Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Tissue Expansion Devices: Devices used to generate extra soft tissue in vivo to be used in surgical reconstructions. They exert stretching forces on the tissue and thus stimulate new growth and result in TISSUE EXPANSION. They are commonly inflatable reservoirs, usually made of silicone, which are implanted under the tissue and gradually inflated. Other tissue expanders exert stretching forces by attaching to outside of the body, for example, vacuum tissue expanders. Once the tissue has grown, the expander is removed and the expanded tissue is used to cover the area being reconstructed.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Tissue Expansion: A procedure whereby the body is stimulated to generate extra soft tissue by the application of stretching forces that stimulate new growth of tissue which, over a period of time, results in a 2-dimensional expansion of the tissue. The procedure is used in reconstructive surgery for injuries caused by trauma, burns, or ablative surgery. Various types of TISSUE EXPANSION DEVICES have been developed that exert stretching forces.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Dyscalculia: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Eyelid DiseasesOculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.ArchivesFacial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Facies: The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.LEOPARD Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Abnormalities, MultipleMacrocephaly: A congenital abnormality in which the occipitofrontal circumference is greater than two standard deviations above the mean for a given age. It is associated with HYDROCEPHALUS; SUBDURAL EFFUSION; ARACHNOID CYSTS; or is part of a genetic condition (e.g., ALEXANDER DISEASE; SOTOS SYNDROME).
  • at least a portion of the fixation ring being made from a phosphorescent material visible to the physician in the dark after exposure to incident visible light, thereby enabling the physician to visualize the location of the fixation ring as a point of reference which can be used in a dark operating environment to determine the relative location of the cornea. (google.com)
  • 10. The ophthalmic instrument of claim 9 wherein the fixation ring comprises a vacuum source and an annular ring having a bottom surface and a passageway therein for communicating the vacuum source with the bottom surface and the patient's cornea. (google.com)
  • Whisking is monitored in high spatio-temporal resolution using laser micrometers, and eyelid movements are detected using infrared diode and phototransistor pairs that respond to the increased reflection when the eyelids cover the cornea. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ocular surgery, whether cataract, cornea, glaucoma or retina has evolved to become highly efficient and predictable. (scribd.com)
  • Recurrent keratitis and ulcers in the cornea could result in perforation of the eye with all consequences for ocular function. (prolekare.cz)
  • External examination of the ocular structures consists of a penlight evaluation of the eyelids, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, and iris. (aao.org)
  • The nictitans membrane is also known as the third eyelid, and it covers the cornea in a thin film. (granadavet.com)
  • On examination, his head circumference is at the 50th percentile, weight 75th percentile for adjusted age, with normal appearing facial features and eyelids. (chop.edu)
  • In the clinic, students will be responsible for examining patients, which may involve taking an ophthalmic history and performing a relevant ocular examination, as well as formulating a differential diagnosis and plan of management. (utoronto.ca)
  • Visual acuity measurement and external ocular examination are performed to recognize refractive error, childhood glaucoma, and various ocular conditions. (aafp.org)
  • The high prevalence of ocular motor manifestations emphasizes the importance of neuro-ophthalmological examination among patients with MS. Because chronic manifestations may cause minimal or no symptoms, a systematic investigation of the most common manifestations should be performed in daily practice. (livewisems.org)
  • The external examination of the patient should assess the facial features and critically evaluate the symmetry of the ocular, eyelid, and orbital structures. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The authors recommend the mnemonic-A.B.C.: for Aperture configuration, Blink dynamics, and eyelid Closure-to structure the examination of all symptomatic patients. (stanford.edu)
  • The ocular examination consists of the external examination, pupil examination, red reflex testing to assess ocular media, the examination of the ocular fundus by using ophthalmoscopy, and an assessment of visual function. (aao.org)
  • The most frequent chronic manifestations include INO and cerebellar ocular motor disorders such as gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic hypermetria, and lack of vestibulo-ocular reflex inhibition. (livewisems.org)
  • We have the most advanced orthopaedic instrumentation, enabling our surgeons to perform both internal and external fracture fixation, arthroscopic surgery, joint replacements, etc. (ndsr.co.uk)
  • for example, beta-blocking ophthalmic drops can have significant cardiac and circulatory side effects, chronic glaucoma treatment can cause ocular surface disease (OSD) with a variety of implicated agents, and topical treatments have been known to cause cataracts. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • Vision screening begins with a review of family and personal vision history to identify risk factors requiring referral, including premature birth, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and a family history of strabismus, amblyopia, retinoblastoma, childhood glaucoma, childhood cataracts, or ocular or genetic systemic disease. (aafp.org)
  • We evaluated the long-term safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% over 1 year in Japanese subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). (springer.com)
  • 2010) · Axial growth and binocular function following bilateral lensectomy and scleral fixation of an intraocular lens in nontraumatic ectopia lentis - Park SC, Chung ES, Chung TY, Kim SA Oh SY (Jpn J Ophthalmol. (snuseoul.com)
  • Acute or chronic lesions of MS within the brainstem and the cerebellum frequently result in ocular motor disorders. (livewisems.org)
  • Although not an immediate health risk, the prolapsed gland can lead to low grade corneal and conjunctivial irritation which can result in ocular discharge. (granadavet.com)
  • Worse outcomes of the duct are given to our internal fixation for up of snow on degree of partners, and urinary diversions or scrotal contents of aorta, popliteal arteries. (gaiaenergysystems.com)
