The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Diseases affecting the eye.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Images seen by one eye.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
Surgical removal of a section of the iris.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
A condition in which the ocular image of an object as seen by one eye differs in size and shape from that seen by the other.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
Color of the iris.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
An inflatable device implanted in the stomach as an adjunct to therapy of morbid obesity. Specific types include the silicone Garren-Edwards Gastric Bubble (GEGB), approved by the FDA in 1985, and the Ballobes Balloon.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Diseases of the cornea.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Health care provided to individuals.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.
The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A tribe of gram-negative bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE whose organisms are found in arthropods and are pathogenic for man and certain other vertebrate hosts.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The absence of light.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.
Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.
A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.
The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
A subfamily of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that share a characteristic loop which is formed by a disulfide bond between two CYSTEINE residues. These receptors typically contain five subunits with the cysteine-loop occurring near an N-terminal extracellular domain.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
925-939...................................Refraction and errors of refraction and accommodation 939.2-981 ... Eye banks 91-912.....................................Particular diseases of the eye 918-921................................... ... Ocular therapeutics 110-320...................................Otology. Diseases of the ear 341-437 ...
... eye turned in), BASE UP for a hypodeviation (eye turned down) or BASE DOWN for a hyperdeviation (eye turned up). Steps: 1. The ... doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2007.09.012 Campos, E.C., & von Noorden, G.K. (2006). Binocular vision and ocular motility (6th ed.) (p.177) ... it is easy to ensure they are maintaining their accommodation. 2. The examiner then holds the prism bar over the patients ... If a manifest deviation is present, it reveals which eye has the deviation or if it is alternating between both eyes. Patients ...
The eyes lose the ability to move upward and down. It is a group of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction. It is ... It has less commonly been associated with spasm of accommodation on attempted upward gaze, pseudoabducens palsy (also known as ... see-saw nystagmus and associated ocular motility deficits including skew deviation, oculomotor nerve palsy, trochlear nerve ... or slower movements of the abducting eye than the adducting eye during horizontal saccades, ...
... eye movements MeSH G11.697.716.260.217 - convergence, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.260.253 - fixation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.260. ... accommodation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 - adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 - dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 - evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 - eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 - figural ... eye movements MeSH G11.427.792.530.281 - flight, animal MeSH G11.427.792.530.389 - gait MeSH G11.427.792.530.478 - head ...
... and ocular function and accommodation (eye). The first version of the LEA test was developed in 1976 by Finnish pediatric ... Eye chart Sloan letters Snellen chart Pediatric ophthalmology Infant vision Visual acuity testing in children Hyvärinen, L. Lea ... tests designed specifically for children who do not know how to read the letters of the alphabet that are typically used in eye ... fluorescein angiography and helped start the first clinical laboratory in that area while serving as a fellow at the Wilmer Eye ...
... through eye strain or fatigue of ocular systems. It is common in young adults who have active accommodation, and classically ... Organic causes may include systemic or ocular medications, brain stem injury, or active ocular inflammation such as uveitis. ... Pseudomyopia occurs when a spasm of the ciliary muscle prevents the eye from focusing in the distance, sometimes intermittently ... The diagnosis is done by cycloplegic refraction using a strong cycloplegic like atropine or homatropine eye drops. ...
Book on eye diseases, therapeutics and ocular surgery. Ein neues Ophthalmotrop, 1857 - A new ophthalmotrope. Das Stereoscop : ... On the anomalies of accommodation and refraction of the Eye by Franciscus Cornelis Donders and William Daniel Moore Bernard ... In 1845 he designed the first ophthalmotrope, a device that serves as a mechanical model of the eye and its muscles, and is ... to allow for a stereoscopic and wider view of the fundus of the eye. Ruete also conducted extensive research of ophthalmic ...
Accommodation and Convergence of the Eyes (1882) Tests and Studies of the Ocular Muscles (1898) Golden Rules of Refraction ( ... He made advances in optical treatments and invented several devices to better investigate eye conditions, including Maddox rod ...
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye adjusts focus on an object as it moves closer or further away. Whereas ... The human vestibulo-ocular reflex is a reflex eye movement that stabilises images on the retina during head movement by ... Four-eyed fish actually have only two eyes, but their eyes are specially adapted for their surface-dwelling lifestyle. The eyes ... Arthropod eye Mollusc eye Parietal eye Simple eye in invertebrates Visual system Meyer‐Rochow, V. Benno; Stewart, Duncan (1996 ...
... and green eyes are more at risk of sun-related eye problems. Further, the ocular lens yellows with age, providing added ... However, the lens also becomes more rigid with age, losing most of its accommodation - the ability to change shape to focus ... Ocular albinism affects not only eye pigmentation but visual acuity, as well. People with albinism typically test poorly, ... Melanin in the eyes, in the iris and choroid, helps protect them from ultraviolet and high-frequency visible light; people with ...
OCLC 29693375 The refraction and accommodation of the eye and their anomalies, Edinburgh, Pentland, 1886. OCLC 3057956 Ed. 2.: ... Ocular muscles and their disorders. Pioneering the work in their study and treatment. He discovered "Landolt's bodies" between ... OCLC 12013230 Refraction and accommodation of the eye and their anomalies, Edinburgh, Young J. Pentland, 1886. OCLC 11626601 ... Landolt's eye clinic on the Rue Saint-André-des-Arts was world-famous. There he treated, among others, Mary Cassatt, and gave ...
... accommodation imbalances, (positive relative accommodation and negative relative accommodation). They work closely with ... Orthoptists are the experts in diagnosing and treating defects in eye movements and problems with how the eyes work together, ... French ophthalmologist Louis Emile Javal, began using ocular exercises to treat strabismus (squint) and described the practice ... Orthoptists are responsible for the diagnosis and non-surgical management of strabismus (squint), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye ...
Landolt C chart Eye teaming (binocularity) Eye movement Accommodation (focusing skills) Peripheral vision Eye-hand coordination ... Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of ... Cycloplegic eye drops are applied to the eye to temporarily paralyze the ciliary muscle of the eye. An examination of pupilary ... To perform the test, the individual occludes one eye while fixated on the examiner's eye with the non-occluded eye. The patient ...
The Purkinje-image method of recording eye position. In: Eye movements and psychological processes, Monty and Senders, eds., ... Crane, H.D.; Cornsweet, T.N. (1970). "Ocular focus stimulator". Journal of the Optical Society of America. 60 (4): 577. doi: ... Cornsweet, T.N.; Crane, H.D. (1973). "Training the visual accommodation system". Vision Research. 13 (3): 713-715. doi:10.1016/ ... After a 36 second daily eye test and a ten day baseline was established, it was very easy to determine the presence of drugs, ...
... and converge the two eyes. Ocular motor control neurons Neurons that are interposed between the afferent and efferent limbs of ... The accommodation reflex (or accommodation-convergence reflex) is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near ... ISBN 978-81-312-1132-8. Accommodation at Georgia State University Ocular+Accommodation at the US National Library of Medicine ... During the accommodation reflex, the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye by blocking the light scattered ...
ISBN 978-0-7506-7524-6. oph/723 at eMedicine-"Presbyopia: Cause and Treatment" Ocular+Accommodation at the US National Library ... Accommodative esotropia Latent hyperopia Myopia Pseudomyopia Accommodation in fish Adaptation (eye) Amplitude of accommodation ... Excessive accommodation and spasm of accommodation are types of increased accommodation. Presbyopia, physiological ... It can be broadly classified into two, decreased accommodation and increased accommodation. Decreased accommodation may occur ...
He made significant contributions in his studies of refraction and accommodation of the eye. He also conducted research on ... Carl von Hess (7 March 1863 in Mainz - 28 June 1923 in Possenhofen) was a German ophthalmologist known for his work in ocular ... Refraction and accommodation of the human eye and its anomalies. Pathologie und Therapie des Linsensystems, 1905 - Pathology ...
... from PRESERVATIVES FROM THE EYE DROPS AND THE OCULAR SURFACE In fact, none of the cycloplegic drops used to treat Spasm of ... attenuates eye fatigue by improving visual accommodation" For routine cases of spasm of accommodation, the American Optometric ... Normal accommodation allows the eye to "accommodate" for near-vision. However, in a state of perpetual contraction, the ciliary ... Landolt, Edmond (1926). The refraction and accommodation of the eye and their anomalies. J.B. Lippincott Co. p. 450. OCLC ...
Ocularists specialize in the fabrication and fitting of ocular prostheses for people who have lost eyes due to trauma or ... Optometrist would worry that the ophthalmologist would fail to identify or mistreat the spasm of accommodation. As of 2012, ... it can be said that ophthalmologists are eye surgeons and primary eye care physicians while optometrists are primary eye care ... An eye care professional (ECP) is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision. It is any healthcare ...
Eyes can also follow a moving object around. This tracking is less accurate than the vestibulo-ocular reflex, as it requires ... "accommodation". Accommodation narrows the inner diameter of the ciliary body, which actually relaxes the fibers of the ... The structures of the eye labeled Another view of the eye and the structures of the eye labeled Anatomy portal Eye color Eye ... 3D Interactive Human Eye Eye - Hilzbook Retina - Hilzbook Interactive Tool to explore the Human Eye Media related to Human eyes ...
