The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Color of the iris.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Images seen by one eye.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
Diseases of the cornea.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Artificial implanted lenses.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Diseases of the uvea.
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.

Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein. (1/5824)

The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 has been implicated in signaling pathways activated by G-protein-coupled receptors, intracellular calcium, and stress signals. Here we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel family of PYK2-binding proteins designated Nirs (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptors). The three Nir proteins (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3) bind to the amino-terminal domain of PYK2 via a conserved sequence motif located in the carboxy terminus. The primary structures of Nirs reveal six putative transmembrane domains, a region homologous to phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein, and an acidic domain. The Nir proteins are the human homologues of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein (rdgB), a protein implicated in the visual transduction pathway in flies. We demonstrate that Nirs are calcium-binding proteins that exhibit PI transfer activity in vivo. Activation of PYK2 by agents that elevate intracellular calcium or by phorbol ester induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Nirs. Moreover, PYK2 and Nirs exhibit similar expression patterns in several regions of the brain and retina. In addition, PYK2-Nir complexes are detected in lysates prepared from cultured cells or from brain tissues. Finally, the Nir1-encoding gene is located at human chromosome 17p13.1, in proximity to a locus responsible for several human retinal diseases. We propose that the Nir and rdgB proteins represent a new family of evolutionarily conserved PYK2-binding proteins that play a role in the control of calcium and phosphoinositide metabolism downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Involvement of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase in the Pax-6 gene regulation in neuroretina. (2/5824)

The quail Pax-6 gene is expressed from two promoters named P0 and P1. P0 promoter is under the control of a neuroretina-specific enhancer (EP). This enhancer activates the P0 promoter specifically in neuroretina cells and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. The EP enhancer binds efficiently, as revealed by southwestern experiments, to a 110 kDa protein present in neuroretina cells but not in Quail Embryos Cells and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium which do not express the P0-initiated mRNAs. To study the role of p110 in Pax-6 regulation, we have purified the p110 from neuroretina cells extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified protein, we have identified the p110 as the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Using bandshift experiments and footprinting studies, we present evidence that PARP is a component of protein complexes bound to the EP enhancer that increases the on rate of the protein complex formation to DNA. Using PARP inhibitors (3AB and 6.5 Hphe), we show that these products are able to inhibit EP enhancer activity in neuroretina cells. Finally, we demonstrate that these inhibitors are able to decrease the expression of the P0-initiated mRNA in the MC29-infected RPE cells which, in contrast to the RPE cells, accumulated the PARP in response to v-myc expression. Our results suggest that PARP is involved in the Pax-6 regulation.  (+info)

BMP7 acts in murine lens placode development. (3/5824)

Targeted inactivation of the Bmp7 gene in mouse leads to eye defects with late onset and variable penetrance (A. T. Dudley et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2795-2807; G. Luo et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2808-2820). Here we report that the expressivity of the Bmp7 mutant phenotype markedly increases in a C3H/He genetic background and that the phenotype implicates Bmp7 in the early stages of lens development. Immunolocalization experiments show that BMP7 protein is present in the head ectoderm at the time of lens placode induction. Using an in vitro culture system, we demonstrate that addition of BMP7 antagonists during the period of lens placode induction inhibits lens formation, indicating a role for BMP7 in lens placode development. Next, to integrate Bmp7 into a developmental pathway controlling formation of the lens placode, we examined the expression of several early lens placode-specific markers in Bmp7 mutant embryos. In these embryos, Pax6 head ectoderm expression is lost just prior to the time when the lens placode should appear, while in Pax6-deficient (Sey/Sey) embryos, Bmp7 expression is maintained. These results could suggest a simple linear pathway in placode induction in which Bmp7 functions upstream of Pax6 and regulates lens placode induction. At odds with this interpretation, however, is the finding that expression of secreted Frizzled Related Protein-2 (sFRP-2), a component of the Wnt signaling pathway which is expressed in prospective lens placode, is absent in Sey/Sey embryos but initially present in Bmp7 mutants. This suggests a different model in which Bmp7 function is required to maintain Pax6 expression after induction, during a preplacodal stage of lens development. We conclude that Bmp7 is a critical component of the genetic mechanism(s) controlling lens placode formation.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of drosocrystallin, a lens crystallin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. (4/5824)

We have cloned the drosocrystallin gene (dcy) of Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a major protein of the corneal lens, previously described in part by Komori et al. (1992, J. Cell Sci. 102, 191-201). Synthesis of the DCY protein starts weakly in 2-day-old pupae, reaches a peak at day 3 and day 4 of pupal development, and decreases very fast in young adults. The dcy mRNA is detected in the compound eyes as well as in the ocelli. The presence of a putative signal peptide and the extracellular location of DCY suggest that DCY is a secreted protein. Interestingly, the dcy gene shows sequence similarities to some insect cuticular proteins and is detected as well in two closely related Drosophila species, D. sechellia and D. simulans, and in one more distantly related species, D. virilis. This finding supports the hypothesis that Drosophila used the same strategy as vertebrates and mollusks, namely, recruiting a multifunctional protein for refraction in the lens, by a gene-sharing mechanism. Furthermore, it supports our intercalary evolution hypothesis, which suggests that the development of an elaborate structure (for example, a compound eye) from an original primitive form (an ancestral photoreceptor organ) can be achieved by recruiting novel genes into the original developmental pathway.  (+info)

A mutation in the RIEG1 gene associated with Peters' anomaly. (5/5824)

Mutations within the RIEG1 homeobox gene on chromosome 4q25 have previously been reported in association with Rieger syndrome. We report a 3' splice site mutation within the 3rd intron of the RIEG1 gene which is associated with unilateral Peters' anomaly. The mutation is a single base substition of A to T at the invariant -2 site of the 3' splice site. Peters' anomaly, which is characterised by ocular anterior segment dysgenesis and central corneal opacification, is distinct from Rieger anomaly. This is the first description of a RIEG1 mutation associated with Peters' anomaly.  (+info)

A binding site for homeodomain and Pax proteins is necessary for L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression by Pax-6 and bone morphogenetic proteins. (6/5824)

The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates axonal guidance and fasciculation during development. We previously identified the regulatory region of the L1 gene and showed that it was sufficient for establishing the neural pattern of L1 expression in transgenic mice. In the present study, we characterize a DNA element within this region called the HPD that contains binding motifs for both homeodomain and Pax proteins and responds to signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). An ATTA sequence within the core of the HPD was required for binding to the homeodomain protein Barx2 while a separate paired domain recognition motif was necessary for binding to Pax-6. In cellular transfection experiments, L1-luciferase reporter constructs containing the HPD were activated an average of 4-fold by Pax-6 in N2A cells and 5-fold by BMP-2 and BMP-4 in Ng108 cells. Both of these responses were eliminated on deletion of the HPD from L1 constructs. In transgenic mice, deletion of the HPD from an L1-lacZ reporter resulted in a loss of beta-galactosidase expression in the telencephalon and mesencephalon. Collectively, our experiments indicate that the HPD regulates L1 expression in neural tissues via homeodomain and Pax proteins and is likely to be a target of BMP signaling during development.  (+info)

Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly. (7/5824)

Proper dorsal-ventral patterning in the developing central nervous system requires signals from both the dorsal and ventral portions of the neural tube. Data from multiple studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Sonic hedgehog protein are secreted factors that regulate dorsal and ventral specification, respectively, within the caudal neural tube. In the developing rostral central nervous system Sonic hedgehog protein also participates in ventral regionalization; however, the roles of BMPs in the developing brain are less clear. We hypothesized that BMPs also play a role in dorsal specification of the vertebrate forebrain. To test our hypothesis we implanted beads soaked in recombinant BMP5 or BMP4 into the neural tube of the chicken forebrain. Experimental embryos showed a loss of the basal telencephalon that resulted in holoprosencephaly (a single cerebral hemisphere), cyclopia (a single midline eye), and loss of ventral midline structures. In situ hybridization using a panel of probes to genes expressed in the dorsal and ventral forebrain revealed the loss of ventral markers with the maintenance of dorsal markers. Furthermore, we found that the loss of the basal telencephalon was the result of excessive cell death and not a change in cell fates. These data provide evidence that BMP signaling participates in dorsal-ventral patterning of the developing brain in vivo, and disturbances in dorsal-ventral signaling result in specific malformations of the forebrain.  (+info)

Modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein in selenite-induced cataract. (8/5824)

PURPOSE: To identify modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein (MIP) isolated from selenite-induced cataract and to determine whether m-calpain (EC is responsible for cleavage of MIP during cataractogenesis. METHODS: Cataracts were induced in rats by a single injection of sodium selenite. Control and cataract lenses were harvested on day 16 and dissected into cortical and nuclear regions. Membranes were washed with urea buffer followed by NaOH. The protein was reduced/alkylated, delipidated, and cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Cleavage products were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and peptides were characterized by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. MIP cleavage by m-calpain was carried out by incubation with purified enzyme, and peptides released from the membrane were analyzed by Edman sequencing. RESULTS: The intact C terminus, observed in the control nuclear and cataractous cortical membranes, was not observed in the cataractous nuclear membranes. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed heterogeneous cleavage of the C terminus of MIP in control and cataract nuclear regions. The major site of cleavage was between residues 238 and 239, corresponding to the major site of in vitro cleavage by m-calpain. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that in vivo proteolysis during cataract formation also included sites closer to the C terminus not produced by m-calpain in vitro. Evidence for heterogeneous N-terminal cleavage was also observed at low levels with no differences between control and cataractous lenses. The major site of phosphorylation was determined to be at serine 235. CONCLUSIONS: Specific sites of MIP N- and C-terminal cleavage in selenite-induced cataractous lenses were identified. The heterogeneous cleavage pattern observed suggests that m-calpain is not the sole enzyme involved in MIP C-terminal processing in rat lens nuclei.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Stargardt-like macular dystrophy protein ELOVL4 exerts a dominant negative effect by recruiting wild-type protein into aggresomes. AU - Vasireddy, Vidyullatha. AU - Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram. AU - Huang, Jibiao. AU - Wang, Xiaofei F.. AU - Jablonski, Monica M.. AU - Petty, Howard R.. AU - Sieving, Paul A.. AU - Ayyagari, Radha. PY - 2005/8/30. Y1 - 2005/8/30. N2 - Purpose: Mutations in the gene Elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) have been shown to be associated with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3). ELOVL4 is expressed in photoreceptors and encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 314 amino acids with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. A 5 bp deletion in exon 6 of ELOVL4 observed in some STGD3 patients results in the truncation of the protein and loss of the ER retention signal. To understand the disease mechanism underlying STGD3 we studied the intracellular trafficking of the wild-type and a 5 bp deletion mutant of ...
Purpose : The mechanisms that drive the production of photoreceptor-specific protein isoforms and their roles in photoreceptor function are poorly understood. Our previous studies suggest that photoreceptor-specific protein isoforms are needed for development of the outer segment (OS). In addition, our data implicated a role for Musashi, a family of RNA-binding proteins, in promoting the inclusion of photoreceptor-specific exons. Therefore, we hypothesized that the Musashi proteins are required for the morphogenesis and function of photoreceptor cells. Methods : We generated retina-specific knockout mice in which either Musashi-1 (Msi1), Musashi-2 (Msi2), or both genes were ablated. After validating these models by western blot, we analyzed their photoreceptor function by electroretinography (ERG) and their morphology by immunocytochemistry. The splicing of photoreceptor-specific exons in mature transcripts was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR. Statistical analyses were performed using ...
Table 2. Sequence alignments of proteins with homology to human myocilin. Segments of N-terminal and C-terminal regions of human myocilin are shown with overlapping regions of other proteins in A and B, respectively. In C, the homologous segments of human myocilin and Xenopus noelin are shown. Co-ordinates (amino acid numbers) of the region of each protein are indicated on both sides of the amino acid sequence. The sequences were aligned by eye to maximize amino acid identities. Human myocilin was the reference protein used as query. Locations where amino acids are identical are marked by a caret (^). Locations where any change is restricted to conservative amino acids are marked by asterisk (*), and locations where the amino acids are conserved in all but one species are marked by a plus sign (+). Putative sequence motifs are colored: green for PKC, blue for CK2, and red for N-myristoylation. Overlap between two putative sites have been shown by a purple marker. For example, in B TGKE residues ...
Autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) is one of the early onset macular dystrophies. STGD3 and autosomal dominant macular…
Have you ever heard someone say that the cure is worse than disease? Or maybe, if the disease (whatever it may be) doesnt kill you the cure will? Sometimes, it does seem as if this is the .... ...
MetabolismEnergy metabolismAmino acids and aminesbranched-chain phosphotransacylase (TIGR02709; EC 2.3.1.-; HMM-score: 38.6) ...
retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator is a biomarker used in With Or Without Deafness And Sinorespiratory Infections X Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa, Type 1 X Linked Cone Rod Dystrophy, Retinal Diseases and 284 other diseases. Learn more about retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator.
Rpgrip1 (untagged) - Mouse retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1 (Rpgrip1), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective role of small pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) peptide in diabetic renal injury. AU - Awad, Alaa S.. AU - Gao, Ting. AU - Gvritishvili, Anzor. AU - You, Hanning. AU - Liu, Yanling. AU - Cooper, Timothy K.. AU - Brian Reeves, W.. AU - Tombran-Tink, Joyce. PY - 2013/9/15. Y1 - 2013/9/15. N2 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but its direct role in the kidneys remains unclear. We hypothesize that a PEDF fragment (P78-PEDF) confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The localization of the full-length PEDF protein were determined in DBA mice following multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Using immunohistochemistry, PEDF was localized in the kidney vasculature, interstitial space, glomeruli, tubules, and renal medulla. Kidney PEDF protein and mRNA expression were significantly reduced ...
Purpose: To provides the clinical and genetic characteristics of a series of Chinese patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) through multimodal imaging and next-generation sequencing. Methods: Thirty patients (60 eyes) from 29 unrelated families of Chinese origin with XLRS were screened using multigene panel testing, and underwent a complete clinical evaluation. All variants identified in this study and reported in the Human Gene Mutation Database were analysed. Results: Twenty-five distinct variants in the retinoschisin gene were identified, of which eight were novel, and one was de novo. Missense mutations were the most prevalent type, and mutation hot spot was localized in the discoidin domain. The mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity was 0.28 ± 0.17. Of all eyes presenting with schisis, 92.86% had lamellar schisis and 62.5% had peripheral schisis. Schisis changes mostly involved inner and outer nuclear layers. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) patients had a high ...
The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is the most abundant protein in the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) and its levels decrease beginning in the early stages of diabetes. IRBP participates in the delivery of retinoids between retinal cells to carry out the visual cycle and also protects those retinoids against degradation in the IPM. IRBP deficiency is related to several conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, cone-rod dystrophy, increased oxidative stress in the photoreceptors, and myopia. Decreased IRBP levels in diabetes could be due to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and a direct effect of hyperglycemia on the photoreceptors. It is known that prior to the occurrence of vascular changes in diabetic retina, electrophysiological alterations occur on early potentials. Alterations on the photoreceptor outer segments and increased oxidative stress indicate an important affliction of the photoreceptors from early stages. Due to the importance of IRBP in photoreceptor wellness,
Purpose : Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) may lead to irreversible vision loss. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of PVR. Downregulation of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) is demonstrated to be associated with increased EMT in some cancers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of PEDF on EMT induced by TGF-β in RPE cells. Methods : Sub-confluent human RPE cells were cultured in DMEM and pretreated with PEDF (10, 50,100, 200ng/ml) for 24hs and then stimulated with recombinant TGF-β2 (10ng/ml) for additional 24, 48 and 72 hrs with or without PEDF. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, an EMT marker) and fibronectin (FN) were examined using immunofluorescent staining, qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. The sub-confluent human RPE cells were cultured in DMEM and pretreated with PEDF (10, 50,100ng/ml) for 24hs and then stimulated with 20ng/ml PDGF-BB. RPE ...
We here suggest that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) does not have an effect on lesion size, behavioral outcome, cell proliferation, or cell death after striatal ischemia in the mouse. PEDF is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, antiangiogenic, and antipermeability effects. It influences self-renewal of neural stem cells and proliferation of microglia. We investigated whether intraventricular infusion of PEDF reduces infarct size and cell death, ameliorates behavioral outcome, and influences cell proliferation in the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. C57Bl6/N mice were implanted with PEDF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) osmotic pumps and subjected to 60-minute MCAO 48 hours after pump implantation. They received daily BrdU injections for 7 days after MCAO in order to investigate cell proliferation. Infarct volumes were determined 24 hours after reperfusion using magnetic resonance imaging. We removed the pumps on day 5
Introduction Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a 50kDa, secreted glycoprotein that has been identified as a member of the serpin gene family and has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic, neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumourigenic effects. The aims of our study were to determine the expression profile of PEDF in a range of colorectal cell lines and its association with clinical and pathological data. Method Six human cell lines (RKO and HT115 are colonic adenocarcinoma, HRT-18 is rectal adenocarcinoma, COLO-201 is metastatic adenocarcinoma (originating from ascites), LS174T is a mucinous adenocarcinoma, and CCD-33C0 is a normal colorectal fibroblast cell line) were analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative transcript analysis (qPCR). Primary colorectal cancer tissue was collected at operation and analysed using qPCR. Results PEDF transcript was positive in RKO, HRT-18, LS174T and CCD-33C0 cell lines but negative in HT115 and COLO-201. On qPCR, PEDF ...
Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor: Chemistry, Structure, Biology, and Applications - A special issue journal published by Hindawi
Meindl A, Dry K, Herrmann K, Manson F, Ciccodicola A, Edgar A, Carvalho MR, Achatz H, Hellebrand H, Lennon A, Migliaccio C, Porter K, Zrenner E, Bird A, Jay M, Lorenz B, Wittwer B, DUrso M, Meitinger T, Wright A (May 1996). A gene (RPGR) with homology to the RCC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3). Nature Genetics. 13 (1): 35-42. doi:10.1038/ng0596-35. PMID 8673101 ...
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) also known as serpin F1 (SERPINF1), is a multifunctional secreted protein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, and neurotrophic functions. Found in vertebrates, this 50 kDa protein is being researched as a therapeutic candidate for treatment of such conditions as choroidal neovascularization, heart disease, and cancer. In humans, pigment epithelium-derived factor is encoded by the SERPINF1 gene. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was originally discovered by Joyce Tombran-Tink and Lincoln Johnson in the late 1980s. This group was studying human retinal cell development by identifying secreted factors produced by the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a layer of cells that supports the retina. Upon noticing RPE produced a factor that promoted the differentiation of primitive retinal cells into cells of a neuronal phenotype, they set out to determine the identity of the factor. They isolated proteins unique to RPE cells and tested the ...
Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein(668-687), the amino acid residues 668 to 687 of human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), induces uveitis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 are new MerTK ligands for phagocytosis. AU - Caberoy, Nora B.. AU - Zhou, Yixiong. AU - Li, Wei. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Tubby and tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1) are newly identified phagocytosis ligands to facilitate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and macrophage phagocytosis. Both proteins without classical signal peptide have been demonstrated with unconventional secretion. Here, we characterized them as novel MerTK ligands to facilitate phagocytosis. Tulp1 interacts with Tyro3, Axl and MerTK of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, whereas tubby binds only to MerTK. Excessive soluble MerTK extracellular domain blocked tubby- or Tulp1-mediated phagocytosis. Both ligands induced MerTK activation with receptor phosphorylation and signalling cascade, including non-muscle myosin II redistribution and co-localization with phagosomes. Tubby and Tulp1 are bridging molecules with their N-terminal region as MerTK-binding domain and ...
All-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, EC, EC, LCA2p63, mRPE65, RBP-binding membrane protein, retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein (65kD), retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa, retinitis pigmentosa 20 (autosomal recessive), Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein, rd12, Retinol isomerase, retinoid isomerohydrolase, RP20, ...
All-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, EC, EC, LCA2p63, mRPE65, RBP-binding membrane protein, Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein, retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein (65kD), retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65kDa, retinitis pigmentosa 20 (autosomal recessive), rd12, Retinol isomerase, retinoid isomerohydrolase, RP20, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of novel RS1 exonic deletions in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis. AU - DSouza, Leera. AU - Cukras, Catherine. AU - Antolik, Christian. AU - Craig, Candice. AU - Lee, Ji Yun. AU - He, Hong. AU - Li, Shibo. AU - Smaoui, Nizar. AU - Hejtmancik, James F.. AU - Sieving, Paul A.. AU - Wang, Xinjing. PY - 2013/11/7. Y1 - 2013/11/7. N2 - Purpose: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by schisis (splitting) of the inner layers of the neuroretina. Mutations within the retinoschisis (RS1) gene are responsible for this disease. The mutation spectrum consists of amino acid substitutions, splice site variations, small indels, and larger genomic deletions. Clinically, genomic deletions are rarely reported. Here, we characterize two novel full exonic deletions: one encompassing exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4-5 of the RS1 gene. We also report the clinical findings in these patients with XLRS with two different exonic deletions. ...
Complete information for RPGR gene (Protein Coding), Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Complete information for RPGRIP1 gene (Protein Coding), Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Interacting Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Hereditary juvenile retinoschisis is a retinal dystrophy characterized by a foveal spoke-like appearance and schisis of the neural retina [ 1 , 2 ]
Attention, guys! This news might be a little bit surprising, but scientists from worldwide believe that they have uncovered a key reason why obese people have a higher risk of health complications when compared to people who are normal-sized!. This time, the specific protein in our body named Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) is the one to be blamed here, as its the main substance that is secreted by fat cells!. For your information, the PEDF can only be produced by fat cells in people, especially for those who have a problem with being overweight. The most shocking thing is the PEDF sends a signal to all the tissues in the body hence, triggering the development of insulin resistance. This amazing discovery may eventually be known as the main condition that leads to type II diabetes!. Besides that, the raising of PEDF levels is also linked to a number of other complications, such as heart disease and high blood pressure.. It seems like we should keep our eyes in these nasty PEDF ...
Anoctamins and Bestrophins are two kinds of calcium-activated chloride channels. Anoctamins were shown to be Ca-activated Cl channels in 2008 and are responsible for the classical CaCCs that are widely expressed in many tissues, especially epithelia. Bestrophins are more restricted in their expression and play more specialized roles. Bestrophin-1 is expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and certain mutations in bestrophin-1 cause degeneration of the retina and blindness. Bestrophin-2 is expressed in goblet cells in colon and may play a role in bicarbonate secretion in this tissue. We are interested in understanding how both anoctamins and bestrophins are regulated by calcium. We are identifying the calcium binding sites and the molecular links between the calcium sensor and the channel gate using a combination of both whole-cell and single channel electrophysiological mesurements and mutagenesis. We are dissecting the signaling protein network associated with these channels using ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human PEDF protein (ab86705). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Objectives- The number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that can be obtained from adult bone marrow and peripheral blood to treat cardiovascular diseases is limited. The goal was to examine the endothelial potential of Wharton jelly in human umbilical cord (WJC)-derived stem cells and evaluate their potential to affect neointimal formation after vascular injury.. Methods and Results- Mesenchymal cells (MCs) were isolated from WJC and cultured in endothelial growth medium. Differentiation into late outgrowth endothelial cells (WJC-OECs) was demonstrated by incorporation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and expression of the endothelial-specific markers. Transplantation of these cells into wire-injured femoral arteries in mice led to rapid reendothelialization. At 4 weeks after injury, the neointima/media area ratio was reduced and strong expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) compared to saline-or MC- or cord blood-OEC-treated mice. WJC-OECs-conditioned medium has an ...
