Eyelid DiseasesEyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Blepharoplasty: Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous: A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Ectropion: The turning outward (eversion) of the edge of the eyelid, resulting in the exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsOculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Entropion: The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hidrocystoma: A cystic form of sweat gland adenoma (ADENOMA, SWEAT GLAND). It is produced by the cystic proliferation of apocrine secretory glands. It is not uncommon, occurring in adult life in no particular age group, with males and females equally affected. The commonest site is around the eye, particularly lateral to the outer canthus. It is cured by surgical removal. (Stedman, 25th ed; Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2410)Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.TexasEyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Joint DiseasesTissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.BooksLakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)TennesseeInternational Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Book Selection

Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia? (1/282)

Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed.  (+info)

Multiple eyelid cysts resembling apocrine hidrocystomas in three Persian cats and one Himalayan cat. (2/282)

Multiple eyelid cysts were evaluated and treated in four cats. Surgical removal of the cysts was performed in two cats. Histopathologic examination revealed multilocular cystic structures of various size. The cysts were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with papillary or cystic projections into the cyst lumen. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules were seen within the apical cytoplasm of many of the cells. The eyelid masses in these cats resembled apocrine hidrocystomas in human beings, both clinically and on histopathologic examination.  (+info)

Incidence of trichiasis in a cohort of women with and without scarring. (3/282)

BACKGROUND: Blindness from trachoma is a significant problem for many underdeveloped countries. While active trachoma is common in children, trichiasis, the potentially blinding sequella, develops in adulthood and affects mainly women. Little is known about factors associated with the development of trichiasis. METHODS: The 7-year incidence of trichiasis and its association with ocular chlamydia infection was examined in a cohort of women from a hyperendemic area. A total of 4,932 women 18 years and older, living in 11 villages in Central Tanzania, were examined in 1989. A follow-up examination in 1996 was performed on all women with scars living in six of the 11 villages and on a random sample of women without scars from the same villages. Trachoma was graded clinically, chlamydia infection was ascertained at follow-up using polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA). RESULTS: A total 523 of the women with scars and 503 of the women without scars were re-examined. Forty-eight of the women with scars (incidence, 9.2%) and three of the women without scars (0.6%) developed trichiasis in the 7-year period. Prevalence of chlamydia infection was significantly higher in the group with scars (11.7% versus 7.1%). Trichiasis cases were more likely to be older, and to have chlamydia infection at follow-up odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.5 (1.1-5.7). CONCLUSION: The 7-year incidence rate in the population with scars was high, over 1% per year. Ocular chlamydia infection was more common in the group with scars at baseline and was also associated with being a trichiasis case, suggesting the importance of potentially long-term chlamydia infection in the progression to trichiasis. Antibiotic distribution programmes for trachoma control should include women with scars.  (+info)

Phakomatous choristoma of the eyelid. (4/282)

This article describes the first report of phakomatous choristoma of the eyelid in Korea. A six-month-old boy underwent excision of a congenital inferonasal orbital mass arising from the left lower lid. A dermoid cyst was suspected, however a diagnosis of phakomatous choristoma was made following conventional histology. An immunohistochemical study of this rare benign congenital tumor was conducted. The cuboidal epithelial cells comprising this choristoma showed strongly positive cytoplasmic staining with S-100 protein and vimentin. They also showed focally positive staining with a neuron-specific enolase, while they showed no immunoreactivity to cytokeratin or epithelial membrane antigen. The results of the immunohistochemical study support the conclusion that this tumor is of lenticular anlage origin.  (+info)

Palpebral myiasis. (5/282)

Myiasis is most prevalent in Mexico, central and south America, tropical Africa, and the southwestern United States. Although dermal myiasis is rare in most of the United States, it is a disorder that may be seen in international travelers. In the United States, external myiasis is usually caused by the cattle botfly. We report here a case of ophthalmomyiasis involving the left upper eyelid of a child. We examined a six-year-old boy who presented to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) in September 1998. He complained of persistent swelling of his left upper eyelid for the previous ten days. The edema and erythema were unresponsive to warm compresses and oral antibiotics. Ocular examination revealed a mild preseptal cellulitis of the left upper eyelid with a small draining fistula. On slit-lamp examination, we found one larva protruding intermittently from the fistula site. The larva was extracted with forceps, wrapped in a moist towel and sent in a jar to the parasitology laboratory. The specimen was identified as a Cuterebra larva by a parasitologist at the Harvard School of Public Health. One week later, the patient's eyelid edema and erythema had completely resolved.  (+info)

Regulation of MMP-9 activity in human tear fluid and corneal epithelial culture supernatant. (6/282)

PURPOSE: To evaluate human corneal epithelial culture supernatant and tear fluid for the presence of activators and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, respectively, and to evaluate the effect of MMP-3 on the activation of MMP-9 in these specimens. METHODS: Unstimulated tear fluid was collected from patients with ocular rosacea and normal control subjects. Levels of MMP-9, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or immunoblot analysis. Supernatants from primary human corneal epithelial cultures and human tear fluid were incubated with MMP-3. Cultured epithelial cells and their supernatants were also treated with doxycycline before MMP-3 was added. Gelatin zymography was used to identify activated 82-kDa MMP-9. MMP-9 activity was assessed with a commercial MMP-9 activity assay system. RESULTS: MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected at significantly higher concentrations in rosacea-affected than in normal tear fluids. MMP-3 was detected exclusively in the tear fluid of patients with ocular rosacea who had corneal epithelial disease. Treatment of the supernatant and tear fluid with MMP-3 resulted in two bands with molecular weights of 92 kDa and 82 kDa, representing pro-MMP-9 and activated MMP-9, respectively. Doxycycline added to the conditioned media did not affect activation of MMP-9 by MMP-3. However, 24-hour treatment of corneal epithelial cultures with doxycycline resulted in a lower concentration and activity of MMP-9 in their supernatants. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 and TIMP-1 are produced by the human corneal epithelium and are present in tear fluid. MMP-3 alone is sufficient to activate MMP-9 on the ocular surface. Doxycycline does not directly inhibit this activation by MMP-3, but it decreases MMP-9 activity when added to corneal epithelial cultures.  (+info)

Haemorrhage and risk factors associated with retrobulbar/peribulbar block: a prospective study in 1383 patients. (7/282)

Patients undergoing intraocular surgery are elderly and may have disease or be receiving medication which increases the risk of haemorrhage. We interviewed 1383 consecutive patients scheduled for eye surgery requiring retrobulbar/peribulbar block about their use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids and warfarin. A history of diabetes mellitus and globe axial length was noted. Medial peribulbar and inferolateral retrobulbar blocks were performed by three specialists and six doctors in training. The ensuing haemorrhages were graded as follows: 1 = spot ecchymosis; 2 = lid ecchymosis involving half of the lid surface area or less; 3 = lid ecchymosis all around the eye, no increase in intraocular pressure; 4 = retrobulbar haemorrhage with increased intraocular pressure. Acetylsalicylic acid was taken by 482 (35%) patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by 260 (19%) and warfarin by 76 (5.5%). Lid haemorrhages (grades 1-3) were observed in 55 patients (4.0%); in 33 of these patients the haemorrhages were spotlike (grade 1). No grade 4 haemorrhages occurred. The preoperative use of acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or warfarin, whether or not they had been discontinued, did not predispose to haemorrhage associated with retrobulbar/peribulbar block.  (+info)

Histoplasmosis of the eyelids--a case report. (8/282)

Systemic histoplasmosis manifesting as an ulcerative eyelid lesion is rare. We describe a successfully treated case of histoplasmosis who presented with an eroding ulcer in the lid.  (+info)