nervous system to various organs and tissues throughout the body.

NGF supports the differentiation and survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons during embryonic development. In adults, NGF continues to regulate the maintenance and repair of these neurons, contributing to neuroplasticity – the brain's ability to adapt and change over time. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in pain transmission and modulation, as well as inflammatory responses.

Abnormal levels or dysfunctional NGF signaling have been associated with various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), chronic pain disorders, and certain cancers (e.g., small cell lung cancer). Therefore, understanding the role of NGF in physiological and pathological processes may provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a small secreted protein that is involved in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). It was the first neurotrophin to be discovered and is essential for the development and function of the nervous system. NGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of nerve cells and helps to promote their differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in various physiological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wound healing. Deficiencies or excesses of NGF have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and pain conditions.

The posterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the lower, back part of the cranial cavity. It is located between the occipital bone and the temporal bones, and it contains several important structures including the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and the lower cranial nerves (IX-XII). The posterior fossa also contains the foramen magnum, which is a large opening through which the spinal cord connects to the brainstem. This region of the skull is protected by the occipital bone, which forms the base of the skull and provides attachment for several neck muscles.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Mandibular injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the mandible, which is the lower part of the jawbone. These injuries can result from various causes, such as road accidents, physical assaults, sports-related impacts, or falls. Mandibular injuries may include fractures, dislocations, soft tissue damage, or dental injuries.

Symptoms of mandibular injuries might include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty speaking, chewing, or opening the mouth wide, and in some cases, visible deformity or misalignment of the jaw. Depending on the severity and type of injury, treatment options may range from conservative management with pain control and soft diet to surgical intervention for fracture reduction and fixation. Immediate medical attention is crucial to ensure proper diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and prevention of potential complications.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Vibrissae are stiff, tactile hairs that are highly sensitive to touch and movement. They are primarily found in various mammals, including humans (in the form of eyelashes and eyebrows), but they are especially prominent in certain animals such as cats, rats, and seals. These hairs are deeply embedded in skin and have a rich supply of nerve endings that provide the animal with detailed information about its environment. They are often used for detecting nearby objects, navigating in the dark, and maintaining balance.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

Retrograde degeneration is a medical term that refers to the process of degeneration or damage in neurons (nerve cells) that occurs backward from the site of injury or disease along the axon, which is the part of the neuron that transmits electrical signals to other neurons. This can lead to functional loss and may eventually result in the death of the neuron. Retrograde degeneration is often seen in neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in spinal cord injuries.

The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. It carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and sensory information from the oral cavity, including touch, temperature, and pain.

Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerve's intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It then travels through the middle ear, passing near the tympanic membrane (eardrum) before leaving the skull via the petrotympanic fissure. From there, it joins the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which carries the taste and sensory information to the brainstem for processing.

Clinically, damage to the chorda tympani nerve can result in loss of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and altered sensations in the oral cavity. This type of injury can occur during middle ear surgery or as a result of various medical conditions that affect the facial nerve or its branches.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Salivary ducts are the excretory tubules that transport saliva from the major and minor salivary glands to the oral cavity. The main function of these ducts is to convey the salivary secretions, which contain enzymes and lubricants, into the mouth to aid in digestion, speech, and swallowing.

There are two pairs of major salivary glands: the parotid glands and the submandibular glands. Each pair has its own set of ducts. The parotid gland's saliva is drained through the parotid duct, also known as Stensen's duct, which opens into the oral cavity opposite the upper second molar tooth. The submandibular gland's saliva is transported through the submandibular duct, or Wharton's duct, which empties into the floor of the mouth near the base of the tongue.

Minor salivary glands are scattered throughout the oral cavity and pharynx, and their secretions are drained via small ducts directly into the oral mucosa.

Parasympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the interruption or removal of part of the parasympathetic nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system. This type of surgery is typically performed to help manage certain medical conditions such as hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's disease, and some types of chronic pain.

The parasympathetic nervous system helps regulate many automatic functions in the body, including heart rate, digestion, and respiration. By interrupting or removing portions of this system, a parasympathectomy can help to reduce excessive sweating, improve circulation, or alleviate pain. However, it's important to note that this type of surgery carries risks and potential complications, and is typically only considered as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to reconstruct or repair the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and/or the small bones of the middle ear (ossicles). The primary goal of this surgery is to restore hearing, but it can also help manage chronic middle ear infections, traumatic eardrum perforations, or cholesteatoma (a skin growth in the middle ear).

During the procedure, a surgeon may use various techniques such as grafting tissue from another part of the body to rebuild the eardrum or using prosthetic materials to reconstruct the ossicles. The choice of technique depends on the extent and location of the damage. Tympanoplasty is typically an outpatient procedure, meaning patients can return home on the same day of the surgery.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

The oval window ( fenestra vestibuli ) is a small opening in the inner ear, specifically in the bony labyrinth of the temporal bone. It connects the middle ear to the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely to the vestibule. The oval window is covered by the base of the stapes, one of the three smallest bones in the human body, also known as the stirrup. This arrangement allows for the transmission of vibratory energy from the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to the inner ear, which is essential for hearing.

Otolaryngology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders related to the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and head and neck region. It's also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) specialty. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management of conditions such as hearing and balance disorders, nasal congestion, sinusitis, allergies, sleep apnea, snoring, swallowing difficulties, voice and speech problems, and head and neck tumors.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The ophthalmic nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve or CN I, is a sensory nerve that primarily transmits information about vision, including light intensity and color, and sensation in the eye and surrounding areas. It is responsible for the sensory innervation of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and nasal cavity. The ophthalmic nerve has three major branches: the lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, and nasociliary nerve. Damage to this nerve can result in various visual disturbances and loss of sensation in the affected areas.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Skull neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the skull. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various types of cells, such as bone cells, nerve cells, or soft tissues. Skull neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their size and location, including headaches, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, and neurological deficits. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It is important to note that a neoplasm in the skull can also refer to metastatic cancer, which has spread from another part of the body to the skull.

Hypoglossal nerve injuries refer to damages or impairments to the twelfth cranial nerve, also known as the hypoglossal nerve. This nerve is primarily responsible for controlling the movements of the tongue.