Preparation of purified PEDF and anti-PEDF. PEDF was isolated and purified form bovine interphotoreceptor matrix by ionic exchange and gel filtration chromatography, as previously described (Tombran-Tink et al., 1991). Briefly, soluble bovine interphotoreceptor matrix was extracted from fresh bovine eyes by a gentle lavage of the eyecup after careful removal of the anterior segment and vitreous. A volume of 0.5 ml of ice-cold PBS, pH 7.4, was used in this procedure. Washes from 100 eyecups were pooled, centrifuged, and filtered using a 0.2 μm Nalgene filtration unit. Approximately 500 ml of the interphotoreceptor matrix wash was applied to a Beckman Altex TSK column equilibrated with 10 mm sodium phosphate, pH 7.2. Bound PEDF was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl at a flow rate of 8 ml/min. Absorbance was monitored at 280 and 260 nm. Fractions containing the PEDF were combined, and the protein concentration was determined by a Bio-Rad assay (Hercules, CA). The pooled fractions were concentrated and ...
What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood that causes progressive loss of central and peripheral (side) vision due to degeneration of the retina.
This will be a non-randomized, open label, Phase 1/2 dose escalation study.. Up to 27 participants will be enrolled. Each participant will receive the study agent by intravitreal injection in one eye on a single occasion. Enrollment will begin with the lowest dose and will proceed to higher doses only after review of safety data by a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). Participants in the dose escalation phase will be ≥ 18 years of age. After the maximum tolerated dose is identified individuals ≥ 6 years of age will be enrolled.. Safety will be measured by the number and proportion of participants experiencing adverse events and immune response to RS1. Efficacy will be measured by evaluation of changes in visual function and schisis cavity size. ...
Shop Retinal Mueller cells isomerohydrolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Retinal Mueller cells isomerohydrolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
rat Impg1 protein: SPACR - sialoprotein associated with cones and rods; major protein isolated from insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix of retina; RefSeq NM_023958
Proteins in the eye can help keep pathogens at bay, a study has found, paving the way for new and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early onset photoreceptor abnormalities induced by targeted disruption of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein gene. AU - Liou, Gregory I.. AU - Fei, Yijian. AU - Peachey, Neal S.. AU - Matragoon, Suraporn. AU - Wei, Shuanghong. AU - Blaner, William S.. AU - Wang, Youxiang. AU - Liu, Chengyu. AU - Gottesman, Max E.. AU - Ripps, Harris. PY - 1998/6/15. Y1 - 1998/6/15. N2 - Vision in all vertebrates is dependent on an exchange of retinoids between the retinal pigment epithelium and the visual photoreceptors. It has been proposed that the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is essential for this intercellular exchange, and that it serves to prevent the potentially cytotoxic effects of retinoids. Although its precise function in vivo has yet to be defined, the early expression of IRBP suggests that it may also be required for normal photoreceptor development. To further assess the biological role of IRBP, we generated transgenic mice with targeted disruption ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor. T2 - Clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy. AU - Franco-Chuaire, María Liliana. AU - Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra. AU - Chuaire-Noack, Lilian. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/9. Y1 - 2015/9. N2 - Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of noninhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and antimetastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. AU - Choi, Kyung Mook. AU - Hwang, Soon Young. AU - Hong, Ho Cheol. AU - Yang, Sae Jeong. AU - Choi, Hae Yoon. AU - Yoo, Hye Jin. AU - Lee, Kwan Woo. AU - Nam, Moon Suk. AU - Park, Yong Soo. AU - Woo, Jeong Taek. AU - Kim, Young Seol. AU - Choi, Dong Seop. AU - Youn, Byung Soo. AU - Baik, Sei Hyun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Recent studies have suggested that a novel adipokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), a paralog of adiponectin, may play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and innate immunity. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional protein with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. We examined circulating CTRP-3 and ...
OBJECTIVE: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an adipocyte-secreted factor involved in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Previous studies have identified PEDF as a regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism in the liver that may act through adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). We used ATGL(-/-) mice to determine the role of PEDF in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Recombinant PEDF was administered to ATGL(-/-) and wild-type mice, and whole-body energy metabolism was studied by indirect calorimetry. Adipose tissue lipolysis and skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism was determined in isolated tissue preparations. Muscle lipids were assessed by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were assessed. RESULTS: PEDF impaired the capacity to adjust substrate selection, resulting in a delayed diurnal decline in the respiratory exchange ratio, and suppressed daily fatty ...
The integrity of the vascular barrier, which is essential to blood vessel homoeostasis, can be disrupted by a variety of soluble permeability factors during sepsis. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent endogenous anti-angiogenic molecule, is significantly increased in sepsis, but its role in endothelial dysfunction has not been defined. To assess the role of PEDF in the vasculature, we evaluated the effects of exogenous PEDF in vivo using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and in vitro using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). In addition, PEDF was inhibited using a PEDF-monoclonal antibody (PEDF-mAb) or recombinant lentivirus vectors targeting PEDF receptors, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and laminin receptor (LR). Our results showed that exogenous PEDF induced vascular hyperpermeability, as measured by extravasation of Evans Blue (EB), dextran and microspheres in the skin, blood, trachea and cremaster muscle, both ...
Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is required for preventing accumulation of retinal atRAL, which causes inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells.
Dysfunction of primary cilia is associated with tissue-specific or syndromic disorders. RPGR is a ciliary protein, mutations in which can lead to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone-rod degeneration, respiratory infections and hearing disorders. Though RPGR is implicated in ciliary transport, the pathogenicity of RPGR mutations and the mechanism of underlying phenotypic heterogeneity are still unclear. Here we have utilized genetic rescue studies in zebrafish to elucidate the effect of human disease-associated mutations on its function. We show that rpgr is expressed predominantly in the retina, brain and gut of zebrafish. In the retina, RPGR primarily localizes to the sensory cilium of photoreceptors. Antisense morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of rpgr function in zebrafish results in reduced length of Kupffers vesicle (KV) cilia and is associated with ciliary anomalies including shortened body-axis, kinked tail, hydrocephaly and edema but does not affect retinal development. These phenotypes can ...
Active Clinical Trials // Feb 12 2018. Natural History of the Progression of X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Study (NSR-XLRP-OS1). Multicenter Observational Study of X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.. Sponsor: Night Therapeutics. Principal Investigator: Kim Stepien, MD. Study Coordinator: Nickie Stangel. Study Objective:. To gain a better understanding of disease progression over time in subjects with X-Linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP).. Study Design:. This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study consisting of seven visits over a 24-month period. The study will enroll two best corrective visual acuity (BCVA) cohorts, with no more than 40 subjects in Cohort 1. Cohort 1 BCVA will be better or equal to 20/32 with Cohort 2 BCVA being 20/40 - 20/200.. Diagnosis and Key Eligibility Criteria:. Are male and 16 years or older. Have a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XLRP with RPGR mutation. Have active disease clinically visible within the macular region. Have BCVA equal to or better than ...
hypothetical protein, alpha-2 antiplasmin, Alpha-2-antiplasmin, alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor, AS27_04276, caspin, CB1_000765141, cell proliferation-inducing gene 35 protein, Dmrs91, EPC-1, GW7_05089, H920_13024, I79_024527, M959_13429, MDA_GLEAN10016889, N300_03473, N302_16382, N305_15082, N306_10474, N307_07373, N308_00896, N309_12586, N311_08061, N312_04929, N320_07386, N321_02844, N322_05786, N324_04587, N325_07445, N326_06640, N327_07162, N329_08729, N330_08014, N332_10702, N333_06723, N335_06305, N336_08169, N339_06481, N340_07977, N341_07059, OI12, OI6, PAL_GLEAN10020010, PANDA_006472, PEDF, Pedfl, PIG35, pigment epithelium derived factor, pigment epithelium-derived factor, pigment epithelium-derived factor-like protein, Pigment epithelium-derived factor precursor-like protein, Sdf3, SDF-3, serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1, serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade F (alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor), member ...
Research from the University of Oxford has reported early results from the first-in-human Phase 1/2, dose-escalation clinical trial for X-linked RP caused by mutations in the RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene. 18 patients had 6-month follow up data focused on safety outcomes with additional secondary outcomes with preliminary results from visual acuity, microperimetry and central retinal thickness. The patients were treated with increasing doses of a viral vector carrying an RPGR gene (RP GTPase regulator (RPGR)) in which the DNA had been altered, but in a manner that still allowed correct production of the missing protein.. X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is an incurable genetic disease that causes blindness in males and affects approximately one in 15,000 people. The disease is caused by a defect in the RPGR gene which is located on the X-chromosome. Mutations in the RPGR gene can be associated with a rod-cone or cone-rod dystrophy phenotype. The most common presentation is as a rod-cone ...
We describe hereditary retinoschisis without foveal retinoschisis in a girl (the product of a consanguineous marriage) and her father. The father had peripheral retinoschisis with dendritic changes of the retina and good visual acuity. The daughter had peripheral retinoschisis complicated by vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Neither had foveal retinoschisis. The pattern in a scotopic single-flash electroretinogram differentiated this condition from other forms of retinoschisis. We believe that these cases represent the autosomal recessive form of juvenile retinoschisis without foveal retinoschisis. ...
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Long Noncoding RNA HULC Accelerates Liver Cancer by Inhibiting PTEN via Autophagy Cooperation to miR15a HULC accelerated malignant progression of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. HULC inhibited PTEN through ubiquitin-proteasome system mediated by autophagy-P62. HULC increased the expression of P62 via decreasing mature miR15a. [Mol Cancer] Full Article Inflammasome Activation in Kupffer Cells Confers a Protective Response in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis through Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Expression Investigators identified pigment epithelium-derived factor, a secreted, moonlighting hepatokine as one hepatoprotective agent in mice with diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. [FASEB J] Abstract TRIM52 Up-Regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Promotes Proliferation, Migration and Invasion through the Ubiquitination of PPM1A Tripartite motif containing 52 (TRIM52) was found interacted with Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A (PPM1A) and TRIM52 down-regulation inhibited the ubiquitination ...
Involved in ciliogenesis. The function in an early step in cilia formation depends on its association with CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:21565611, PubMed:23446637). Involved in regulation of the BBSome complex integrity, specifically for presence of BBS2 and BBS5 in the complex, and in ciliary targeting of selected BBSome cargos. May play a role in controlling entry of the BBSome complex to cilia possibly implicating CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:25552655). This gene encodes a nephrocystin protein that interacts with calmodulin and the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator protein. The encoded protein has a central coiled-coil region and two calmodulin-binding IQ domains. It is localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells and connecting cilia of photoreceptor cells. The protein is thought to play a role in ciliary function. Defects in this gene result in Senior-Loken syndrome type 5. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by
We are sometimes asked how one or two nutritional supplements can benefit patients with so many different gene defects, Dr. Berson said. With respect to vitamin A, we and others have suggested that under daylight conditions rods give cones vitamin A via Müller cells. Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) transports vitamin A between these cells. Release of vitamin A from IRBP requires DHA present in oily fish. Rod degeneration leads to a deficiency of vitamin A and DHA. This could explain why vitamin A plus an oily fish diet benefits patients with RP. Patients are advised to take vitamin A to replace their rods and eat oily fish to enhance delivery of vitamin A to cones ...
Tubby-like proteins (TLPs), characterized by a signature tubby domain, are widespread in plants and animals. To date, only plant TLPs involved in multifarious stress responses and male gametophyte development have been identified. However, studies on the molecular functions of plant TLPs are largely unknown. In this investigation, the roles of a TLP from Malus domestica (MdTLP7) in response to abiotic stresses were characterized by expressing it in Arabidopsis. The expression of wild-type full-length MdTLP7 (FL) significantly increased the stress tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings to osmotic, salt, cold and heat stress, while the expression of truncated MdTLP7 containing only the tubby domain (Tub) also showed some function. Located on a central α helix surrounded by 12 anti-parallel β strands in the tubby domain, the K190/R192 site may be involved in fixation to the plasma membrane, as shown by 3D homology modelling with animal TLPs. This site might play a crucial role in anti-stress functions since
G-protein coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) is essential for light-activated opsin phosphorylation in phototransduction shutoff, and genetic defects cause Oguchis disease, a form of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). To elucidate the recovery function of cone pigments, we combined Grk1-/- murine knockouts with the Neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl-/-), which have an enhanced S-cone phenotype. We observed that with increasing age and independent of light, the retinas of Nrl-/-Grk1-/- when compared to Nrl-/- developed progressive cone degeneration and decreased cone protein expression. The degeneration initially occurs in the central inferior quadrant and spreads with retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) atrophy. Endothelial cell specific immunohistochemistry and fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed progressive changes in retinal neovascularization in the Nrl-/-Grk1-/- at 1 month of age, prior to the onset of significant cone functional deficits and ONL thinning. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) ...
