Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Chlorthalidone: A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Ocular Physiological Processes: Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.Orthokeratologic Procedures: An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.SingaporeMyopia, Degenerative: Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Refractive Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Erysipelas: An acute infection of the skin caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This disease most frequently affects infants, young children, and the elderly. Characteristics include pink-to-red lesions that spread rapidly and are warm to the touch. The commonest site of involvement is the face.Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Endotamponade: A method of stopping internal bleeding or blood flow, or the closure of a wound or body cavity, achieved by applying pressure or introducing an absorbent liquid, gel, or tampon.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal DiseasesLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Los AngelesAnatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length. Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the ... "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos). The opposite of myopia in English is hyperopia (long- ... Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover ... Anatomically, the changes in axial length of the eye seem to be the major factor contributing to this type of myopia. Diurnal ...
This condition of the normal eye is achieved when the refractive power of the cornea and the axial length of the eye balance ... Either myopic (near-sighted) eyes or hyperopic (far-sighted) eyes would score worse, e.g. 20/40 (visual acuity roughly half ... whereas children with stronger hyperopia seem to not change their refraction independently of whether the refractive error is ... "Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Eye Surgery" Mutti, DO (2005). "Axial Growth and Changes in Lenticular and Corneal Power ...
... refractive hyperopia) or an eyeball that is too short (axial hyperopia). This can be corrected with convex lenses which cause ... Other symptoms may include double vision, headaches, and eye strain. Near-sightedness is due to the length of the eyeball being ... whose eyes have yet to grow to their full length, and the elderly, who have lost the ability to compensate with their ... An eye that has no refractive error when viewing distant objects is said to have emmetropia or be emmetropic meaning the eye is ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length.[50] ... Other types of refractive error are hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia.[1] Types[edit]. Various forms of myopia have been ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos).[120][121][122][123] ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.[61] ...
The power of phakic lens is independent of the axial length of the eye. Rather it depends on central corneal power, anterior ... Both eyes can usually be done on the same day. Steroid antibiotic eye drops are usually prescribed for 2-4 weeks after surgery ... Preexisting eye disorders such as uveitis are another contraindication. Although PIOLs for hyperopia are being investigated, ... "Excimer laser refractive surgery versus phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of moderate to high myopia." The Cochrane ...
... (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain. A common cause of low visual acuity is refractive error (ametropia), or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the eyeball, the shape of the cornea, and reduced flexibility of the lens. Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) (normal refractive status is referred to as emmetropia). Other optical causes are astigmatism or more complex corneal irregularities. These anomalies ...
... , also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Near-sightedness results in far away objects being blurry, far-sightedness and presbyopia result in close objects being blurry, astigmatism causes objects to appear stretched out or blurry. Other symptoms may include double vision, headaches, and eye strain. Near-sightedness is due to the length of the eyeball being too long, far-sightedness the eyeball too short, astigmatism the cornea being the wrong shape, and presbyopia aging of the lens of the eye such that it cannot change shape sufficiently. Some refractive errors occur more often among those whose parents are affected. Diagnosis is by eye examination. ...
0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distention, choroidal folds, globe flattening, scotoma or cotton-wool spots compared to baseline Class 1 Repeat OCT and visual acuity in 6 weeks Refractive changes ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change and/or cotton-wool spot No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distanton, choroidal folds, globe flattening or scotoma compared to baseline CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 2 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 to 6 weeks × 6 months, repeat MRI in 6 months ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive changes or cotton-wool spot Choroidal folds and/or ONS distention and/or globe flattening and/or scotoma No evidence of optic-disc edema CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 3 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 ...