An injury to this nerve can result in various symptoms, depending on the severity and location of the damage. These may include:

1. Deviation of the tongue to one side when protruded (usually away from the side of the lesion)
2. Weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles
3. Difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and articulation
4. Changes in taste and sensation on the back of the tongue (in some cases)

Hypoglossal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgical complications, tumors, or neurological disorders like stroke or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypoglossal nerve injuries typically focuses on managing symptoms and may involve speech and language therapy, exercises to strengthen the tongue muscles, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Nerve tissue, also known as neural tissue, is a type of specialized tissue that is responsible for the transmission of electrical signals and the processing of information in the body. It is a key component of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Nerve tissue is composed of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons are the primary functional units of nerve tissue. They are specialized cells that are capable of generating and transmitting electrical signals, known as action potentials. Neurons have a unique structure, with a cell body (also called the soma) that contains the nucleus and other organelles, and processes (dendrites and axons) that extend from the cell body and are used to receive and transmit signals.

Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons. There are several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and Schwann cells. These cells play a variety of roles in the nervous system, such as providing structural support, maintaining the proper environment for neurons, and helping to repair and regenerate nerve tissue after injury.

Nerve tissue is found throughout the body, but it is most highly concentrated in the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body, also contain nerve tissue. Nerve tissue is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain, controlling muscle movements, and regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Metrizamide is a contrast medium used in myelography, discography, and angiography to enhance the visibility of structures during X-ray or other radiological examinations. It's an ionic, water-soluble, non-ionic, monomeric contrast agent that belongs to the class of agents called triiodinated benzoic acid derivatives.

When administered, Metrizamide mixes with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and provides a clear image of the spinal cord and surrounding structures during myelography. It can also be used in discography to help diagnose disc-related pain by outlining the structure of intervertebral discs.

It's important to note that Metrizamide has been largely replaced by other contrast agents due to its potential side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and in rare cases, brain damage or death.

Parotitis is the medical term for inflammation of the parotid gland, which is one of the major salivary glands located in the face, near the ear. The condition can result from various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Parotitis can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. In some cases, it may also lead to fever, chills, and general malaise. The diagnosis of parotitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes imaging studies or laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific cause but may include antibiotics, pain relievers, hydration, and measures to improve salivary flow.

Facial transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves replacing all or part of a patient's face with facial tissue from a deceased donor. The procedure typically includes the skin, muscles, nerves, and bones of the face, and may also include the eyes and eyelids, ears, and tongue. Facial transplantation is performed to significantly improve the appearance and function of a person's face, usually in cases where the patient has suffered severe facial trauma or disfigurement due to burns, cancer, or other medical conditions.

The procedure requires extensive planning, coordination, and expertise from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, transplant specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychiatrists, and rehabilitation therapists. The surgery itself can take up to 30 hours or more, depending on the extent of the transplant.

Following the procedure, patients must undergo rigorous immunosuppressive therapy to prevent their immune system from rejecting the donor tissue. This involves taking medications that weaken the immune system and make the patient more susceptible to infections and other complications. Despite these risks, facial transplantation has been shown to significantly improve the quality of life for some patients who have undergone the procedure.