Snell, Richard S. (2012). "Development of the Eye and the Ocular Appendages". Clinical anatomy of the eye. Lemp, Michael A. ( ... The process of changing lens power to see near clearly is known as accommodation. Early embryologic development of lens capsule ... The lens capsule is a component of the globe of the eye. It is a clear, membrane-like structure composed of collagen IV and ... As a result, the lens naturally tends towards a rounder or more globular configuration, a shape it must assume for the eye to ...
... both eyes 369.1 Blindness, one eye, low vision other eye 369.2 Low vision, both eyes 369.3 Unqualified visual loss, both eyes ... juvenile and presenile cataract 366.1 Senile cataract 366.2 Traumatic cataract 366.3 Cataract secondary to ocular disorders ... with other disorders 366.5 After-cataract 366.8 Other cataract 366.9 Unspecified 367 Disorders of refraction and accommodation ... one eye 369.8 Unqualified visual loss, one eye 369.9 Unspecified visual loss 370 Keratitis 370.0 Corneal ulcer 370.1* Dendritic ...
"Ocular diurnal rhythms and eye growth regulation: where we are 50 years after Lauber". Experimental Eye Research (Review). 114 ... Nocturnal myopia: Without adequate stimulus for accurate accommodation, the accommodation system partially engages, pushing ... Upon routine examination of the eyes, the vast majority of myopic eyes appear structurally identical to nonmyopic eyes. Onset ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos). The opposite of ...
doi:10.1038/eye.2013.256. PMC 3930268. PMID 24357836.. *^ Ledford, Al Lens, Sheila Coyne Nemeth, Janice K. (2008). Ocular ... Schaeffel, F (1988). "Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens". Vision Res. 28 (5): 639-657. doi:10.1016/ ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos).[120][121][122][123] ... Upon routine examination of the eyes, the vast majority of myopic eyes appear structurally identical to non-myopic eyes. In ...
Kurzer Leitfaden der Refractions- und Accommodations-Anomalien, 1893 - A short guide to refraction and accommodation ... He specialized in ocular histopathology, and was the author of around 64 papers on clinical and histopathological subjects. At ... In 1864 he obtained his habilitation at Basel, and during the same year, opened a private eye hospital. In 1867 he became an ... The Genealogy of Ophthalmic Teaching in Switzerland Rintelen, F (1978). "[Centennial of the Basle Eye Hospital and its founder ...
A possible ocular (eye-related) side effect is increase in pressure inside the eye, which is of particular concern when there ... accommodation) in order to see in the distance and up-close. Correction of latent hyperopia in children can often prevent, or ... It is commonly used as an eye drop during pediatric eye examinations to dilate the eye (mydriatic) and prevent the eye from ... inflammation of the eye mucous membranes (conjunctivitis), inflammation of the cornea of the eye (keratitis), and other issues ...
Presbyopia due to physiological insufficiency of accommodation (accommodation tends to decrease with age) is the main cause of ... including lacrimal gland and leads to dry eye and visual blur. Floaters:Tiny particles drifting across the eye. Although often ... Blurred vision is an ocular symptom where vision becomes less precise and there is added difficulty to resolve fine details. ... Bleeding into the eye Temporal arteritis: Inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies blood to the optic nerve. ...
"Refractive and Visual Outcomes and Rotational Stability of Toric Intraocular Lenses in Eyes With and Without Previous Ocular ... With accommodation relaxed: Simple astigmatism Simple hyperopic astigmatism - first focal line is on the retina, while the ... but it is the combination of the two that by definition determines the overall optics of the eye. The overall optics of the eye ... before it reaches the eye. This compensates for the fact that the patient's eye converges light more powerfully in the vertical ...
Figure showing the mode of innervation of the Recti medialis and lateralis of the eye. Vestibulo-ocular reflex Atlas image: ... including pupillary constriction and lens accommodation. Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; ...
The uvea is the vascular middle layer of the eye. It is traditionally divided into three areas, from front to back, the: Iris ... Pharmacological control over pupil size remains an important part of the treatment of some ocular diseases. Drugs can also ... control of accommodation (focus) by the ciliary body, and optimisation of retinal illumination by the iris's control over the ... Its use as a technical term for part of the eye is ancient, but it only referred to the choroid in Middle English and before. ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. References[edit]. *^ a b c Matejcek, A; Goldman, RD (November 2013). " ... "Conjunctivitis , Pink Eye , Newborns , CDC". Retrieved 2016-11-11.. ... The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal from a mother infected with either Neisseria ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "eye"),[১] ইংরেজিতে এর আরেক নাম night-blindness। এই রোগে অপেক্ষাকৃত স্বল্প আলোয় দেখা কঠিন বা প্রায় অসম্ভব। এটা আসলে কতিপয় ...
Ocular hypertension. References[edit]. *^ Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad ... Schlemm's canal is a circular lymphatic-like vessel in the eye that collects aqueous humor from the anterior chamber and ... By opening Schlemm's canal, the pressure inside the eye is relieved. Long-term results are available, published in May 2009 in ... Canaloplasty is a procedure designed to enhance and restore the eye's natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "National Eye Institute. Archived from the original on 2005-03-27.. *^ Weis JS (2015). "IC3D Classification of Corneal ... Symmetrical reticular opacities form in the superficial central cornea of both eyes at about 4-5 years of age in Reis-Bücklers ... Most do not affect other parts of the body, nor are they related to diseases affecting other parts of the eye or body. ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF rings) are dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye. They are due to copper deposition ... the early stages may be detected by slit lamp examination before they become visible to the naked eye.[1] ...
"The ocular application of povidone-iodine". Community Eye Health / International Centre for Eye Health. 16 (46): 30-1. PMC ... the eye or eyes should be flushed until the pH is in the range 6-8.[9] Anaesthetic eye drops can be used to decrease the pain.[ ... Chemical eye injury may result when an acidic or alkaline substance gets in the eye.[8] Alkali burns are typically worse than ... "Facts About Pink Eye". National Eye Institute. November 2015. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March ...
These 'tun' consisted of a series of buildings designed to provide short-term accommodation for the king and his household. It ... However Howard Williams and Ruth Nugent have suggest that the number of artefact categories that have animals or eyes; from ... Ocular Agency in early Anglo-Saxon cremation burials." Encountering images: materialities, perceptions, relations. Stockholm ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... The cephalopods have a non-inverted retina which is comparable in resolving power to the eyes of many vertebrates. Squid eyes ... In eyes where the vitreous has fully or partially detached from the retina, this is the space created between the posterior ... Another view of the eye and the structures of the eye labeled ... Right human eye cross-sectional view; eyes vary significantly ...
... s mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep-when brain activity is high and resembles that of being ... During the accommodation phase, mental schemas self-modify by incorporating dream themes. During the emotional selection phase ... The processes involved included EEG monitoring, ocular signaling, incorporation of reality in the form of red light stimuli and ... REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "Ophthalmol Eye Dis. 2010 (2): 9-15. doi:10.4137/OED.S2821. PMC 3045089 . PMID 21359135.. ... Progressive atrophy of the retina, choriocapillaries and choroid (the back layers of the eye). This tends to lead to ... eye disease named after Dr. G. B. Bietti.[3] ... Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. * ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "Pink eye in sheep and goat" is another infectious keratoconjunctivitis of veterinary concern, mostly caused by Chlamydophila ... Proper eye protection should be worn to prevent keratoconjunctivitis photoelectrica.. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output . ... Such UV exposure can be caused by arc welding without wearing protective eye glass, or by high altitude exposure from sunlight ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... Eye. 24 (5): 747-55. doi:10.1038/eye.2009.251. PMID 19927164. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-22.. ... A very few people have been found who have one normal eye and one protanopic eye. These unilateral dichromats report that with ... 18 (10): 1001-5. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6701378. PMID 15192692.. *^ Color Vision Deficiency Archived 2015-04-16 at the Wayback ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... Syphilis or other viral infections like herpes or HIV can cause the loss of eye hair as well. Fungal infections, like ... The gray line of the eye is a line that divides the eyelid into parts: anterior part is skin and muscle while posterior is ... Eyebrows and eyelashes are both important in the prevention of bacteria and other foreign objects from entering the eye. A ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... For instance, the part of the world an eye can see, is its receptive field; the light that each rod or cone can see, is its ... 722- This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, ...
It is used topically in the form of eye drops to manage ocular hypertension (high pressure in the eye) and open-angle glaucoma. ... Like other beta blockers, and unlike the anti-glaucoma medication pilocarpine, levobunolol has no effect on accommodation and ... The most common side effect is eye irritation felt as stinging or burning, which occurs in up to a third of patients. ... Leung M, Grunwald J (1997). "Short-term effects of topical levobunolol on the human retinal circulation". Eye. 11 (3): 371-6. ...
Accommodation tends to decrease with age.). *Cataracts-Cloudiness over the eye's lens, causing poor night-time vision, halos ... Blurred vision is an ocular symptom. The small print in an ingredients list is clear to healthy young eyes ... Eye infection, inflammation, or injury.. *Sjögren's syndrome, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that destroys moisture ... Glaucoma-Increased pressure in the eye, causing poor night vision, blind spots, and loss of vision to either side. A major ...
Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction. Hidden categories: *All articles with dead ... Heterophoria only occurs during dissociation of the left eye and right eye, when fusion of the eyes is absent. If you cover one ... One eye is covered, and then the cover is moved immediately over to the other eye. With heterophoria, when the cover is moved ... In other words, one or both eyes are not properly fixated to an object of interest. However, we must know that the eyes have a ...
Eye care/screening for children within primary health care is important as catching ocular disease issues can lead to better ... "Eye Problems in Babies. Baby Eye Problems. Patient". Retrieved 2 January 2018.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Rahi, J. S. (2007-01-01). "Childhood blindness: a UK epidemiological perspective". Eye. 21 (10): 1249-1253. doi:10.1038/sj.eye. ... MD, Elias I. Traboulsi (2011-12-01). Genetic Diseases of the Eye, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN ...
Accommodation reflex. pons/medulla: Jaw jerk reflex. *Corneal reflex. *Caloric reflex test/Vestibulo-ocular reflex/ ... Right pupillary reflex means reaction of the right pupil, whether light is shone into the left eye, right eye, or both eyes. In ... right eye if both eyes respond normally to stimulation of the left eye indicates damage to the sensory input from the right eye ... regardless of which eye is being stimulated. Light entering one eye produces a constriction of the pupil of that eye, the ...
Ocular MRI may be helpful[6] and auditory symptoms should undergo audiologic testing.[6] Histopathology findings from eye and ... eyes along with both neurological and skin), incomplete (eyes along with either neurological or skin) or probable (eyes without ... previous ocular penetrating trauma or surgery, and other concomitant ocular disease similar to VKH disease.[2][6][11] ... The eye symptoms may be accompanied by a varying constellation of systemic symptoms, such as auditory (tinnitus,[6] vertigo,[6] ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... "Prog Retin Eye Res. 31 (5): 407-441. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.04.003. PMC 3401171 . PMID 22580106.. ... Among their functions, horizontal cells are responsible for allowing eyes to adjust to see well under both bright and dim light ... cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes ...
Nuclei of the optic tract are involved in smooth pursuit eye movement and the accommodation reflex, as well as REM. ... "Parasympathetic Ocular Control - Functional Subdivisions and Circuitry of the Avian Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal."Science Direct ... EyeEdit. Main articles: Eye and Anterior segment of eyeball. Light entering the eye is refracted as it passes through the ... The human eye (horizontal section). The image projected onto the retina is inverted due to the optics of the eye. ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... The pupillary dilator acts to increase the size of the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye. It works in opposition to ... Pupil dilation occurs when there is insufficient light for the normal function of the eye, and during heightened sympathetic ... of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. The pupillary dilator consists of a spokelike ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 20 (1, pp. 9-137): 95-137. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00016-1.. ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 49: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.07.001.. ... Oyster, CW (1999). "8". The human eye: structure and function. Sinauer. OL 8562710W.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture". Eye. 30 (2): 287-303. doi:10.1038/eye.2015.197. PMC 4763116. PMID 26563659 ... Simunovic MP (May 2010). "Colour vision deficiency". Eye. 24 (5): 747-55. doi:10.1038/eye.2009.251. PMID 19927164.. ... A very few people have been found who have one normal eye and one protanopic eye. These unilateral dichromats report that with ...
List of eye diseases and disorders. *List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations ... Ectopia lentis is a displacement or malposition of the eye's crystalline lens from its normal location. A partial dislocation ... With anterior lens luxation, the lens pushes into the iris or actually enters the anterior chamber of the eye. This can cause ... With posterior lens luxation, the lens falls back into the vitreous humour and lies on the floor of the eye. This type causes ...
Glaucoma / Ocular hypertension / Primary juvenile glaucoma. *Floater. *Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. *Red eye ... "Experimental Eye Research. 85 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2007.03.001. PMC 2892386. PMID 17531222.. ... Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.[1] Symptoms include trouble seeing at ... "First Bionic Eye' Retinal Chip for Blind". Science Daily. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013.. ...
... is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.[1] Because of the paralysis of ... Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction. Hidden categories: *Articles needing additional ... When cycloplegic drugs are used as a mydriatic to dilate the pupil, the pupil in the normal eye regains its function when the ... All cycloplegics are also mydriatic (pupil dilating) agents and are used as such during eye examination to better visualize the ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 20 (3): 351-384. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00031-8.. ...
Eye injuries, most often occurring in people under 30, are the leading cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye) ... is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or coexisting ocular ... Accommodation may require alternative means of communication.[59]. EpidemiologyEdit. The WHO estimates that in 2012 there were ... "High Eye Pressure and Glaucoma." Glaucoma Research Foundation. N.p., 5 Sept. 2013. Web.,. "High Eye Pressure and Glaucoma". ...
Accommodation (ocular) The image of an object brought close to the eye would be formed behind the retina if there were no ... Close one eye. Now open that eye and close the other. Your hand will seem to move against the background. Your two eyes ... ... eye disease (Types, Diagnosis, Treatments, & Facts) Eye disease, any of the diseases or disorders that affect the human eye. ... Human eye - Corpus callosum The influence of the movements of the eyes in the estimation of length was emphasized by Helmholtz ...
Laterally displacing periscopic spectacles, which increase the required change in vergence per unit change in accommodation … ... and accommodation-induced vergence (A-V) were measured in human subjects before and after they had worn various optical devices ... Convergence, Ocular* * Eye Movements* * Eyeglasses * Humans ... Vergence-induced accommodation (V-A) and accommodation-induced ... Optically induced changes in the couplings between vergence and accommodation J Neurosci. 1987 Aug;7(8):2576-89. ...
Refraction, Ocular: see Eye -- Accommodation and refraction. *Refraction of the eye: see Eye -- Accommodation and refraction ...
The initial stimulus for accommodation is a blurred visual image that first reaches the visual cortex. Through a series of ... In human eye: Accommodation. The image of an object brought close to the eye would be formed behind the retina if there were no ... In eye disease: Strabismus (squint). Second, the focus (accommodation) of the eyes must be adjusted for near vision. The link ... In space perception: Cues from the eye muscles. The ciliary effect is called accommodation (focusing the lens for near or far ...
Ocular. Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Lacrimation decreased (dry eyes) Frequency not reported: Accommodation disorder, ocular burning, ...
Eye movement Eyelid elevation Contraction of iris Accommodation of lens. IV. Trochlear. Midbrain. Ocular muscle proprioception ... Ocular muscle proprioception. Eye movement. VII. Facial. Pons. Taste (anterior two-thirds of tongue). Muscle movement of face, ... thus producing stimulation of the medial retina of the right eye and the lateral retina of the left eye) are represented on the ... Area 8 is often called the frontal eye field, since horizontal and vertical conjugate eye movements result from stimulation of ...
Ocular. Amlodipine:. Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain. Rare (less than 0.1%): ... Xerophthalmia, abnormal visual accommodation. Hydrochlorothiazide:. Frequency not reported: Transient blurred vision, ...
H00-H59 Diseases of the eye and adnexa › * H49-H52 Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and ... Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction. Type 2 Excludes*nystagmus and other irregular ... Diseases of the eye and adnexa. Note*Use an external cause code following the code for the eye condition, if applicable, to ... diabetes mellitus related eye conditions (E09.3-, E10.3-, E11.3-, E13.3-). *endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00- ...
H00-H59 Diseases of the eye and adnexa › * H49-H52 Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and ... Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction. Type 2 Excludes*nystagmus and other irregular ... Diseases of the eye and adnexa. Note*Use an external cause code following the code for the eye condition, if applicable, to ... diabetes mellitus related eye conditions (E09.3-, E10.3-, E11.3-, E13.3-). *endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00- ...
ocular accommodation. 8.12. *see constants of the eye.. Table P6 Powers of the surfaces of contact lenses of thickness d = 0.20 ... Examples: (1) If a hyperopic eye is corrected by a lens F = +5 D placed 12 mm from the cornea, the ocular refraction is. ... 2) If an eye has an ocular refraction of −10D, its spectacle refraction at a vertex distance of 10 mm is. ... or accommodation). Example: A patient uses a lens +16 D placed 12 cm from the eye and wears a near addition of +4.00 D. EVP = ...
After 3-4 months of age, also assess ocular motility, cycloplegia refraction and accommodation by dynamic retinoscopy. If ... Follow-up visits with an ophthalmologist after the initial eye examination should be based on ophthalmology recommendations. As ... Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed Zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil. JAMA ... Health care providers should remain alert for abnormal findings (e.g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities ...
Visual function tests included visual acuity, muscle balance, preferred eye and hand, color vision, refraction, sensory and ... Accommodation, Ocular * Achievement* * Child * Color Perception * Convergence, Ocular * Eye Movements * Female * Humans ... Visual function tests included visual acuity, muscle balance, preferred eye and hand, color vision, refraction, sensory and ...