Western blotting. Eyecups (including the retina) from dark-adapted mice were homogenized in 100 mm Tris/HCl, pH 7.4, and analyzed for protein content. Standard SDS-PAGE (7.5 or 10%) and Western blotting were performed. For immunodetection, polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against RPE65 (raised against amino acids 150-164 of human/bovine RPE65) (Redmond and Hamel, 2000), interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) (Smith et al., 1997), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) (Crabb et al., 1991), transducin (Hamm et al., 1987), rhodopsin-kinase (Zhao et al., 1998), arrestin (Kueng-Hitz et al., 2000), and actin (Lessard, 1988) were applied. HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies were applied (catalog #sc 2004 and 2031; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), and immunoreactivity was visualized using the Renaissance-Western blot detection kit (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Emeryville, CA).. RT-PCR and Rpe65 sequence analysis. Total RNA was prepared from eyecups using the RNeasy kit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimized bacterial expression of myocilin proteins and functional comparison of bacterial and eukaryotic myocilins. AU - Park, Bum Chan. AU - Shen, Xiang. AU - Fautsch, Michael P.. AU - Tibudan, Martin. AU - Johnson, Douglas H.. AU - Yue, Beatrice Y.J.T.. PY - 2006/7/31. Y1 - 2006/7/31. N2 - Purpose: To maximize the expression level of myocilin and its truncated proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and to examine the biological effects of bacterially expressed myocilin as compared to eukaryotic myocilin on cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Methods: Myocilin full length (1-504 amino acids) and two truncated proteins, myocilin 1-270 and 271-504, were expressed and purified from an E. coli strain, Rosetta2(DE3)pLysS. The eukaryotic myocilin was purified from cultured medium of a transformed TM cell line (TM5) transduced with feline immunodeficiency virus that contains an internal cassette expressing full length myocilin. The morphology and adhesion of human TM cells ...
This gene encodes a member of the bestrophin gene family. This small gene family is characterized by proteins with a highly conserved N-terminus with four to six transmembrane domains. Bestrophins may form chloride ion channels or may regulate voltage-gated L-type calcium-ion channels. Bestrophins are generally believed to form calcium-activated chloride-ion channels in epithelial cells but they have also been shown to be highly permeable to bicarbonate ion transport in retinal tissue. Mutations in this gene are responsible for juvenile-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2), also known as Best macular dystrophy, in addition to adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD) and other retinopathies. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms ...
XLRS, first described in 1898, is one of the more frequently encountered inherited macular retinal disorders affecting young males [6]. Histologic studies have shown a split and/or schisis within the superficial retinal layers, the inner limiting membrane, the nerve fiber layer, and the ganglion cell layer. The ganglion cell layer was found to be thinned, with marked degeneration of photoreceptors associated with thinning of the inner nuclear layer [2].. Vitreous hemorrhages and RD, which remain major complications, can occur at any age. Full-thickness MHs have rarely been reported [7]. As RD becomes chronic, the retina becomes transparent and corrugations flatten, mimicking the appearance of retinoschisis. Although the presence of large outer retinal holes or demarcation lines, ultrasonographic characteristics, and response to laser photocoagulation may facilitate distinguishing between RD and retinoschisis, these features are not universal or conclusive, especially in eyes with XLRS. We assert ...
This gene encodes a protein that is a major component of the retinal interphotoreceptor matrix. The encoded protein is a proteoglycan that is thought to play a role in maintaining viability of photoreceptor cells and in adhesion of the neural retina to the retinal pigment epithelium. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Yukun Cao, Ting Yang, Chunhu Gu and Dinghua Yi Pigment epithelium-derived factor delays cellular senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro by reducing oxidative stress Cell Biology International 37. Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 , DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10041. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of two unusual RS1 gene deletions segregating in Danish retinoschisis families. AU - Huopaniemi, L AU - Tyynismaa, H AU - Rantala, A AU - Rosenberg, T AU - Alitalo, T PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - retinoschisis, X-linked. KW - genomic deletion. KW - RS1. KW - retinochisis. KW - PPEF-1. KW - serine-threonine phosphatase. KW - STK9. KW - serine-threonine kinase. KW - LINKED JUVENILE RETINOSCHISIS. KW - RETINAL-DEGENERATION. KW - FOUNDER MUTATIONS. KW - KINASE GENE. KW - XLRS1 GENE. KW - EXPRESSION. KW - PROTEIN. KW - PHOSPHATASE. KW - PROMOTER. KW - CLONING. KW - 118 Biological sciences. KW - genetiikka. M3 - Article. VL - 16. SP - 307. EP - 314. JO - Human Mutation. JF - Human Mutation. SN - 1059-7794. ER - ...
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Fischer, M. Dominik; McClements, Michelle E.; de la Camara, Cristina Martinez-Fernandez; Bellingrath, Julia-Sophia; Dauletbekov, Daniyar; Ramsden, Simon C.; Hickey, Doron G.; Barnard, Alun R.; MacLaren, Robert E. ... - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
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A Foundation-funded research team based at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Florida recently used gene therapy to prevent and reverse vision loss in two canine models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). The results bode well for the teams eventually gaining approval for a human study of the treatment approach.
Abbkine ELISA kit for Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids.
Result: (THIS ALIGNMENT IS EXACTLY THE SAME AS THE LAST ONE) significant alignments include cultivar W22 bz gene locus, alcohol dehydrogenease 1, B73 pathogenesis-related protein 2 and GASA-like genes, rust resistance protein rp3-1 gene, and a lot of BAC clones. The alignment obtained are significant since present high scores and E-value of 0.0 (meaning that in not probable to find a random match at that level) and include cultivar W22 bz gene locus, alcohol dehydrogenease 1, B73 pathogenesis-related protein 2 and GASA-like genes, rust resistance protein rp3-1 gene, and a lot of BAC clones. In general terms, these alignments show query coverage less than 40%, which may indicate that the differences between them could be in the intron sequences, if codifying for the same protein. To answer this is necessary to carry out a Blastx.. Round 3: megablast excluding Zea mays. ...
Creative Biostructure can provide customized Mempro™ cell-free protein production services for major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily and formate-nitrite transporter superfamily.
My wife who is 50 years of age, suffers from |b|macular degeneration|/b| for the last two years and has lost significant sight in both eyes. She was being treated for glaucoma in the past. What is the remedy for this? Are there any medicines either allopathic or homeopathic? Or is surgery the only option?
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RCMG provides comprehensive care for retinoschisis to patients in Sacramento and all of Northern California. Schedule an appointment today.
BEST1 Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 317 aa (292-585) having a molecular mass of 36 kDa.
Plasmid pDONR223_EYS_p.N269H from Dr. Jesse Boehms lab contains the insert EYS and is published in Cancer Discov. 2016 Jul;6(7):714-26. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0160. Epub 2016 May 4. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The highlights, key points, reports and injury and suspension news from all the weekends Round 20 NRL Telstra Premiership matches.
Kötü Over Yanıtı Tanım Tanım üzerinde tam bir konsensus yok. hCG uygulama günü 3-5in altında follikül sayısı (Serafini 1988, Feldberg 1994). Toplanan oosit sayısının 4-6nın altında olması (Faber 1998). Ovaryan stimulasyon siklusunun en yüksek E2 düzeyinin pg/ml altında kalması (Brzyski 1988, Ibrahim 1991). Stimulasyonun 5. günü E2 düzeyinin 100 pg/mlnin altında olması (Schoolcraft 1997). Bu parametrelerin kombinasyonları.
Yanıklar; iyileşme süreçleri ve bu süreç boyunca ortaya çıkan komplikasyonlar, hasta ve hasta sahibi açısından uzun, psikolojik ve ekonomik yönden zorlu bir sağaltım dönemi içerir. Yanık şekillendikten sonra teşekkül eden ...
Eye Histopathology. Normal. Salmonella infection. Normal[12]. Citrobacter infection. Normal[13]. All tests and analysis from[14 ... Growth Associated Protein 43 also known as GAP43 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAP43 gene.[5] ... neuron growth-associated protein 43. Function[edit]. GAP43, is a nervous tissue-specific cytoplasmic protein that can be ... protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • response to wounding. • regulation of growth. • ...
... l development begins with the establishment of the eye fields mediated by the SHH and SIX3 proteins, with subsequent ... This causes the receptor to activate multiple G-proteins. This in turn causes the Ga-subunit of the protein to activate a ... proteins and disease mechanisms". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 27 (4): 391-419. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2008.05.003. ... The cephalopods have a non-inverted retina which is comparable in resolving power to the eyes of many vertebrates. Squid eyes ...
"Abnormal Protein Profiles in Tears with Dry Eye Syndrome". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 136 (2): 291-9. doi:10.1016/S0002 ... The fraction of protein extracted from milk, contains 3.3% RNA, but, the protein preferably binds to double-stranded DNA rather ... Occurrence of iron-containing red protein in bovine milk was reported as early as in 1939; however, the protein could not be ... optical absorption spectra and presence of two iron atoms per protein molecule. The protein was extracted from milk, contained ...
Proteins known as opsins form the crux of the photosensitive proteins. These proteins are often found in the eye. In addition, ... See also Photobiomodulation) A caged protein is a protein that is activated in the presence of a stimulating light source. In ... This is because the two steps are dependent on each other for activation of the protein. Some proteins are innately ... The other major photostimulation method is the use of light to activate a light-sensitive protein such as rhodopsin, which can ...
The Rhodopsin Protein Photoisomerization of rhodopsin, animation. Rhodopsin and the eye, summary with pictures.. ... "Light-induced protein-protein interactions on the rod photoreceptor disc membrane". In Lee AG (ed.). Rhodopsin and G-Protein ... Garriga P, Manyosa J (September 2002). "The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease". ... a light-sensitive G protein coupled receptor that embeds in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes using seven protein ...
The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease. Volume 528, Issues 1-3, 25 September 2002 ... family protein of unknown function. This protein consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and 11 LRRs (LRR1-11) flanked by ... However, many of them are predicted to lead to truncated proteins that, presumably, are non-functional. The incomplete form of ... There are currently almost 40 known mutations in NYX associated with CSNB1, Table 1., located throughout the protein. As the ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Chen C, Ware S, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins D, Habas R, Matzuk M, Shen M, Brown C (2006). "The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a ... Hanel M, Hensey C (2006). "Eye and neural defects associated with loss of GDF6". BMC Dev Biol. 6: 43. doi:10.1186/1471-213X-6- ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ...
... core proteins". Experimental Eye Research. 56 (6): 635-48. doi:10.1006/exer.1993.1081. PMID 8595806.. ... "Experimental Eye Research. 82 (1): 3-4. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.08.012. PMC 2876311 . PMID 16213485.. ... Lumican, also known as LUM, is an extracellular matrix protein that, in humans, is encoded by the LUM gene on chromosome 12.[5] ... protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular matrix. • proteinaceous extracellular matrix. • fibrillar collagen trimer ...
"A non-connexon protein (MIP) is involved in eye lens gap-junction formation". Journal of Cell Science. 93 (3): 509-13. PMID ... One hemichannel proteins have four transmembrane domains[6][19]. *6 hemichannel proteins create one hemichannel. When different ... a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver". The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (6 Pt 1): 2621-9. ... genes can produce only the proteins that make up gap junction channels. An alternative naming system based on this protein's ...
past-your-eyes) protein: In favour of youth. (pro-teen) propaganda: A gentlemanly goose. (proper-gander) relief: What trees do ...