... and facial nerve (yellow). Head facial nerve branches Facial nerve. Deep dissection. List of medical mnemonics#Anatomy List of ... The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve VII, or simply CN VII, is a cranial nerve that emerges ... Facial nerve decompression surgery is also sometimes carried out in certain cases of facial nerve compression. Voluntary facial ... abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve). The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic ...
... the facial nerve can be reinnervated with techniques such as cross-facial nerve grafting, nerve transfers and end-to-end nerve ... Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The ... If nerve conduction studies show a large (>90%) change in nerve conduction, the nerve should be decompressed. The facial ... Moebius syndrome is a bilateral facial paralysis resulting from the underdevelopment of the VII cranial nerve (facial nerve), ...
... is a type of nerve decompression surgery where abnormal compression on the facial nerve is relieved ... Facial nerve compression is often due to edema (swelling) of the nerve and marked vascular congestion. Reason for the facial ... Tumour of facial nerve like schwannomas and perineuromas. Other tumours that can compress facial nerve along its course like ... facial nerve Abscess and tumours of parotid gland can cause compression of motor part of the facial nerve resulting in facial ...
It frequently arises from the facial nerve (CN VII) in common with the digastric branch of facial nerve. It is long and slender ... The stylohyoid branch of facial nerve provides motor innervation to the stylohyoid muscle. ... "stylohyoid branch of facial nerve". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2023-08-04. Gray, Henry (1918). Gray's Anatomy (20th ed ... Facial nerve, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
It branches from the facial nerve (CN VII) near to the stylomastoid foramen as the CN VII exits the facial canal (it thus ... "digastric branch of facial nerve". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2023-08-04. Standring, Susan (2020). Gray's Anatomy: The ... The digastric branch of facial nerve provides motor innervation to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. ... branches proximal to the parotid plexus of facial nerve). It commonly arises in common with the stylohyoid branch of facial ...
The cervical branch of the facial nerve is a nerve in the neck. It is a branch of the facial nerve (VII). It supplies the ... The cervical branch of the facial nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (VII). It runs forward beneath the platysma muscle, and ... Facial nerve dissection. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 905 of the 20th edition of Gray's ... The lateral part of the cervical branch of the facial nerve supplies the platysma muscle. Lateral head anatomy detail Lateral ...
... and join with filaments of the buccinator branch of the mandibular nerve. The facial nerve innervates the muscles of facial ... The buccal branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), are of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass ... "Branches of Facial Nerve (CN VII)" lesson4 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (parotid3) ... Buccal nerve Lateral head anatomy detail Lateral head anatomy detail.Dissection the newborn This article incorporates text in ...
The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve are branches of the facial nerve (CN VII). They run across the zygomatic bone to the ... The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) are nerves of the face. They run across the zygomatic bone to the ... The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve have many nerve connections. Along their course, there may be connections with the ... buccal branches of the facial nerve. They join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial nerve from the ...
The temporal branches of the facial nerve (frontal branch of the facial nerve) crosses the zygomatic arch to the temporal ... To test the function of the temporal branches of the facial nerve, a patient is asked to frown and wrinkle their forehead. ... Anatomy photo:23:06-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Branches of Facial Nerve (CN VII)" lesson4 at The Anatomy ... Lateral head anatomy detail Lateral head anatomy detail.Dissection the newborn Lateral head anatomy detail.Facial nerve ...
The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve (CN VII) in the parotid gland at the parotid ... The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve is found superficial to the facial artery and (anterior) facial vein. Thus ... An injury to this nerve during a surgical procedure can distort the expression of the smile as well as other facial expressions ... ISBN 978-0-443-06952-9. Batra APS, Mahajan A, Gupta K. Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study. ...
It transmits the facial nerve (CN VII) (after which it is named). The facial canal gives passage to the facial nerve (CN VII) ( ... The facial nerve gives rise to three nerves while passing through the canal: the greater petrosal nerve, nerve to stapedius, ... Prominence of the facial canal labeled at top, fourth from the left. Facial nerve Prominence of the facial canal Hiatus of the ... The facial canal may be interrupted in some people. This may lead to the facial nerve being split into 2 or 3 fibres, or it may ...
Facial nerve dissection. List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system hednk-022-Embryo Images at University ...
Barral, Jean Pierre; Croibier, Alain (2009). "19 - Facial nerve". Manual therapy for the cranial nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill ... The anterior auricular muscle is supplied is supplied by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (VII). It may also receive ... some small branches from the auriculotemporal nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve ... Barral, Jean-Pierre; Croibier, Alain (2009). "25 - Ear". Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill ...
"Facial Nerve Grading Scale 2.0" (FNGS2.0) was proposed in 2009. House JW, Brackmann DE (1985). "Facial nerve grading system". ... The House-Brackmann score is a score to grade the degree of nerve damage in a facial nerve palsy. The measurement is determined ... April 2009). "Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140 (4): 445-50. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2008.12.031. ... It is one of a number of facial nerve scoring systems, such as Burres-Fisch, Nottingham, Sunnybrook, and Yanagihara. Of these, ...
... facial nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerve; en, epiphyseal nerve; fb, forebrain ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV +vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; ... a large epyphysial nerve (found in creatures with a parietal eye on the top of the head), an enlarged pituitary gland, and an ...
Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae). Circumvallate papillae - there ... Innervated by facial nerve. Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found at ... The nerve fibrils after losing their medullary sheaths enter the taste bud, and end in fine extremities between the gustatory ... They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands, and are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. Filiform papillae - the ...
Facial nerve". In Barral JP, Croibier A (eds.). Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pp. ... The facial nerve passes close to the mastoid process. The inner surface of the mastoid portion presents a deep, curved groove, ... Diseases of the Seventh Cranial Nerve". In Dyck PJ, Thomas PK (eds.). Peripheral Neuropathy (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. ...
The hypoglossal nerve may be connected (anastomosed) to the facial nerve to attempt to restore function when the facial nerve ... partially connecting nerve fibres from the hypoglossal nerve to the facial nerve may be used when there is focal facial nerve ... The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the twelfth cranial nerve, cranial nerve XII, or simply CN XII, is a cranial nerve that ... For example, damage to the left and right hypoglossal nerves may occur with damage to the facial and trigeminal nerves as a ...
The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens nerve (VI) Other Trigeminal neuralgia - Trigeminal nerve (V) Facial nerve ... Facial nerve (VII) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A., & Arampatzi, M. (2011). Facial ... The most common cause of this cranial nerve damage is Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial palsy) which is a paralysis of the facial ...