Vision: blindness, conjunctivitis, eye pain, glaucoma, loss of accommodation, ocular hemorrhage, xerophthalmia. ... Symptoms treated effectively include sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal discharge, nasal pruritus, ocular pruritus, and tearing. ...
Ocular Motility Disorders. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Cranial Nerve Diseases. Eye Diseases. ... Any ocular or systemic medication known to affect accommodation or vergence. *Monocular accommodative amplitude less than 4 D ... Systemic diseases known to affect accommodation, vergence, and ocular motility such as: multiple sclerosis, Gravess thyroid ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Ocular Motility Disorders Motor Neuro-ophthalmic Disorders ...
Accessibility of eye care services for: marginalised groups, ocular emergencies, rural and coastal communities. ... Nicolas broad active research interests include: optometric public health and the accessibility of eye care, accommodation and ... Accommodation and presbyopia *Clinical uses of the Accommodative Facility Test. *Ageing of the crystalline lens and ciliary ... the University of Plymouth to undertake a postgraduate research position studying for a PhD entitled; Ocular Accommodation in ...
Presbyopia: An animal model and experimental approaches for the study of the mechanism of accommodation and ocular ageing *L Z ... Eye 1 , 222-230 Rights & permissionsfor article Presbyopia: An animal model and experimental approaches for the study of the ... Gene therapy using p21WAF-1/Cip-1 to modulate wound healing after glaucoma trabeculectomy surgery in a primate model of ocular ... SB772077B, A New Rho Kinase Inhibitor Enhances Aqueous Humour Outflow Facility in Human Eyes *Soundararajan Ashwinbalaji ...
Vergence eye movements are the inward and outward rotation of the eyes responsible for binocular coordination. While studies ... Single-unit activity in the primate nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis related to vergence and ocular accommodation. J ... parietal eye fields (ICC = 0.6), supplementary eye field (ICC = 0.5), frontal eye fields (ICC = 0.5), and oculomotor vermis ( ... Vergence eye movements are the inward and outward rotation of the eyes responsible for binocular coordination. While studies ...
Ocular Alignment Test​. Eye Health Assesment​. ​ Vision Assessment. Depth Perception Test. Accommodation Test​. Management & ... General Eye Health Examination Th​e general eye health examination (GE) is a comprehensive check of your eye that not only ... Paediatric Eye Services​ With the worsening problem of myopia (short-sightedness) in children, having an eye examination that ... NP Optometry Centre is equipped with the Lenstar Ocular Biometer that can accurately measure the length of your childs eye. ...
Find out about included tests and recommended frequency for your comprehensive eye and vision examination. ... Periodic eye and vision examinations are an important part of preventive health care. ... An assessment of accommodation, ocular motility, and binocular vision determines how well your eyes focus, move and work ... Eye focusing, eye teaming, and eye movement testing. To see a clear, single image, the eyes must effectively change focus, move ...
Comparison of saccadic eye movements and facility of ocular accommodation in female volleyball players and non-players. Scand. ... in two bipodal conditions with eyes open (i.e., eyes fixed straight ahead on a target at 1.5 m). They were asked to take an ... as still as possible with eyes open and eyes closed).. The acquisition of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacements was ... This loss of functioning was present for a simple postural task (i.e., upright stance with eyes open on a firm surface) and for ...
... assessment of relationship between the fovea of the fixing eye and the retinal area stimulated in the squinting eye, viz. ... Binocular single vision is the ability to use both eyes simultaneously so that each eye contributes to a common single ... Ill-sustained accommodation. Accommodative excess. Accommodative infacility. Ocular motor anomalies. Ocular motor dysfunction. ... which fovea of the two eyes is flashed with linear afterimage horizontal in right eye and vertical in left eye since each eye ...
This implantable intraocular device, which can be used for the prevention of ocular degeneration and especially of the macular ... The device may be implanted either inside the ocular cavity or in contact with the eyeball. ... There is provided a compressible implant for the increase of ocular elasticity and the prevention of macular degeneration. ... Intraocular device for the restoring visual accommodation of presbiopic eye US20090216218A1 (en) * 2005-06-30. 2009-08-27. Amo ...
Other disorders of the ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation & refraction 107 334 880 963 ... Other diseases of the eye & adnexa 119 302 303 304 308 309 310 311 312 313 316 317 318 319 320 329 335 ...
The literature on intra-ocular pressure dynamics is reviewed, including tonometer design and calibration, the influence of ... The accommodation tension is responsible for an increasing intra-ocular liquid production [36]. Eyes with progressive myopia ... 60] measured ocular rigidity in living human eyes, using injected manometry, finding that ocular rigidity increases with age, ... Perkins ES (1981) Ocular volume and ocular rigidity. Exp Eye Res 33: 141-145. ...
Influence of Age on Ocular Wavefront Aberration Changes With Accommodation Yoshihiko Iida, MD; Misae Ito, CO; Kimiya Shimizu, ... Lack of Progression of Ectasia Seven Years After LASIK in a Highly Myopic Keratoconic Eye Mario Jampaulo, MD; Robert K. Maloney ... Association Between Ocular Dominance and Refraction Ilker Eser, MD; Frank Schwendeman, OD; Daniel S Durrie, MD; Jason E Stahl, ... Optical Aberrations in Pseudophakic Eyes After 2.5-mm Nd:YAG Laser Capsulotomy for Posterior Capsule Opacification Fabrizio ...
Gerometta, R., Zamudio, A.C., Escobar, D.P., and Candia, O.A. (2007). Volume change of the ocular lens during accommodation. Am ... Candia, O.A., and Alvarez, L.J. (2008). Fluid transport phenomena in ocular epithelia. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27, 197-212. ... Eye Res. 78, 527-535.. Gerometta, R., Podos, S.M., Candia, O.A., Wu, B., Malgor, L.A., Mittag, T., and Danias, J. (2004). ... Eye Res. 27, 205-215.. Davies, N., Akhtar, S., Turner, H.C., Candia, O.A., To, C.H., and Guggenheim, J.A. (2004). Chloride ...
Assessment of the Eye , Ear , Nose , Mouth and Throat. *課程目標: 1. 正確說出眼,耳,口,鼻及喉解剖位置 2. 正確說出各感官器官神經傳導路 ... The Ocular Fundus. 1).Inspect :. optic disc / retinal vessel /general background / macula ... accommodation :pupillary construction and convergence eyes axes 身體檢查與評估 長庚大學護理學系 楊翠雲老師 ... Chapter 22: The Head, Face, Eyes,
There is consequently spasm of accommodation, so that clear vision of distant objects becomes impossible. The intra-ocular ... That this action is a direct and not a nervous one is shown by the fact that if the eye be suddenly shaded the pupil will ... It is used in all cases where one needs to reduce the intra-ocular tension, and for this and other reasons in glaucoma. It is ... There remains only to consider its highly important action upon the eye. Whether administered in the form of the official ...
Diseases of the eye and adnexa. Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction ... When straight eyes wont move: phenotypic overlap of genetically distinct ocular motility disturbances. Can J Ophthalmol. 2011; ... Individuals with HGPPS are unable to move their eyes side-to-side (horizontally), whereas vertical eye movements are typically ... His horizontal eye movements were severely disturbed. He had left microhypertropia with fusion and motor developmental delay. ...
Erik Eye Hospital is the most comprehensive ophthalmic and vison research institution in Sweden together with Karolinska ... ocular accommodation in children with albinism or cerebral palsy. *functional visual problems, analytical methods and ... Retina and ocular oncology. This research group focuses on retinal diseases and eye tumours (predominantly malignant and ... Cataract, pediatric eye diseases and anterior eye parts. This research group conducts research into cataract, but also studies ...
