The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Color of the iris.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Images seen by one eye.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
Diseases of the cornea.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Artificial implanted lenses.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Diseases of the uvea.
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.

Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein. (1/5824)

The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 has been implicated in signaling pathways activated by G-protein-coupled receptors, intracellular calcium, and stress signals. Here we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel family of PYK2-binding proteins designated Nirs (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptors). The three Nir proteins (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3) bind to the amino-terminal domain of PYK2 via a conserved sequence motif located in the carboxy terminus. The primary structures of Nirs reveal six putative transmembrane domains, a region homologous to phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein, and an acidic domain. The Nir proteins are the human homologues of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein (rdgB), a protein implicated in the visual transduction pathway in flies. We demonstrate that Nirs are calcium-binding proteins that exhibit PI transfer activity in vivo. Activation of PYK2 by agents that elevate intracellular calcium or by phorbol ester induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Nirs. Moreover, PYK2 and Nirs exhibit similar expression patterns in several regions of the brain and retina. In addition, PYK2-Nir complexes are detected in lysates prepared from cultured cells or from brain tissues. Finally, the Nir1-encoding gene is located at human chromosome 17p13.1, in proximity to a locus responsible for several human retinal diseases. We propose that the Nir and rdgB proteins represent a new family of evolutionarily conserved PYK2-binding proteins that play a role in the control of calcium and phosphoinositide metabolism downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Involvement of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase in the Pax-6 gene regulation in neuroretina. (2/5824)

The quail Pax-6 gene is expressed from two promoters named P0 and P1. P0 promoter is under the control of a neuroretina-specific enhancer (EP). This enhancer activates the P0 promoter specifically in neuroretina cells and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. The EP enhancer binds efficiently, as revealed by southwestern experiments, to a 110 kDa protein present in neuroretina cells but not in Quail Embryos Cells and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium which do not express the P0-initiated mRNAs. To study the role of p110 in Pax-6 regulation, we have purified the p110 from neuroretina cells extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified protein, we have identified the p110 as the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Using bandshift experiments and footprinting studies, we present evidence that PARP is a component of protein complexes bound to the EP enhancer that increases the on rate of the protein complex formation to DNA. Using PARP inhibitors (3AB and 6.5 Hphe), we show that these products are able to inhibit EP enhancer activity in neuroretina cells. Finally, we demonstrate that these inhibitors are able to decrease the expression of the P0-initiated mRNA in the MC29-infected RPE cells which, in contrast to the RPE cells, accumulated the PARP in response to v-myc expression. Our results suggest that PARP is involved in the Pax-6 regulation.  (+info)

BMP7 acts in murine lens placode development. (3/5824)

Targeted inactivation of the Bmp7 gene in mouse leads to eye defects with late onset and variable penetrance (A. T. Dudley et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2795-2807; G. Luo et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2808-2820). Here we report that the expressivity of the Bmp7 mutant phenotype markedly increases in a C3H/He genetic background and that the phenotype implicates Bmp7 in the early stages of lens development. Immunolocalization experiments show that BMP7 protein is present in the head ectoderm at the time of lens placode induction. Using an in vitro culture system, we demonstrate that addition of BMP7 antagonists during the period of lens placode induction inhibits lens formation, indicating a role for BMP7 in lens placode development. Next, to integrate Bmp7 into a developmental pathway controlling formation of the lens placode, we examined the expression of several early lens placode-specific markers in Bmp7 mutant embryos. In these embryos, Pax6 head ectoderm expression is lost just prior to the time when the lens placode should appear, while in Pax6-deficient (Sey/Sey) embryos, Bmp7 expression is maintained. These results could suggest a simple linear pathway in placode induction in which Bmp7 functions upstream of Pax6 and regulates lens placode induction. At odds with this interpretation, however, is the finding that expression of secreted Frizzled Related Protein-2 (sFRP-2), a component of the Wnt signaling pathway which is expressed in prospective lens placode, is absent in Sey/Sey embryos but initially present in Bmp7 mutants. This suggests a different model in which Bmp7 function is required to maintain Pax6 expression after induction, during a preplacodal stage of lens development. We conclude that Bmp7 is a critical component of the genetic mechanism(s) controlling lens placode formation.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (4/5824)

We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway.  (+info)

A mutation in the RIEG1 gene associated with Peters' anomaly. (5/5824)

Mutations within the RIEG1 homeobox gene on chromosome 4q25 have previously been reported in association with Rieger syndrome. We report a 3' splice site mutation within the 3rd intron of the RIEG1 gene which is associated with unilateral Peters' anomaly. The mutation is a single base substition of A to T at the invariant -2 site of the 3' splice site. Peters' anomaly, which is characterised by ocular anterior segment dysgenesis and central corneal opacification, is distinct from Rieger anomaly. This is the first description of a RIEG1 mutation associated with Peters' anomaly.  (+info)

A binding site for homeodomain and Pax proteins is necessary for L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression by Pax-6 and bone morphogenetic proteins. (6/5824)

The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates axonal guidance and fasciculation during development. We previously identified the regulatory region of the L1 gene and showed that it was sufficient for establishing the neural pattern of L1 expression in transgenic mice. In the present study, we characterize a DNA element within this region called the HPD that contains binding motifs for both homeodomain and Pax proteins and responds to signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). An ATTA sequence within the core of the HPD was required for binding to the homeodomain protein Barx2 while a separate paired domain recognition motif was necessary for binding to Pax-6. In cellular transfection experiments, L1-luciferase reporter constructs containing the HPD were activated an average of 4-fold by Pax-6 in N2A cells and 5-fold by BMP-2 and BMP-4 in Ng108 cells. Both of these responses were eliminated on deletion of the HPD from L1 constructs. In transgenic mice, deletion of the HPD from an L1-lacZ reporter resulted in a loss of beta-galactosidase expression in the telencephalon and mesencephalon. Collectively, our experiments indicate that the HPD regulates L1 expression in neural tissues via homeodomain and Pax proteins and is likely to be a target of BMP signaling during development.  (+info)

Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly. (7/5824)

Proper dorsal-ventral patterning in the developing central nervous system requires signals from both the dorsal and ventral portions of the neural tube. Data from multiple studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Sonic hedgehog protein are secreted factors that regulate dorsal and ventral specification, respectively, within the caudal neural tube. In the developing rostral central nervous system Sonic hedgehog protein also participates in ventral regionalization; however, the roles of BMPs in the developing brain are less clear. We hypothesized that BMPs also play a role in dorsal specification of the vertebrate forebrain. To test our hypothesis we implanted beads soaked in recombinant BMP5 or BMP4 into the neural tube of the chicken forebrain. Experimental embryos showed a loss of the basal telencephalon that resulted in holoprosencephaly (a single cerebral hemisphere), cyclopia (a single midline eye), and loss of ventral midline structures. In situ hybridization using a panel of probes to genes expressed in the dorsal and ventral forebrain revealed the loss of ventral markers with the maintenance of dorsal markers. Furthermore, we found that the loss of the basal telencephalon was the result of excessive cell death and not a change in cell fates. These data provide evidence that BMP signaling participates in dorsal-ventral patterning of the developing brain in vivo, and disturbances in dorsal-ventral signaling result in specific malformations of the forebrain.  (+info)

Modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein in selenite-induced cataract. (8/5824)

PURPOSE: To identify modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein (MIP) isolated from selenite-induced cataract and to determine whether m-calpain (EC is responsible for cleavage of MIP during cataractogenesis. METHODS: Cataracts were induced in rats by a single injection of sodium selenite. Control and cataract lenses were harvested on day 16 and dissected into cortical and nuclear regions. Membranes were washed with urea buffer followed by NaOH. The protein was reduced/alkylated, delipidated, and cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Cleavage products were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and peptides were characterized by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. MIP cleavage by m-calpain was carried out by incubation with purified enzyme, and peptides released from the membrane were analyzed by Edman sequencing. RESULTS: The intact C terminus, observed in the control nuclear and cataractous cortical membranes, was not observed in the cataractous nuclear membranes. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed heterogeneous cleavage of the C terminus of MIP in control and cataract nuclear regions. The major site of cleavage was between residues 238 and 239, corresponding to the major site of in vitro cleavage by m-calpain. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that in vivo proteolysis during cataract formation also included sites closer to the C terminus not produced by m-calpain in vitro. Evidence for heterogeneous N-terminal cleavage was also observed at low levels with no differences between control and cataractous lenses. The major site of phosphorylation was determined to be at serine 235. CONCLUSIONS: Specific sites of MIP N- and C-terminal cleavage in selenite-induced cataractous lenses were identified. The heterogeneous cleavage pattern observed suggests that m-calpain is not the sole enzyme involved in MIP C-terminal processing in rat lens nuclei.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Stargardt-like macular dystrophy protein ELOVL4 exerts a dominant negative effect by recruiting wild-type protein into aggresomes. AU - Vasireddy, Vidyullatha. AU - Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram. AU - Huang, Jibiao. AU - Wang, Xiaofei F.. AU - Jablonski, Monica M.. AU - Petty, Howard R.. AU - Sieving, Paul A.. AU - Ayyagari, Radha. PY - 2005/8/30. Y1 - 2005/8/30. N2 - Purpose: Mutations in the gene Elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) have been shown to be associated with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3). ELOVL4 is expressed in photoreceptors and encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 314 amino acids with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. A 5 bp deletion in exon 6 of ELOVL4 observed in some STGD3 patients results in the truncation of the protein and loss of the ER retention signal. To understand the disease mechanism underlying STGD3 we studied the intracellular trafficking of the wild-type and a 5 bp deletion mutant of ...
Purpose : The mechanisms that drive the production of photoreceptor-specific protein isoforms and their roles in photoreceptor function are poorly understood. Our previous studies suggest that photoreceptor-specific protein isoforms are needed for development of the outer segment (OS). In addition, our data implicated a role for Musashi, a family of RNA-binding proteins, in promoting the inclusion of photoreceptor-specific exons. Therefore, we hypothesized that the Musashi proteins are required for the morphogenesis and function of photoreceptor cells. Methods : We generated retina-specific knockout mice in which either Musashi-1 (Msi1), Musashi-2 (Msi2), or both genes were ablated. After validating these models by western blot, we analyzed their photoreceptor function by electroretinography (ERG) and their morphology by immunocytochemistry. The splicing of photoreceptor-specific exons in mature transcripts was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR. Statistical analyses were performed using ...
Table 2. Sequence alignments of proteins with homology to human myocilin. Segments of N-terminal and C-terminal regions of human myocilin are shown with overlapping regions of other proteins in A and B, respectively. In C, the homologous segments of human myocilin and Xenopus noelin are shown. Co-ordinates (amino acid numbers) of the region of each protein are indicated on both sides of the amino acid sequence. The sequences were aligned by eye to maximize amino acid identities. Human myocilin was the reference protein used as query. Locations where amino acids are identical are marked by a caret (^). Locations where any change is restricted to conservative amino acids are marked by asterisk (*), and locations where the amino acids are conserved in all but one species are marked by a plus sign (+). Putative sequence motifs are colored: green for PKC, blue for CK2, and red for N-myristoylation. Overlap between two putative sites have been shown by a purple marker. For example, in B TGKE residues ...
Autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) is one of the early onset macular dystrophies. STGD3 and autosomal dominant macular…
최신버전 CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH 높은 통과율 인기덤프 공부문제, Sfjbs는 여러분이ISQI 인증CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH인증시험 패스와 추후사업에 모두 도움이 되겠습니다, 30분이란 특별학습가이드로 여러분은ISQI CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH인증시험을 한번에 통과할 수 있습니다, Sfjbs에서ISQI CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH시험자료의 문제와 답이 실제시험의 문제와 답과 아주 비슷한 덤프만 제공합니다, ISQI CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH덤프구매후 일년동안 무료업데이트서비스를 제공해드리며ISQI CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH시험에서 떨어지는 경우ISQI CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH덤프비용 전액을 환불해드려 고객님의 부담을 덜어드립니다, CTAL-TA_Syll2012DACH 덤프 최신기출문제를 기준으로 제작된 자료라 시험패스하는데 많은 도움이 되어드립니다.
Have you ever heard someone say that the cure is worse than disease? Or maybe, if the disease (whatever it may be) doesnt kill you the cure will? Sometimes, it does seem as if this is the .... ...