  • To highlight features of lateral canthal tendon disinsertion (LCTD), provide an algorithm for systematic assessment, and describe the anatomic genesis of signs and symptoms.Retrospective case series of consecutive patients with lateral canthal tendon disinsertion, who underwent lateral canthal tendon fixation by a single surgeon (DTT) between 2004 and 2011.One hundred and seventeen eyes in 90 patients underwent lateral canthal tendon fixation. (stanford.edu)
  • Improved blink dynamics with manual lateral canthal tendon complex repositioning ("the thumb test") predicted a favorable outcome with surgical tightening in 95.7% of cases.Lateral canthal tendon disinsertion results in altered eyelid fissure symmetry, blink dynamics, and lacrimal pump function. (stanford.edu)
  • This finding is associated with lid lag on infraduction (Von Graefe's sign), eye globe lag on supraduction (Kocher's sign), a widened palpebral fissure during fixation (Dalrymple's sign) and an incapacity of closing the eyelids completely (lagophthalmos). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitating the change in upper eyelid position during downgaze. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Upper eyelid margin to corneal light reflex distance (uMRD), lower eyelid to corneal light reflex distance (IMRD), and vertical interpalpebral fissure (IPF) measurements were obtained on 50 healthy subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in upper eyelid position on downgaze is a common phenomenon. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Complete exenteration specimens can be orientated by the longer eyelashes and fold of the upper eyelid as well as the caruncle and punctae of the medial canthus. (edu.au)
  • On postoperative day 5, the patient experienced upper eyelid swelling after closing his eyes suddenly and standing up abruptly. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, the distance between the margin of the upper eyelid and the upper eyelid crease, as well as the amount of inferior scleral exposure, should be measured (Figure 6.6). (alpfmedical.info)
  • tance between the margin of the upper eyelid and the corneal light reflex) and to obtain the full range of vertical motion [Burke levator function (BLF)] of the upper lid. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Specimen, in formalin, labeled with the name of the patient and designated diagrammatically on the accompanying requisition as "right upper eyelid" consists of. (medrounds.org)
  • Ocular motor manifestations of MS can occur acutely in relapse or chronically, the latter as a consequence of previous relapses or as a chronic course of the disease. (livewisems.org)
  • 3. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the fixation structure further comprises vacuum means associated therewith for securing the fixation structure to the surface of the eye. (google.com)
  • 5. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the phosphorescent material is applied to a surface of the fixation structure. (google.com)
  • 7. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the fixation structure further comprises a vacuum source and passageways defined in the fixation structure for communicating the vacuum source with a bottom surface of the fixation structure securable against the patient's eye. (google.com)
  • Our hypothesis was that SLE alters the ocular surface homeostasis and increases the LC density and activation proportional to the severity of the general inflammation and disease activity of SLE. (hindawi.com)
  • Implant is fixed with 3 fixation holes on the anterior surface of the tarsal plate using non-absorbable stitches. (prolekare.cz)
  • A diagnosis of functional diplopia should not be entertained based simply on the absence of gross ocular misalignment, because sometimes very subtle misalignment of the ocular axes, which are difficult to elucidate at the bedside, may require more sensitive tests. (bmj.com)
  • On the other hand, one should not be surprised to see gross ocular misalignment without diplopia as brain plasticity usually takes over if diplopia is longstanding and the image from one eye is suppressed. (bmj.com)
  • Divergence occurs in the opposite setting: When the fixation object moves from near to far the eyes move outward-from a converged state to a more parallel alignment. (mhmedical.com)
  • 4. Supplementary material including ocular anatomy and clinical skills videos can be found under the resources tab on the portal. (utoronto.ca)
  • 11 Numerous reports on the ocular motor behaviour in human albinos, patients with retinal disease, and visual deprivation amblyopia have shown INS to be the predominant ocular oscillation. (bmj.com)
  • A handout on amblyopia is available at https://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/amblyopia.html . (aafp.org)
  • 10. Idris M, Zubairullah, Yaqoob h, Jamal k, Shah A A. Incidence of intra ocular foreign body in penetrating trauma presented to a tertiary care hospital of Khyber Pakhtun khwa and their visual outcome. (icoph.org)
  • A full thickness wedge resection of the eyelid does not need fiducials placed by the surgeon to be oriented by the pathologist. (medrounds.org)
  • The resulting involuntary narrowing of the palpebral fissure (distance between eyelids) during smiling, and the hypertonicity of the midface and neck during routine facial expressions, are both functionally and esthetically disturbing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 27 infants with involuntary ocular oscillations typical of INS are included in this analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Involuntary ocular oscillations have been classified in many ways, resulting in some confusion and disagreement among clinicians, physiologists, psychologists, and bioengineers. (bmj.com)
  • Staffed by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist - a specialist in animal eye care - the Ophthalmology service at NorthStar VETS offers comprehensive diagnostic resources along with medical and surgical treatments for ocular (eye) diseases. (northstarvets.com)
  • Within areas affected by NT-4/5, cortical cells remained responsive to the deprived eye, and maps of ocular dominance were no longer evident using intrinsic-signal optical imaging. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, if a neurotrophin is the scarce factor, oversupplying the cortex with that neurotrophin during a short period of monocular deprivation (MD) should disrupt ocular dominance plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • There is also an induction of the lipogenesis by fibroblasts and preadipocytes, which causes enlargement of the orbital fat and extra-ocular muscle compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequent and specific acute ocular motor manifestation is uni- or bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). (livewisems.org)