Garriga P, Manyosa J (2002). "The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease.". FEBS Lett ... "Light-induced protein-protein interactions on the rod photoreceptor disc membrane". En Lee AG. Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked ... Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked Receptors, Part A (Vol 2, 1996) (2 Vol Set). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. pp. 1-32. ISBN 1-55938- ... Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked Receptors, Part A (Vol 2, 1996) (2 Vol Set). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. pp. 33-140. ISBN 1- ...
Garriga P, Manyosa J (2002). „The eye photoreceptor protein rhodopsin. Structural implications for retinal disease.". FEBS Lett ... Light-induced protein-protein interactions on the rod photoreceptor disc membrane". Ур.: Lee AG. Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked ... Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked Receptors, Part A (Vol 2, 1996) (2 Vol Set). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. стр. 1-32. ISBN 978-1- ... Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked Receptors, Part A (Vol 2, 1996) (2 Vol Set). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. стр. 33-140. ISBN 978-1 ...
1994). "Differential expression of the complement regulatory proteins in the human eye". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34 (13 ... Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b"domain ... It is an LU domain and belongs to the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. CD59 attaches to host cells via a ... 1992). "Complement regulatory proteins at the feto-maternal interface during human placental development: distribution of CD59 ...
This protein has been implicated in human eye development. The gene is located on long arm of chromosome 2 (2q37.1). The ... The protein contains a peptidase S1 domain and possesses trypsin like serine protease activity. Mutations in this gene are a ... Eyes from individuals with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) often have a modestly decreased axial length, shallow anterior chamber ... The fundus of the eye shows crowded optical discs, tortuous vessels and an abnormal foveal avascular zone. Mice homozygous for ...
Eyes absent homolog 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator and be important for continued function of ... "Entrez Gene: EYA4 eyes absent homolog 4 (Drosophila)". O'Neill ME, Marietta J, Nishimura D, et al. (1996). "A gene for ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ...
Eyes absent homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... 1998). "The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex and regulate multiple steps in Drosophila eye development". ... EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in the developing kidney, branchial arches, eye, and ear. ... "Entrez Gene: EYA1 eyes absent homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Buller, C; Xu X; Marquis V; Schwanke R; Xu P X (Nov 2001). "Molecular ...
Eyes absent homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EYA2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent ( ... The encoded protein may be post-translationally modified and may play a role in eye development. A similar protein in mice can ... Fee BE, Doyle CA, Cleveland JL (Feb 2002). "A novel Eyes Absent 2 protein is expressed in the human eye". Gene. 285 (1-2): 221- ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... sepia eyes and ebony cuticle, vermilion eyes and yellow cuticle, white eyes and yellow cuticle, wildtype eyes and yellow ... The compound eye of the fruit fly contains 760 unit eyes or ommatidia, and are one of the most advanced among insects. Each ... Vermilion eye color mutant is sex-linked recessive gene due to its absence of brown eye pigment. The red pigment is located on ...
A study of the binding of this dye to the eye lens proteins crystallins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (35): 20923- ... Highly anionic proteins are stained blue, proteoglycans purple and anionic proteins pink. RNA is stained blueish-purple wirh a ... Staining of proteins can be improved by a subsequent silver stain. The analogue Ethyl-Stains-all has similar properties as ... Goldberg, H. A.; Warner, K. J. (1997). "The staining of acidic proteins on polyacrylamide gels: Enhanced sensitivity and ...
... and protein from the black-eyed peas. Online, Peace FM. "Boy Sent To Deliver 'Koose' Feared Drowned At Madina". Peacefmonline. ... Koose (also known as Bean Cake) is a spicy black-eyed pea fritter that is commonly eaten in West Africa as a snack. It was ...
Eye cancer Eye examination Retinoblastoma protein American Cancer Society (2003). "Chapter 85. Neoplasms of the Eye". Cancer ... The presence of the photographic fault red eye in only one eye and not in the other may be a sign of retinoblastoma. A clearer ... Introduction to White Eye Archived 2011-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, Daisy's Eye Cancer Fund. Du W, Pogoriler J (August 2006 ... Though most children survive this cancer, they may lose their vision in the affected eye(s) or need to have the eye removed. ...
"Differential expression of the complement regulatory proteins in the human eye". 》Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci》 34 (13): 3579-84. ... doi:10.1038/eye.2001.141.. *↑ Beatty, S; Koh, H; Phil, M; Henson, D; Boulton, M (2000). "The role of oxidative stress in the ... Exp Eye Res 72: 495-501, 2001. *↑ 0. Ogata N, Wada M, Otsuji T, Jo N, Tombran-Tink J, and Matsumura M. Expression of pigment ... Exp Eye Res 58: 545-552, 1994 *↑ Bost LM, Aotaki-Keen AE, and Hjelmeland LM. Coexpression of FGF-5 and bFGF by the retinal ...
"Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life". PLoS ONE. 3 (1 ... or the carbon-14 concentration in the lens of the eye. In 2019, Scientific American reported that carbon-14 from nuclear bomb ...
"Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life". PLoS ONE. 3 (1 ... may undergo pathological desquamation in diseases such as dry eye syndrome. The anatomy of the human eye makes desquamation of ... Gilbard, Jeffrey P. (November 1, 2003). "Dry Eye: Natural History, Diagnosis and Treatment". Wolters Kluwer Pharma Solutions. ... caused by the popping of an acute paronychia Certain eye tissues, including the conjunctiva and cornea, ...
Nov 2001). "LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects bone accrual and eye development". Cell. 107 (4): 513-23. doi:10.1016 ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP5 gene. LRP5 is a key ... LRP5 acts as a co-receptor with LRP6 and the Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins through ... Each protein has a single-pass, 22-amino-acid segment that crosses the cell membrane and a 207-amino-acid segment that is ...
Cataract clouding of the transparent protein in the lens of the eye. A certain amount of this clouding occurs naturally during ... There are blue eye genes and brown eye genes and one's eyes are brown if one of the two eye color genes is a brown one and blue ... Fundus of the eye The central portion of the retina on back or deepest part of the eye. Damage to the fundus, even if the rest ... Protein a class of biochemicals made from amino acids in specific sequences. Proteins can be very large molecules with very ...
Mikkelson TJ, Chrai SS, Robinson JR (October 1973). "Altered bioavailability of drugs in the eye due to drug-protein ... Over time, it has been reported that many of the same drugs and eye drops used to treat particular eye diseases do, in fact, ... Ophthalmic drug administration is the administration of a drug to the eyes, most typically as an eye drop formulation. Topical ... These states may include bacterial infections, eye injury, glaucoma, and dry eye. However, there are many challenges associated ...
2002). "Protein localization in the human eye and genetic screen of opticin". Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (11): 1333-42. doi:10.1093/ ... Opticin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPTC gene. Opticin belongs to class III of the small leucine-rich repeat ... The opticin gene is mapped to a region of chromosome 1 that is associated with the inherited eye diseases age-related macular ... Opticin is present in significant quantities in the vitreous of the eye and also localizes to the cornea, iris, ciliary body, ...
Mori M, Sakurai M, Araie M (1993). "[Topical timolol and blood-aqueous barrier permeability to protein in human eyes]". Nippon ... One of the isoforms is a membrane-bound protein with sequence similarity to the mouse mahogany protein, a receptor involved in ... Attractin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATRN gene. Attractin is a Group XI C-type lectin. Multiple transcript ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ...
Allergan Licenses Molecular Partners' Phase II Eye Disease Protein Therapeutic for $45M". Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology ... They are derived from natural ankyrin repeat proteins. Repeat proteins are among the most common classes of binding proteins in ... Plückthun, A (2015). "Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins): binding proteins for research, diagnostics, and therapy". ... soluble and stable proteins from combinatorial libraries of consensus ankyrin repeat proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. ...
The points to look at are: eye position, eye symmetry and twisting of the nasal tip. ... that constraint inside the womb is associated with decreased expression of Indian hedgehog protein and noggin. These last two ... which also poses a risk to the eyes that can be seen bulging out of the eye sockets. Other factors, such as a micrognathism and ... wide-set, bulging eyes • beaked nose • flat face 123500 FGFR2, FGFR3 Apert syndrome fused fingers or toes • flat midface 101200 ...
Increased levels of Bilirubin,[7] causing skin and white parts of the eyes to turn yellow[8] ... As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ...
Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary ... Flying primates? Megabats have the advanced pathway from eye to midbrain. „Science". 231 (4743), s. 1304-1346, 1986. DOI: ... A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ...
Veins not visible, or not at all clear; if unspecified, then not visible with the naked eye. e.g. Berberis gagnepainii. In this ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... SEM image of the leaf epidermis of Nicotiana alata, showing trichomes (hair-like appendages) and stomata (eye-shaped slits, ... further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... William Close's 1995 Ebola: A Documentary Novel of Its First Explosion[234][235] and 2002 Ebola: Through the Eyes of the People ... Inflammation and swelling of the uveal layer of the eye is the most common eye complication in survivors of Ebola virus disease ... "Review of Close, William T., Ebola: Through the Eyes of the People. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 17 ...
... i su grupa na svetlost senzitivnih 35-55 kDa za membranu-vezanih G protein-spregnutih receptora retinoidne proteinske ... "Casting a genetic light on the evolution of eyes". Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5795): 1914-8. PMID 17008522. doi:10.1126/ ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... are not visible to the naked eye when inspecting the skin and require a microscope to be seen.[28] Many features may indicate ... These free radicals likely interfere with the bacterium's metabolism and ability to make proteins.[79][80] Additionally, ... Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ...
The Roving Eye Meets Traveling Pictures: The Field of Vision and the Global Rise of Adult Manga. Comics As a Nexus of Cultures ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... The eyes of the octopus are large and are at the top of the head. They are similar in structure to those of a fish and are ... Fleshy papillae or cirri are found along the bottom of the arms, and the eyes are more developed.[31][32] ...
The membranous photoreceptor protein opsin contains a pigment molecule called retinal. In rod cells, these together are called ... "Owl Eye Information". World Owl Trust. Retrieved 1 May 2017.. ... The photoreceptor proteins in the three types of cones differ in their sensitivity to photons of different wavelengths (see ... "Scientists document light-sensitive birds eye within bird brain". Birds News. Retrieved 20 July 2017.. ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
The rash may look like a "bull's eye", as pictured, in about 80% of cases in Europe and 20% of cases in the US.[23][24][25][26] ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Edlow, Jonathan A (2003). Bull's-eye: unraveling the medical mystery of Lyme disease. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300- ... 55-98.11% DEET for 5-6 hours or 30-40% OLE for 6 hours.[133][137] Repellents should not be used under clothes, on eyes, mouth, ...
The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Nuclear scientists eye future landfall on a second 'island of stability'. EurekAlert! (2008-04-06). Retrieved on 2016-11-25. ...
Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... Widely separated/ downward sloping eyes. Most common. Least common but variable. At birth. ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
A 24-hour urine collection can be used to quantify daily protein loss (see proteinuria), urine output, creatinine clearance or ... protein in the urine (proteinuria), pus cells in the urine (pyuria) or cancer cells in the urine. ...
It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ... "Ten years of cold fusion: an eye-witness account" (PDF), Accountability in Research, 8 (1&2): 77, doi:10.1080/ ...
The whale eye is relatively small for its size, yet they do retain a good degree of eyesight. As well as this, the eyes of a ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... Whale skulls have small eye orbits, long snouts (with the exception of monodontids and ziphiids) and eyes placed on the sides ... these adaptations allow for large amounts of light to pass through the eye and, therefore, a very clear image of the ...
Indications of albinism are the absence of color in an organism's eyes, hair, and skin, due to the lack of melanin. Some forms ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... A special PKU formula can be obtained in order for the body to have protein.[30] ...
... eyes and a pineal eye.[32] The discoveries of synapsid-like openings (see below) in the skull roof of the skulls of several ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... this time with a double opening behind each eye, earning them the name Diapsida ("two arches").[44] The function of the holes ...
Eye * sw:Eye. Family * sw:Family. Fascism * sw:Fascism. Fashion * sw:Fashion. Federico Fellini * sw:Federico Fellini. Feminism ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... the eyes, and the gastrointestinal tract cause vomit containing blood, hence the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro (" ... At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ...