MetabolismEnergy metabolismAmino acids and aminesbranched-chain phosphotransacylase (TIGR02709; EC 2.3.1.-; HMM-score: 38.6) ...
retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator is a biomarker used in With Or Without Deafness And Sinorespiratory Infections X Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa, Type 1 X Linked Cone Rod Dystrophy, Retinal Diseases and 284 other diseases. Learn more about retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator.
Rpgrip1 (untagged) - Mouse retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1 (Rpgrip1), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective role of small pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) peptide in diabetic renal injury. AU - Awad, Alaa S.. AU - Gao, Ting. AU - Gvritishvili, Anzor. AU - You, Hanning. AU - Liu, Yanling. AU - Cooper, Timothy K.. AU - Brian Reeves, W.. AU - Tombran-Tink, Joyce. PY - 2013/9/15. Y1 - 2013/9/15. N2 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but its direct role in the kidneys remains unclear. We hypothesize that a PEDF fragment (P78-PEDF) confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The localization of the full-length PEDF protein were determined in DBA mice following multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Using immunohistochemistry, PEDF was localized in the kidney vasculature, interstitial space, glomeruli, tubules, and renal medulla. Kidney PEDF protein and mRNA expression were significantly reduced ...
Purpose: To provides the clinical and genetic characteristics of a series of Chinese patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) through multimodal imaging and next-generation sequencing. Methods: Thirty patients (60 eyes) from 29 unrelated families of Chinese origin with XLRS were screened using multigene panel testing, and underwent a complete clinical evaluation. All variants identified in this study and reported in the Human Gene Mutation Database were analysed. Results: Twenty-five distinct variants in the retinoschisin gene were identified, of which eight were novel, and one was de novo. Missense mutations were the most prevalent type, and mutation hot spot was localized in the discoidin domain. The mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity was 0.28 ± 0.17. Of all eyes presenting with schisis, 92.86% had lamellar schisis and 62.5% had peripheral schisis. Schisis changes mostly involved inner and outer nuclear layers. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) patients had a high ...
The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is the most abundant protein in the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) and its levels decrease beginning in the early stages of diabetes. IRBP participates in the delivery of retinoids between retinal cells to carry out the visual cycle and also protects those retinoids against degradation in the IPM. IRBP deficiency is related to several conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, cone-rod dystrophy, increased oxidative stress in the photoreceptors, and myopia. Decreased IRBP levels in diabetes could be due to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and a direct effect of hyperglycemia on the photoreceptors. It is known that prior to the occurrence of vascular changes in diabetic retina, electrophysiological alterations occur on early potentials. Alterations on the photoreceptor outer segments and increased oxidative stress indicate an important affliction of the photoreceptors from early stages. Due to the importance of IRBP in photoreceptor wellness,
Purpose : Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) may lead to irreversible vision loss. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of PVR. Downregulation of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) is demonstrated to be associated with increased EMT in some cancers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of PEDF on EMT induced by TGF-β in RPE cells. Methods : Sub-confluent human RPE cells were cultured in DMEM and pretreated with PEDF (10, 50,100, 200ng/ml) for 24hs and then stimulated with recombinant TGF-β2 (10ng/ml) for additional 24, 48 and 72 hrs with or without PEDF. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, an EMT marker) and fibronectin (FN) were examined using immunofluorescent staining, qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. The sub-confluent human RPE cells were cultured in DMEM and pretreated with PEDF (10, 50,100ng/ml) for 24hs and then stimulated with 20ng/ml PDGF-BB. RPE ...
We here suggest that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) does not have an effect on lesion size, behavioral outcome, cell proliferation, or cell death after striatal ischemia in the mouse. PEDF is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, antiangiogenic, and antipermeability effects. It influences self-renewal of neural stem cells and proliferation of microglia. We investigated whether intraventricular infusion of PEDF reduces infarct size and cell death, ameliorates behavioral outcome, and influences cell proliferation in the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. C57Bl6/N mice were implanted with PEDF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) osmotic pumps and subjected to 60-minute MCAO 48 hours after pump implantation. They received daily BrdU injections for 7 days after MCAO in order to investigate cell proliferation. Infarct volumes were determined 24 hours after reperfusion using magnetic resonance imaging. We removed the pumps on day 5
Introduction Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a 50kDa, secreted glycoprotein that has been identified as a member of the serpin gene family and has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic, neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumourigenic effects. The aims of our study were to determine the expression profile of PEDF in a range of colorectal cell lines and its association with clinical and pathological data. Method Six human cell lines (RKO and HT115 are colonic adenocarcinoma, HRT-18 is rectal adenocarcinoma, COLO-201 is metastatic adenocarcinoma (originating from ascites), LS174T is a mucinous adenocarcinoma, and CCD-33C0 is a normal colorectal fibroblast cell line) were analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative transcript analysis (qPCR). Primary colorectal cancer tissue was collected at operation and analysed using qPCR. Results PEDF transcript was positive in RKO, HRT-18, LS174T and CCD-33C0 cell lines but negative in HT115 and COLO-201. On qPCR, PEDF ...
Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor: Chemistry, Structure, Biology, and Applications - A special issue journal published by Hindawi
Meindl A, Dry K, Herrmann K, Manson F, Ciccodicola A, Edgar A, Carvalho MR, Achatz H, Hellebrand H, Lennon A, Migliaccio C, Porter K, Zrenner E, Bird A, Jay M, Lorenz B, Wittwer B, DUrso M, Meitinger T, Wright A (May 1996). A gene (RPGR) with homology to the RCC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3). Nature Genetics. 13 (1): 35-42. doi:10.1038/ng0596-35. PMID 8673101 ...
Description of disease X-linked retinoschisis. Treatment X-linked retinoschisis. Symptoms and causes X-linked retinoschisis Prophylaxis X-linked retinoschisis
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) also known as serpin F1 (SERPINF1), is a multifunctional secreted protein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, and neurotrophic functions. Found in vertebrates, this 50 kDa protein is being researched as a therapeutic candidate for treatment of such conditions as choroidal neovascularization, heart disease, and cancer. In humans, pigment epithelium-derived factor is encoded by the SERPINF1 gene. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was originally discovered by Joyce Tombran-Tink and Lincoln Johnson in the late 1980s. This group was studying human retinal cell development by identifying secreted factors produced by the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a layer of cells that supports the retina. Upon noticing RPE produced a factor that promoted the differentiation of primitive retinal cells into cells of a neuronal phenotype, they set out to determine the identity of the factor. They isolated proteins unique to RPE cells and tested the ...
Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein(668-687), the amino acid residues 668 to 687 of human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), induces uveitis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 are new MerTK ligands for phagocytosis. AU - Caberoy, Nora B.. AU - Zhou, Yixiong. AU - Li, Wei. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1) are newly identified phagocytosis ligands to facilitate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and macrophage phagocytosis. Both proteins without classical signal peptide have been demonstrated with unconventional secretion. Here, we characterized them as novel MerTK ligands to facilitate phagocytosis. Tulp1 interacts with Tyro3, Axl and MerTK of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, whereas tubby binds only to MerTK. Excessive soluble MerTK extracellular domain blocked tubby- or Tulp1-mediated phagocytosis. Both ligands induced MerTK activation with receptor phosphorylation and signalling cascade, including non-muscle myosin II redistribution and co-localization with phagosomes. Tubby and Tulp1 are bridging molecules with their N-terminal region as MerTK-binding domain and ...
All-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, EC, EC, LCA2p63, mRPE65, RBP-binding membrane protein, Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein, retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein (65kD), retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa, retinitis pigmentosa 20 (autosomal recessive), rd12, Retinol isomerase, retinoid isomerohydrolase, RP20, ...
All-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, EC, EC, LCA2p63, mRPE65, RBP-binding membrane protein, retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein (65kD), retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa, retinitis pigmentosa 20 (autosomal recessive), Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein, rd12, Retinol isomerase, retinoid isomerohydrolase, RP20, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of novel RS1 exonic deletions in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis. AU - DSouza, Leera. AU - Cukras, Catherine. AU - Antolik, Christian. AU - Craig, Candice. AU - Lee, Ji Yun. AU - He, Hong. AU - Li, Shibo. AU - Smaoui, Nizar. AU - Hejtmancik, James F.. AU - Sieving, Paul A.. AU - Wang, Xinjing. PY - 2013/11/7. Y1 - 2013/11/7. N2 - Purpose: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by schisis (splitting) of the inner layers of the neuroretina. Mutations within the retinoschisis (RS1) gene are responsible for this disease. The mutation spectrum consists of amino acid substitutions, splice site variations, small indels, and larger genomic deletions. Clinically, genomic deletions are rarely reported. Here, we characterize two novel full exonic deletions: one encompassing exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4-5 of the RS1 gene. We also report the clinical findings in these patients with XLRS with two different exonic deletions. ...
Complete information for RPGR gene (Protein Coding), Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Complete information for RPGRIP1 gene (Protein Coding), Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Interacting Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Hereditary juvenile retinoschisis is a retinal dystrophy characterized by a foveal spoke-like appearance and schisis of the neural retina [ 1 , 2 ]
Attention, guys! This news might be a little bit surprising, but scientists from worldwide believe that they have uncovered a key reason why obese people have a higher risk of health complications when compared to people who are normal-sized!. This time, the specific protein in our body named Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) is the one to be blamed here, as its the main substance that is secreted by fat cells!. For your information, the PEDF can only be produced by fat cells in people, especially for those who have a problem with being overweight. The most shocking thing is the PEDF sends a signal to all the tissues in the body hence, triggering the development of insulin resistance. This amazing discovery may eventually be known as the main condition that leads to type II diabetes!. Besides that, the raising of PEDF levels is also linked to a number of other complications, such as heart disease and high blood pressure.. It seems like we should keep our eyes in these nasty PEDF ...
Anoctamins and Bestrophins are two kinds of calcium-activated chloride channels. Anoctamins were shown to be Ca-activated Cl channels in 2008 and are responsible for the classical CaCCs that are widely expressed in many tissues, especially epithelia. Bestrophins are more restricted in their expression and play more specialized roles. Bestrophin-1 is expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and certain mutations in bestrophin-1 cause degeneration of the retina and blindness. Bestrophin-2 is expressed in goblet cells in colon and may play a role in bicarbonate secretion in this tissue. We are interested in understanding how both anoctamins and bestrophins are regulated by calcium. We are identifying the calcium binding sites and the molecular links between the calcium sensor and the channel gate using a combination of both whole-cell and single channel electrophysiological mesurements and mutagenesis. We are dissecting the signaling protein network associated with these channels using ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human PEDF protein (ab86705). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Objectives- The number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that can be obtained from adult bone marrow and peripheral blood to treat cardiovascular diseases is limited. The goal was to examine the endothelial potential of Wharton jelly in human umbilical cord (WJC)-derived stem cells and evaluate their potential to affect neointimal formation after vascular injury.. Methods and Results- Mesenchymal cells (MCs) were isolated from WJC and cultured in endothelial growth medium. Differentiation into late outgrowth endothelial cells (WJC-OECs) was demonstrated by incorporation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and expression of the endothelial-specific markers. Transplantation of these cells into wire-injured femoral arteries in mice led to rapid reendothelialization. At 4 weeks after injury, the neointima/media area ratio was reduced and strong expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) compared to saline-or MC- or cord blood-OEC-treated mice. WJC-OECs-conditioned medium has an ...
Preparation of purified PEDF and anti-PEDF. PEDF was isolated and purified form bovine interphotoreceptor matrix by ionic exchange and gel filtration chromatography, as previously described (Tombran-Tink et al., 1991). Briefly, soluble bovine interphotoreceptor matrix was extracted from fresh bovine eyes by a gentle lavage of the eyecup after careful removal of the anterior segment and vitreous. A volume of 0.5 ml of ice-cold PBS, pH 7.4, was used in this procedure. Washes from 100 eyecups were pooled, centrifuged, and filtered using a 0.2 μm Nalgene filtration unit. Approximately 500 ml of the interphotoreceptor matrix wash was applied to a Beckman Altex TSK column equilibrated with 10 mm sodium phosphate, pH 7.2. Bound PEDF was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl at a flow rate of 8 ml/min. Absorbance was monitored at 280 and 260 nm. Fractions containing the PEDF were combined, and the protein concentration was determined by a Bio-Rad assay (Hercules, CA). The pooled fractions were concentrated and ...
What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood that causes progressive loss of central and peripheral (side) vision due to degeneration of the retina.