... is a sophisticated laser eye treatment which is used to treat presbyopia (ageing eyes) (progressive loss of the ability to focus on nearby objects) or other age-related eye conditions. It can be used to help people that simply need reading glasses, and also those who have started to need bifocal or varifocal spectacle correction due to ageing changes in the eye. It can be used for people who are also short-sighted (myopia) or long-sighted (hyperopia) and who also may have astigmatism. Primarily the treatment is for a condition called presbyopia. Laser Blended Vision can be achieved through laser eye surgery, usually performed as LASIK, although surface laser eye surgery PRK or LASEK can be used to produce the effect. Laser Blended Vision works by increasing the depth of field of each eye through subtle changes in the optics of the corneal spherical ...
... , also known as hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina. This results in close objects appearing blurry, while far objects may appear normal. As the condition worsens, objects at all distances may be blurry. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. People may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus. The cause is an imperfection of the eyes. Often it occurs when the eyeball is too short, or the lens or cornea is misshapen. Risk factors include a family history of the condition, diabetes, certain medications, and tumors around the eye. It is a type of refractive error. Diagnosis is based on an eye exam. Management can occur with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. Glasses are easiest while contact lenses can provide ...
The diagram on the right shows an example of refraction in water waves. Ripples travel from the left and pass over a shallower region inclined at an angle to the wavefront. The waves travel slower in the more shallow water, so the wavelength decreases and the wave bends at the boundary. The dotted line represents the normal to the boundary. The dashed line represents the original direction of the waves. This phenomenon explains why waves on a shoreline tend to strike the shore close to a perpendicular angle. As the waves travel from deep water into shallower water near the shore, they are refracted from their original direction of travel to an angle more normal to the shoreline.[3] Refraction is also responsible for rainbows and for the splitting of white light into a rainbow-spectrum as it passes through a glass prism. Glass has a higher refractive index than air. When a beam of white light passes from air into a material having an index of refraction that varies with ...
... is a cosmetic that is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows. It is commonly used to make the wearer's eyes stand out or look more attractive. Eye shadow can add depth and dimension to one's eyes, complement the eye color, make one's eyes appear larger, or simply draw attention to the eyes. Eye shadow comes in many different colors and textures. It is usually made from a powder and mica, but can also be found in liquid, pencil, cream or mousse form. Civilizations across the world use eye shadow predominantly on females but also occasionally on males. In Western society, it is seen as a feminine cosmetic, even when used by men. In Gothic fashion, black or similarly dark-colored eye shadow and other types of eye makeup are popular ...
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can differentiate between about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon. Similar to the eyes of other mammals, the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil, regulation and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock. The eye is not shaped like a perfect sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit, composed of the anterior segment and the posterior ...
Retinoblastoma - Strabismus (crossed eyes), a whitish or yellowish glow through the pupil, decreasing/loss of vision, sometimes the eye may be red and painful. Retinoblastoma can occur in one or both eyes. This tumor occurs in babies and young children. It is called RB for short. Check photographs, normal healthy eyes would have the red eye reflex, but a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex can indicate a tumor or some other kind of eye disease. Any photos of a child/children which have a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex should be evaluated by an eye doctor ...
Eye formation in the human embryo begins at approximately three weeks into embryonic development and continues through the tenth week. Cells from both the mesodermal and the ectodermal tissues contribute to the formation of the eye. Specifically, the eye is derived from the neuroepithelium, surface ectoderm, and the extracellular mesenchyme which consists of both the neural crest and mesoderm. Neuroepithelium forms the retina, ciliary body, iris, and optic nerves. Surface ectoderm forms the lens, corneal epithelium and eyelid. The extracellular mesenchyme forms the sclera, the corneal endothelium and stroma, blood vessels, muscles, and vitreous. The eye begins to develop as a pair of optic vesicles on each side of the forebrain at the end of the 4th week of pregnancy. Optic vesicles are outgrowings of the brain which make contact with the surface ectoderm and this contact induces changes necessary for further development of ...
