Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Spinal DiseasesSpinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal NeoplasmsCervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.DislocationsTraction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnalgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Joint DiseasesBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal: Subdural hematoma of the SPINAL CANAL.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesAction Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Capitate Bone: A carpal bone with a rounded head located between the TRAPEZOID BONE and the HAMATE BONE.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Pleasure-Pain Principle: The psychoanalytic concept that man instinctively seeks to avoid pain and discomfort and strives for gratification and pleasure.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.
  • Plastic cement is placed in a vertebra (spinal bone) using a needle and balloon device. (ohsu.edu)
  • A spinal nerve tissue ablation apparatus includes a stylet needle with a distal end having a rounded blunt tip sufficiently sharp to penetrate tissue but sufficiently blunt to avoid impinging on bony surfaces of spinal vertebra. (google.de)
  • A board certified orthopaedic surgeon specializing in the treatment of spinal disorders and joint replacement surgery, Dr. Star obtained his fellowship training at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation in La Jolla, CA, under the teaching of Drs. Clifford W. Coldwell Jr., and Roger P. Thorne. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Physical medicine offers patients with spinal disorders an alternative to surgery. (spine-health.com)
  • Spinal disorders exact great costs, in terms of both direct medical costs and indirect costs related to disability and lost productivity [ 1-3 ]. (chiro.org)
  • Having worked in the NHS for 18 years, he is now devoted to full time private practice focusing exclusively on spinal disorders. (privatehealth.co.uk)
  • His research interests include minimal access spinal surgery, vertebral body augmentation, balloon kyphoplasty and the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (privatehealth.co.uk)