This will be a non-randomized, open label, Phase 1/2 dose escalation study.. Up to 27 participants will be enrolled. Each participant will receive the study agent by intravitreal injection in one eye on a single occasion. Enrollment will begin with the lowest dose and will proceed to higher doses only after review of safety data by a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). Participants in the dose escalation phase will be ≥ 18 years of age. After the maximum tolerated dose is identified individuals ≥ 6 years of age will be enrolled.. Safety will be measured by the number and proportion of participants experiencing adverse events and immune response to RS1. Efficacy will be measured by evaluation of changes in visual function and schisis cavity size. ...
Shop Retinal Mueller cells isomerohydrolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Retinal Mueller cells isomerohydrolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
rat Impg1 protein: SPACR - sialoprotein associated with cones and rods; major protein isolated from insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix of retina; RefSeq NM_023958
Proteins in the eye can help keep pathogens at bay, a study has found, paving the way for new and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early onset photoreceptor abnormalities induced by targeted disruption of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein gene. AU - Liou, Gregory I.. AU - Fei, Yijian. AU - Peachey, Neal S.. AU - Matragoon, Suraporn. AU - Wei, Shuanghong. AU - Blaner, William S.. AU - Wang, Youxiang. AU - Liu, Chengyu. AU - Gottesman, Max E.. AU - Ripps, Harris. PY - 1998/6/15. Y1 - 1998/6/15. N2 - Vision in all vertebrates is dependent on an exchange of retinoids between the retinal pigment epithelium and the visual photoreceptors. It has been proposed that the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is essential for this intercellular exchange, and that it serves to prevent the potentially cytotoxic effects of retinoids. Although its precise function in vivo has yet to be defined, the early expression of IRBP suggests that it may also be required for normal photoreceptor development. To further assess the biological role of IRBP, we generated transgenic mice with targeted disruption ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor. T2 - Clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy. AU - Franco-Chuaire, María Liliana. AU - Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra. AU - Chuaire-Noack, Lilian. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/9. Y1 - 2015/9. N2 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of noninhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and antimetastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. AU - Choi, Kyung Mook. AU - Hwang, Soon Young. AU - Hong, Ho Cheol. AU - Yang, Sae Jeong. AU - Choi, Hae Yoon. AU - Yoo, Hye Jin. AU - Lee, Kwan Woo. AU - Nam, Moon Suk. AU - Park, Yong Soo. AU - Woo, Jeong Taek. AU - Kim, Young Seol. AU - Choi, Dong Seop. AU - Youn, Byung Soo. AU - Baik, Sei Hyun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Recent studies have suggested that a novel adipokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), a paralog of adiponectin, may play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and innate immunity. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional protein with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. We examined circulating CTRP-3 and ...
OBJECTIVE: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an adipocyte-secreted factor involved in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Previous studies have identified PEDF as a regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism in the liver that may act through adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). We used ATGL(-/-) mice to determine the role of PEDF in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Recombinant PEDF was administered to ATGL(-/-) and wild-type mice, and whole-body energy metabolism was studied by indirect calorimetry. Adipose tissue lipolysis and skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism was determined in isolated tissue preparations. Muscle lipids were assessed by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were assessed. RESULTS: PEDF impaired the capacity to adjust substrate selection, resulting in a delayed diurnal decline in the respiratory exchange ratio, and suppressed daily fatty ...
The integrity of the vascular barrier, which is essential to blood vessel homoeostasis, can be disrupted by a variety of soluble permeability factors during sepsis. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent endogenous anti-angiogenic molecule, is significantly increased in sepsis, but its role in endothelial dysfunction has not been defined. To assess the role of PEDF in the vasculature, we evaluated the effects of exogenous PEDF in vivo using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and in vitro using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). In addition, PEDF was inhibited using a PEDF-monoclonal antibody (PEDF-mAb) or recombinant lentivirus vectors targeting PEDF receptors, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and laminin receptor (LR). Our results showed that exogenous PEDF induced vascular hyperpermeability, as measured by extravasation of Evans Blue (EB), dextran and microspheres in the skin, blood, trachea and cremaster muscle, both ...
Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is required for preventing accumulation of retinal atRAL, which causes inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells.
Dysfunction of primary cilia is associated with tissue-specific or syndromic disorders. RPGR is a ciliary protein, mutations in which can lead to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone-rod degeneration, respiratory infections and hearing disorders. Though RPGR is implicated in ciliary transport, the pathogenicity of RPGR mutations and the mechanism of underlying phenotypic heterogeneity are still unclear. Here we have utilized genetic rescue studies in zebrafish to elucidate the effect of human disease-associated mutations on its function. We show that rpgr is expressed predominantly in the retina, brain and gut of zebrafish. In the retina, RPGR primarily localizes to the sensory cilium of photoreceptors. Antisense morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of rpgr function in zebrafish results in reduced length of Kupffers vesicle (KV) cilia and is associated with ciliary anomalies including shortened body-axis, kinked tail, hydrocephaly and edema but does not affect retinal development. These phenotypes can ...
Active Clinical Trials // Feb 12 2018. Natural History of the Progression of X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Study (NSR-XLRP-OS1). Multicenter Observational Study of X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.. Sponsor: Night Therapeutics. Principal Investigator: Kim Stepien, MD. Study Coordinator: Nickie Stangel. Study Objective:. To gain a better understanding of disease progression over time in subjects with X-Linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP).. Study Design:. This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study consisting of seven visits over a 24-month period. The study will enroll two best corrective visual acuity (BCVA) cohorts, with no more than 40 subjects in Cohort 1. Cohort 1 BCVA will be better or equal to 20/32 with Cohort 2 BCVA being 20/40 - 20/200.. Diagnosis and Key Eligibility Criteria:. Are male and 16 years or older. Have a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XLRP with RPGR mutation. Have active disease clinically visible within the macular region. Have BCVA equal to or better than ...
hypothetical protein, alpha-2 antiplasmin, Alpha-2-antiplasmin, alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor, AS27_04276, caspin, CB1_000765141, cell proliferation-inducing gene 35 protein, Dmrs91, EPC-1, GW7_05089, H920_13024, I79_024527, M959_13429, MDA_GLEAN10016889, N300_03473, N302_16382, N305_15082, N306_10474, N307_07373, N308_00896, N309_12586, N311_08061, N312_04929, N320_07386, N321_02844, N322_05786, N324_04587, N325_07445, N326_06640, N327_07162, N329_08729, N330_08014, N332_10702, N333_06723, N335_06305, N336_08169, N339_06481, N340_07977, N341_07059, OI12, OI6, PAL_GLEAN10020010, PANDA_006472, PEDF, Pedfl, PIG35, pigment epithelium derived factor, pigment epithelium-derived factor, pigment epithelium-derived factor-like protein, Pigment epithelium-derived factor precursor-like protein, Sdf3, SDF-3, serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1, serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade F (alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor), member ...
Research from the University of Oxford has reported early results from the first-in-human Phase 1/2, dose-escalation clinical trial for X-linked RP caused by mutations in the RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene. 18 patients had 6-month follow up data focused on safety outcomes with additional secondary outcomes with preliminary results from visual acuity, microperimetry and central retinal thickness. The patients were treated with increasing doses of a viral vector carrying an RPGR gene (RP GTPase regulator (RPGR)) in which the DNA had been altered, but in a manner that still allowed correct production of the missing protein.. X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is an incurable genetic disease that causes blindness in males and affects approximately one in 15,000 people. The disease is caused by a defect in the RPGR gene which is located on the X-chromosome. Mutations in the RPGR gene can be associated with a rod-cone or cone-rod dystrophy phenotype. The most common presentation is as a rod-cone ...
We describe hereditary retinoschisis without foveal retinoschisis in a girl (the product of a consanguineous marriage) and her father. The father had peripheral retinoschisis with dendritic changes of the retina and good visual acuity. The daughter had peripheral retinoschisis complicated by vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Neither had foveal retinoschisis. The pattern in a scotopic single-flash electroretinogram differentiated this condition from other forms of retinoschisis. We believe that these cases represent the autosomal recessive form of juvenile retinoschisis without foveal retinoschisis. ...
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Long Noncoding RNA HULC Accelerates Liver Cancer by Inhibiting PTEN via Autophagy Cooperation to miR15a HULC accelerated malignant progression of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. HULC inhibited PTEN through ubiquitin-proteasome system mediated by autophagy-P62. HULC increased the expression of P62 via decreasing mature miR15a. [Mol Cancer] Full Article Inflammasome Activation in Kupffer Cells Confers a Protective Response in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis through Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Expression Investigators identified pigment epithelium-derived factor, a secreted, moonlighting hepatokine as one hepatoprotective agent in mice with diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. [FASEB J] Abstract TRIM52 Up-Regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Promotes Proliferation, Migration and Invasion through the Ubiquitination of PPM1A Tripartite motif containing 52 (TRIM52) was found interacted with Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A (PPM1A) and TRIM52 down-regulation inhibited the ubiquitination ...
Involved in ciliogenesis. The function in an early step in cilia formation depends on its association with CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:21565611, PubMed:23446637). Involved in regulation of the BBSome complex integrity, specifically for presence of BBS2 and BBS5 in the complex, and in ciliary targeting of selected BBSome cargos. May play a role in controlling entry of the BBSome complex to cilia possibly implicating CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:25552655). This gene encodes a nephrocystin protein that interacts with calmodulin and the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator protein. The encoded protein has a central coiled-coil region and two calmodulin-binding IQ domains. It is localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells and connecting cilia of photoreceptor cells. The protein is thought to play a role in ciliary function. Defects in this gene result in Senior-Loken syndrome type 5. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by
We are sometimes asked how one or two nutritional supplements can benefit patients with so many different gene defects, Dr. Berson said. With respect to vitamin A, we and others have suggested that under daylight conditions rods give cones vitamin A via Müller cells. Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) transports vitamin A between these cells. Release of vitamin A from IRBP requires DHA present in oily fish. Rod degeneration leads to a deficiency of vitamin A and DHA. This could explain why vitamin A plus an oily fish diet benefits patients with RP. Patients are advised to take vitamin A to replace their rods and eat oily fish to enhance delivery of vitamin A to cones ...
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), characterized by a signature tubby domain, are widespread in plants and animals. To date, only plant TLPs involved in multifarious stress responses and male gametophyte development have been identified. However, studies on the molecular functions of plant TLPs are largely unknown. In this investigation, the roles of a TLP from Malus domestica (MdTLP7) in response to abiotic stresses were characterized by expressing it in Arabidopsis. The expression of wild-type full-length MdTLP7 (FL) significantly increased the stress tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings to osmotic, salt, cold and heat stress, while the expression of truncated MdTLP7 containing only the tubby domain (Tub) also showed some function. Located on a central α helix surrounded by 12 anti-parallel β strands in the tubby domain, the K190/R192 site may be involved in fixation to the plasma membrane, as shown by 3D homology modelling with animal TLPs. This site might play a crucial role in anti-stress functions since
G-protein coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) is essential for light-activated opsin phosphorylation in phototransduction shutoff, and genetic defects cause Oguchis disease, a form of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). To elucidate the recovery function of cone pigments, we combined Grk1-/- murine knockouts with the Neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl-/-), which have an enhanced S-cone phenotype. We observed that with increasing age and independent of light, the retinas of Nrl-/-Grk1-/- when compared to Nrl-/- developed progressive cone degeneration and decreased cone protein expression. The degeneration initially occurs in the central inferior quadrant and spreads with retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) atrophy. Endothelial cell specific immunohistochemistry and fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed progressive changes in retinal neovascularization in the Nrl-/-Grk1-/- at 1 month of age, prior to the onset of significant cone functional deficits and ONL thinning. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) ...
Western blotting. Eyecups (including the retina) from dark-adapted mice were homogenized in 100 mm Tris/HCl, pH 7.4, and analyzed for protein content. Standard SDS-PAGE (7.5 or 10%) and Western blotting were performed. For immunodetection, polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against RPE65 (raised against amino acids 150-164 of human/bovine RPE65) (Redmond and Hamel, 2000), interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) (Smith et al., 1997), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) (Crabb et al., 1991), transducin (Hamm et al., 1987), rhodopsin-kinase (Zhao et al., 1998), arrestin (Kueng-Hitz et al., 2000), and actin (Lessard, 1988) were applied. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies were applied (catalog #sc 2004 and 2031; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), and immunoreactivity was visualized using the Renaissance-Western blot detection kit (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Emeryville, CA).. RT-PCR and Rpe65 sequence analysis. Total RNA was prepared from eyecups using the RNeasy kit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimized bacterial expression of myocilin proteins and functional comparison of bacterial and eukaryotic myocilins. AU - Park, Bum Chan. AU - Shen, Xiang. AU - Fautsch, Michael P.. AU - Tibudan, Martin. AU - Johnson, Douglas H.. AU - Yue, Beatrice Y.J.T.. PY - 2006/7/31. Y1 - 2006/7/31. N2 - Purpose: To maximize the expression level of myocilin and its truncated proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and to examine the biological effects of bacterially expressed myocilin as compared to eukaryotic myocilin on cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Methods: Myocilin full length (1-504 amino acids) and two truncated proteins, myocilin 1-270 and 271-504, were expressed and purified from an E. coli strain, Rosetta2(DE3)pLysS. The eukaryotic myocilin was purified from cultured medium of a transformed TM cell line (TM5) transduced with feline immunodeficiency virus that contains an internal cassette expressing full length myocilin. The morphology and adhesion of human TM cells ...