If the nerve cells affected lie within the facial nerves, it causes the symptoms described above. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2 ... Permanent facial paralysis of some or all of the affected facial nerves Corneal abrasion and/or ulcers if proper care is not ... Acute symptoms include: acute facial nerve paralysis pain in the ear, jaw and/or neck taste loss in the front two-thirds of the ... In regard to the frequency, less than 1% of varicella zoster infections involve the facial nerve and result in RHS. It is ...
Abnormal course of the facial nerve. Skull base abnormalities Hypoplasia of the petrous temporal bone. Hypoplastic and ... with Congenital labyrinthine aplasia Evaluation for cochlear implantation in patients who have cochleovestibular nerve and a ...
SMAS Facial musculature Facial nerve A dissection in the deep plane can mostly be performed safely, because the facial nerve ... The most injured motor nerve is the facial nerve. Skin necrosis can occur after a facelift operation. Smoking increases the ... As a sensory nerve, the great auricular nerve is the most common nerve to get injured at a facelift procedure. ... complications may include damage to the facial nerves and necrosis of the skin flaps or infection. Although the facial plastic ...
1983). Facial nerve surgery in children. Indian J Pediatr. 50:643-6. Choudhury P, Deka RC & Puri RK. (1981). An unusual foreign ... 1988). Facial palsy and mastoid surgery. Ear Nose Throat J. 67:531-6. Tandon DA, Deka RC, Chaudhary C & Misra NK. (1988). Giant ... 2001). Tuberculosis of the maxillary sinus manifesting as a facial abscess. Ear Nose Throat J. 81:102-4. Thakar A, Anjaneyulu C ...
Wright H, Waddington C, Geddes J, Newburger JW, Burgner D (September 2008). "Facial nerve palsy complicating Kawasaki disease ... Other neurological complications from cranial nerve involvement are reported as ataxia, facial palsy, and sensorineural hearing ...
Tetzlaff (1989). "Neurofilament elongation into regenerating facial nerve axons". Neuroscience. 29 (3): 659-666. doi:10.1016/ ... Treatments of the nerve in this temperature range are reversible. Nerves treated in this temperature range experience a ... Treatments of the nerve in this temperature range are irreversible. Nerves treated in this temperature range experience a ... The axons of myelinated nerves have a myelin sheath made up of Schwann cells that coat the axon. Classification of nerve damage ...
"Bell's Palsy & Other Facial Nerve Problems". 2020. Shevell M (December 2018). "Cerebral palsy to cerebral palsy spectrum ... Surgery may include lengthening muscles and cutting overly active nerves. Often, external braces and Lycra splints and other ... and oral articulation disorders that are due to restricted movement in the oral-facial muscles. There are three major types of ...
Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves and their communication with other nerves. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II "genu-, geni ... Motor fibers are carried via the facial nerve proper. The greater petrosal nerve, which carries preganglionic parasympathetic ... is a collection of pseudounipolar sensory neurons of the facial nerve located in the facial canal of the head. It receives ... The motor fibers of the facial nerve proper and parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular and pterygopalatine ganglia do not ...
Branches of the facial nerve, particularly the buccal branches, pass upwards over the medial palpebral ligament to reach the ... Nemoto, Yuji; Sekino, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Hiroyuki (2001-09-01). "Facial Nerve Anatomy in Eyelids and Periorbit". Japanese ... "A new surgical technique for ocular fixation in congenital third nerve palsy". Journal of American Association for Pediatric ...
It is innervated by the facial nerve. In humans, the occipitofrontalis helps to create facial expressions. The ... The occipitofrontalis muscle is innervated by the facial nerve. Branches of the supraorbital nerve pass through the ... Damage to the facial nerve can cause atony of the occipitofrontalis muscle. In humans, the occipitofrontalis only serves for ... It inserts in the fascia of the facial muscles and in the skin above the eyes and nose. Some sources consider the occipital and ...
There can also be facial nerve weakness. Balance symptoms in the presence of a cholesteatoma raise the possibility that the ... Both the acquired as well as the congenital types of the disease can affect the facial nerve that extends from the brain to the ... A high facial ridge and an inappropriately small cartilaginous meatus are obstructions to epithelial migration and are ... Wormald PJ, Nilssen EL (January 1998). "The facial ridge and the discharging mastoid cavity". The Laryngoscope. 108 (1 Pt 1): ...
... and facial nerve (yellow). Head facial nerve branches Facial nerve. Deep dissection. List of medical mnemonics#Anatomy List of ... The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve VII, or simply CN VII, is a cranial nerve that emerges ... Facial nerve decompression surgery is also sometimes carried out in certain cases of facial nerve compression. Voluntary facial ... abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve). The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic ...
This syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis with the presence of acute peripheral facial nerve palsy and/or ... facial edema due to its behavior and progressive evolution. ... Recurrent peripheral facial nerve palsy] Rev Alerg Mex. 2020 ... Case report: We present the case of a nine-year-old girl with recurrent episodes of peripheral facial nerve palsy. During the ... Background: Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized, in its full form, by recurrent facial nerve ...
This article informs the reader about the extracranial etiology of facial nerve paralysis and its current reconstructive ... are based on the ability to move facial musculature-be it voluntary or involuntary-successful treatment of facial nerve ... Surgery for Acute Facial Nerve Palsy. Acute facial nerve palsy (injury not older than 1y) must be subclassified as acute nerve ... Facial reanimation after facial nerve injury using hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis: the gruppo otologico experience. ...
Barbara Marin will present Biomaterials Strategies for Facial Nerve Repair at The Miami Projects Wednesday Seminar Series - ... Biomaterials Strategies for Facial Nerve Repair: Barbara Marin. Barbara Marin. Neuroscience Ph.D. Candidate. Dr. Courtney ...
If you have pain and discomfort from a facial nerve disorder, Northwestern Medicine can ensure your problem is corrected ... What Are Facial Nerve Disorders?. The facial nerve is a nerve that controls the muscles on the side of your face, allowing you ... reconstruct or repair facial nerves to treat a number of facial nerve disorders, including Bell palsy, paralysis, spasm or ... When you injure the facial nerve, you may experience facial muscle paralysis, weakness or twitching of your face. Symptoms of a ...
Facial Nerve Palsy - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Idiopathic facial nerve palsy is sudden, unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy. Symptoms of facial nerve palsy are ... Prognosis for Facial Nerve Palsy In idiopathic facial nerve palsy, the extent of nerve damage determines outcome. If some ... Etiology of Facial Nerve Palsy Historically, Bell palsy was thought to be idiopathic facial nerve (peripheral 7th cranial nerve ...
The facial nerve service helps patients with facial weakness and disorders of the facial nerve. ... Facial nerve service. About the facial nerve service. The facial nerve service helps patients with facial weakness and ... disorders of the facial nerve.. The service is provided by a team of facial therapists, ear nose and throat (ENT)/skull base ... A video record may also be made of your childs facial nerve function. ...
This article informs the reader about the extracranial etiology of facial nerve paralysis and its current reconstructive ... are based on the ability to move facial musculature-be it voluntary or involuntary-successful treatment of facial nerve ... Surgery for Acute Facial Nerve Palsy. Acute facial nerve palsy (injury not older than 1y) must be subclassified as acute nerve ... Facial reanimation after facial nerve injury using hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis: the gruppo otologico experience. ...
We report a case of complete facial nerve palsy during a mandibular nerve block anesthesia in a 63-year-old woman. The full ... Facial nerve palsy has many etiologies, such as viruses, facial trauma, iatrogenesis, tumors, idiopathic conditions, cerebral ... AZENHA, Marcelo Rodrigues; SICCHIERI, Luciana; OLIVEIRA NETO, Patrício José de e ROSA, Adalberto Luiz. Facial nerve palsy after ... Revista de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Buco-maxilo-facial. versão On-line ISSN 1808-5210. Resumo. ...