... with an increase in stage 2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.[8] There have been ... The elimination half-life is around 2 hours.[8][118] It is moderately bound to plasma proteins, especially albumin.[8] However ... binding to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA).[111] ...
Primates are the only known placental mammalian trichromats.[9][failed verification] Their eyes include three different kinds ... which is composed of a transmembrane protein called opsin and a light-sensitive molecule called 11-cis retinal. Each different ... Each of the three types of cones in the retina of the eye contains a different type of photosensitive pigment, ... "Number of Colors Distinguishable by the Human Eye". hypertextbook. Retrieved 21 February 2013.. ...
These include facial asymmetry, a prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, a broad nasal bridge, a wide, fleshy nasal tip, and mild ... Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ... LEHs can range in size from microscopic to visible to the naked eye. By examining the spacing of perikymata grooves (horizontal ... Nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to index the importance of animal protein in the diet. 15N increases about 3-4% with each ...
3.67 nM/mg protein/30 mins (high affinity), and Km = 143 μM; Vmax = 7.87 nM/mg protein/30 mins (low affinity). The LD50 of N- ... N-methylphenylethanolamine did not produce any stereotyped or rapid eye movements. These results led the authors to suggest ... experiments by these investigators showed that racemic N-methylphenylethanolamine also caused mydriasis in the rabbit eye ( ...
Blackburn, George (2012). The Guns of Normandy: A Soldier's Eye View, France 1944. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 1-55199-462- ... as the high temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins found in fresh milk, similar to the change in taste of ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... camera-type eye development. • cardiac conduction. • calcium ion import. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ... protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity ...
Some of them are nearly complete skeletons, and soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens ... ... "Sight for 'Saur Eyes: T. rex vision was among nature's best". Science News 170 (1): 3-4. doi:10.2307/4017288 ...
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.[1] Renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or ...
An Indonesian-style bitter gourd dish, cooked with sambal, onion, and red bird's-eye chili peppers ...
Tweaking the structure of a protein found in the eye has given it the ability to react to red light that is normally ... If these proteins were present in the eye you would be able to see red light that is invisible to you now, says co-author James ... Researchers have altered the structure of a protein normally found in the human eye so that it can absorb a type of red light ... The new protein could, in theory, give us the ability to see reds that are currently beyond our visible spectrum. ...
... the catalyst is modelled on one of the proteins that makes it … ... Eye protein sheds light on supercatalysts. 6 May 1995 By Alison ... Würthner and Rebeks solution was to copy the human eye. Light entering the eye changes the shape of a protein called retinal, ... the catalyst is modelled on one of the proteins that makes it possible for humans to see. It comprises a molecule called ...
McLaren, D. S. (‎1958)‎. Involvement of the eye in protein malnutrition*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 19 (‎2)‎, ...
A protein from the human eye allows fruit flies to sense the Earths magnetic field - re-igniting a debate about in-built ... A light-sensitive protein in the human eye has been shown to act as a "compass" in a magnetic field, when it is present in ... Human eye protein senses Earths magnetism. By Jason Palmer Science and technology reporter, BBC News ... The protein is implicated in the regulation of circadian rhythms - the "body clocks" of humans and other animals - and in the ...
Learn more about the Protein Biochemistry & Molecular Modeling Group and its key staff. ... The Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch at NEI studies inherited eye diseases. ... C. L. McCafferty and Y. V. Sergeev: Dataset of eye disease-related proteins analyzed using the unfolding mutation screen. Sci ... Protein Biochemistry & Molecular Modeling Group key staff. Key staff table Name. Title. Email. Phone. ...
Here, we demonstrated that VEGF inhibition decreases local CFH and other complement regulators in the eye and kidney through ... but also through modulation of local complement proteins that could protect against complement-mediated damage. Though further ...
Microalgae also offers a higher protein yield than many other plant-based protein sources. Microalgaes protein yield is ... Microalgae ingredients are a vegan source of protein. Unlike many other plant-based proteins, microalgal derived proteins have ... Nestlé and Corbion eye microalgae for next generation plant proteins. By Katy Askew ... Meanwhile, animal protein sources consume 100 times more water compared to plant sources for equivalent protein extraction. In ...
Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have shown that a protein found in the eye can protect against and potentially treat ... to determine if any proteins were elevated more in the protected eyes than in eyes of people who developed retinopathy. ... Protein found in the eye can protect against diabetic retinopathy. *Download PDF Copy ... They recognized that RBP3, a protein only made in the retina/eye, was elevated. To determine if this was indeed the protective ...
Activating a specific protein in the eyes prevented blood vessel damage which can cause sight loss. The research has ... Protein Reverses Eye Diseases « on: March 17, 2008, 07:33:36 AM » ... Protein Reverses Eye Diseases « on: March 17, 2008, 07:33:36 AM » ...
An alternative protein start-up has secured CHF 7m (€6.3m) in seed funding to build production capacity, invest in R&D, and ... Related tags: alternative protein, Chicken, Pork, Pea protein, vegan An alternative protein start-up has secured CHF 7m (€6.3m ... The products contain 26.7g and 22.7g protein per 100g, respectively, and are made from pea protein, pea fibre, and sunflower ... Swiss alternative protein start-up Planted Foods was created by co-founders Pascal Bieri, Lukas Böni, Christoph Jenny and Eric ...
They found that loss of any one of the five proteins caused the fruit flys eye to be significantly less deformed, revealing ... Its high level leads to visible deformities in a flys eyes. To test the requirement of various candidate proteins for function ... Instead of looking at the flies eyes, the researchers looked inside the flies using a fluorescent protein that indicates how ... Fly eyes help researchers see new proteins involved in memory. 26.08.2009 ...
... protein tyrosine phosphatase activity, adenohypophysis development, anatomical structure development, ear morphogenesis, ... View protein in InterPro. IPR028472 EYA_fam. IPR028471 Eyes_absent_h1. PANTHERi. PTHR10190 PTHR10190, 1 hit. PTHR10190:SF11 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR028472 ...
... protein tyrosine phosphatase activity, anatomical structure development, histone dephosphorylation, negative regulation of ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9913.ENSBTAP00000029290 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR028478 ...
A tooth-enamel protein is found in eyes with a common form of macular degeneration. The finding could point to a new target in ... In an eye with dry age-related macular degeneration, researchers found clumps of hydroxyapatite (pink), a type of mineralized ... Deposits of a mineral found in tooth enamel at the back of the eye could be hastening the progression of age-related macular ... The team also found amelotin in cadaver eyes that suffered from dry AMD, concentrated in areas with large deposits of ...
Skin Care , Nourishing , Around-eye Cream containing AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL PROTEIN ... OLD PRODUCT: Aubrey Organics Rejuvenating Eye Creme with Liposomes (old formulation). Around-eye Cream. ... OLD PRODUCT: LOreal Eye Defense Gel Cream (old formulation). Anti-aging, Around-eye Cream. ... OLD PRODUCT: eb5 Eye Treatment (old formulation). Anti-aging, Around-eye Cream. ...
... and its activating protein, that can play a role in some genetically inherited eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and night ... subunits that were poorly resolved in previous work as well as the overall molecular architecture of the activated protein ...
Expression of CBP variant proteins ahead of the furrow inhibits eye development. Scanning electron micrographs of adult eyes ... Since each CBP truncated protein retains a different set of protein domains, the expression of each variant protein is expected ... SO protein levels are below detection in so1 mutant eye discs (Pignoni et al. 1997; Halder et al. 1998) while remaining at wild ... Pignoni, F., B. Hu, H. Z. Kenton, J. Xiao, P. A. Garrity et al., 1997 The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex ...
Shop for Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends Italian Style Vegetables at Ralphs. Find quality frozen products to add to your ...
Navbox , name = Eye proteins , title = [[Human eye,Eye]] [[protein]]s ,listclass = hlist , titlestyle = background:#e7dcc3 , ... groupstyle = background-color: AntiqueWhite , group1 = [[Opsin]] ([[retinylidene protein]]) , list1 ={{Navbox,subgroup , ... View source for Template:Eye proteins. ← Template:Eye proteins. Jump to: navigation, search ...
A Fortress That Fights Back: Structural Proteins in the Eye Double as Antimicrobials. By Ashley P. Taylor , September 26, 2012 ... Bacteria invisible to the naked eye find their way to many of the external surfaces of our bodies, including the naked eye. But ... or under than a tenth the length of the entire keratin protein, could kill bacteria. Of the keratin proteins detected, the one ... If the eye is like a fishbowl, its made of shards used for self-defense. Researchers say the new finding may lead to the ...
In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous ... The 14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of 14C when the lens crystallines were formed. ... as well as other highly specialised structures of the eyes. The precision with which the year of birth may be calculated points ... BackgroundLens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) ...
Further reports about: , axons , central nervous system , eye disease , optic nerve , proteins , vision loss , visual system ... axons »central nervous system »eye disease »optic nerve »proteins »vision loss »visual system ... "Proteins are usually the targets of drugs--so if you want to design a drug that will help communication between the eye and the ... Study reveals how proteins from the eyes nerve cells relay visual cues to different parts of the brain ...
Birds may see magnetic field with help of eye protein. Swedish researchers have found evidence that a special molecule is the ... "Cry4 is an ideal magnetoreceptor as the level of the protein in the eyes is constant," says Atticus Pinzon-Rodríguez, one of ... Line of sight: a protein in zebrafinches eyes may be responsible for their ability to use the Earths magnetic field for ... Home ■ Core Sciences ■ Biology ■ Birds may see magnetic field with help of eye protein ...
Protein reverses eye disorder symptoms added by RACHEL HUANG on May 4, 2017. View all posts by RACHEL HUANG → ... Protein reverses eye disorder symptoms By RACHEL HUANG on May 4, 2017. No Comment ... Within eyes there are two different types of photoreceptors: rods and cones. Rods are responsible for scotopic vision, or ... RP is a chronic inherited genetic eye disorder caused by mutations in more than 60 genes that eventually lead to permanent ...
Dachshund and eyes absent proteins form a complex and function synergistically to induce ectopic eye development in Drosophila. ... The eyeless, dachshund, and eyes absent genes encode conserved, nuclear proteins that are essential for eye development in ... Moreover, we show that the Dachshund and Eyes Absent proteins can physically interact through conserved domains, suggesting a ... controls retinal specification and involves multiple protein complexes that function during distinct steps of eye development. ...
My father who is 65 years old now had RP in both the eyes and left eye has completely 0 vision at this time and there is some ... 19 Responses to SparingVision Formed to Advance Sight-Saving Protein for RP. * Muhammad. says: ... But SparingVisions goal is to launch a clinical trial for the protein in 2019. So keep watch for more information on a ... A spin-off of the Institut de la Vision, SparingVision was established to clinically develop and commercialize a protein known ...
Eye, the international review of graphic design, is a quarterly printed magazine about graphic design and visual culture ... a fortifying protein shake to help make design a more, in her word, muscular profession. According to Laurel and the books ...
Save when you order Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends Southwest Style and thousands of other foods from Giant online. Fast ... All Aisles / Frozen / Frozen Vegetables / Frozen Mixed Vegetables / Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends Southwest Style ... Protein 16g Calcium 8 Iron 35 *Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. ... 18 g protein per serving. Per Serving: 400 calories; 2 g sat. fat (10% DV); 680 mg sodium (30% DV); 3 g total sugars. Cooks in ...
6 Responses to SparingVision Formed to Advance Sight-Saving Protein for RP. * Muhammad. says: ... A spin-off of the Institut de la Vision, SparingVision was established to clinically develop and commercialize a protein known ... SparingVisions goal is to launch a clinical trial for the protein in 2019.. The Foundation Fighting Blindness Clinical ... RdCVF is a naturally occurring protein in the retina identified by SparingVision co-founders José Sahel, MD, and Thierry ...