This gene encodes a member of the bestrophin gene family. This small gene family is characterized by proteins with a highly conserved N-terminus with four to six transmembrane domains. Bestrophins may form chloride ion channels or may regulate voltage-gated L-type calcium-ion channels. Bestrophins are generally believed to form calcium-activated chloride-ion channels in epithelial cells but they have also been shown to be highly permeable to bicarbonate ion transport in retinal tissue. Mutations in this gene are responsible for juvenile-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2), also known as Best macular dystrophy, in addition to adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD) and other retinopathies. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms ...
XLRS, first described in 1898, is one of the more frequently encountered inherited macular retinal disorders affecting young males [6]. Histologic studies have shown a split and/or schisis within the superficial retinal layers, the inner limiting membrane, the nerve fiber layer, and the ganglion cell layer. The ganglion cell layer was found to be thinned, with marked degeneration of photoreceptors associated with thinning of the inner nuclear layer [2].. Vitreous hemorrhages and RD, which remain major complications, can occur at any age. Full-thickness MHs have rarely been reported [7]. As RD becomes chronic, the retina becomes transparent and corrugations flatten, mimicking the appearance of retinoschisis. Although the presence of large outer retinal holes or demarcation lines, ultrasonographic characteristics, and response to laser photocoagulation may facilitate distinguishing between RD and retinoschisis, these features are not universal or conclusive, especially in eyes with XLRS. We assert ...
This gene encodes a protein that is a major component of the retinal interphotoreceptor matrix. The encoded protein is a proteoglycan that is thought to play a role in maintaining viability of photoreceptor cells and in adhesion of the neural retina to the retinal pigment epithelium. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
We expand upon recent studies on relationships within the Oryzomyini, in particular, those involving taxa currently assigned to the genus Sigmodontomys. In recent years, Sigmodontomys has been treated as including 2 species, alfari (J. A. Allen, 1897) and aphrastus (Harris, 1932), but throughout their complicated taxonomic history both species also have been placed in the genus Oryzomys, and alfari independently in Nectomys. Using morphological (98 external, cranial, dental, and postcranial) and molecular (nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein gene and mitochondrial cytochrome-b and ribosomal 12S RNA genes) characters, we infer the phylogenetic position of these 2 species within Oryzomyini. We document that alfari and aphrastus do not form a monophyletic group. Sigmodontomys alfari is most closely related to Melanomys, and aphrastus is either the sister to that clade, or to the extinct Caribbean genus Megalomys. Thus, aphrastus is best regarded as representing a new genus, which is ...
Yukun Cao, Ting Yang, Chunhu Gu and Dinghua Yi Pigment epithelium-derived factor delays cellular senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by reducing oxidative stress Cell Biology International 37. Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 , DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10041. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of two unusual RS1 gene deletions segregating in Danish retinoschisis families. AU - Huopaniemi, L AU - Tyynismaa, H AU - Rantala, A AU - Rosenberg, T AU - Alitalo, T PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - retinoschisis, X-linked. KW - genomic deletion. KW - RS1. KW - retinochisis. KW - PPEF-1. KW - serine-threonine phosphatase. KW - STK9. KW - serine-threonine kinase. KW - LINKED JUVENILE RETINOSCHISIS. KW - RETINAL-DEGENERATION. KW - FOUNDER MUTATIONS. KW - KINASE GENE. KW - XLRS1 GENE. KW - EXPRESSION. KW - PROTEIN. KW - PHOSPHATASE. KW - PROMOTER. KW - CLONING. KW - 118 Biological sciences. KW - genetiikka. M3 - Article. VL - 16. SP - 307. EP - 314. JO - Human Mutation. JF - Human Mutation. SN - 1059-7794. ER - ...
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Fischer, M. Dominik; McClements, Michelle E.; de la Camara, Cristina Martinez-Fernandez; Bellingrath, Julia-Sophia; Dauletbekov, Daniyar; Ramsden, Simon C.; Hickey, Doron G.; Barnard, Alun R.; MacLaren, Robert E. ... - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
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A Foundation-funded research team based at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Florida recently used gene therapy to prevent and reverse vision loss in two canine models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). The results bode well for the teams eventually gaining approval for a human study of the treatment approach.
Abbkine ELISA kit for Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids.
Result: (THIS ALIGNMENT IS EXACTLY THE SAME AS THE LAST ONE) significant alignments include cultivar W22 bz gene locus, alcohol dehydrogenease 1, B73 pathogenesis-related protein 2 and GASA-like genes, rust resistance protein rp3-1 gene, and a lot of BAC clones. The alignment obtained are significant since present high scores and E-value of 0.0 (meaning that in not probable to find a random match at that level) and include cultivar W22 bz gene locus, alcohol dehydrogenease 1, B73 pathogenesis-related protein 2 and GASA-like genes, rust resistance protein rp3-1 gene, and a lot of BAC clones. In general terms, these alignments show query coverage less than 40%, which may indicate that the differences between them could be in the intron sequences, if codifying for the same protein. To answer this is necessary to carry out a Blastx.. Round 3: megablast excluding Zea mays. ...
Creative Biostructure can provide customized Mempro™ cell-free protein production services for major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily and formate-nitrite transporter superfamily.
My wife who is 50 years of age, suffers from |b|macular degeneration|/b| for the last two years and has lost significant sight in both eyes. She was being treated for glaucoma in the past. What is the remedy for this? Are there any medicines either allopathic or homeopathic? Or is surgery the only option?
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RCMG provides comprehensive care for retinoschisis to patients in Sacramento and all of Northern California. Schedule an appointment today.
BEST1 Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 317 aa (292-585) having a molecular mass of 36 kDa.
Plasmid pDONR223_EYS_p.N269H from Dr. Jesse Boehms lab contains the insert EYS and is published in Cancer Discov. 2016 Jul;6(7):714-26. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0160. Epub 2016 May 4. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The highlights, key points, reports and injury and suspension news from all the weekends Round 20 NRL Telstra Premiership matches.
Below are the latest odds for Round 24 of the NRL (subject to change). Links to Mike Wilsons views will be posted here as they become available.
Kötü Over Yanıtı Tanım Tanım üzerinde tam bir konsensus yok. hCG uygulama günü 3-5in altında follikül sayısı (Serafini 1988, Feldberg 1994). Toplanan oosit sayısının 4-6nın altında olması (Faber 1998). Ovaryan stimulasyon siklusunun en yüksek E2 düzeyinin pg/ml altında kalması (Brzyski 1988, Ibrahim 1991). Stimulasyonun 5. günü E2 düzeyinin 100 pg/mlnin altında olması (Schoolcraft 1997). Bu parametrelerin kombinasyonları.
Proteins known as opsins form the crux of the photosensitive proteins. These proteins are often found in the eye. In addition, ... See also Photobiomodulation) A caged protein is a protein that is activated in the presence of a stimulating light source. In ... This is because the two steps are dependent on each other for activation of the protein. Some proteins are innately ... The other major photostimulation method is the use of light to activate a light-sensitive protein such as rhodopsin, which can ...
The Rhodopsin Protein Photoisomerization of rhodopsin, animation. Rhodopsin and the eye, summary with pictures. (CS1 German- ... "Light-induced protein-protein interactions on the rod photoreceptor disc membrane". In Lee AG (ed.). Rhodopsin and G-Protein ... Garriga P, Manyosa J (September 2002). "The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease". ... Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, is a protein encoded by the RHO gene and a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is the ...
Garriga P, Manyosa J (September 2002). "The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease". ... family protein of unknown function. This protein consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and 11 LRRs (LRR1-11) flanked by ... However, many of them are predicted to lead to truncated proteins that, presumably, are non-functional. The incomplete form of ... There are currently almost 40 known mutations in NYX associated with CSNB1, Table 1., located throughout the protein. As the ...
Bone morphogenic proteins are known to stimulate eye lens formation. During early development of eyes, the formation of the ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23. BMP4 ... BMP4 is a polypeptide belonging to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved ... "Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ...
past-your-eyes) protein: In favour of youth. (pro-teen) propaganda: A gentlemanly goose. (proper-gander) or to look at ...
1994). "Differential expression of the complement regulatory proteins in the human eye". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34 (13 ... Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b"domain ... It is an LU domain and belongs to the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. CD59 attaches to host cells via a ... 1992). "Complement regulatory proteins at the feto-maternal interface during human placental development: distribution of CD59 ...
"Abnormal protein profiles in tears with dry eye syndrome". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 136 (2): 291-9. doi:10.1016/S0002 ... The fraction of protein extracted from milk, contains 3.3% RNA, but, the protein preferably binds to double-stranded DNA rather ... Occurrence of iron-containing red protein in bovine milk was reported as early as in 1939; however, the protein could not be ... optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. The protein was extracted from milk, contained ...
This protein has been implicated in human eye development. The gene is located on long arm of chromosome 2 (2q37.1). The ... The protein contains a peptidase S1 domain and possesses trypsin like serine protease activity. Mutations in this gene are a ... Eyes from individuals with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) often have a modestly decreased axial length, shallow anterior chamber ... The fundus of the eye shows crowded optical discs, tortuous vessels and an abnormal foveal avascular zone. Mice homozygous for ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... 1998). "The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex and regulate multiple steps in Drosophila eye development". ... EYA) subfamily of proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in the developing kidney, branchial arches, eye, and ear. ... "Entrez Gene: EYA1 eyes absent homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Buller, C; Xu X; Marquis V; Schwanke R; Xu P X (Nov 2001). "Molecular ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... EYA) subfamily of proteins. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator and be important for continued function ... "Entrez Gene: EYA4 eyes absent homolog 4 (Drosophila)". O'Neill ME, Marietta J, Nishimura D, et al. (1996). "A gene for ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... The encoded protein may be post-translationally modified and may play a role in eye development. A similar protein in mice can ... Fee BE, Doyle CA, Cleveland JL (Feb 2002). "A novel Eyes Absent 2 protein is expressed in the human eye". Gene. 285 (1-2): 221- ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
Conserved chemosensory proteins in the proboscis and eyes of Lepidoptera. Int J Biol Sci. 2016; 12: 1394-1404. 32. Xuan N, Guo ... Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are small soluble proteins which mediate olfactory recognition at the periphery of sensory ... of a protein from insect regenerating legs. The same protein (called Pam) was found in the adult antennae and legs from the two ... "Chemosensory Proteins" [3]. This term should not be used to unite under a common name all genes and proteins that are related ...
"Eye proteins have germ-killing power, could lead to new antimicrobial drugs, study finds". 24 September 2012. McLean WH, Rugg ... The keratin proteins of epithelial tissues are commonly known as "keratins" or are sometimes referred to as "epithelial ... Keratins are generally expressed in particular pairs of type I and type II keratin proteins in a tissue-specific and cellular ... Keratin 6A has been shown to have antimicrobial properties, and is the main antimicrobial factor in the eye. Mutations in the ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Chen C, Ware S, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins D, Habas R, Matzuk M, Shen M, Brown C (2006). "The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a ... Hanel M, Hensey C (2006). "Eye and neural defects associated with loss of GDF6". BMC Dev Biol. 6: 43. doi:10.1186/1471-213X-6- ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ...
A study of the binding of this dye to the eye lens proteins crystallins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (35): 20923- ... Highly anionic proteins are stained blue, proteoglycans purple and anionic proteins pink. RNA is stained blueish-purple with a ... Staining of proteins can be improved by a subsequent silver stain. The analogue Ethyl-Stains-all has similar properties as ... Goldberg, H. A.; Warner, K. J. (1997). "The staining of acidic proteins on polyacrylamide gels: Enhanced sensitivity and ...