Clinical Disorders of the facial nerve. Tests of facial nerve function NB: This summary is my own work, free for distribution ... Downoad these files, it summarizes facial nerve section in last Cummings textbook edition ...
... or cranial nerve (CN) VII, is the nerve of facial expression. The pathways of the facial nerve are variable, and knowledge of ... The facial nerve, or cranial nerve (CN) VII, is the nerve of facial expression. The pathways of the facial nerve are variable, ... Extratemporal Facial Nerve. The facial nerve exits the facial canal via the stylomastoid foramen. The nerve travels between the ... The facial nerve innervates all of the muscles of facial expression. Of these, the facial nerve innervates 14 of the 17 paired ...
The physicians point out that this is a typical patient with facial nerve paralysis. Typical facial nerve paralysis patients do ... One day, when he got up, he found his left facial muscles had become numb, the left forehead wrinkles disappeared, his mouth ... of patients will suffer from permanent facial paralysis due to the lack of treatment. ...
Facial paralysis means that a person is no longer able to move some or all of the muscles on one or both sides of the face. ... Facial paralysis means that a person is no longer able to move some or all of the muscles on one or both sides of the face. ... Facial paralysis is almost always caused by:. *Damage or swelling of the facial nerve, which carries signals from the brain to ... In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell palsy. This is a condition in which the facial nerve ...
Facial Nerve Monitors * 2001/viewarticle/972968. Why Are Numbers of Women, Minorities So Low in Cardiac EP? ...
Cranial Nerves. This continuing eduction course is an overview of the cranial nerves with special emphasis on the branches that ... Learn about the Facial Nerve - Main Trunk in Head and Neck Anatomy: Part III - ... Facial Nerve - Main Trunk. Figure 24. Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve (main trunk) ... The mandibular nerve branch is only sensory and the facial nerve branch is only motor. So just remember if you are doing a ...
Vagus nerve. +. +. +. +. +. Facial nerve. −. −. −. −. −. Hypoglossal nerve. −. −. −. −. −. Phrenic nerve. −. +. +. +. +. ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues Yoshifumi Iwamaru. , Morikazu Imamura, Yuichi Matsuura, ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. ...
During recovery, a person may experience swelling around the facial nerve. This may cause temporary facial paralysis, ... damage to the facial nerve. The translabyrinthine approach is hearing-destructive, which means the procedure results in hearing ... Research has also found good outcomes for facial nerves in 85% of people and no mortality. ... Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) develops when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. Learn more here. ...
Optimal electrode placement in facial nerve conduction study.. Han, T R; Chung, S G; Kwon, Y W. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol ... designed to determine the optimal sites for the active electrode in a nerve conduction study of each branch of the facial nerve ... Eletrodos Eletrodiagnóstico/instrumentação Nervo Facial/fisiologia Condução Nervosa/fisiologia Adulto Estimulação Elétrica ...
View other providers who treat Facial Nerve Disorder Hereditary Amyloidosis * View other providers who treat Hereditary ... Nerve Root Injury and Plexus Disorders (incl. Pinched Nerve) * View other providers who treat Nerve Root Injury and Plexus ...
This surgery may help you to get ride of facial tumors. ... Video shows a facial cancer surgery in India by the expert ... Facial Surgery Video. 05:12 , 4700 views Watch VIDEO. 6177 views Saving The Facial Nerve During Parotid Gl .... 08:08 , 6177 ... Tags: Facial cancer surgery in India can help you to get rid of facial tumors ... Video shows a facial cancer surgery in India by the expert doctors. This surgery may help you to get ride of facial tumors. ...
There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area. ... It cannot affect toxin bound to nerve endings. A single intramuscular dose of 500 units is generally recommended for children ... cranial nerve disorders, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ...
Damage to the facial nerve can cause a secondary hemifacial spasm. This can occur when the facial nerve does not grow back ... Facial twitching in hemifacial spasms is caused by abnormal activity of the facial nerve - the seventh cranial nerve. ... When an irritated facial nerve discharges, it sends signals to different parts of the nerve along its pathway, causing spasms ... This disorder causes sudden, chronic facial pain and hemifacial spasms because the facial and trigeminal nerves are both ...
Facial Fracture. *Facial Nerve Disease. *Facial Nerve Injury. *Facial Nerve Schwannoma. *Facial Pain ...
Facial Paralysis and Nerve Disorders *Facial Paralysis Causes *Causes of Facial Paralysis ... Facial Paralysis and Nerve Disorders * * *Facial Paralysis Causes. *Understanding Bells Palsy: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment ... Facial Paralysis and Nerve Disorders * * *Facial Paralysis Causes. *Understanding Bells Palsy: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment ... Bells palsy is a form of facial paralysis that occurs as an inflammation of the facial nerve. There is no known reason for ...
The highest success rates are reported with chronic back conditions; facial nerve paralysis; chronic diarrhea; asthma; allergic ... These receptors then stimulate nerves that transmit impulses from the outer body to the central nervous system and then to the ... Electroacupuncture, which uses low-voltage electricity to revive paralysed or damaged nerves. ... is a domino effect throughout the body that goes from increasing circulation to relieving muscle spasms and stimulating nerves ...
... designed to avoid the sensitive facial nerves. The unique flash position helps inhibi... ... designed to avoid the sensitive facial nerves. The unique flash position helps inhibit evasion of the bit without impeding free ...
Co-director of Facial Nerve Center, Co-director of FPRS Fellowship Program, Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeon, ... OHSU Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic, South Waterfront At OHSUs Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery division, our team of ... Providers at OHSU Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic, South Waterfront * * Myriam Loyo Li, MD, MCR ... board-certified surgeons provides expertise in facial cosmetic surgery, facial reconstruction, and rehabilitation. ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, ... Nerve growth factor induces facial heat hyperalgesia and plays a role in trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats. Behav. Pharmacol. ... Nerve growth factor induces facial heat hyperalgesia and plays a role in trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats. Behav. Pharmacol. ... Nerve safety of tanezumab, a nerve growth factor inhibitor for pain treatment. J. Neurol. Sci. 345:139-47 [Google Scholar] ...
Complement activation and CD59 expression in the motor facial nucleus following intracranial transection of the facial nerve in ... Nimodipine promotes regeneration and functional recovery after intracranial facial nerve crush. Mattsson P; Janson AM; ... Extensive neuronal cell death following intracranial transection of the facial nerve in the adult rat. ... Motor neuronal and glial apoptosis in the adult facial nucleus after intracranial nerve transection. ...
  • Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized, in its full form, by recurrent facial nerve palsy, fissured tongue, and orofacial edema. (nih.gov)
  • We present the case of a nine-year-old girl with recurrent episodes of peripheral facial nerve palsy. (nih.gov)
  • This syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis with the presence of acute peripheral facial nerve palsy and/or facial edema due to its behavior and progressive evolution. (nih.gov)
  • If you are coping with the pain and discomfort of a facial nerve disorder, you will find comfort in knowing that the board-certified surgeons at Northwestern Medicine can graft, reconstruct or repair facial nerves to treat a number of facial nerve disorders, including Bell palsy, paralysis, spasm or neuralgia. (nm.org)