Despite the name, the eye itself is not affected. Blunt force or trauma to the eye socket results in burst capillaries and subsequent haemorrhaging (hematoma).[1] The fatty tissue along with the lack of muscle around the eye socket allows a potential space for blood accumulation. As this blood is reabsorbed, various pigments are released similar to a bruise lending itself to the extreme outward appearance.[1] The appearance (discoloration purple black and blue and swelling) does not necessarily indicate a serious injury, and most black eyes resolve within a week. The tissues around the eye are soft and thus bruise easily when pinched against margins of bone which surround the eye socket. The treatment of black eye is the same as that for bruises in other parts of the body - cold compresses during the first twenty-four hours and contrasting hot and cold thereafter. During the ...
... is a not for profit charitable trust which aims at providing affordable eye care and eliminating curable eye blindness in India. Having its headquarters in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Sankara is among the largest community eye care providers in India with ten super specialty eye care hospitals across the country performing over 150,000 free eye surgeries annually. The hospital follows an 80:20 business model, in which 80 percent of the patients from rural parts of the country are treated for free, and the remaining 20 percent are the rich and the middle income sections of the society, who pay for their treatment, thereby cross-subsidizing the free surgeries and making the Hospital self-sustaining. In 2013, Sankara counducted its one millionth free eye surgery. The organization was started by Dr.R.V. Ramani, one of the earliest Doctors of Coimbatore, and his wife Dr. Radha Ramani. The origins of Sankara ...
Asthenopic (eye strain) symptoms in the eye are responsible for much of the severity in CVS. Proper rest to the eye and its muscles is recommended to relieve the associated eye strain. Observations from persons experiencing chronic eye strain have shown that most people who claim to be getting enough sleep are actually not. This, unaware to them, causes the eye strain to build up over a period of time, when if they had obtained seven to eight hours of uninterrupted sleep, their eye muscles would have recovered during the sleep and the strain would not have built up[citation needed]. Computer workers are often advised to take breaks and look at distant objects.[4] A routinely recommended approach is to consciously blink the eyes every now and then (this helps replenish the tear film) and to look out the window to a distant object or to the sky-doing so ...
The infant eye is unique in many aspects that affect optical imaging: axial length (AXL), refractive error (RE), corneal ... Refractive error shifts from mild myopia in neonates to mild hyperopia in infants. These factors affect magnification and field ... To maintain the same density of scanning for the pediatric eyes as in adult eyes, we recommend decreasing the number of A-scans ... Refractive Error D. SD (D). Axial Length (mm). SD (mm). Increase in Reference Arm† (Readout Units). For a 10-mm (≈35 degree) ...
... occurs when the axial length of the eye is too long, and light is focussed in front of the photoreceptors (b). Hyperopia (far- ... dose-dependently inhibited the development of myopic refractive error (A,C) and axial length (B,D) in goggled chick eyes. Doses ... occurs when the axial length of the eye is too short, and light is focussed behind the photoreceptors (c). Refractive error can ... It aims to match the axial length and resting focal power of the eye in such a way that images of objects viewed at any ...
... hyperopia or astigmatism) of the eye needing correction, so that the laser beam ablates those portions and thus reshapes the ... and the blank is positioned on the exposed inner surface of the eye. A laser beam is directed onto certain portions of the ... A myopic eye has either an axial length that is longer than that of a normal emetropic eye, or a cornea or lens having a ... or a lens or cornea having a refractive power less than that of a lens and cornea of an emetropic eye. This lesser refractive ...
... physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument ... the eyes in the SL group demonstrated more hyperopia by 1.95 D and a shorter axial length by 0.26 mm. Meanwhile, the eyes in ... Our previous study also indicated that ocular refraction and axial length of the eyes of animals adjusted refractive states ... It is also expected that the density of cones changes with axial length and refractive state [19]. In guinea pigs with form ...
The human eye functions like a camera, using the cornea and the internal lens to focus a clear image on the visual center of ... Eye Size and Refractive Changes. The size of a childs eye changes throughout normal development. The mean axial length of a ... Some childrens hyperopic eyes become excessively turned inward, even with relatively small amounts of hyperopia (accommodative ... the axial length (from front to back) is longer than normal (emmetropia). In farsightedness (hyperopia), the axial length is ...