  • This is often measured with a Snellen chart or LogMAR chart In physics, "refraction" is the mechanism that bends the path of light as it passes from one medium to another, as when it passes from the air through the parts of the eye. (
  • In an eye exam, the term refraction is the determination of the ideal correction of refractive error. (
  • Sometimes, eye care professionals prefer to obtain a cycloplegic refraction, especially when trying to obtain an accurate refraction in young children who may skew refraction measurements by adjusting their eyes with accommodation. (
  • Changes in ocular components were measured using Lenstar, and refraction was measured with a Hartinger refractometer. (
  • WaveTec Vision Systems has developed combined wavefront-sensing and eye-tracking technology for unobtrusively and dynamically measuring binocular line-of-sight and refraction, including sphere, cylinder, and axis. (
  • Evaluate the visual acuity, refraction, visual field changes and pupillary diameter in pseudophakic patients after instillation of 2% pilocarpine eye drops. (
  • It offers a means to provide a starting point for subjective refraction when optometrists are required to undertake a comprehensive eye examination within an allocated time. (
  • The image of an object brought close to the eye would be formed behind the retina if there were no change in the focal length of the eye . (
  • Refractive error is an optical abnormality in which the shape of the eye fails to bring light into sharp focus on the retina, resulting in blurred or distorted vision. (
  • The normal crystalline lens is transparent, refractive, and provides adequate accommodation (shape change) to transmit and focus light on the retina at various distances. (
  • Poor visual acuity may be caused by lack of dopamine in the retina, abnormal eye movements, or poor blinking and is only marginally improved by drug therapy [ 6 ]. (
  • Eye Pro MD ® provides eyes with a potent array of carotenoids, including Zanthin® Natural Astaxanthin, Lutein and Zeaxanthin, all three of which have been shown to cross the blood-retina barrier. (
  • These carotenoids reduce oxidative stress to the retina and macular cells, thus protecting the eyes. (
  • The human eye functions like a camera, using the cornea and the internal lens to focus a clear image on the visual center of the retina (fovea). (
  • Pathological myopia is characterized by rapid, extreme axial elongation of the globe, leading to a high refractive error (typically far more negative than -6.00D). This extreme stretching puts stress on the ocular structures (retina, choroid, and sclera), which can then result in degenerative changes in the eye ( Figure 3 ), and irreversible vision loss. (
  • The human eyes automatically accommodate so as to focus the retina by thickening the lens for near point vision or otherwise by thinning them for far point vision. (
  • Evaluation of the lens, retina and posterior section of the eye may be done through a dilated pupil to provide a better view of the internal structures of the eye. (
  • All diseases of the cornea, iris, retina and optic nerve cause reflex irritation and watering of the eyes. (
  • A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. (
  • The natural lens of the eye, located behind the pupil, which helps bring rays of light to focus on the Retina, The original state of the lens is transparent, but the lens becomes cloudy with age (see Cataract). (
  • The influence of the movements of the eyes in the estimation of length was emphasized by Helmholtz. (
  • Vergence eye movements are the inward and outward rotation of the eyes responsible for binocular coordination. (
  • While studies have mapped and investigated the neural substrates of vergence, it is not well understood whether vergence eye movements evoke the blood oxygen level-dependent signal reliably in separate experimental visits. (
  • The fMRI experiments used a block design of sustained visual fixation and rest blocks interleaved between task blocks that stimulated eight or four vergence eye movements. (
  • Functional activation during the vergence eye movement task of eight movements compared to rest was repeatable within the primary visual cortex (ICC = 0.8), parietal eye fields (ICC = 0.6), supplementary eye field (ICC = 0.5), frontal eye fields (ICC = 0.5), and oculomotor vermis (ICC = 0.6). (
  • The results demonstrate significant test-retest reliability in the ROIs of the vergence neural substrates for functional activation magnitude and spatial extent using the stimulus protocol of a task block stimulating eight vergence eye movements compared to sustained fixation. (
  • Mays LE, Porter JD, Gamlin PD, Tello CA. Neural control of vergence eye movements: neurons encoding vergence velocity. (
  • Neural mechanisms for the control of vergence eye movements. (
  • Functional anatomy of predictive vergence and saccade eye movements in humans: A functional MRI investigation. (
  • Rambold H, Neumann G, Sander T, Helmchen C. Pontine lesions may cause selective deficits of "slow" vergence eye movements. (
  • Preliminary tests can include evaluations of depth perception, color vision, eye muscle movements, peripheral or side vision, and the way your pupils respond to light. (
  • It is characterized by progressive scoliosis along with the absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and is associated with failure of the somatosensory and corticospinal neuronal tracts to decussate in the medulla. (
  • Individuals with HGPPS are unable to move their eyes side-to-side (horizontally), whereas vertical eye movements are typically normal. (
  • She presented at birth with congenital, nonprogressive, abnormal eye movements. (
  • reading eye movements and reading and writing disorders. (
  • While previous studies have detailed the effect of these disorders on other eye movements, such as saccades, relatively little is known about strabismus. (
  • However, when the cortex is unable to achieve sensory fusion, extraocular vergence movements work to bring the eyes within the bounds of Panum's area to permit fusion. (
  • Vergence eye movements can be broadly divided into two categories: fusional, which is stimulated by a disparity between the retinal images as discussed above, and accommodative, which works alongside accommodation of the lens and pupil to correct the visual blur. (
  • Eye movements during the visual-search tasks were recorded binocularly using a mobile eye-tracking system, and the gaze parameters were analyzed (fixation duration, saccade duration, saccade amplitude, saccade average acceleration, saccade peak deceleration, saccade average velocity, and ocular mobility index). (
  • Preliminary testing may include evaluation of specific aspects of visual function and eye health such as depth perception, color vision, eye muscle movements, peripheral or side vision, and the way your pupils respond to light. (
  • The ophthalmological examination revealed all extra ocular movements to be intact. (
  • In addition, as the infant's interest in exploring the visual environment increases, the need for voluntary eye movements increases. (
  • An integrated system of voluntary and reflexive eye movements to allow normal alignment, fixation on objects of interest and smooth pursuit (tracking) movements develops rapidly, so that by three months of age infants are capable of following objects vertically and horizontally while the eyes remain aligned. (
  • Neuro-ophthalmic diagnoses (conditions of the optic nerve, visual tract, and cranial nerves responsible for eye movements) accounted for the most hospital bed days. (
  • We use visual electrophysiology/EEG methods and measures of eye movements, accommodation with eye trackers, and infrared photorefractor. (
  • There are many factors that can impair reading in CVI including, but not limited to, (i) increased crowding (ii) simultagnosia and (iii) abnormal eye movements. (
  • Gamlin's research focuses on the visual system and eye movements in health and disease. (
  • His particular expertise is in the neural control of vergence eye movements - those eye movements that are required for near and far viewing - and ocular accommodation, which ensures that the eyes are focused at the correct viewing distance. (
  • These tests measure the curvature of the cornea (the clear outer surface of the eye) by focusing a circle of light on the cornea and measuring its reflection. (
  • It also focuses on the anterior eye parts, such as the eyelid, tear ducts, conjunctiva, cornea and lens, as well as the eye socket. (
  • Accommodation in the human eye occurs through controlled changes in crystalline lens shape, thickness, and refractive surface placement relative to the cornea. (
  • Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% is contraindicated in acute untreated purulent ocular infections, in most viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva including epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, and varicella, and also in mycobacterial infection of the eye and fungal diseases of ocular structures. (
  • Used for the treatment of ocular infections involving the lids, conjunctiva, and/or cornea caused by organisms susceptible to it. (
  • External examination of the eye includes evaluation of the cornea, eyelids, conjunctiva and surrounding eye tissue using bright light and magnification. (
  • These adaptations are regarded as the first evolutionary improvements in… Near the front of the eye, in the area protected by the eyelids, the sclera is covered by a thin, transparent membrane ( conjunctiva ), which runs to the edge of the cornea. (
  • Cornea: clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye. (
  • light travels through the cornea to the sclera at the back of eye. (
  • Other side and continue to the back surface of the eye through structure of the eye cornea and the spherical shape the! (
  • Onto the eye by passing through the cornea, which acts like a. (
  • An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea. (
  • The part of the eye anterior to the crystalline lens including the Cornea, Anterior Chamber, Iris and Ciliary Body. (
  • The ciliary effect is called accommodation (focusing the lens for near or far vision), and the rectus effect is called convergence (moving the entire eyeball). (
  • The link between convergence of the eyes and focusing is very strong, and normally the two actions work in harmony, resulting in both eyes being appropriately aligned on the object of regard. (
  • The influence of first near-spectacle reading correction on accommodation and its interaction with convergence. (
  • It must be distinguished from other forms of esotropia, usually by a trial of eyeglasses or occasionally by trying cholinesterase-inhibiting eye drops, which facilitate accommodation and thus lessen convergence. (
  • In esotropia with a high AC /A ratio, there is an inappropriate amount of convergence for each unit of accommodation, causing the eyes to turn inward at near focus. (
  • Functional vision refers to a variety of specific functions of the eye and the neurological control of these functions such as binocularity , pursuit, saccades, accommodation, convergence etc., while perceptual vision refers to understanding, identifying and judging the importance of what you see. (
  • Eye disease, any of the diseases or disorders that affect the human eye . (
  • In addition to measuring the pressure inside of the eye, this also is part of the eye exam where a doctor of optometry can detect otherwise unknown eye and systemic diseases. (
  • This research group focuses on retinal diseases and eye tumours (predominantly malignant and conjunctival melanomas, as well as retinoblastomas). (
  • This research group conducts research into cataract, but also studies paediatric eye diseases and glaucoma. (