  • Facial nerve (7th cranial nerve) palsy is often idiopathic (formerly called Bell palsy). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Idiopathic facial nerve palsy is sudden, unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of facial nerve palsy are hemifacial paresis of the upper and lower face. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment may include lubrication of the eye, intermittent use of an eye patch, and, for idiopathic facial nerve palsy, corticosteroids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Historically, Bell palsy was thought to be idiopathic facial nerve (peripheral 7th cranial nerve) palsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, facial nerve palsy is now considered a clinical syndrome with its own differential diagnosis, and the term "Bell palsy" is not always considered synonymous with idiopathic facial nerve palsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About half the cases of facial nerve palsy are idiopathic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The mechanism for what was previously thought to be idiopathic facial nerve palsy is presumably swelling of the facial nerve due to an immune or viral disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Lyme disease can cause facial nerve palsy that, unlike Bell palsy, may be bilateral. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Particularly in African-Americans, sarcoidosis is a common cause of facial nerve palsy and may be bilateral. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, peripheral lesions (facial nerve palsy) tend to affect the upper face more than central lesions (eg, stroke) do. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pain behind the ear often precedes facial paresis in idiopathic facial nerve palsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Gadolinium-enhanced MRI was used to evaluate 10 patients with Bell's palsy and one patient with facial paralysis secondary to Lyme disease. (qxmd.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy has many etiologies, such as viruses, facial trauma, iatrogenesis, tumors, idiopathic conditions, cerebral infarction and pseudobulbar palsy, as a result of which it is rarely observed during dental treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report a case of complete facial nerve palsy during a mandibular nerve block anesthesia in a 63-year-old woman. (bvsalud.org)
  • Facial nerve paralysis or Bell's Palsy results in weakness of the facial muscles on one side of the face. (remagin.com)
  • In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell palsy . (medlineplus.gov)
  • If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, surgery may be recommended to help the eye close and improve the appearance of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There needs traumatic facial nerve palsy treatment in Delhi NCR if the facial nerve gets affected and surgery performed immediately in order for the individual to recover without any further damage. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • If there is a known cause for this damage like trauma, then it's called Traumatic facial nerve palsy. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Sometimes facial nerve is paralyzed since birth, in such a case it is called congenital facial nerve palsy. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Since I am based in Delhi NCR (Noida), I get referrals from all over India for facial nerve palsy treatment. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • I also do free muscle transfer with nerve repair if needed for facial nerve palsy treatment. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • However, some cases may have long standing palsy with some deficits of facial nerve. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • In such cases I use sling procedures or free muscle transfers for facial nerve palsy treatment. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy may present itself after cancer resections of CPA angle tumors or parotid gland tumors. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Old cases of facial palsy following cancer procedures will need sling procedures or free muscle transfers. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Delhi is a hub for medical treatment and research, and I treat facial nerve palsy after cancer removal also. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • frankly I am still to come across such a patient with congenital facial nerve palsy in my practice. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • These facial palsy patients need sling procedures and functional muscle transfers. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • I am Dr. Deepak Rathore, I am a plastic surgeon, and we do a lot of nerve palsy treatment in Delhi and Delhi NCR regions Especially Noida and Greater Noida. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • If you or your relative is suffering from a facial nerve palsy you can contact my clinic in Noida for help. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Cranial nerve disorders Bell's palsy (facial paralysis) ,Trigeminal Neuralgi. (slideshare.net)
  • However, if during any anesthetic administration one injects into the capsule of the parotid gland the patient will experience transient Bell's palsy as that affliction is caused by lack of function in the facial nerve serving the muscles of facial expression. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Complications from their infections included permanent tooth loss, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and incision fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Because speech, mastication, and expression of moods and emotions are based on the ability to move facial musculature-be it voluntary or involuntary-successful treatment of facial nerve paralysis is a vital concern. (medscape.com)
  • This article informs the reader about the extracranial etiology of facial nerve paralysis and its current reconstructive options. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The diagram below presents a treatment algorithm for facial nerve paralysis according to facial region involvement. (medscape.com)
  • Grade VI in the classification is total facial paralysis. (medscape.com)
  • The keystone of successful surgical treatment for facial paralysis, the details of facial nerve anatomy , is recapitulated briefly to review topographic anatomy of the facial nerve and to enable the physician to localize the suspected site of injury. (medscape.com)
  • When you injure the facial nerve, you may experience facial muscle paralysis, weakness or twitching of your face. (nm.org)
  • MRI of the facial nerve during paralysis. (qxmd.com)
  • Gadolinium is effective in localizing the site of inflammation during facial paralysis. (qxmd.com)
  • The disorder, which is not related to stroke, is the most common cause of facial paralysis. (ent-surgery.com.au)
  • This article informs the reader about the extracranial etiology of facial nerve paralysis and its current reconstructive options.The diagram below presents a treatment algorithm for facial nerve paralysis according to facial region involvement. (medscape.com)
  • Midface lifting can help provide support as well as improve cosmesis due to the facial paralysis. (remagin.com)
  • Facial paralysis can be variable in its manifestation and so the surgical plan must be tailored to the individual patient. (remagin.com)
  • It is characterized by acute isolated unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. (drsharadent.com)
  • The physicians point out that this is a typical patient with facial nerve paralysis. (gov.taipei)
  • Typical facial nerve paralysis patients do not necessarily have twitching eyelids. (gov.taipei)
  • He expresses that about 90% of patients will recover slowly after treatment, but about 10% of patients will suffer from permanent facial paralysis due to the lack of treatment. (gov.taipei)
  • This will prevent facial nerve paralysis from affecting you. (gov.taipei)
  • Facial paralysis means that a person is no longer able to move some or all of the muscles on one or both sides of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stroke may cause facial paralysis that comes on rapidly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Facial paralysis that is due to a brain tumor usually develops slowly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In newborns, facial paralysis may be caused by trauma during birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Facial nerve paralysis after an injury is sometimes the result of trauma, or there could be some other underlying reasons that lead to a weakened facial nerve. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Four months after initial assessment, we repeated the syndrome, and 1 had scapular winging and shoulder neurologic examinations, and patients or family members abduction weakness consistent with a long thoracic nerve completed a self-administered questionnaire that gathered paralysis. (cdc.gov)