... and protein from the black-eyed peas. Online, Peace FM. "Boy Sent To Deliver 'Koose' Feared Drowned At Madina". Peacefmonline. ... Koose (also known as Bean Cake) is a spicy black-eyed pea fritter that is commonly eaten in West Africa as a snack. It was ...
"The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen 2 regulates eye size". Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. 51 (3-4): 101-111. ... Double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAU2 gene. Staufen homolog ... Expression of Stau2 was sufficient to increase eye size, suggesting a novel biological role of Stau2 in eye morphogenesis. ... "Human protein Staufen-2 promotes HIV-1 proliferation by positively regulating RNA export activity of viral protein Rev". ...
"Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life". PLOS ONE. 3 (1 ... or the carbon-14 concentration in the lens of the eye. In 2019, Scientific American reported that carbon-14 from nuclear bomb ...
"Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life". PLOS ONE. 3 (1 ... may undergo pathological desquamation in diseases such as dry eye syndrome. The anatomy of the human eye makes desquamation of ... Gilbard, Jeffrey P. (November 1, 2003). "Dry Eye: Natural History, Diagnosis and Treatment". Wolters Kluwer Pharma Solutions. ... To prevent premature desquamation, granular layer keratincoytes also produce kallikrein-inhibitory proteins. At acral surfaces ...
Nov 2001). "LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects bone accrual and eye development". Cell. 107 (4): 513-23. doi:10.1016 ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP5 gene. LRP5 is a key ... LRP5 acts as a co-receptor with LRP6 and the Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins through ... Each protein has a single-pass, 22-amino-acid segment that crosses the cell membrane and a 207-amino-acid segment that is ...
Cataract clouding of the transparent protein in the lens of the eye. A certain amount of this clouding occurs naturally during ... There are blue eye genes and brown eye genes and one's eyes are brown if one of the two eye color genes is a brown one and blue ... Fundus of the eye The central portion of the retina on back or deepest part of the eye. Damage to the fundus, even if the rest ... Protein a class of biochemicals made from amino acids in specific sequences. Proteins can be very large molecules with very ...
Mikkelson TJ, Chrai SS, Robinson JR (October 1973). "Altered bioavailability of drugs in the eye due to drug-protein ... Over time, it has been reported that many of the same drugs and eye drops used to treat particular eye diseases do, in fact, ... Ophthalmic drug administration is the administration of a drug to the eyes, most typically as an eye drop formulation. Topical ... These states may include bacterial infections, eye injury, glaucoma, and dry eye. However, there are many challenges associated ...
2002). "Protein localization in the human eye and genetic screen of opticin". Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (11): 1333-42. doi:10.1093/ ... Opticin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPTC gene. Opticin belongs to class III of the small leucine-rich repeat ... The opticin gene is mapped to a region of chromosome 1 that is associated with the inherited eye diseases age-related macular ... Opticin is present in significant quantities in the vitreous of the eye and also localizes to the cornea, iris, ciliary body, ...
Mori M, Sakurai M, Araie M (1993). "[Topical timolol and blood-aqueous barrier permeability to protein in human eyes]". Nippon ... One of the isoforms is a membrane-bound protein with sequence similarity to the mouse mahogany protein, a receptor involved in ... Attractin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATRN gene. Attractin is a Group XI C-type lectin. Multiple transcript ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ...
Allergan Licenses Molecular Partners' Phase II Eye Disease Protein Therapeutic for $45M". Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ... They are derived from natural ankyrin repeat proteins. Repeat proteins are among the most common classes of binding proteins in ... Plückthun, A (2015). "Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins): binding proteins for research, diagnostics, and therapy". ... The company is developing a new class of potent, specific and versatile small-protein therapies called DARPins, with potential ...
Gritsman, K., Zhang, J., Cheng, S., Heckscher, E., Talbot, W.S., and Schier, A.F. (1999). The EGF-CFC protein one-eyed pinhead ... Zhang, J., Talbot, W.S., and Schier, A.F. (1998). Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF- ... Development 123, 165 - 178 Schier, A. F., Neuhauss, S. C., Helde, K. A., Talbot, W. S., & Driever, W. (1997). The one-eyed ... "Efficient Mutagenesis by Cas9 Protein-Mediated Oligonucleotide Insertion and Large-Scale Assessment of Single-Guide RNAs". PLOS ...
Gruijters, WTM (1989). "A non-connexon protein (MIP) is involved in eye lens gap-junction formation". Journal of Cell Science. ... Beyer, E. C.; Paul, DL; Goodenough, DA (1987). "Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from ... One hemichannel protein has four transmembrane domains 6 hemichannel proteins create one hemichannel. When different ... In turn, hemichannels of uniform protein composition are called homomeric, while those with differing proteins are heteromeric ...
... "dachshund encodes a nuclear protein required for normal eye and leg development in Drosophila". Development. 120 (12): 3473- ... Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye. They are found in all ... The abathochroal eye is the third eye morphology of trilobites, but it has found only within the Eodiscina. This form of eye ... Mollusc eye Parietal eye Simple eye in invertebrates Vision in fish Optic lobe (arthropods) Ocelli are about 5000 times more ...
... "dachshund encodes a nuclear protein required for normal eye and leg development in Drosophila". Development. 120 (12): 3473-86 ... Gehring WJ, Ikeo K (September 1999). "Pax 6: mastering eye morphogenesis and eye evolution". Trends in Genetics. 15 (9): 371-7 ... dachshund (dac) is a gene involved in the development of the arthropod compound eye which also plays a role in leg development ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Protein pages needing a picture, Arthropod ...
This protein is involved in the development of the eye, tooth and abdominal organs. This protein acts as a transcriptional ... This gene encodes a member of the RIEG/PITX homeobox family, which is in the bicoid class of homeodomain proteins. This protein ... PITX2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... A similar protein in other vertebrates is involved in the determination of left-right asymmetry during development. Three ...
Class 2 systems use a single large Cas protein for the same purpose. Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is ... Eanes, Zachery (January 29, 2022). "Locus Biosciences is eyeing immunology for its CRISPR tech". The News & Observer. Vol. 158 ... Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. ...
Glial fibrillary acidic protein, enolase 2,Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Inflammatory Biomarkers - c-reactive protein, ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ... Blood Biomarkers: Many proteins and RNA biomarkers identified are connected to ischemic stroke pathophysiology includes Central ... and the arrest of protein synthesis. Additionally, removal of metabolic wastes is slowed. The interruption of blood flow to the ...
The eyes are often smaller and underdeveloped, usually more severely in one eye than the other. This can manifest as a coloboma ... The syndrome is caused by mutations in both copies of the CENPF gene, which codes for centromere protein F. This protein is ... CENPF codes for centromere protein F. Centromere proteins are involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. ... The eye anomalies can result in an inability to focus (astigmatism) as well as amblyopia, in which the brain begins to fail to ...
Barcelona Zoo director Antonio Jonch wrote: "The eye had a blueish sclera, a normal cornea, and a light blue iris which was ... A.21 Gerritsen, Vivienne Baillie (August 2004) "Snowy stardom". Protein Spotlight (SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics). ... The animal displayed marked photophobia, which caused it to close its eyes repeatedly when exposed to bright light. In diffuse ... The media were transparent and the fundus of the eye normal and totally depigmented. The choroidal vessels were perfectly ...
Mutation in the TENM3/ODZ3 gene in humans has been associated with the eye condition, microphthalmia. Teneurin protein was ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ... Ten-m3 protein is expressed in the Purkinje's cell zone, molecular and granular layers and the white matter of the cerebellum. ... in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. Like the Ten-m ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... causing skin and white parts of the eyes to turn yellow Inhibits urinary nitrous oxide production and may inhibit nitric oxide ...
... animals capable of fast locomotion require large eyes. The eye of the horse is set to the side of its skull, consistent with ... As tendons develop they lay down collagen, which is the main structural protein of connective tissue. As tendons pass near bony ... The horse has one of the largest eyes of all land mammals. Eye size in mammals is significantly correlated to maximum running ... Often, the eye of the horse is looking in the same direction as the ear is directed. Equine conformation Glossary of equestrian ...
"Here's how Pope Francis got a black eye on Colombia trip". USA Today. "Pope Francis in Colombia, Day 5: Pope, in farewell ... protein, and iron, among other nutrients, and could potentially fight altitude sickness- a popular reason for its use, but it ... black left eye, bruised cheekbone and a cut on his eyebrow that dripped blood onto his white cassock and which also required ... as an example of why no one is lost in the eyes of the church. Greccio: 1 December 2019 Bari: 23 February 2020 L'Aquila: 28 ...
Like other macrolides, tylosin has a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible organisms, caused by inhibition of protein synthesis ... around the eyes of white-faced dogs. In these cases, the result is positive only when using the tylosin in the form of tartrate ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Unconfirmed results suggested that interferon eye drops may be an effective treatment for people who have herpes simplex virus ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ... phosphorylates ribosomal protein s6, which is involved in protein synthesis; and phosphorylates a translational repressor ...
Histological tests such as keratin, CK5/6, S-100 protein or NSE can be run to further differentiate esthesioneuroblastoma from ... Nichols AC, Chan AW, Curry WT, Barker FG, Deschler DG, Lin DT (September 2008). "Esthesioneuroblastoma: the massachusetts eye ...
It damages the intestines, bladder, and other organs and can lead to anemia and protein-energy deficiency. Along with malaria, ... invented the first microscope that confirmed the existence of microorganisms that cannot be visualised with the naked eye ( ... HIV infection can affect the production of hormones that interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In ... Woodward B (January 1998). "Protein, calories, and immune defenses". Nutr. Rev. 56 (1 Pt 2): S84-92. doi:10.1111/j.1753- ...
Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear ... molecular biophysicist and structural biologist known for foundational work in three-dimensional protein and nucleic acid ... Moorfields Eye Hospital, The Heart Hospital, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and the Royal National Throat, Nose and ... Royal Free Hospital Whittington Hospital Eastman Dental Hospital Great Ormond Street Hospital The Heart Hospital Moorfields Eye ...
There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the ... Another study used HSV type1 and type2 to investigate the optical pathway: by injecting the virus into the eye, the pathway ... These techniques allow the "mapping" of connections between neurons in a particular structure (e.g. the eye) and the target ... virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. Viral tracers can cross ...
... binds to complement protein C3 and its activation fragment C3b with high affinity, thereby regulating the ... and eye sensitivity to light. Common adverse effects associated with the medication include nausea, diarrhea, cold sores, ... Pegcetacoplan is the first treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria that binds to and inhibits complement protein C3. ...
In some organisms the mineral content may exceed 95%. The role of the chitin and proteins in such structures is more than just ... optic-quality over its eyes, and strong, calcite-reinforced chitin armouring its body and legs; its pincers can break into ... It practically always is associated with protein molecules that often are in a more or less sclerotised state, stiffened or ... The tough and flexible endocuticle is a laminated structure of layers of interwoven fibrous chitin and protein molecules, while ...
At Lent, owners of livestock were even warned to keep an eye out for hungry dogs frustrated by a "hard siege by Lent and fish ... Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk ... See also The Appetite and the Eye: Visual aspects of food and its presentation within their historic context. Anne Wilson (ed ... Various legumes, like chickpeas, fava beans, and field peas were also common and important sources of protein, especially among ...
Wool is a protein based fibre, being the coat of a sheep. The wool is removed by shearing. Shearing can be done with use of ... Warping the loom, mean threading each end through an eye in a heddle, and then sleying it through the reed. The warp is set ( ... Animal protein fibres include wool and silk. Man-made fibres (made by industrial processes) including nylon, polyester will be ... The three main types of fibres are natural vegetable fibres, animal protein fibres and artificial fibres. Natural vegetable ...
... developing a model of the possible excitation of cryptochrome proteins in photoreceptors within the retina of the eye. In 1980 ... Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... His work made possible the dynamic simulation of the activities of thousands of proteins working together at the macromolecular ... 1996 marked the publication of Schulten's model of the LH2 structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre protein family of ...
Smithers, Rebecca (2009-08-20). "One in the eye for anti-wrinkle creams , Money ,". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02- ... Microarray/protein evidence with clinical implications and unique delivery into human skin". Pharmaceutical Biology. 51 (11): ... which is not noticeable to the human eye. Another study found that cheap moisturisers were as effective as high-priced anti- ... "Equol's Anti-Aging Effects Protect against Environmental Assaults by Increasing Skin Antioxidant Defense and ECM Proteins While ...
mtDNA is packaged with proteins which appear to be as protective as proteins of the nuclear chromatin. Moreover, mitochondria ... eye, and muscle movements. Some evidence suggests that they might be major contributors to the aging process and age-associated ... InterMitoBase: an annotated database and analysis platform of protein-protein interactions for human mitochondria. (apparently ... an annotated database and analysis platform of protein-protein interactions for human mitochondria". BMC Genomics. 12: 335. doi ...