Typical types of ametropia are myopia, hypermetropia or hyperopia, and astigmatism.. A myopic eye has either an axial length ... or a lens or cornea having a refractive power less than that of a lens and cornea of an ametropic eye. This lesser refractive ... A61F9/00-Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; ... Eye Care And Cure Pte. Ltd. Model human eye WO2009006345A1 (en) * 2007-06-28. 2009-01-08. Eye Care And Cure Corp.. Model human ...
... then there is no reason for the eye to focus around an axial length refractive error. It may take a little while for your eyes ... Manifest is based upon length of eye plus accommodation focusing around the myopia or hyperopia. If refractive surgery based on ... The most common cause of myopia and hyperopia is that the length of the eye is too long or too short. The eye focuses around ... this length disparity. Cycloplegic refraction is based totally upon length of eye optics. ...
... was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. Like previous studies, we ... and immune pathway expression are correlated with the eye size and refractive changes induced by lens defocus. Our findings ... Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and ... was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. Like previous studies, we ...
2013) Coordinated genetic scaling of the human eye: shared determination of axial eye length and corneal curvature. Invest ... VFD was carried out for 21 days from P24 through P45 and refractive status of the deprived eyes versus control eyes was ... Failure to achieve or maintain emmetropia leads to the development of refractive errors, i.e., farsightedness (hyperopia) or ... Fig 4. Aplp2 regulates refractive eye development in the mouse.. (A) Effect of targeted deletion of Aplp2 on refractive eye ...
LASEK is specifically used to correct astigmatism, hyperopia (farsightedness), and myopia (nearsightedness). ... is a laser surgical procedure for the correction of refractive error. ... and the axial length of the eye are the main contributors to the eyes refraction capability. The total refractive power of an ... PRK was performed on 64.7% of eyes, LASEK was performed on 8.7% of eyes, and LASIK procedures were performed on the remaining ...
Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations. Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of ... Myopia: −1.00 D or less; emmetropia: between −0.75 and +0.75 D; hyperopia: +1.00 D or more. Data are for the right eye only. ... Studies with precise refractive data collected early in life or with axial length and keratometry data would be useful in ... Refractive Errors and Incident Cataracts: The Beaver Dam Eye Study Tien Yin Wong; Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; Sandra C. ...
24 eyes) aged 5 to 15 years. Before the surgery, the mean manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) of amblyopic eyes was ... in children with hyperopia and unilateral anisome-tropic amblyopia.METHODS:The study included 24 patients ( ... Journal of Refractive Surgery , PURPOSE:To analyze clinical and functional results of femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ ... The axial length of amblyopic eyes increased by 0.57 ± 0.32 mm (P , .001) on average. By assessing the fellow eye, we have ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eyes axial length. Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the ... "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos). The opposite of myopia in English is hyperopia (long- ... Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover ... Anatomically, the changes in axial length of the eye seem to be the major factor contributing to this type of myopia. Diurnal ...
... measures in themselves are tending to emmetropise a buphthalmic eye that otherwise would be much more myopic if axial length ... While nanophthalmos with a steep cornea and small eye results in high hyperopia. ... EUA at 11 months of age (2 months postoperatively) revealed −6.5D (myopia) in both eyes and normal IOP. Horizontal corneal ... Human adults show a non-Gaussian distribution of refractive errors with a predominance of refractions around emmetropia. Other ...
Patients suffer from severe hyperopia as a result of their markedly reduced axial lengths, but otherwise are capable of seeing ... Refractive development of the human eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985; 103:785-9. [PMID: 4004614] ... There are several genetic disorders and identified genes in which the eyes are small and disorganized to varying extents, a ... and correspondingly severe hyperopia. Axial lengths ranged from 15.32 to 16.12 mm with a mean of 15.71 mm. (adult normal mean ...