  • It arises from the brainstem from an area posterior to the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) and anterior to cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of topography, the facial and intermedius nerves course from the posterior pontine area ventrally, passing through the facial canal together with the vestibulocochlear nerve. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, the vestibulocochlear nerve is the cranial nerve that helps you hear your favorite song, so then you can use your facial nerve to smile when you hear it. (osmosis.org)
  • The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve VII, or simply CN VII, is a cranial nerve that emerges from the pons of the brainstem, controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) carries motor, secretory, and afferent fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • thus, they can be considered cranial nerve disorders, neuro-ophthalmologic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The facial muscles are innervated peripherally (infranuclear innervation) by the ipsilateral 7th cranial nerve and centrally (supranuclear innervation) by the contralateral cerebral cortex. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The facial nerve, or cranial nerve (CN) VII, is the nerve of facial expression. (medscape.com)
  • This benign tumor develops on the eighth cranial nerve, which travels from the inner ear to the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Treatment for facial nerve disorders varies greatly from patient to patient and from one condition to another. (nm.org)
  • The facial nerve service helps patients with facial weakness and disorders of the facial nerve. (evelinalondon.nhs.uk)
  • Facial Nerve Disorders and Diseases: Diagnosis and Management,' recently published by Thieme, is a complete guide to the basic science, diagnosis, testing, and treatment of facial nerve disorders and diseases. (pr.com)
  • Nerve Root Injury and Plexus Disorders (incl. (sharecare.com)
  • The facial nerve then enters the parotid gland between the stylohyoid and digastric muscle. (medscape.com)
  • From there the facial nerve enters the parotid gland and even while it is surrounded by the gland, it does not innervate it. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The labyrinthine segment is very short, and ends where the facial nerve forms a bend known as the geniculum of the facial nerve (genu meaning knee), which contains the geniculate ganglion for sensory nerve bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first branch of the facial nerve, the greater petrosal nerve, arises here from the geniculate ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The communicating branch to the otic ganglion arises at the geniculate ganglion and joins the lesser petrosal nerve to reach the otic ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies for the afferent nerves are found in the geniculate ganglion for taste sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the facial nerve runs anterior obliquely, remaining separate from the intermedius nerve and unifying at the next level, the geniculate ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Afferent fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue enter the geniculate ganglion with the chorda tympani, as the greater and lesser petrosal nerve emerge from the superior part. (medscape.com)
  • If the nerve lesion is proximal to the geniculate ganglion, salivation, taste, and lacrimation may be impaired, and hyperacusis may be present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In all nine patients, the facial nerve was involved at the labyrinthine, geniculate ganglion and proximal tympanic portions of the facial nerve, while two of the nine patients also had involvement of the mastoid segment of the facial nerve. (qxmd.com)
  • Patients whose facial nerve enhancement was limited to the labyrinthine, geniculate ganglion and proximal tympanic facial nerve ultimately had complete return of facial function. (qxmd.com)
  • Those patients with enhancement localized to the labyrinthine, geniculate ganglion and proximal tympanic segments were more likely to regain complete facial function. (qxmd.com)
  • The geniculate ganglion, nervus intermedius, and greater petrosal nerve are visible by the fifth week. (medscape.com)
  • The facial nerve then passes through the parotid gland, which it does not innervate, to form the parotid plexus, which splits into five branches (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, and cervical) innervating the muscles of facial expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve supplies motor and sensory innervation to the muscles formed by the second pharyngeal arch, including the muscles of facial expression, the posterior belly of the digastric, stylohyoid, and stapedius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remember that there are two facial nerves, one on each side, and each of them is primarily responsible for providing motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression . (osmosis.org)
  • ie, the muscles of facial expression. (medscape.com)
  • The second branchial arch gives rise to the muscles of facial expression in the seventh and eighth week. (medscape.com)
  • These are in the muscles of facial expression group of muscles, as they move soft tissue rather than a joint. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The next branch given off runs to muscles that are not in the group of muscles of facial expression. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Within the gland it splits into five terminal branches that innervate all of the numerous muscles of facial expression except the ones innervated by the aforementioned posterior auricular nerve. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • One was proposed in 1956 by Davis et al, who investigated the different course patterns of the infratemporal facial nerve in 350 cervicofacial halves. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve typically travels from the pons through the facial canal in the temporal bone and exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon emerging from the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve gives rise to the posterior auricular branch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve exits the fallopian canal through the stylomastoid foramen, afterward taking its extratemporal course anteriorly, inferiorly, and laterally. (medscape.com)
  • The remainder of the nerve passes through the stylomastoid foramen into the facial portion of the head. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • There is also a short nerve that goes to a suprahyoid muscle, the stylohyoid, which is also anatomically in the path of the nerve as it exits the stylomastoid foramen. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Topographically, the further course of the facial nerve is subdivided in 3 segments. (medscape.com)
  • A diverse number of classifications of the extratemporal course of the facial nerve are found in literature. (medscape.com)
  • The course of the facial nerve and its central connections can be roughly divided into the segments listed in Table 1, below. (medscape.com)
  • In this reflex, the trigeminal nerve is the sensory or afferent pathway, while the facial nerve serves as the motor or efferent pathway. (osmosis.org)
  • The cell bodies for muscular efferent nerves are found in the facial motor nucleus whereas the cell bodies for the parasympathetic efferent nerves are found in the superior salivatory nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The voluntary responses of the facial muscles (eg, smiling when taking a photograph) arise from efferent discharge from the motor face area of the cerebral cortex. (medscape.com)
  • It must be mentioned that the first somatic efferent branch of the facial nerve is given off in the temporal bone. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The greater petrosal nerve arises at the superior salivatory nucleus of the pons and provides parasympathetic innervation to several glands, including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intratemporally, the facial and vestibular cochlear nerves split, entering the fallopian canal of the temporal bone. (medscape.com)
  • mandibular nerve. (bvsalud.org)