In its structural role, zinc coordinates with certain protein domains, facilitating protein folding and producing structures ... Preedy VR (2014). Handbook of nutrition, diet and the eye. Burlington: Elsevier Science. p. 372. ISBN 9780124046061. Penny M. ... In 2002 the zinc transporter protein ZIP4 was first identified as the mechanism for absorption of zinc in the gut across the ... Pra1 (pH regulated antigen 1) is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Diagnosis is typically made based on ...
Myosin-13 also known as myosin, heavy chain 13 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the MYH13 gene. MYH13 is a myosin ... whose expression is restricted primarily to the extrinsic eye muscles which are specialized for function in eye movement. ... Lehner B, Sanderson CM (2004). "A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation". Genome Res. 14 (7): 1315-23. doi: ... 1993). "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin ...
Their head is broad, the snout pointed, the eyes very small, the ears upright, and their hair rather long, lank, hard, and of ... which was much larger in size due to their higher protein diet. Their diet included breadfruits, coconuts, yams, poi made from ... They had broad heads, small eyes, long backs, sharp-pointed muzzles and erect ears. They were described as lazy, shy, and not ... oblique eyes, prick ears, large head, stocky body, short legs, scraggly tail, patchy color, coarse hair, with only the alert ...
... protein defect of Cystinosis Cystinuria Cystinuria-lysinuria Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency Cytomegalic inclusion disease ... see Cri du chat Cat eye syndrome Cat Rodrigues syndrome Cat scratch disease Cataract Cataract, congenital ichthyosis Cataract ... Coloboma chorioretinal cerebellar vermis aplasia Coloboma hair abnormality Coloboma of choroid and retina Coloboma of eye lens ... Congenital craniosynostosis maternal hyperthyroiditis Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation Congenital cystic eye multiple ...
Aravind Eye Care System. 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Use dmy dates from January ... "Functional insights by comparison of modeled structures of 18kDa small heat shock protein and its mutant in Mycobacterium ... He is known for his contributions in the fields of eye disease proteomics and mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli. He is ... "Director & DBT Distinguished Biotechnology Research". Aravind Eye Care System. 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016. "DR. K. ...
Sleep can be broadly split into the lighter "rapid eye movement" (REM) and deeper "non-rapid eye movement" (NREM). Changes in ... A lack of sleep also causes increases in the creation of proteins in the body that cause chronic pain by reducing the body's ... In a laboratory setting, individuals exposed to psychological stressors have had raised IL-6 (an acute-phase protein CRP) ... and inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and reduced interactions with ...
If the cause is determined to be due to a blocked tear duct, gentle palpation between the eye and the nasal cavity may be used ... This may be erythromycin, tetracycline, or rarely silver nitrate or Argyrol (mild silver protein). Prophylaxis needs antenatal ... "Conjunctivitis , Pink Eye , Newborns". Retrieved 2016-11-11. Curry, Susan J.; Krist, Alex H.; Owens, Douglas K.; ... This practice is recommended for all newborns and most hospitals in the United States are required by state law to apply eye ...
The SON protein is mainly localised to nuclear speckles and involved in a variety of cellular processes such as transcription, ... Strabismus; misalignment or crossing of the eyes when viewing an object, direct hypermetropia; farsightedness, and nystagmus; ... The majority of SON variants found in ZTTK syndrome individuals are localised to exon 3. The SON gene encodes the SON protein, ... SON is a large protein consisting of 2426 amino acids and repeat sequences. SON is located within the human chromosomal region ...
They work by blocking the ability of the fungus to produce proteins in a highly specific way. Hence, disrupting the action of ... These topical preparations should not be administered intravaginally and applied in or near the mouth or eyes. In addition, ... Finally, it disrupts the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins in fungal cells and leads to cell death. Ciclopirox may also exert ... Cautions Avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes using topically. Avoid intravaginal preparations (particularly those that ...
Research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis may have implications for treating diseases involving abnormal blood vessel growth, such as the impaired wound healing often seen in diabetes.
Researchers identified a protein involved in advanced diabetic retinopathy. The finding may explain why current treatments don ... Protein Involved in Diabetic Eye Disease. At a Glance. *Researchers identified a protein involved in an advanced stage of ... The protein was also present at high levels in low-VEGF aqueous fluid from the eyes of patients who had recently received anti- ... may play an important role in diabetic eye disease and potentially other eye diseases as well." ...
... eye and skin tissue in relevant animal models and humans (U01) Clinical Trial Not Allowed RFA-FD-21-018. FDA ... Quantify the expression of metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins in lung, ... Quantify the expression of metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins in lung, eye and skin tissue in relevant animal models ... used PBPK platforms due to a lack of information on protein levels of metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins in the eye ...
... class of protein phosphatases, with a particular emphasis on an unusual group of enzymes, the eyes absent (EYA) family. EYA ... proteins have the unique distinction of being structurally and mechanistically classified as HAD enzymes, yet, unlike other HAD ... The Eyes Absent Proteins: Unusual HAD Family Tyrosine Phosphatases Kaushik Roychoudhury et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2021. . ... The Eyes Absent Proteins: Unusual HAD Family Tyrosine Phosphatases Kaushik Roychoudhury 1 , Rashmi S Hegde 1 ...
An antiaging eye cream.What it is formulated to do:Jack Black Protein Booster Eye Rescue is an intensive, multi-action eye ...
Loss or defects of a protein previously shown to play a key a role in cataract, the clouding of the lens that commonly strikes ... The protein, which is present on the surface of fiber cells, may also act as a kind of Velcro, binding the cells to each other ... Loss or defects of a protein previously shown to play a key a role in cataract, the clouding of the lens that commonly strikes ... The lens normally changes its shape (by bending or flattening) to focus light onto the back of the eye, but with age, it often ...
Buy Eye. For a list of shops selling Eye 102, see About Eye. To buy single issues or subscribe, visit the Eye Shop or call +44 ... Eye, the international review of graphic design, is a quarterly printed magazine about graphic design and visual culture ... a fortifying protein shake to help make design a more, in her word, muscular profession. According to Laurel and the books ...
... these proteins are regulators of supramolecular organisation of tissues and include other well known proteins such as decorin ... In this issue of the BJO (p 697), Ramesh et al describe more fully the distribution of opticin in the human eye. Opticin was ... Opticin is an eye specific molecule discovered by Reardon and colleagues in 20001 using a 4 M guanidine hydrochloride extract ... This may also apply to the retina and other ocular tissues since opticin appears to be widely distributed in the eye. Thus, it ...
Black-eyed peas contain calcium, folate, protein, fiber and vitamin A, among other nutrients, and have less than 200 calories ... Black-eyed peas were grown in Virginia as early as the 17th century. The planting of black-eyed peas was promoted by George ... Vegan cooking: Versatile black-eyed peas packed with protein, vitamins. The legumes can add nutritional value to curries, ... Black-eyed Pea Curry with Plantains Plantains look like large bananas, but unlike bananas, they cannot be eaten raw. Although ...
Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or keratitis sicca, is a multifactorial disease of the ... Normal production of tear proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lipocalin, and phospholipase A2, is decreased in dry eye ... For patient education information, see the Eye and Vision Center, as well as Dry Eye Syndrome, Pink Eye, How to Instill Your ... Dry eye disease may be subdivided into two non-mutually exclusive types as follows [2] :. * Aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) [1 ...
All photos and videos on this site belong to the National Eye Institute (NEI). Please credit ©NEI when you use any image or ...
Mouse eye tissue lysate - total protein (14 days) (ab7191) Specific References (1) ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... Mouse brain tissue lysate - total protein (0 days) (ab7188) Specific References (1) ...
The mechanisms that control the recycling of transducin, the pacesetting G protein that regulates mammalian phototransduction ... G proteins regulate intracellular signaling by coupling a cycle of guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to transient ... Eye Proteins / chemistry* * Eye Proteins / isolation & purification * Eye Proteins / metabolism* * GTP Phosphohydrolases / ... RGS-r, a retinal specific RGS protein, binds an intermediate conformation of transducin and enhances recycling Proc Natl Acad ...
Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); protein (crh); 朊 (lzh); proteiin (smn); بروتين (ar); protein (br); ... protein localization to cell wall (cargo),. protein localization to cell cortex of cell tip (cargo),. protein localization to ... protein catabolic process at synapse (reactant),. protein catabolic process at presynapse (reactant),. protein catabolic ... establishment of protein localization (cargo),. protein transmembrane transport (cargo),. protein localization to spindle pole ...
Order protein frozen food online for pickup or delivery. Find ingredients, recipes, coupons and more. ... Find protein frozen food at a store near you. ... Birds Eye Steamfresh Frozen Protein Blend California Style ... Farm Rich Breaded Mozzarella Cheese Sticks, High Protein Snack, Case of 8 boxes, 10 oz. 8/10oz boxes ... Hot Pockets Frozen Snack High Protein Steak & Cheddar Crispy Buttery Crust Frozen Sandwiches. 2 ct / 9 oz ...
cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1. *cat eye syndrome critical region protein 1 ...
Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or keratitis sicca, is a multifactorial disease of the ... Normal production of tear proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lipocalin, and phospholipase A2, is decreased in dry eye ... For patient education information, see the Eye and Vision Center, as well as Dry Eye Syndrome, Pink Eye, How to Instill Your ... Dry eye disease may be subdivided into two non-mutually exclusive types as follows [2] :. * Aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) [1 ...
And speaking of "way", this protein is whey protein, which comes from milk. So if you dont approve of drinking milk, then you ... Add a small scoop of this stuff to just 5 ounces of water and you get a chocolatey 22 grams of protein. Both my sister and ... In any case, if you are looking for a high protein drink and dont mind goofy marketing words on the bottle, I give this a ... This Thanksgiving, my sister and brother-in-law got to talking with me about protein. Since I am a vegetarian and they know I ...
Birds Eye Protein Blends. 18 g protein per serving. How much sugar is in birds eye steamfresh protein blends vegetables, ... Birds eye steamfresh protein blends vegetables, southwest style has 71.0 carbs. A fast, easy way to add protein to your diet ... Packed with protein and nutrients, birds eye southwest style protein blend is a flavorful blend of whole grains, black beans, ... Birds eye steamfresh protein blends are the perfect combination of tasty veggies, protein packed whole grains and your favorite ...
G proteins). Accordingly, MEKA may play a role in signal transduction. MEKA is phosphoryl … ... It is of interest because it forms a cytoplasmic heterotrimer with the beta gamma-complex of GTP-binding regulatory proteins ( ... Eye Proteins / biosynthesis Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... It is of interest because it forms a cytoplasmic heterotrimer with the beta gamma-complex of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G ...
Thus, a metabolomics driven approach in adductomics will not only open new opportunities for the identification of protein ... these methodologies have very limited success on the identification of low abundant protein adducts. Herein we report a novel ... these methodologies have very limited success on the identification of low abundant protein adducts. Herein we report a novel ... Identification of protein covalent modifications (adducts) is a challenging task mainly due to the lack of data processing ...
... provides instructions for making a protein called the P protein. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... Pink-eyed dilution protein homolog. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. *Tests of ... The OCA2 gene (formerly called the P gene) provides instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein is ... As a result, cells make little or no functional P protein. A lack of P protein disrupts the production of melanin, leading to ...
Eye Proteins/metabolism; Female; Femur/diagnostic imaging; Femur/drug effects*; Femur/metabolism; Femur/physiopathology; Kidney ...
JACK BLACK Protein Booster Eye Rescue helps to diminish the appearance of crows feet and fine lines on the thin, delicate skin ... SkinMiles » Shop » Jack Black » JACK BLACK Protein Booster Eye Rescue. Previous product JACK BLACK ,span class=productname, ... JACK BLACK Protein Booster Eye Rescue. This rich cream helps to diminish the appearance of crows feet and fine lines on the ... Be the first to review "JACK BLACK Protein Booster Eye Rescue" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a review. ...
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Concentration in Aqueous Humour of Eyes With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Concentration in Aqueous Humour of Eyes With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Concentration in Aqueous Humour of Eyes With Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. ... Methods: : The clinical interventional comparative study included a study group of 28 patients (28 eyes) with exudative AMD and ...
Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye. ... Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye. Together ...