... but those seen in nanophthalmic eyes (axial length below 20 mm) reached 42.9% of cases, with severe complications noted in 23.8 ... Oliver Findl, MD, discusses unique challenges in performing cataract and refractive phakic IOL surgery in the long eye.. ... He performs the treatment of high hyperopia (+3.0 D to +6.0 D) by means of corneal refractive surgery, including an extensive ... Corneal refractive surgery and cataract surgery can both disrupt the eyes natural compensation for aberrations, according to ...
Axial length (AL) was also recorded. Relative peripheral refraction (RPR) was calculated and eyes were divided into three study ... Keywords: myopia, refractive errors, myopia onset, peripheral refraction, relative peripheral hyperopia ... myopic eyes, and eyes that develop myopia.Results: Myopic eyes showed hyperopic RPR and emetropic and hyperopic eyes showed ... eyes that developed myopia along the study). All the studied groups showed an increase of AL, without statistically significant ...
... whose initial refractive error was high hyperopia with short axial length of 20mm, presented as bilateral advanced keratoconus ... Out of 30 eyes 19 (63.3%) eyes had injury at Zone 1 and 11 (36.7%) eyes had injury at Zone 2. The mean time spent between ... She was aphakic with VA of 1/60 and 2/60 in the right and left eye respectively. She was diagnosed as both eyes keratoconus ... Forty five eyes of 33 cases (69.23%, 70.21%) had intermediate uveitis, followed by 10 eyes of 7 cases (15.38, 14.9%) of ...
Refractive errors are commonly caused by the failure of normal emmetropization of the eye. Subsequently, the axial length of ... Hyperopia- Images focused behind the retina due to a short eye or insufficient convergence of light through the cornea or lens ... Anisometropia- Disparate refractive error between the two eyes. If significant, can lead not only to blurred vision, but poor ... Are you sure your patient has refractive errors? What are the typical findings for this disease? * Cause of refractive errors ...
Gene Therapy Restores Mfrp and Corrects Axial Eye Length. Scientific reports Velez, G., Tsang, S. H., Tsai, Y. T., Hsu, C. W., ... The favorable response to gene therapy in Mfrp rd6 /Mfrp rd6 mice suggests hyperopia and associated refractive errors may be ... Posterior vitreous detachment was absent in six of eight eyes, and six of eight eyes were phakic. Eyes with vitreomacular ... nonvitrectomized eyes.The charts and photographs of subjects with Age-Related Eye Disease Study category 3 AMD in both eyes who ...
Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major ... At least 1 year after the operation (5 eyes), vision acuity was ,0.1 in 100% of the eyes and ,0.4 in 50% of the eyes. Retention ... determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for ... PARTNERS: Aravind Eye Hospital (India) , LV Prasad Eye Institute (India) , Shanghai Eye and ENT Hospital, an affiliate of Fudan ...
Group with axial length of less than 23.5 mm was compared with eyes with axial length of more than 23.5 mm, as well as a ... In the subgroup of 9 patients with high hyperopia the posterior shift of CBD was 0.43 +/-0.2 mm. Conclusions: In summary we ... EU-EYE SYMPOSIUM * FEMTOSECOND LASER-ASSISTED CATARACT SURGERY COURSES * FREE PAPER SESSIONS ... subgroup of short eyes with axial length of less than 22.00 mm. Results: Thirty eyes obtained Lenstar anterior chamber (AC) ...
As the eye grows, the axial length increases while the cornea and lens flatten. High refractive errors which are common in the ... where as 112 right eye and 109 left eye) and 94 diabetic patients (both eyes) corneas. Corneal dioptric and magnitude of ... When hyperopia is associated with esotropia, full correction of the cycloplegic refractive error should be prescribed. Myopia ... Full cycloplegic refractive difference between two eyes should be given to the anisometropic child in spite of age, strabismus ...