  • The anterior belly is connected to the mandibular nerve which makes this muscle more interesting than ones with single innervation. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Confusion can sometimes result between the buccal branch of the mandibular nerve and this buccal branch of the facial nerve. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The mandibular nerve branch is only sensory and the facial nerve branch is only motor. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • In 1987, Jenny and Saper performed an extensive study of the proximal facial nerve organizations in a primate model and found evidence that in monkeys, upper facial movement is relatively preserved in upper motor neuron injury, because these motor neurons receive relatively little direct cortical input. (medscape.com)
  • In the temporal part of the facial canal, the nerve gives rise to the nerve to the stapedius muscle and chorda tympani. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve to stapedius provides motor innervation for the stapedius muscle in middle ear The chorda tympani provides parasympathetic innervation to the sublingual and submandibular glands, as well as special sensory taste fibers for the anterior two thirds of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nerve carries somatic motor fibers to the stapedius muscle which is located in the middle ear. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The posterior auricular nerve (innervating postauricular and occipital muscles) branches posteriorly cranial just below the foramen, as do 2 smaller ones to the stylohyoideus and posterior belly of the digastric muscle. (medscape.com)
  • The former courses ventrally into the first branchial arch and terminates near a branch of the trigeminal nerve that eventually becomes the lingual nerve. (medscape.com)
  • This surgery may help you to get ride of facial tumors. (dnatube.com)
  • Upon exiting the internal auditory meatus, the nerve then runs a tortuous course through the facial canal, which is divided into the labyrinthine, tympanic, and mastoid segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tympanic segment, the facial nerve runs through the tympanic cavity, medial to the incus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postsynaptic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve innervate the lacrimal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve is composed of approximately 10,000 neurons, 7,000 of which are myelinated and innervate the nerves of facial expression. (medscape.com)
  • To innervate these muscles, the facial nerve courses across the region that eventually becomes the middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of a facial nerve problem can vary in severity depending upon the extent of your injury. (nm.org)
  • The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nerve also includes taste fibers for the palate via the lesser palatine nerve and greater palatine nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticobulbar fibers from the precentral gyrus (frontal lobe) project to the facial nucleus, with most crossing to the contralateral side. (medscape.com)
  • Three thousand of the nerve fibers are somatosensory and secretomotor and make up the nervus intermedius. (medscape.com)
  • From the brain stem, the motor and sensory parts of the facial nerve join and traverse the posterior cranial fossa before entering the petrous temporal bone via the internal auditory meatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve gives off branches lateral to the external jugular vein, constituting the zygomatic-temporal and the cervicofacial trunks. (medscape.com)
  • In cases where there are spontaneous facial palsies, intra cranial, extra cranial and temporal trauma or fractures can be leads to this type of injury to the nerve. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Facial nerve may also be damaged during tumor removal of ear and parotid glands. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • The service is provided by a team of facial therapists, ear nose and throat (ENT)/skull base surgeons and plastic surgeons. (evelinalondon.nhs.uk)
  • Once they have exposed the acoustic neuroma and surrounding nerves, surgeons carefully remove the tumor, protecting the nearby nerves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lateral semicircular canal Foot of incus The cell bodies for the facial nerve are grouped in anatomical areas called nuclei or ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathways of the facial nerve are variable, and knowledge of the key intratemporal and extratemporal landmarks is essential for accurate physical diagnosis and safe and effective surgical intervention in the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful in the diagnosis of injury to intratemporal and/or intracranial affections of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery provides vascular supply to the facial nerve during its intrafallopian course. (medscape.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the optimal sites for the active electrode in a nerve conduction study of each branch of the facial nerve . (bvsalud.org)
  • TM disorder describes a variety of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint - TMJ (the point where the jaw opens and closes) and nerves related to chronic facial pain. (warrentmjdentist.com)
  • The swollen nerve is maximally compressed as it passes through the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal, resulting in ischemia and paresis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The remaining portion of the facial nerve is mainly a somatic motor nerve with a minor somatic sensory component. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The greater petrosal nerve runs through the pterygoid canal and synapses at the pterygopalatine ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • All 3 nerves are surrounded by pia mater through their subarachnoid course, with the pia mater thus becoming a common sheath at the internal auditory canal. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] The inferior anterior cerebellar artery and venous drainage enter the auditory canal together with the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The bony canal-facial nerve diameter is an important clinical ratio, especially considering susceptibility to nerve injury. (medscape.com)
  • Most often, the facial nerve takes up approximately 25-50% of the canal diameter. (medscape.com)
  • Understanding the anatomy of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves is important, as damage to these nerves can cause significant impairments when it comes to facial expression, hearing and balance, among several other functions! (osmosis.org)
  • Thus, Facial nerve damage leads to social as well functional problems. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • The pyramidal eminence is the second bend in the facial nerve, where the nerve runs downward as the mastoid segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients whose facial nerve enhanced in the mastoid segment experienced incomplete return of facial function. (qxmd.com)
  • In contrast, patients who had enhancement of the mastoid segment of the facial nerve had poorer prognoses for complete return of facial function. (qxmd.com)
  • So just remember if you are doing a buccal nerve block it would logically be the sensory one. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial nerve is a nerve that controls the muscles on the side of your face, allowing you to show expression, smile, cry and wink. (nm.org)
  • Facial nerve anatomy. (medscape.com)
  • Let's start with the general anatomy of the facial nerve . (osmosis.org)
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • In the newborn, the facial nerve anatomy approximates that of an adult, except for its location in the mastoid, which is more superficial. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Deepak Rathore is the best facial nerve trauma treatment in delhi NCR . (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • I treat facial nerve trauma in Delhi NCR, we mostly receive patients early and I do primary repair for most facial nerve trauma both in Delhi and NCR locations. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • I also do cross facial nerve grafting for facial nerve trauma treatment in selected cases. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Discharges from the facial motor area are carried through fascicles of the corticobulbar tract to the internal capsule, then through the upper midbrain to the lower brainstem, where they synapse in the pontine facial nerve nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] The reader is referred to these references for a more detailed description of the supranuclear and nuclear organization of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The facial motor nerves are represented on the homunculus diagram below with the forehead uppermost and the eyelids, midface, nose, and lips sequentially located more inferiorly. (medscape.com)

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