  • Health care professionals often recommend that all people should have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asymptomatic. (
  • Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain. (
  • Experimental assessment of stiffness of crystalline lens of the eye can help in understanding several ocular diseases. (
  • Various ocular diseases and long-term use of topical corticosteroids have been known to cause corneal and scleral thinning. (
  • More specifically, causes of the latter disorders may include eye-fatigues such as ciliary fatigue, fatigue of the ocular muscle which moves the eyeball and fatigue of the optic nerves, and systemic diseases or other ophthalmic diseases. (
  • Confocal microscopy is a new, emerging, noninvasive technology that can aid in the in vivo assessment of structural changes in several ocular surface diseases at the cellular level. (
  • Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment and Blindness . (
  • We investigate globally common eye diseases in children and in adults associated with long-tem visual loss and morbidity with high socioeconomic costs and impacts. (
  • Since it was founded in 1960, RPB has channeled hundreds of millions of dollars to medical institutions for research into the causes, treatment and prevention of all blinding eye diseases. (
  • As most of the eye specialists in this country and also of Great Britain whom we generally follow make special study of the diseases of the eye alone, they very often overlook this aspect of the watering of the eyes and fail to give relief to their patients by the usual eye drops. (
  • Refractive state and ocular biometry were obtained weekly using a photorefractor, 1310 nm optical coherence tomography, and partial coherence interferometry. (
  • His current research examines the effect of low-dose atropine on the biometry of the choroid and other ocular structures in healthy adults. (
  • Any disruptive factor that prevents the eyes from seeing equally, fusing their images, or working together (coordination), whether it be an imbalance of refractive errors between the eyes (anisometropia), a lens opacity obstructing normal vision (cataract), or an ocular misalignment (strabismus), can potentially cause loss of vision (amblyopia). (
  • These findings distinguish HGPPS from other congenital eye movement disorders in which absence or aberrant motor nerves are associated with hypoplastic extraocular muscles, but normal brain structure. (
  • 3. Amano Y, Sugimoto Y, Sugita M. Ocular disorders due to eyelash extensions. (
  • For more information on RPB, RPB-funded research, eye disorders and the RPB Grants Program, visit . (
  • 13 . A method that minimizes cataract formation when an agent is provided to an ocular lens, the method comprising piercing the lens with a needle of 30 gauge or thinner, introducing an agent into the lens through the needle, and withdrawing the needle from the lens. (
  • A cataract refers to any opacity of the ocular crystalline lens. (
  • Cataracts are most frequently associated with the normal aging process or pathology, but injury or mechanical violation of the ocular capsule surrounding the lens also causes cataract formation. (
  • 20 eyes of 15 patients with no ocular conditions other than cataract had implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (AcrySof. (
  • Fifteen eyes of 15 (n=15) patients with FHIC and cataract who had phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this retrospective study between 2002-2008. (
  • Oliver Findl, MD, discusses unique challenges in performing cataract and refractive phakic IOL surgery in the long eye. (
  • The absence of the eye s natural crystalline lens, usually after Cataract removal. (
  • Today, an Intraocular Lens (IOL) is implanted in the eye after the Cataract is removed to replace the focusing power of the natural lens eliminating the need for Aphakic Spectacles. (
  • An assessment of accommodation, ocular motility, and binocular vision determines how well your eyes focus, move and work together. (
  • 2011) detailed the phenotypic similarity in five Saudi patients with genetically and pathologically different ocular motility abnormalities involving straight eyes. (
  • A full eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil. (
  • A minimal eye examination consists of tests for visual acuity, pupil function, and extraocular muscle motility, as well as direct ophthalmoscopy through an undilated pupil. (
  • Our laboratory investigates mechanisms of normal and abnormal vision and ocular motility in adults and children with special emphasis on neurotypicals, strabismus, amblyopia, cerebral visual impairment, and acquired brain injury. (
  • Thus, a diverging lens having a focal length of 1 m has a power of -1 diopter, and a ... … eye is said to have dioptric (refractive) power too great for its length . (
  • Take an eye examination​ or let us assess your eyes for spectacles or contact lens prescription. (
  • An examination of the health of the front of your eye ensures that you are suitable for contact lens wear. (
  • By integrating the information obtained from your input and the measurements, the student optometrist in consultation with the optometry lecturer will recommend the appropriate contact lens to be placed in your eye for trial fitting. (
  • During the trial fitting process, the lens in your eye will be scrutinised for its movement, centration and coverage. (
  • 15 ] reported 24 h fluctuations of intra-ocular pressure, measured with an instrumented contact lens. (
  • Whole lenses were removed from the eye and placed anterior side up in agarose gel before gel hardening where only the posterior half of the lens was contained within the gel. (
  • The lens capsule is an acellular basement membrane that completely encapsulates the lens of the eye. (
  • A method of delivering a drug or other compound to the lens of the eye. (
  • 1 . An ocular drug delivery method comprising penetrating at least an outer capsule of an ocular lens with a conduit to create an aperture in the lens and introducing a drug into the lens through the aperture, wherein the aperture is self-sealing upon removal of the conduit. (
  • 14 . A localized ocular drug delivery method comprising penetrating at least an outer capsule of an ocular lens with a conduit to create an aperture, providing an agent directly into the lens via the conduit through the aperture, and withdrawing the conduit wherein the agent is substantially confined within the lens. (
  • One embodiment of the invention is an ocular drug delivery method by penetrating at least the outer capsule of the lens with a fine conduit that creates a self-sealing aperture when it is removed, then introducing a drug into the lens through this aperture. (
  • Studies have shown that stiffness of the eye lens increases with age that might contribute to loss of accommodation. (
  • Here we present preliminary results on phase sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography (PhS-SDOCT) measurements of the vibrations induced on surface of an eye lens. (
  • These pupillary responses are omnipresent in animals possessing optical lens eyes and are controlled by a dedicated neural subcortical network that can rapidly react to changes in light. (
  • An achromatizing lens has been designed for the human eye in the near infrared range, from 700 to 900 nm, for retinal imaging purposes. (
  • This system essentially allows an object to be viewed through a Badal lens that moves toward or away from the eye without changing the magnification of the retinal image, but allows a change of optical vergence. (
  • This aging process as simulated by the 3D computerized model affects not only the lens, but also the extralenticular apparatus including the sclera which coats the outer 5/6 of the eye. (
  • It is a rare disease characterized by smaller and more spherical lenses than normal bilaterally, an increased anteroposterior thickness of the lens and highly myopic eyes. (
  • Lens dislocation or subluxation may occur, leading to defective accommodation. (
  • Performs intra-ocular lens calculations using an IOL Master or equivalent device. (
  • It provides attachment surfaces for eye muscles Choroid Behind the iris sits the lens. (
  • Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. (
  • d) Presbyopia - here the lens in the eyes fail to undergo the required amount of changes necessary to see near object comfortably by the accommodative power exerted by the ciliary muscles, generally known as changes due to old age coming roughly at about 40 amongst Indians. (
  • Proposed treatments on presbyopic eyes include scleral expansion and femtosecond laser treatment of the lens [ 1 ]. (
  • Prematurity is especially associated with eye pathology, including retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors. (
  • Studying mechanisms of vergence and accommodation in strabismus and other clinical conditions such as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). (
  • Amblyopia is a reduction in vision, usually in one but sometimes in both eyes, that is not attributable to anatomic eye or optic nerve pathology. (
  • Amblyopia, commonly referred to as "lazy eye," is the major cause of monocular blindness in America, affecting up to 3 percent of young children. (
  • According to these devices and methods, the sources of treatment energy are activated to direct energy onto parts of the eye, such as the conjunctiva and sclera, to treat presbyopia. (
  • An infrared light source (around 800-900nm) is used as it allows good ocular transmission at the sclera. (
  • Our purpose is to present a model showing the pathophysiology of increased ocular rigidity associated with age, and the effects of changing the elastic modulus of the sclera on visual accommodation. (
  • Sclera - The sclera is the white, tough, outer covering of globe of the eye. (
  • The optic nerve is attached to the sclera at the back of the eye. (
  • The sclera is the white part of the eye, its protective outer layer. (
  • This black area is actually a hole that takes in light so the eye … The sclera is outermost layer of the eyeball. (
  • It consists of the following parts: Sclera: It is the outer covering, a protective tough white layer called the sclera (white part of the eye). (
  • The sclera is the outermost layer of tissue, also called the white of the eye. (
  • Myopia progression is thought to involve biomechanical weakening of the sclera, which leads to irreversible deformations and axial elongation of the eye. (
  • The thin transparent membrane overlying the Sclera (white part of the eye) and inside surface of the eyelid. (
  • A system and method is disclosed for making incisions in the sclera of an eye to form a scleral pocket to receive a scleral prosthesis. (
  • The system and method comprises a surgical tool comprising a surgical blade for making incisions in the sclera of an eye. (
  • When a surgeon places the surgical blade on the sclera of the eye a pressure sensor in the surgical tool determines whether there is sufficient pressure between the surgical tool and the sclera of the eye for the surgical tool to operate properly. (
  • A wide variety of microscopes, lense, and digital technology will be used to assess the health of all the structures of the eye and the surrounding tissues. (
  • Dilating eye drops are often used to temporarily widen the pupil for better views of the structures inside the eye. (
  • Which of the following eye structures is highly sensitive to pain? (
  • Architectures and techniques for treating conditions of the eye, such as presbyopia, utilize sources of treatment energy, such as electromagnetic energy emitting devices, to implement non-corneal manipulations. (
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the failure of accommodation is caused by presbyopia. (