Hello and thank you for visiting Swanky Recipes. Originally from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, I moved to New Orleans in 2013 and have been here ever since. I love the culture, cuisine and southern hospitality Louisiana has to offer me. I love dogs and all things cupcakes. I am also a Laura Ingalls Wilder relative from the Charles Ingalls family line. ...
  • Absolute (in moles) quantification of proteins is required for the biomarker discovery in clinical proteomics, for modelling in system biology, to study protein kinetics, to determine the stoichiometry of the subunits in a multi-protein complex or to determine stoichiometric ratios between proteins and also non-proteinous ligands, such as lipids or DNA. (
  • SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is an enveloped virus, meaning that its genetic material is packed inside an outer layer (envelope) of proteins and lipids. (
  • In the first instance, proteins are long chains of amino acids, like a long piece of woolen thread. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Amino acids composition of protein hydrolysates of different mammalian eye lenses. (
  • Agarwal VB, Agarwal SC, Ram N. Amino acids composition of protein hydrolysates of different mammalian eye lenses. (
  • Silk Protein is rich with 18 amino acids, vitamins and enzymes that boost cell turnover, restoring your skin's radiating glow and smoothing wrinkles. (
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. (
  • While many think in terms of meat, eggs and milk when seeking proteins sources, here's a brief, incomplete listing of a few plant-based TurboCharged foods that contain all 9 essential amino acids. (
  • Wild harvested berries from the Himalayas contain up to 19 naturally occurring amino acids, the building blocks of proteins in hair, skin, and nails. (
  • In the eye lens, they counteract diseases like cataracts. (
  • A baby with congenital cataracts has clouding in one or both eyes. (
  • Cataracts happen when proteins in the eye's lens change. (
  • Kids who have had congenital cataracts removed may have other eye problems. (
  • Instead, people with cataracts need an operation to help their eyes see better again. (
  • But as people get older, sometimes proteins in the lens stick together and cause cloudiness, or cataracts. (
  • Cataracts can develop when proteins break down and clump together in your eye's lens. (
  • If you are over the age of 40, we recommend scheduling a yearly comprehensive eye exam to detect cataracts as they develop. (
  • Cataracts are the clumping together of proteins within the lens of your eye, causing cloudiness in your vision. (
  • While health issues like diabetes, obesity, smoking, ultraviolet radiation, and family history can influence your development of cataracts, your eyes and body's natural aging also leads to cataracts. (
  • Cortical cataracts are the opposite of Nuclear cataracts and begin in the outer part of the lens, interfering with light passage through the eye. (
  • Lower your risk of developing cataracts by maintaining your body and eye health. (
  • During your appointment, we will examine your eyes and provide the best recommendation to manage your cataracts or recommend surgery if needed. (
  • Cataracts are quite common with age, and they form when proteins in the eye lens clump together and form a cloudy area. (
  • Vitamin C significantly impacts eye health, especially when it comes to cataracts. (
  • These antioxidants were found to prevent cataracts by inhibiting oxidative damage to the lens of the eye. (
  • A measurement of less than 5 mm is considered severe dry eye. (
  • Sodium hydroxide poses a particular threat to the eyes, since it can hydrolyze protein, leading to severe eye damage. (
  • Very strong solutions of sodium hydroxide can hydrolyze proteins in the eyes, leading to severe burns and eye damage or, in extreme cases, blindness. (
  • In the less severe forms, the brain is partially divided and the eyes are usually set close together (hypotelorism). (
  • Kwashiorkor is a disease that develops due to a severe dietary protein deficiency. (
  • A chapter on treatment provides schedules for vitamin A dosing in the emergency management of xerophthalmia, severe infectious episodes, and severe protein-energy malnutrition, and offers advice on dietary improvement, essential eye care, and the prevention of recurrence. (
  • The signaling protein is already well known to be a blood vessel growth factor with roles in heart disease, cancer and metabolic diseases, of which diabetes is one. (
  • Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have developed a three-dimensional structure that allows them to see how and where disease mutations on the twinkle protein can lead to mitochondrial diseases. (
  • Some patients with prion diseases may visit ophthalmologists with visual impairment due to prion diseases or with coexisting age-related eye diseases ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Regarding the accuracy of the diagnosis of inherited prion diseases, cases verified by pathology report were defined as definite, and cases with mutations in the prion protein gene and neuropsychiatric manifestations compatible with prion diseases were defined as probable. (
  • Isolating effectively the ultraviolet light that causes cataract and other eye diseases/ giving your eyes more protection. (
  • We show that nephrocystin-5, RPGR and calmodulin can be coimmunoprecipitated from retinal extracts, and that these proteins localize to connecting cilia of photoreceptors and to primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. (
  • In a recent study using mice, lab-grown human retinal cells and patient samples, Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists say they found evidence of a new pathway that may contribute to degeneration of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. (
  • To do that, they injected a soluble fragment of the neuropilin receptor into the eyes of mice pharmacologically treated to mimic human diabetes, resulting in a twofold increase in retinal vascular leakage. (
  • Retinal detachment occurs when the retina breaks away from the eye, causing obstructed, blurred, or shadowy vision. (
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a particularly important group of chaperones. (
  • Mutations in pkd1 and pkd2 , encoding the polycystin 1 and 2 proteins, induce growth-related pathways, including heat shock proteins, as occurs in some cancers, raising the prospect that pharmacological interventions that target these pathways might alleviate or prevent ADPKD. (
  • Dry eye disease (DED), also known as dry eye syndrome (DES), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), and keratitis sicca, is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface due to a loss of homeostasis of the tear film. (
  • Eye tear system anatomy: a. tear gland / lacrimal gland, b. superior lacrimal punctum, c. superior lacrimal canal, d. tear sac / lacrimal sac, e. inferior lacrimal punctum, f. inferior lacrimal canal, g. nasolacrimal canal. (
  • This is the tear that is produced in an emergency situation such as having something in the eye or cutting onions. (
  • 4. He created the seven seas and He loved a tear from you, but your eyes were tearless. (
  • 10. May every tear that has ever fallen from your tired eyes on my behalf, become a river for you in Paradise. (
  • Furthermore, as you get older, your lashes will become thinner owing to the loss of protein, which is a component of your eyes' tear production mechanism. (
  • The FDA has also approved devices that provide temporary relief from dry eye by stimulating glands and nerves that control tear production. (
  • An eye doctor can put plugs into your tear ducts to help block or partially block them. (
  • Two proteins encoded by two genes are associated with ADPKD: PC1 ( pkd1 ), primarily a signaling molecule, and PC2 ( pkd2 ), a Ca 2+ channel. (
  • Several putative transcription factors have been identified previously that may be required for expression of genes that specify cell fate in the compound eye. (
  • ttk is expressed as two proteins, p69 and p88, shown previously to bind to the regulatory regions of several segmentation genes. (
  • Consistent with previous proposals that the Ttk proteins are transcriptional repressors of segmentation genes, we detected ectopic or increased expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed in several ttk 1 larval tissues. (
  • Xiong, WC & Montell, C 1993, ' tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye ', Genes & development , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1085-1096. (
  • Proteins;87(12): 1037-1057, 2019 12. (
  • 2019 Facebook Inc. We get leaders to select that we show you the best download The eyes of on our levee. (
  • E), nucleocapsid protein (N), RNA-dependent RNA drome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus polymerase enzyme, and ORF1 gene) (4-6) either by disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared a pandemic nucleic acid amplification testing or detection of virus- on 11 March 2020, because of its rapid spread around the specific proteins by antigen testing (7,8) . (
  • Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence-binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans. (
  • The FermentIQ plant protein solutions offer significantly improved sensory attributes compared to unfermented plant proteins, insisted Wetstone. (
  • The "meat" consists of plant proteins (such as soybeans, lentils, potatoes, peas, and mung beans) which are flavoured and coloured with plant-derived additives to mimic real meat. (
  • Tissues are homogenized in protein lysis buffer supplemented with a cocktail of 7 mammalian protease inhibitors to minimize proteolysis, precisely quantified, and stored at -80oC. (
  • Tissues are homogenized in protein lysis buffer supplemented with a cocktail of 7. (
  • Sodium hydroxide of sufficient strength can hydrolyze proteins in tissues and can kill cells in tissues. (
  • In the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, eyes were classified as highly infectious tissues ( 9 ). (
  • PROTEINS derived from TISSUES of the EYE . (
  • The type VI collagen is an extracellular protein forming a distinct myofibrillar network of most interstitial connective tissues, existing in the cellular matrices of muscle, skin, tendon, cartilage, intervertebral discs, blood vessels and eyes. (
  • For instance, accurate quantification by Western blotting (WB) requires highly specific monoclonal antibodies and pure protein standards. (
  • 10%) determines the molar content of dozens of user-selected proteins at the low to sub-femtomole level in whole cell or tissue lysates without metabolic or chemical labelling or using specific antibodies. (
  • Proteins are found throughout our bodies, from muscles and bones to enzymes and antibodies. (
  • This frozen side dish delivers 16 grams of protein per serving, and it's made without artificial flavors, so you family can enjoy the best. (
  • This Italian style microwave side dish offers 18 grams of protein per serving, and is made with no artificial flavors, artificial colors or preservatives, so your family gets the very best. (
  • The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. (
  • This translates to an average of 46 grams of protein per day for adult women and 56 grams per day for adult men. (
  • The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK) phosphorylates G protein coupled receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. (
  • Whereas αA crystallin mainly occurs in the eye lens, αB crystallin is also very common in the brain and in the heart and muscle tissue. (
  • The Johns Hopkins research team focused on diabetic macular edema, a form of swelling and inflammation that occurs in people with diabetes when blood vessels in the eye leak their fluids into the portion of the retina that controls detailed vision. (
  • The patient should be asked about eye pain and whether it is constant or occurs only with eye movement. (
  • The technique works because the molecular damage that occurs to lens proteins over time causes the proteins to change shape and stick together. (
  • Dry eye disease, or dry eye, occurs when the quantity or quality of tears fails to keep the surface of the eye wet. (
  • Researchers believe that this protein may also help regulate the relative acidity (pH) of melanosomes. (
  • The amplifying effect led the researchers to believe that VEGF and angiopoietin-like 4 might share a protein receptor within vascular cells. (
  • To further explore the new receptor-based treatment's potential value for human patients, the researchers grew human blood vessel cells in the lab in fluid samples collected from the eyes of patients with diabetic macular edema, to replicate the conditions and growth factors found naturally inside of the patients' eyes. (
  • To understand how the drug they developed could strengthen these connections, the researchers designed a series of experiments to explore how AXT107 affects the control of Tie2 and the Velcro-like proteins. (
  • When they added the AXT107 drug to these cells, the researchers found that AXT107 initiated a series of changes to cellular proteins. (
  • Using a technique to measure protein changes, the researchers found that Tie2 proteins seemed to migrate across the cell. (
  • The researchers have developed a new eye scanner that detects molecular signatures of aging in the lens and is entirely noninvasive. (
  • Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision. (
  • Human eyes, which have a concavely hemispherical retina, are particularly notable for their wide field-of-view, high resolution and excellent adaptivity to the lighting environment. (
  • Zhiyong Fan and colleagues now demonstrate an electrochemical eye with a hemispherical retina made from a high-density array of perovskite nanowires that are sensitive to light, and mimic the photoreceptors of a biological retina. (
  • Aside from the structural similarity to that of human eye, this hemispherical artificial retina could have a much higher density of photoreceptors, so could potentially achieve a higher image resolution, which would benefit a range of applications from consumer electronics and robotics to scientific instrumentation. (
  • Infectious prion protein (PrP Sc ) was identified in the retina and optic nerve in patients with variant CJD (vCJD) and sCJD ( 5 , 6 ), and CJD has been transmitted by corneal transplantation ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • This gentle formula refreshes, hydrates and moisturizes the fragile skin in the eye area, dramatically reducing puffiness, dark circles and fine lines. (
  • Relieves puffiness around the eye area. (
  • High in antioxidants, this healthy elixir helps purify the skin, reduce eye puffiness, and gives your skin a healthy glow. (
  • Always try to have full arched brows that make your eyelids look lifted this makes the attention up and away from under-eye puffiness and dark circles. (
  • As we all know that caffeine reduces puffiness in eyes, because of this reason this ingredient is found in many eye creams. (
  • It's grass-fed and made with just 3 ingredients: whey protein, vanilla, and organic coconut sugar. (