Molecular model of delta-crystallin, a protein found in the lens of the eye. The regular arrangement of the protein in the lens ... Caption: Eye lens protein. Molecular model of delta-crystallin, a protein found in the lens of the eye. The regular arrangement ... eye lens, illustration, model, molecular, molecular model, molecular structure, molecule, protein, proteomics, reptile, ... of the protein in the lens is thought to be responsible for its transparency. Delta-crystallin is found only in reptiles and ...
  • By 2020, the market for alternative proteins is expected to reach $5.2 billion by 2020, expanding at a rate of more than 8 per cent a year . (
  • Clean label preservatives, clean proteins, nutritionals for improved digestibility, as well as albumin replacement are all platforms being proposed to customers, with a 2020 market rollout for initial products being considered. (
  • Global mammalian transient protein market revenues are projected to surpass US$ 540 million in 2020, according to a new study by Future Market Insights. (
  • The size of the mammalian transient protein expression market is estimated to reach approximately US$540 million by the end of 2020, with antibody and therapeutic protein production applications being the primary factors driving growth in the industry. (
  • The second Keystone Symposium on AAA+ proteins, "AAA+ Proteins: From Atomic Structures to Organisms", was held in Tahoe City, USA in January 2020. (
  • Protein Booster Eye Rescue harnesses the power of clinically tested peptides to aggressively target aging where people see it first, the thin skin around the eyes. (
  • Researchers have altered the structure of a protein normally found in the human eye so that it can absorb a type of red light that we cannot normally see. (
  • To track specific cells of interest in a body, researchers can currently attach green fluorescent proteins to them that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (
  • Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have shown that a protein found in the eye can protect against and potentially treat diabetic eye disease. (
  • Next, the researchers injected pure RBP3 into the vitreous of the eyes of mice in the early stages of retinopathy. (
  • Now, a new research report in the journal GENETICS, describes how researchers from the United States and Ireland used those eyes to "see" new proteins necessary for memory. (
  • To test the requirement of various candidate proteins for function of the fragile X mental retardation protein, the researchers genetically modified the flies to prevent them from making each candidate protein. (
  • The researchers performed these experiments by removing copies of the identified proteins from the fly. (
  • Instead of looking at the flies' eyes, the researchers looked inside the flies using a fluorescent protein that indicates how well bantam is functioning. (
  • In an eye with dry age-related macular degeneration, researchers found clumps of hydroxyapatite (pink), a type of mineralized calcium found in tooth enamel, and a protein called amelotin (green) that appears to be involved in producing the deposits. (
  • Now researchers have identified a protein called amelotin that experiments suggest is involved in producing the mineral deposits that are the hallmark of "dry" age-related macular degeneration, the most common of the two forms of the disease. (
  • For the new study, published online February 26 in Translational Research , researchers grew retinal pigment epithelial cells in the lab, and then subjected them to a form of stress that may be common in aging eyes: a loss of nutrients. (
  • Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have reported the first structural model for a key enzyme, and its activating protein, that can play a role in some genetically inherited eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and night blindness. (
  • But the eye isn't defenseless against this onslaught of microbes-researchers have found that it has special weapons for fighting back. (
  • In the study, researchers looked at cultured cells from the human cornea and tested different parts for bactericidal activity, they discovered that the bactericidal part contained fairly short fragments of keratin, less than 30 amino acids long, or under than a tenth the length of the entire keratin protein , could kill bacteria. (
  • Researchers at Sweden's Lund University studying zebrafinches believe that a protein called Cry4, produced in the birds' eyes, is the key. (
  • The Swedish researchers were examining proteins in the eyes of zebrafinches when they discovered that one of them differs from the others: only the cryptochrome Cry4 protein maintains a constant level throughout the day and in different lighting conditions. (
  • Cry4 is an ideal magnetoreceptor as the level of the protein in the eyes is constant," says Atticus Pinzon-Rodríguez, one of the researchers behind the study. (
  • Researchers at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine and the Shiley Eye Institute have collaborated with researchers in China to discover a way to reverse the effects of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in mice. (
  • HOUSTON - Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have shown how BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) serves as a tumor suppressor gene in kidney, eye, bile duct, mesothelioma and other cancers by regulating a form of cell death called ferroptosis, opening up a potential new area of therapy research. (
  • Researchers theorized that clusterin is depleted in dry eyes and that by replenishing the protein would be helpful. (
  • With promising pre-clinical results, researchers are hopeful that developing clusterin as a biological drug will provide an effective treatment for dry eye as well as corneal disorders. (
  • The researchers propose that two key functions of AQP0 proteins contribute to the ideal degree of stiffness in the lens. (
  • Researchers found this result by analyzing eye tissue from glaucoma patients and if they applied sFRP-1 to donor eye tissue in lab conditions, these eye tissues has less fluid outflow compared to normal eyes. (
  • The researchers further tested their premise with lab mice who were genetically altered to express sFRP-1 in their eye tissue - the result was that the mice also had higher IOPs. (
  • Led by researchers at Boston Medical Center, the study is the first to connect these known AD protein biomarkers in the eye to mental status. (
  • In this study, researchers used samples of eye fluid from 80 patients who were previously scheduled for eye surgery. (
  • Researchers tested the eye fluid to determine the levels of amyloid-β and tau proteins , and correlated those levels to the results of a baseline cognitive test . (
  • In it, Australian researchers examined the short-term impact of supplementing with 45 grams of whey protein isolate, 45 grams of sodium caseinate (milk protein) or a placebo (dextrose) in a group of 20 overweight or obese, post-menopausal women. (
  • Researchers in the Bear Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found surprising connections in the neural circuit responsible for processing visual data from the eyes to the brain. (
  • Additionally, researchers found two factors in the unaffected eye that are responsible for correctly sorting optical stimuli. (
  • The sensitivity of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 to these NAbs has led many researchers to be interested in developing standardized agents that can block the binding and fusion of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 to host cells. (
  • A protein that normally deposits mineralized calcium in tooth enamel may also be responsible for calcium deposits in the back of the eye in people with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to a study from researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI). (
  • Led by researchers at Boston Medical Heart, the study is the primary to attach these recognized AD protein biomarkers within the eye to psychological standing. (
  • On this examine, researchers used samples of eye fluid from 80 sufferers who had been beforehand scheduled for eye surgical procedure. (
  • Researchers examined the attention fluid to find out the degrees of amyloid-β and tau proteins and correlated these ranges to the outcomes of a baseline cognitive take a look at. (
  • Check out the Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends calories and how many carbs in Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends. (
  • Tip: You can use any Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends common serving unit you like when you track with the GymAmerica calorie counter and food journal. (
  • It's easy, use the Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends nutrition facts calculator. (
  • Are you interested in seeing additional foods like Birds Eye Steamfresh Protein Blends? (
  • C. L. McCafferty and Y. V. Sergeev: In silico Mapping of Protein Unfolding Mutations for Inherited Disease. (
  • Members of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 family have been shown to influence development by (1) acting as bridging molecules between the basal transcriptional machinery and specific DNA-binding transcription factors, (2) physically interacting with terminal members of signaling cascades, (3) acting as transcriptional coactivators of downstream target genes, and (4) playing a key role in chromatin remodeling. (
  • In a screen for new genes involved in eye development we have identified the Drosophila homolog of CBP as a key player in both eye specification and cell fate determination. (
  • RP is a chronic inherited genetic eye disorder caused by mutations in more than 60 genes that eventually lead to permanent blindness. (
  • The eyeless, dachshund, and eyes absent genes encode conserved, nuclear proteins that are essential for eye development in Drosophila. (
  • Here we show that the dachshund and eyes absent genes act synergistically to induce ectopic retinal development and positively regulate the expression of each other. (
  • The ability of Pax proteins to use the PAI, RED, and HD, or combinations thereof, may be one mechanism that allows them to be used at different stages of development to regulate various developmental processes through the activation of specific target genes. (
  • Interestingly, the requirement for retinal selector genes is limited to Pax6, as the removal of more downstream members does not lead to the eye-wing transformation. (
  • These genes have been proposed to act with eyeless (Pax6) to regulate eye development in vertebrates and invertebrates. (
  • We propose that an So/Eya complex regulates multiple steps in eye development and functions within the context of a network of genes to specify eye tissue identity. (
  • Qualifying variants were rare in the general population (MAF RESULTS: POAG cases showed enrichment of rare variants in camera-type eye development genes (p = 1.40×10-7, corrected p = 3.28×10-4). (
  • Implicated eye development genes were related to neuronal or retinal development. (
  • Network analysis also revealed enrichment of the MHC Class I antigen presentation pathway in HTG, and the EGFR1 and cell-cycle pathways in both HTG and NTG.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mutations in eye development genes are enriched in POAG. (
  • Low levels of these biomarker proteins were significantly associated with lower cognitive scores among the patients. (
  • Low ranges of those biomarker proteins had been considerably related to decreasing cognitive scores among the many sufferers. (
  • Much of our progress in understanding PEDF has relied on our development of overexpression systems that yielded recombinant proteins as functionally active neurotrophic factors identical to the native protein and ideal for biochemical, biophysical, and biological studies. (
  • The report also states that, innovations in automation and recombinant proteins will support market developments, however, prohibitive costs and complexity to maintain media purity remain challenges. (
  • Click to Enlarge Previous strategic investments include the February 2018 purchase of a soy processing facility in South Sioux City, Nebraska, US, which is making significant capital investments to transform the site to produce protein isolates from peas, with expansion plans to include the production of isolates from other pulses. (
  • Because previous work suggested that the fragile X protein regulates gene expression via an important group of small RNAs called "microRNAs," the scientists tested whether the proteins they identified were required for a specific microRNA named "bantam" to function in fruit flies. (
  • The zebrafish EGF-CFC gene one-eyed pinhead (oep) is required zygotically for the formation of the ventral neuroectoderm, endoderm, and prechordal plate. (
  • We describe a Pax protein, originally called Lune, that is the product of the Drosophila eye gone gene ( eyg ). (
  • Here, we report the identification of a Drosophila Pax gene that encodes a protein with only a RED domain and no PAI domain. (
  • The clusterin gene encodes a multi-functional protein that has been identified in different tissues, including a number of different eye tissues, primarily in the mouse and to a much lesser extent in humans. (
  • In the current communication, we provide data that confirms the expression of clusterin in a number of different human eye tissues and establishes the expression profile of this gene in monkey derived eye tissues. (
  • Sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya) are required for Drosophila eye development and are founding members of the mammalian Six and Eya gene families. (
  • They determined that the protein amelotin, encoded by the gene AMTN, is strongly activated after extended starvation and is responsible for the mineralization of HAP. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. (
  • Microalgae also offers a higher protein yield than many other plant-based protein sources. (
  • With one in four consumers "actively trying to increase consumption of plant-based protein," plant-based yogurts are increasing in popularity as a healthy. (
  • 11 Jun 2019 --- Ingredion is seeking to accelerate the production of plant-based protein growth globally with a string of strategic investments, totaling US$140 million. (
  • The investments aims to enable total turnkey solutions for consumers to grow in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region, as the plant-based protein trend is still at its early onset in this part of the globe, according to the company. (
  • Our favourite picks of plant-based protein have got to be our collection of peas , Italian 3 Bean Mix, Sugar Snap Peas and even Frozen Edamame Beans. (
  • What is plant-based protein? (
  • The level of RBP3 in the eye's vitreous and retina are higher in people who don't progress to diabetic eye disease than in those who do. (
  • They recognized that RBP3, a protein only made in the retina/eye, was elevated. (
  • If we could find out what's causing the decrease of RBP3 in the retina in the first place, we could design some kind of treatment to maintain its production, allowing all diabetic patients to have an endogenous protection against eye disease,' says Dr. King. (
  • While previous studies identified the various proteins produced in the retina, the ultimate destination of these proteins was largely unknown. (
  • The retina projects proteins into more than 30 different areas of the central nervous system, but for the study, her team chose to evaluate the two major targets: the superior colliculus (which analyzes motion in the visual field and controls goal-directed head and eye movements), and the lateral geniculate nucleus (which analyzes the shape of objects we see and sends that information to a higher brain area, the visual cortex). (