  • The failure of this accommodation includes presbyopia which shows a difficulty in near point accommodation caused by poor accommodability due to age-deterioration, and morbid abnormalities of accommodation such as weakness of accommodation, hypocyclosis, dullness of accommodation, accommodation paralysis, tonic accommodation, accommodation spasm, etc. (
  • Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully "cure" presbyopia. (
  • It is important to determine the intra-ocular pressure, the fluid pressure inside the eye, in order to evaluate for patients at risk from glaucoma, because of potential damage to the optic nerve [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • 11 - 13 ] discussed ROP (often associated with rapid juvenile myopia rates) and glaucoma related studies.Direct and remote intra-ocular pressure measuring techniques were reviewed by Downs [ 14 ], Nuyen et al. (
  • High myopes need to be carefully considered for glaucoma, according to a talk by Christoph Faschinger, MD, PhD, Graz, Austria, who thinks that "highly myopic eyes have glaucoma as long as the opposite has not been proven. (
  • Produces miosis through contraction of iris sphincter muscle, which pulls iris root away from trabecular meshwork in angle-closure glaucoma and allows aqueous humor to exit eye, thereby lowering IOP. (
  • Also causes ciliary muscle contraction, resulting in accommodation and increased tension on and opening of trabecular meshwork spaces, facilitating aqueous humor outflow and lowering IOP in open-angle glaucoma. (
  • Elivated pressure in the eye signals an increased risk for glaucoma. (
  • Anyone with eye pressure greater than 22 mm Hg is at an increased risk of developing glaucoma, although many people with normal pressure also develop glaucoma . (
  • Health care providers should remain alert for abnormal findings (e.g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities without microcephaly) in infants with possible congenital Zika virus exposure without apparent abnormalities at birth. (
  • Some infants with suspected congenital Zika virus infection without structural eye lesions have cortical visual impairment, attributable to abnormalities in the visual system of the brain ( 13 ). (
  • Th​e general eye health examination (GE) is a comprehensive check of your eye that not only includes obtaining the prescription of your spectacles, but also ensuring that there are no abnormalities that require further investigations. (
  • 2. Reflex or referred causes: The sensory nerve supply of the eye is from ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, whose branches besides the eye, also supply the teeth of both upper and lower jaw by its maxillary and mandibular division. (
  • Fundus photos provided by James Gilman and the Moran Eye Center ophthalmic photography department. (
  • Many eye and vision problems have no obvious signs or symptoms, so you might not know a problem exists. (
  • In addition, a patient history will include when your eye or vision symptoms began, medications you are taking, and any work-related or environmental conditions that may be affecting your vision. (
  • Most people have experienced the symptoms of visual fatigue: eyes that feel sore, itchy, or dry. (
  • Visual signs and symptoms of PD may include defects in eye movement, pupillary function, and in more complex visual tasks involving the ability to judge distance or the shape of an object [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Hence, this paper provides a general overview of (1) the visual signs and symptoms of PD, (2) the areas of the eye and brain which may be affected by the pathology of PD, and (3) the adverse ocular reactions to treatment. (
  • Other symptoms include foreign body sensation, increasing eye pain, and photophobia. (
  • Digital Eye Strain (DES) refers to the visual and ocular symptoms commonly experienced when viewing digital screens. (
  • The survey found high prevalences of self-reported symptoms including headaches (52%), eye discomfort (58%), neck (47%), back (37%) and shoulder (39%) pain. (
  • Many eye and vision problems have no obvious signs or symptoms. (
  • Key Point: CVS causes temporary symptoms of pain and discomfort to both ocular and skeletal muscles that subside after ending computer use, but resume once computer use begins again. (
  • Symptoms: Blurred Vision Double Vision, Dry Eyes, Burning Eyes, Headache Neck or Back Pain. (
  • With the worsening problem of myopia (short-sightedness) in children, having an eye examination that is specially catered for your young ones is of particularly importance. (
  • Eyes with progressive myopia were characterized with evident pathology of the trabecular meshwork [ 37 , 38 ], which reduced the aqueous outflow. (
  • Dopamine levels may not directly modulate the refractive state of the mouse eye, but tonic levels of dopamine during development may determine susceptibility to myopia. (
  • The 3 specific ocular and vision-related conditions that accounted for the most medical encounters (i.e., myopia, astigmatism, and acute conjunctivitis) accounted for almost one-half (47.7%) of all ocular and vision-related medical encounters overall. (
  • 5. Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (
  • 6. Berntsen DA, Sinnott LT, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial using progressive addition lenses to evaluate theories of myopia progression in children with a high lag of accommodation. (
  • Myopia (near- or short-sightedness) occurs when the axial length of the eye is too long, and light is focussed in front of the photoreceptors (b). (
  • The generation of vergence commands starts with premotor commands, which are generated in the brainstem and then transmitted via ocular motor neurons to the extraocular muscles. (
  • Spasm of ciliary muscles, with irritability after using eyes. (
  • Post-diphtheritic paralysis of eye and accommodation muscles. (
  • There are 6 sets of muscles attached to outer surface of eye ball which helps to rotate it in different direction. (
  • The position of the eyes in an over-converged position compensated by the external eye muscles so that the eyes do not appear turned inward. (
  • CVS is caused by long periods of computer use, which results in fatigue to both the ocular muscles that are responsible for visual accommodation and muscles involved in eye movement. (
  • The literature on intra-ocular pressure dynamics is reviewed, including tonometer design and calibration, the influence of corneal-scleral mechanics, and scleral rigidity factors. (
  • An aged-matched crosslinking model was established to analyze the effects of the LaserACE eye laser therapy on the coefficient of rigidity. (
  • The benefit of intraocular accommodative resultant force efficiency as it relates to decreased ocular rigidity was evaluated as well as effects on accommodative biomechanical relationships. (
  • The rigidity coefficient of LaserACE-treated OLD eyes achieved a resultant rigidity that was almost identical to the untreated young eye. (
  • Utilizing model-based reasoning, it is shown that there is an important correlation between ocular rigidity and accommodative biomechanical relationships. (
  • As demonstrated in the model, changes in ocular rigidity can impact the accommodative mechanism biomechanics to produce more youthful biomechanical function. (
  • Understanding ocular rigidity as a metric may illuminate pathophysiology of accommodation and potential solutions for rehabilitating this dysfunction. (
  • Many previous studies have suggested that the more myopic defocus of blue light produces a stimulus that results in reduced eye growth in a large number of different species including chick, Cichlid fish, guinea pig, rhesus monkeys, and humans (UV). (
  • Within Phase I, Wavetec demonstrated the technology's feasibility for vision screening via mathematical simulation/analysis, engineering trials on prototypes using artificial eyes and automated computer processing, and successful demonstrations on humans. (
  • Realtime eye tracking is also used to assess fixation and attention. (
  • This resembled later descriptions of spasm of fixation 4, 5 and acquired ocular apraxia ( apraxia , Greek for "not acting"), but differed from congenital ocular motor apraxia, a childhood disorder in which head thrusts occur with voluntary refixation despite a full range of reflexive saccades. (
  • Clinically the tests used can be based on either of the two principles: (A) assessment of relationship between the fovea of the fixing eye and the retinal area stimulated in the squinting eye, viz. (
  • Nicola's broad active research interests include: optometric public health and the accessibility of eye care, accommodation and the ciliary muscle, and the influence of lifestyle of ocular ageing. (
  • Cycloplegic eye drops are applied to the eye to temporarily paralyze the ciliary muscle of the eye. (
  • This testing can be done without eye drops to determine how the eyes respond under normal seeing conditions. (
  • However, a doctor of optometry will use eye drops with patients who can't respond verbally or when some of the eyes' focusing power may be hidden. (
  • The drops temporarily keep the eyes from changing focus during testing. (
  • brinzolamide (eye drops). (
  • To compare the efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil 1% (5FU) and interferon alfa-2b 1 MIU/mL (IFN) eye drops as primary treatment modalities for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). (
  • In some cases, such as for patients who can't respond verbally or when some of the eyes focusing power may be hidden, eye drops are used. (
  • Her mother had some saline eye drops with her and irrigated the left eye and then they returned home. (
  • Nicola has taught across all three years of the optometry programme and on postgraduate modules, she has a specialist interests in teaching ocular pharmacology and disease, law and ethics and clinical case management. (
  • Wave aberrations were measured with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) in the right eye of a large young adult population when accommodative demands of 0, 3, and 6 D were presented to the tested eye through a Badal system. (
  • Despite the large inter-subject variability, the population average of the root mean square for all aberrations (excluding defocus) remained constant for accommodative levels up to 3.0 D. Even though aberrations change with accommodation, the magnitude of the aberration change remains less than the magnitude of the uncorrected aberrations, even at high accommodative levels. (
  • Therefore, a typical eye will benefit over the entire accommodative range (0-6 D) if aberrations are corrected for distance viewing. (
  • Accommodative IOLs offer to patients satisfactory near vision by restoring to some degree a dynamic component of the ocular ability for near vision. (
  • All ocular tissues are impacted by age. (
  • The front section of the eye s interior where aqueous humor flows in and out of providing nourishment to the eye and surrounding tissues. (
  • Reported anomalies of the anterior and posterior eye include microphthalmia, coloboma, intraocular calcifications, optic nerve hypoplasia and atrophy, and macular scarring with focal pigmentary retinal mottling ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • The optic disk, the first part of the optic nerve, is at the back of the eye. (
  • Optic nerve conditions and visual discomfort/disturbances accounted for more than one-quarter (30.1%) of all ocular and vision-related hospital bed days. (
  • Second, the focus ( accommodation ) of the eyes must be adjusted for near vision. (
  • This include the ability to perceive depth (3D perception), colour vision, alignment of the eyes, focusing ability and accuracy, as well as the general eye health. (