  • I have tried many different whey protein powders over the years and none compare to this one offered by Wild Foods. (
  • Dr Michael Lange develops new non denatured whey protein concentrate. (
  • New Non-denatured whey protein concentrate from grass fed Pasture raised New Zealand A2 cows. (
  • Absolute Quantification of Proteins in the Eye of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye is mediated by inductive events between neighboring cells in the eye imaginai disc. (
  • By combining age-old processes with modern-day science, MycoTechnology has developed a range of solutions that address sugar reduction, sustainable protein, nutrient density, and more. (
  • Beyond the improvement of physical attributes, the natural enzymatic process of mycelial fermentation alters the complex structure of the proteins, increasing solubility, improving digestibility and reducing anti-nutrient content. (
  • Its nutrient cocktail of minerals and proteins ensures a good moisturizing function. (
  • All ophthalmologists reused surgical instruments that had been incompletely sterilized to eliminate infectious prion protein. (
  • In diabetic macular edema, the Tie2 proteins disperse across the cell and no longer can maintain the fluid-tight barrier between the inside of a blood vessel and the outside. (
  • SLITRK6 gene mutations result in an abnormally short SLITRK6 protein that is not anchored properly to the cell membrane meaning the protein is unable to function normally. (
  • This request noted that employees in the evisceration department were experiencing symptoms such as eye and respiratory irritation. (
  • The test is mainly performed on people experiencing symptoms of dry eye. (
  • When any of these symptoms persist for longer than a week, a doctor may send the person to a specialist or do a Schirmer's test to determine whether dry eye is the cause of the symptoms. (
  • One of the best ways to alleviate dry eye symptoms is to use over-the-counter (OTC) artificial tears. (
  • Talk to your ophthalmologist if your dry eye symptoms don't clear up, or if they get worse. (
  • If you've been using a device, smartphone or staring at a screen, you may have experienced symptoms of dry eyes. (
  • Recently, new dry eye treatments have shown promise for improving dry eye signs and symptoms. (
  • You can treat mild dry eye symptoms with medications like artificial tears, gels, and ointments. (
  • [ 1 ] The term protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) applies to a group of related disorders that include marasmus , kwashiorkor (see the images below), and intermediate states of marasmus-kwashiorkor. (
  • Protein-energy malnutrition also involves an inadequate intake of many essential nutrients. (
  • Cells have a variety of protein complexes that manage vital tasks. (
  • The best advice for students is to choose a variety of protein foods by balancing plant and animal proteins, and to consider the fats, vitamins, and other nutrients and minerals that come along with the protein they are eating. (
  • As long as the "bank" stays "fully-funded" via a diet that takes full advantage of a wide variety of protein sources within a 24-48 hour period, you'll be consuming enough protein. (
  • Two research groups at the Department of Chemistry of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) have succeeded in explaining the molecular architecture of this kind of protective protein. (
  • Despite intensive efforts, up to now, none of them have managed to determine the molecular architecture of these proteins. (
  • Even with this reality, molecular evolution of the scFvC1 permitted us to isolate scFvs capable not only to discriminate Rho proteins in their active conformation but in addition to selectively bind to either RhoA/C or to RhoB. (
  • An eye scanner that Boston University Medical School developed can detect molecular aging in people. (
  • They found that, over time, the molecular signature of the proteins changed as they expected and that this was detectable using the QLS scanner. (
  • Lateral flow assay and ELISA techniques gave consistent results for IgG/IgM antibody measurements towards spike and nucleocapsid proteins, suggesting that both methods can be used to detect COVID-19 where access to molecular test kits is difficult. (
  • MS Western, a method of multiplexed absolute protein quantification is a practical alternative to Western blotting. (
  • This enriching under eye serum combines plant extracts and nourishing ingredients to help minimize the visible appearance of dark circles, fine lines, and wrinkles. (
  • The Advanced Instant Lift fX eye treatment rapidly de-puffs tired eyes, smooths wrinkles and minimizes the appearance of dark under-eye circles. (
  • Reduces the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and dark circles around the eyes. (
  • A cataract is a cloudy area that forms in the lens of your eye. (
  • Cataract surgery is a common outpatient procedure that involves removing the lens of your eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL), which functions just as your natural lens does. (
  • Total protein is ready for immediate use in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-capillary electrophoresis, enzymatic activity analysis, gel shifting assay, protein-protein interaction, and tissue specific expression. (
  • This homology assessed to much more than eighty% identity on the total protein reaches a lot more than 95% in the one hundred amino-terminal residues that contains the nucleotide binding loop and the switch I and II which are intended to be implicated in the conformational recognition by effector proteins [three]. (
  • Birds Eye Steamfresh Italian Style Power Blend Frozen Side serves up a protein-rich option that's ready in minutes for a fast and delicious way to enjoy your grains and frozen mixed vegetables. (
  • The Kansas State University professor of nutrition wants people to question the idea that eating fruits, vegetables, low-fat protein and whole grains is the only way to lose weight. (
  • It's common for a child with feeding difficulties to refuse to eat any proteins or vegetables. (
  • Medicines (including eye drops): Give them on time, every time. (
  • If they express discomfort at the idea of having something touching the eye, the doctor may use numbing drops. (
  • The most typical treatment for chronic dry eyes is prescription eye drops. (
  • If a person's eyes are not severely dry, a doctor may advise a patient to use over-the-counter drops. (
  • These are eye drops that help lubricate your eyes. (
  • If you use artificial tears more than 6 times a day , or if you're allergic to preservatives, use preservative-free eye drops instead. (
  • You may have even used eye drops for dry eyes. (
  • Eye doctors may also prescribe steroid eye drops on a short-term basis to reduce swelling. (
  • This rich cream helps to diminish the appearance of crow's feet and fine lines on the thin, delicate skin around the eyes. (
  • View cart "Nourishing Night Cream with Silk Protein" has been added to your cart. (
  • This exclusive and luxurious eye cream is one of our personal favorites. (
  • Predicated on the identical miracle molecule powering Restruct Facial Remapping Cream , this highly advanced, proteinaceous cream is explicitly designed for delicate, frail eye areas. (
  • This daily eye cream is certified vegan by the UK Vegetarian Society, the oldest and most respected vegetarian and vegan organization in the world. (
  • The rich eye cream specially developed for the sensitive eye area supplies the skin aroand the eyes with moisture and oil. (
  • The perfume-free eye cream is easy to spread on the skin and is very well suited as an eye mask to regenerate the exhausted eye area over the long term. (
  • Who is the rich eye cream suitable for? (
  • The eye cream provides for all skin types a rich care with an intensive effect. (
  • The rich eye cream can be mixed very well with OCULISSIMUM Combine eye balm. (
  • The eye remains untouched in any case, because the cream does not creep. (
  • Doctors use the Schirmer's test to work out if a person's eyes make enough tears to keep the eyes moist. (
  • Envenoming can also be caused by venom being sprayed into a person's eyes by certain species of snakes that have the ability to spit venom as a defence measure. (
  • The intrusion of lead into the lens may alter lens redox status and cause protein conformational changes that decrease lens transparency. (
  • Add a bold line on your upper eyelid this will draw attention away from dark circles and eye bags. (
  • Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. (
  • The extracted protein is provided in vials at a concentration of 5mg/ml and shipped on dry ice. (
  • Incidentally, these cells also contain the highest concentration of protein in the human body. (
  • However, the concentration of total proteins was higher in CG (201.2 ± 100 mg/dl) than TG (155.0 ± 95 mg/dl). (
  • It is a protein-rich antibacterial liquid that help to keep the eyes moist every time a person blinks. (
  • The team first tested the technique in isolated lens proteins that they had incubated in a test tube for different lengths of time - up to almost a year - to mimic the way these proteins would age in people aged 12, 30, and 53. (
  • Exposure to sodium hydroxide solid or solution can cause skin and eye irritation. (
  • Dust concentrations were highest in the composition area, where all workers experienced irritation of eyes, nose, and throat, and a few developed occupational asthma confirmed by company physicians. (
  • The human eye lens consists of a highly concentrated mix of several proteins. (
  • The cell consists of a permeable cell membrane, DNA, protein factories called ribosomes, and a protective outer cell wall. (
  • Treatment method consists of medicine and diet program that will reduce proteins in the pee, high-cholesterol and blood pressure level. (
  • Many herbs, vitamins, and minerals in foods and supplements have antioxidant properties that may help protect the eyes. (
  • ttk 1e11 , which appears to disrupt both Ttk proteins, was characterized by early embryonic arrest as well as transformation of ommatidial cells into nonommatidial cell types in mosaic flies. (
  • Current therapies for this disease block the protein VEGF, which contributes to abnormal blood vessel growth. (
  • The new research shows that the compound, named AXT107, stops abnormal blood vessels in the eye from leaking vision-blocking fluids. (
  • Impaired SLITRK6 protein function leads to abnormal nerve development in the inner ear and improperly controlled eyeball growth. (
  • If the body's demand for protein isn't high enough, the body stores it for a short period of time, and if left unused, the protein gets turned into fat by the liver. (
  • Its high proportion of phytosterols supports the delicate skin aroand the eyes against free radicals and boosts the body's own collagen and elastin production. (
  • Correctors rescue trafficking of NBD1 mutants by altering a proteostatic network of quality control proteins. (
  • The integrity of protein is tested by immunoblotting using specific beta-actin antibody. (
  • Renowned as the #1 antibody event in the industry, this year's agenda boasts 15 dedicated topic streams, 3 unmissable training course add-on options and will bring together more than 700 of the antibody and protein community. (
  • Features Matrixyl®synthe'6®, a highly effective peptide that helps minimize the appearance of expression lines in the eye area. (
  • Likewise, expression of both transcripts increases after addition of the sex-inducer protein, but VChR2 is induced much more than VChR1. (
  • These inductive signals lead to differential gene expression necessary for the elaboration of different cell types in the compound eye. (
  • Two receptor proteins that live in the inner lining of the nose can open the door to COVID-19. (
  • This is an autoimmune disorder that causes decreased function in the eye and salivary glands, resulting in dry eyes and mouth. (
  • Nephritic disorder happens when kidneys drip large amounts of health proteins from your blood into the pee. (
  • A cataract is a progressive disorder formed over time due to the lens of the eye becoming cloudy. (
  • The FermentIQ protein can be used in multiple applications from snacks, baked goods and protein beverages to meat and dairy alternatives. (
  • The FermentIQ TXP texturized protein solution, he said, offers superior meat-like texture and high water and oil holding and offers a complete plant-based protein with improved mouthfeel and great taste for protein beverages and dairy alternatives, enabling higher protein content with a smooth and creamy mouthfeel. (
  • Meats, in particular red meat, are a major source of protein in our diets, and are often high in saturated fat, which is linked to increased risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and even cancer. (
  • Try limiting red meat and processed meat intake, and aim for the protein sources that are low in saturated fats, sodium, and processed carbohydrates. (
  • To test this, the team looked to see whether the angiopoietin-like 4 protein bound to one of VEGF's receptors in lab-grown human vascular cells. (
  • In healthy eyes, the cells that make up blood vessels are bound together by proteins residing on the surface of the cell that are directed into place by Tie 2, another protein. (
  • Despite its long history of use, newer tests are being developed to catch additional cases of dry eye that the Schirmer's test cannot detect. (
  • Dr. Rupprecht] Generally in the late 1970s, we were able to detect different changes on these virus on their proteins, or antigenic changes, what we call antigenic variance. (
  • Whether it's a chocolate tart , sweet coconut bites , or these chocolate peanut butter protein bars, you can absolutely have the best of both worlds! (
  • A rich cocktail of precious almond and coconut oils, cashmere proteins and alpine edelweiss extract nourishes and moisturizes the skin during cleansing, protects against overdrying, gives absolute comfort. (
  • Over half of all workers (about 70) reported watery itchy eyes, sneezing, or runny stuffy noses. (
  • Our formula includes a blend of natural fruit extracts including fruit acids and antioxidants to brighten the appearance of the delicate eye area. (
  • It has been enriched with high-quality algae extracts that protect and tighten the eye area from drying out. (
  • Considered a superfood, chia seeds are high in protein and essential fatty acids that promote skin health and wellbeing. (
  • The smallest are one-hundredth of a millimeter and the largest, found in ocean sediments off the coast of Namibia, are three-quarters of a millimeter, large enough to see with the naked eye. (
  • This same study found that around 64 percent of the study participants experienced mild dry eyes after cataract surgery. (
  • The protein produced from this gene is found primarily in the inner ear and the eye. (
  • A detailed structural analysis of these proteins was carried out in cooperation with the Chemistry Department's Center of Electron Microscopy. (
  • The structural biologists discuss the most interesting structural features of the target proteins and assess whether these features were correctly reproduced in the predictions submitted to the CASP13 experiment. (