In hyperopia, there is a discrepancy between the refractive power and axial length of the eye such that parallel incident light ... Eye Manifestations Last Updated on Fri, 27 Feb 2015 , Visual Acuity In the periphery (20 eyes) (Fig. 13.6). Macular ... d Axial hyperopia Refractive power is normal but the globe is too short (more common). e Refractive hyperopia The globe is of ... normal length but refractive power is insufficient (less common). f A special form of refractive hyperopia is aphakia... ...
... as most adult eyes that are untouched by surgery remain fairly stable in their dimensions, such as axial length and corneal ... so the residual refractive error in the non-dominant eye is targeted a little myopic. So the dominant eye will have good ... This causes a shift towards less hyperopia or more myopia. In some people, this process actually improves their uncorrected ... She had the same procedure done on her right eye 5 years ago when she was 69. She could have had both eyes implanted then for a ...
  • The relations between refractive errors at baseline and cataract at baseline (prevalent cataract), 5-year incident cataract, and incident cataract surgery were analyzed by using generalized estimating equations. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between refractive errors and prevalent cataract, 5-year incident cataract, and incident cataract surgery, in the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort. (arvojournals.org)
  • The Eye Care in Nepal was in rudimentary state till 1971 with the number of cataract surgery being less than 500 cases per year including the mobile Eye camps. (nepjol.info)
  • A retrospective analysis of records of children below 2 years of age with axial length less than 22 mm who had undergone cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation over a period of 7 years was undertaken. (nepjol.info)
  • Our study shows with direct imaging of the ciliary body that the apex of the ciliary body moves posterior after cataract surgery and this effect is more pronounced in hyperopic/shorter as compared to myopic/longer eyes. (escrs.org)
  • Ladas, J.G. and Stark, W.J. (2011) Improving Cataract Surgery Refractive Outcomes. (scirp.org)
  • Can the same things be said about the refractive results of cataract surgery? (maloneyvision.com)
  • Can we confidently achieve 20/20 UCVA in 90% to 95% of eyes after cataract surgery? (maloneyvision.com)
  • In fact, in the hands of skilled surgeons, only 33% of patients see 20/20 uncorrected after cataract surgery, even though 75% of eyes have a BCVA of 20/20 or better.3 The reason for this is clear: Uncorrected vision is not as good because the refractive outcomes miss the desired target. (maloneyvision.com)
  • This implies that one-third of eyes after modern cataract surgery will have a residual MRSE of 0.75 D or more away from the desired target. (maloneyvision.com)
  • Because IOL calculations are less precise in eyes with extreme refractions, patients with high myopia should understand that while the cataract surgery can correct much of the myopia, its primary purpose is to correct the cataract, and the refractive effect is a secondary benefit. (cataractcoach.com)
  • We analyzed 173 eyes (118 patients) after uneventful cataract surgery. (prolekare.cz)
  • Before cataract surgery the patients underwent a measurement of the biometric parameters of the eye with the aid of an optic biometer Lenstar LS900 (Haag-Streit, USA), using the principle of OLCR (Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry). (prolekare.cz)
  • Eyes which had undergone uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an IOL into the capsule were chosen for analysis. (prolekare.cz)
  • A 64-year-old woman underwent laser cataract surgery with implantation of a Crystalens AO (Bausch + Lomb) in her left eye. (crstoday.com)
  • There was a dose-dependent relationship between the peripheral treatment zone area and the treatment-induced changes in eye growth and refractive state. (nih.gov)
  • The field of scan and ease of operation also improved, and the optic nerve, fovea, and posterior pole were successfully imaged in 74% and 87% of individual eye imaging sessions in the intensive care nursery and clinic, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the subgroup of 9 patients with high hyperopia the posterior shift of CBD was 0.43 +/-0.2 mm. (escrs.org)