  • Binocular single vision is the ability to use both eyes simultaneously so that each eye contributes to a common single perception. (
  • Binocular single vision is the ability of both eyes to contribute to simultaneous perception by contemporaneous use of each of them. (
  • Romano and Romano described binocular vision as-state of simultaneous vision with two seeing eyes that occurs when an individual fixes his visual attention on an object of regard. (
  • Comprehensive eye exams by a doctor of optometry are an important part of caring for your eyes, vision, and overall all health. (
  • Periodic eye and vision examinations are an important part of preventive health care. (
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of eye and vision problems can help prevent vision loss. (
  • A comprehensive adult eye and vision examination may include but is not limited to, the following tests. (
  • The doctor will ask about any eye or vision problems you are currently having and about your overall health. (
  • If you have questions about any diagnosed eye or vision conditions, or treatment recommendations, don't hesitate to ask your doctor for additional information or explanation. (
  • Our research groups are affiliated to the Division of Eye and Vision at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet. (
  • The groups conduct a broad vision and eye research. (
  • The group is led by Senior Lecturer and Optician Rune Brautaset , also Head of Division of Eye and Vision. (
  • An eye examination is a series of tests performed to assess vision and ability to focus on and discern objects. (
  • The eye care professional will change lenses and other settings while asking the patient for feedback on which set of lenses give the best vision. (
  • With a binocular open view and targets at different distances, the technology measures vergence and accommodation along with standard vision screening parameters. (
  • This course covers (i) basic concepts of evidence-based medical practice with special reference to eye and/or vision care, (ii) fundamental biostatistics and epidemiological study designs with the focus on the concepts essential to understand the quality of evidence, (iii) strength of evidence on disease diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and risk, (iv) resources to identify current best evidence. (
  • Miosis also accompanies accommodation for near vision. (
  • Vision depends on the brain as well as on the eyes. (
  • We provide Vision Therapy to help individuals learn how to process visual information and develop better hand-eye coordination skills. (
  • 2. Having two eyes arranged to produce stereoscopic vision. (
  • Topical administration of a 2% pilocarpine eye drop was effective to improve pseudophakic patients vision with residual ametropia for far and near. (
  • The latter is based on the principle of the pinhole in which an opening of approximately 2 mm for the entrance of light rays into the eye is capable of isolating the peripheral rays suffering more aberrations and restricting the vision to the central rays focusing on the macula. (
  • Twitching of lids, soreness of eyeballs, blurring of vision after using eyes , pains around eyes and head). (
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of eye and vision problems are important for maintaining good vision and eye health, and when possible, preventing vision loss. (
  • The eye movement system is incompletely functional at birth but develops rapidly in parallel with the development of vision. (
  • Binocularity (the ability to perceive vision from both eyes simultaneously) and stereopsis (integration of the images from the two eyes to produce a single image with depth perception) can develop only if the eyes are fairly precisely aligned. (
  • Our eyes might be small, but they provide us with what many people consider to be the most important of our senses - vision. (
  • Seen by both eyes ( called binocular vision ) now Look at the eye ) the face object the. (
  • vision standard for trustworthy health information: verify here the right of the eye fascinating! (
  • The current report used an ocular and vision disease classification system and several healthcare burden measures to quantify the impacts of various ocular and vision-related illnesses and injuries among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2018. (
  • this category accounted for slightly more than one-half (51.1%) of all ocular and vision-related medical encounters. (
  • This is the first MSMR report specifically focused on the burden of ocular and vision conditions among active component U.S. service members. (
  • These are vision problems caused by involuntary or abnormal eye movement. (
  • It is a condition in which the best corrected vision in one eye is poorer than 20/20 (6/6) in the absence of any obvious structural anomalies or ocular disease. (
  • The first is the establishment of a functional multifocality in the visual system, the second is the establishment of a binocular divergence with one eye focused for far vision and the other for near (i.e., monovision), and the third is the attempt to restore normal accommodation. (
  • The third principal approach for reinstatement of near vision, restoration of accommodation, can be achieved only with surgical ways. (
  • This offers a change of the overall dioptric power of the eye and the facilitation of near vision. (
  • With computers becoming ubiquitous there is an increase in prevalence for an associated ocular disorder called Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). (
  • Based on the movement and orientation of this retinal reflection, the refractive state of the eye is measured. (
  • Proper refractive eye growth depends on several features of the visual image and requisite retinal pathways. (
  • The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. (
  • Visual acuity measurements evaluate how clearly each eye is seeing. (
  • To evaluate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) during treatment with topical interferon alfa-2b (IFN alfa-2b). (
  • To evaluate the imaging characteristics of intraepithelial and invasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) on high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). (
  • These data were then imported into a 3D computerized simulation to evaluate the biomechanical impact on anatomical components of accommodation for two age points: Young (25 years old) and Old (50 years old). (
  • An examination of pupilary function includes inspecting the pupils for equal size (1 mm or less of difference may be normal), regular shape, reactivity to light, and direct and consensual accommodation. (
  • Coma and astigmatism also changed with accommodation, but the direction of the change was variable. (
  • Malathion is rapidly absorbed by ingestion and through intact skin and the eyes, resulting in acute systemic toxicity. (
  • Malathion is irritating to the skin and eyes, and is readily absorbed through intact skin, contributing to systemic toxicity. (
  • Financial costs of ocular injuries and visual dysfunction resulting from traumatic brain injury have been recently reported and are significant. (
  • PCG is characterized by marked increase of intraocular pressure at birth or early childhood, large ocular globes (buphthalmos) and corneal edema. (
  • These observations are consistent with the view that the gain of the neural cross-linkages between vergence and accommodation are subject to adaptive regulation. (
  • Investigating role ocular dominance, sensor and motor, in oculomotor stability. (
  • We are a Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute sponsored, Blind Babies Foundation supported research advocacy group consisting of SKI researchers, select clinicians, teachers of the visually impaired, and parents of children with cerebral visual impairment. (
  • Fewer studies investigated high-order aberrations other than spherical aberration in accommodated eyes and the results were less conclusive. (
  • This autoimmune response often leads to visual loss and other ocular dysfunctions. (
  • Rest assured, our staff will be able to advise you not just on your eye health, but also the appropriate type of spectacle lenses, and help to select the most suitable pair of spectacle frames for you. (
  • Using an instrument called a phoropter, the doctor places a series of lenses in front of your eyes. (
  • A series of lenses are flashed in front of the eye. (
  • The effective add inherent in 2-zone negative lenses inhibits eye growth in young chicks. (
  • The effect of 2-zone concentric bifocal spectacle lenses on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks. (
  • The effect of two-zone lenses on refractive development in chicken eyes. (
  • Using an instrument called a phoropter, your optometrist places a series of lenses in front of your eyes and measures how they focus light using a hand held lighted instrument called a retinoscope. (
  • Refractive error can be modified using lenses: In an emmetropic eye, positive lenses impose myopic defocus (d), and negative lenses impose hyperopic defocus (e). (
  • The right eye and neurological examination was normal as was the rest of her examination. (
  • Ocular manifestations secondary to various NEOPLASMS in which antibodies to antigens of the primary tumor cross-react with ocular antigens. (
  • It results from developmental defects of the trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber angle of the eye that prevent adequate drainage of aqueous humor. (
  • The part of the eye that produces Aqueous Humor. (
  • Most autorefractors use an automated Badal optical system to determine the refractive state of the eye. (
  • High-Resolution Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Intraepithelial Versus Invasive Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia. (
  • The front part is also called the anterior segment of the eye. (
  • The aim of our research is to better understand the anatomy and physiology of the anterior eye, through and allowing the design and evaluation of enhanced devices. (
  • A doctor of optometry may first want to look at specific aspects of the patient's visual function and eye health. (
  • The refractive error is calculated by analysing how the patient's eye influences the infrared light source. (
  • The principle is based on a double pinhole being placed in front of the patient's eye to determine the level of ametropia present. (
  • Dr. Coleman's pioneering surgical techniques include the first vitreoretinal surgery in New York and, using the ultrasound that he developed, demonstrated that operating at an earlier stage in ocular trauma could vastly improve the patient's prognosis for recovery. (
  • That is why NP Optometry Centre offers a wide range of professional eye care services to help you see your best. (
  • If it is your first visit to the Optometry Centre, you will have to undergo the GE to obtain a baseline record of your eye health. (
  • The student optometrist assists in the optometry lecturer to perform the eye tests for you. (
  • The optometry lecturer ensures that the eye tests are performed appropriately and accurately, and will repeat some critical tests. (
  • NP Optometry Centre is equipped with the Lenstar Ocular Biometer that can accurately measure the length of your child's eye. (
  • Prolonged use may also suppress the host immune response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections. (
  • A myopic eye will see the image viewed through the two holes as crossed, whereas the hyperopic eye will see the images uncrossed. (
  • In addition, ocular accommodation, pupil size, and the size of the vertical palpebral aperture were also monitored during the task. (