  • Purpose: To describe the morphological features of posterior precortical vitreous pockets (PPVP) and Cloquet's Canal in patients with myopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS OCT). Methods: A total of 96 eyes of 51 volunteers (range, 5-18 years) were enrolled in this study, and all individuals underwent OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) examinations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Corneal pachymetry helps in the assessment of corneal oedema, effectivity of corneal refractive surgeries, suspicious glaucoma, bullous keratopathy, corneal oedema, posterior polymorphous dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and keratoconus during eye examination. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Highly myopic eyes often have a posterior staphyloma, which can generate an erroneously long axial length when measured with the standard A-scan ultrasound. (cataractcoach.com)
  • Here we see the illustration of the distention of the posterior sclera into the myopic staphyloma, making the eye a distinct prolate spheroid, an exaggeration of the normal adult eye, which is only slightly prolate. (simplybrainy.com)
  • It is also possible that that phenomenon may be due to a change in length of the posterior chamber due to fibrosing of the sclera with normal aging processes and the calcium loss of maturity. (simplybrainy.com)
  • Objective: To determine the prevalence of refractive defects within a sample of 112 children between the ages of 2 and 14 from Colegio La Candelaria in the city of Bogotá. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thirty eyes obtained Lenstar anterior chamber (AC) measurements preoperatively as well as immersion ultrasound A-scan and UBM. (escrs.org)
  • In eyes with high axial myopia, depth and stability of the anterior chamber are abnormal, which necessitates the use of dispersive (heavy) viscoelastic material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Theoretically, the problem could lie with excessively power optics, or excessive axial length, but population studies show that it is almost always excessive axial length that causes the problem. (endmyopia.org)
  • After 10-week illumination, the guinea pigs developed relative hyperopia in the SL group and relative myopia in the ML group. (hindawi.com)
  • The study included 24 patients (24 eyes) aged 5 to 15 years. (healio.com)
  • Patients suffer from severe hyperopia as a result of their markedly reduced axial lengths, but otherwise are capable of seeing well unlike other more general forms of microphthalmia. (molvis.org)
  • Nanophthalmic patients are in principle distinct as the eye is otherwise well-formed and fully functional. (molvis.org)
  • Methods: The retrospective, comparative case series includes 635 eyes from 407 cataract patients from Columbia University Medical Center from January 2006 to August 2010, operated by a single surgeon using a temporal incision and the Acrysof SN60WF IOL (Alcon Laboratories, TX). (scirp.org)
  • Macular diseases may present with multiple lesions that vary in size, number, and location between eyes or patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • In total we included 173 eyes (of 118 patients) in our cohort. (prolekare.cz)
  • This prospective, nonrandomized clinical study included 35 eyes of 32 keratoconus patients who had undergone CXL. (jovr.org)
  • Burratto and Pallikaris then combined the microkeratome technique with the use of the excimer laser to ablate tissue and to induce refractive change. (medscape.com)
  • To analyze clinical and functional results of femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FSLASIK) in children with hyperopia and unilateral anisome-tropic amblyopia. (healio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term clinical and functional results of unilateral femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) in children with hyperopia and uni-lateral anisometropic amblyopia. (healio.com)
  • Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. (ojoonline.org)
  • Amblyopia has been reported to occur on a refractive or strabismic basis. (arizona.edu)
  • It can also cause your brain to ignore the output of one eye, which can weaken the eye and lead to amblyopia. (sanjeevan.in)
  • Amblyopia is the result of one eye getting occurs when one eye becomes dominant over the other, either as a result of strabismus or another condition such as cataracts. (sanjeevan.in)
  • Pallikaris attempted this technique on blind human eyes in 1989 and on sighted human eyes in 1991, thereby creating a refractive surgical technique similar to the procedures currently in practice. (medscape.com)
  • [ 12 ] With different output systems and configurations unique to each excimer laser system, the conceptual ablation pattern results in a relative central steepening to correct the hyperopia. (medscape.com)
  • Experimental designs that concurrently compare myopia and hyperopia induction enable identification of genes with expression profiles that are discriminatory for different ocular growth trajectories. (frontiersin.org)
  • 4. Cho P, Cheung SW, Edwards M. The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control. (clspectrum.com)