  • Understanding the transport of these proteins out of the retina is essential to understand how the visual system functions," Cline says. (
  • Rods and cones lie along the retina in the back of the eye. (
  • RdCVF is a naturally occurring protein in the retina identified by SparingVision co-founders José Sahel , MD, and Thierry Léveillard , PhD, at the Institut de la Vision. (
  • Our section has been studying pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a protein that acts in neuronal differentiation and survival in cells derived from the retina and CNS. (
  • Bovine Eye Retina Total Protein (protein lysate) is isolated from freshly harvested tissues of single healthy normal donor. (
  • It's possible that these protein, lipid, and mineral deposits may help damaged RPE cells block blood vessels from growing into the retina, a problem that is one of the key features of wet AMD," he said. (
  • During the development of the compound eye of Drosophila several signaling pathways exert both positive and inhibitory influences upon an array of nuclear transcription factors to produce a near-perfect lattice of unit eyes or ommatidia. (
  • Individual cells within the eye are exposed to many extracellular signals, express multiple surface receptors, and make use of a large complement of cell-subtype-specific DNA-binding transcription factors. (
  • Rather, cells within the eye express transcription factors in a complicated combinatorial pattern ( K umar and M oses 1997 ). (
  • Thus, creating such a precise array of unit eyes reproducibly using multiple diffusible signals is an impressive feat. A key question is: How does an individual cell correctly relay the multiple bits of information received at the cell surface to the appropriate assortment of specific DNA-binding transcription factors and how is this information correctly used during cell fate decisions. (
  • A potential solution to this paradigm is to have a ubiquitously expressed protein act as a conduit for linking signaling pathways to nuclear transcription factors by interacting with (1) terminal members of the many signaling cascades and (2) the specific combination of transcription factors that are expressed in each different cell type. (
  • The RNA genome of coronaviruses, which, at a median length of 29 kb is the longest among all RNA viruses, is comprised of six to ten open reading frames (ORFs) that are responsible for encoding both the replicase and structural proteins for the virus. (
  • Swiss alternative protein start-up Planted Foods was created by co-founders Pascal Bieri, Lukas Böni, Christoph Jenny and Eric Stirnemann in early 2019. (
  • SparingVision's goal is to launch a clinical trial for the protein in 2019. (
  • To better understand the chemistry behind colour vision, Babak Borhan at Michigan State University in East Lansing and his colleagues engineered a series of mutations which altered the structure of human chromophore-containing proteins. (
  • Previously, studies showed that mice with mutations of the protein aquaporin zero (AQP0) developed cataracts. (
  • SRm160 mutations are recessive lethal, while its overexpression generates phenotypes including roughened eyes and highly disorganized internal eye structure, which are due at least in part to aberrantly high levels of apoptosis. (
  • At the heart of the current study is a molecule called cryptochrome - an ancient protein present, in one of its two major forms, in every animal on Earth. (
  • Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (
  • Overall, these findings identify BMP-7 as an essential signaling molecule during mammalian kidney and eye development. (
  • ASPN is thus a novel secreted molecule essential for eye induction through the coordination of multiple signalling pathways. (
  • After exclusion of peaks with poor resolution and low signal-to-noise ratios, univariate analysis was performed, and 6-10 differentially expressed protein biomarkers were found between the disease versus control groups. (
  • Piling up a bunch of proteins on each other has a non-negligible chance of interfering with their function, and one would expect for chance interactions to not be excessively promiscuous, although those who have done regulatory genetics and protein work are probably aware just how annoyingly non-specific some of the protein binding can get. (
  • Building on that observation, we saw that if you overexpress RBP3 by molecular methods [in animal models], you can prevent the onset of diabetic eye disease. (
  • This approach permitted visualization of flexible regions of individual PDE6 catalytic and inhibitory subunits that were poorly resolved in previous work as well as the overall molecular architecture of the activated protein complex. (
  • Moreover, we show that the Dachshund and Eyes Absent proteins can physically interact through conserved domains, suggesting a molecular basis for the genetic synergy observed and that a similar complex may function in mammals. (
  • Molecular model of delta-crystallin, a protein found in the lens of the eye. (
  • PEDF-R, a phospholipase-linked membrane protein with high affinity for PEDF, suggests a molecular pathway by which ligand/receptor interaction on the cell surface could generate a cellular signal, a significant advance in the elucidation of PEDF's mechanism of action. (
  • This non-monotonic stability suggests new molecular mechanisms for eye lens opacification in cataract. (
  • Western analysis revealed that two major groups of clusterin exist in the eye, a high molecular weight group (>100 kDa) and a second group consisting of at least five clusterin species that are all approximately 80 kDa. (
  • We have previously reported that HMGB1, an important member of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), is an early and critical mediator in the eye in response to transferred uveitogenic T cells and that transfer of uveitogenic T cells into Fas deficient (lpr) mice did not induce HMGB1 release by retinal tissue cells nor result in intraocular inflammation. (
  • These two proteins' unique molecular structures, the expression patterns of their receptors and ligands, and their mechanisms of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic activity make their therapeutic potential in rheumatic diseases intriguing, she said. (
  • HTG can result from aberrant responses to protein misfolding which may be amenable to molecular chaperone therapy. (
  • We study the molecular mechanisms that are essential for development and maintenance of transparency in the eye lens. (
  • When we looked in human donor eyes with dry AMD, we saw the same thing," said Graeme Wistow, Ph.D., chief of the NEI Section on Molecular Structure and Functional Genomics, and senior author of the study. (
  • Focusing on retinoblastoma and cerebellar granule cells, we prospected for PEDF receptors and found evidence for 1) a saturable, specific, and high-affinity class of receptors on the surface of both cells, with characteristics of an 80-kDa plasma membrane protein, and 2) the amino-terminal region in PEDF that interacts with the receptor. (
  • Clusterin has been implicated in a number of cellular processes such as lipid transport, membrane integrity, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration, all of which could be important to the biology of the eye. (
  • Ono and colleagues discovered that within the clear membrane that coats the inner surface of the eyelid and outer surface of the eye, known as the conjunctiva, MIP-1a was essential in the initial stages of development of an allergic response. (
  • Electron microscopic observations of reconstituted proteoliposomes with the purified major intrinsic membrane protein of eye lens fibers. (
  • The purified major intrinsic protein of the lens fiber plasma membrane (MP26) reconstituted into liposomes favored membrane-to-membrane close contacts as visualized by freeze fracture and immunoelectron microscopy. (
  • The viral envelope of coronaviruses is typically made up of three proteins that include the membrane protein (M), the envelope protein (E), and the spike protein (S). (
  • Upon interaction with a potential host cell, the S1 subunit will recognize and bind to receptors on the host cell, whereas the S2 subunit, which is the most conserved component of the S protein, will be responsible for fusing the envelope of the virus with the host cell membrane. (
  • so encodes a highly diverged homeobox transcription factor and eya encodes a novel nuclear protein. (
  • These data represents the first example of a novel RNA binding protein-mediated mechanism for controlling cell cycle regulators in mammalian eye development and moreover, has broader significance given that the human genome encodes several hundred RNA binding proteins but to date less than twenty have been directly associated with mammalian developmental defects or disease. (
  • Unlike many other plant-based proteins, microalgal derived proteins have complete essential amino acids profiles. (
  • Milk proteins, rich in lactose and essential amino acids, offer nourishing properties and form a hydrating film on the skin by bonding with water molecules. (
  • Select candidate proteins were identified by off-line purification and tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS). (
  • Various proteins interact with ribosomes - this ribosome-protein interactome functionally diversifies ribosomes, thereby providing an additional means of translation regulation. (
  • The regular arrangement of the protein in the lens is thought to be responsible for its transparency. (
  • Loss or defects of a protein previously shown to play a key a role in cataract, the clouding of the lens that commonly strikes people in their seventies, has now been shown to contribute to presbyopia, the forty-something phenomenon when reading a menu by candlelight and threading a needle become newfound challenges. (
  • The lens normally changes its shape (by bending or flattening) to focus light onto the back of the eye, but with age, it often becomes stiff and less able to squeeze itself into the shape required for close-up vision. (
  • The bulk of the lens is made up of fiber cells that contain mostly water and proteins called crystallins, which contribute to the transparent and light-focusing qualities of the lens. (
  • The model will enable them to screen the 263 amino acids (protein building blocks) that make up AQP0 in order to identify the specific part of the protein involved in lens stiffness. (
  • We studied the phase behavior of a model binary mixture of eye lens crystallin proteins using first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory. (
  • In particular, in the case of either weak or strong attractions, these eye lens solutions become thermodynamically unstable. (
  • Interestingly, attraction strengths that correspond closely to those of proteins isolated from the living lens fall right within the stable region of the phase diagram. (
  • New immunolocalization data put the role of the lens MP26 (MIP) protein in a new perspective. (
  • Celf1 protein associates with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 mRNA to inhibit its translation in differentiating lens fiber cells. (
  • Dr. Jiang and her team study the eye lens, which is rich in connexin proteins, as a model system to understand how connexin functions in cells throughout the body. (
  • A significant increase in R&D activities biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology market participants to develop and manufacture advanced biologics including monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and therapeutic proteins is driving demand for mammalian transient protein expression. (
  • This protein, amelotin, may turn out to be a therapeutic target for the blinding disease. (
  • These proteins point to new therapeutic targets and new prognostic tests to identify subjects at risk of end-stage renal disease, as well as biomarkers to measure responses to treatment of diabetic kidney disease. (
  • A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of the mammalian kidney and eye. (
  • Tissues are homogenized in protein lysis buffer supplemented with a cocktail of 7 mammalian protease inhibitors to minimize proteolysis. (
  • Biopharmaceutical companies will remain prominent end-users of mammalian transient protein expression, while CROs are also likely to reflect steady growth on the back of biologics and drug development endeavours. (
  • North America followed by Europe are leading markets for mammalian transient protein expression, access to cutting edge healthcare technologies, and the presence of leading market players. (
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mammalian transient protein expression market has largely been negative. (
  • In its latest report, study provides details on key business strategies that are gaining importance in the mammalian transient protein expression market. (
  • Qiagenand Bio-Rad Laboratories are some of the key companies operating in the mammalian transient protein expression market. (
  • Low levels of amyloid-β and tau proteins, biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in eye fluid were significantly associated with low cognitive scores, according to a new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease . (
  • Abnormal amounts of amyloid- β and tau proteins are biomarkers of AD, and deposits of amyloid proteins in the brain begin many years prior to symptoms of the disease. (
  • We noted that some of the participants who had low levels of protein biomarkers in their eye fluid already had signs of mild to moderate dementia based on their cognitive scores. (
  • This is a great step in discovering the eye's potential role in diagnosing preclinical Alzheimer's disease, and further study is needed comparing protein biomarkers in the eye with more in-depth neurological testing," adds Manju Subramanian, MD, senior author, principal investigator, and ophthalmologist at BMC. (
  • Low ranges of amyloid-β and tau proteins, biomarkers of Alzheimer's illness (AD), in eye fluid had been considerably related to low cognitive scores, by brand new research printed within the Journal of Alzheimer's Illness. (
  • Irregular quantities of amyloid- β and tau proteins are biomarkers of AD, and deposits of amyloid proteins within the mind start a few years previous to signs of the illness. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. (
  • This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Polycomb proteins or the simultaneous reduction of the Pleiohomeotic repressive complex and Pax6. (
  • Microalgae ingredients are a vegan source of protein. (
  • Nestlé has also set an industry-wide example by tracking what percentage of its proteins are derived from plant-based ingredients. (
  • Once the investments are completed, this facility will produce ingredients that enhance the company's current VITESSENCE Pulse protein isolate line to include higher protein isolates primarily for the nutrition, health and wellness categories. (
  • Dachshund and eyes absent proteins form a complex and function synergistically to induce ectopic eye development in Drosophila. (
  • The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins dephosphorylate the terminal tyrosine residue of H2AX, thus permitting assembly of a productive DNA repair complex. (
  • Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate-Mouse Eye Whole tissue lysate-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (
  • This frozen side dish delivers 16 grams of protein per serving, and it's made without artificial flavors, so you family can enjoy the best. (
  • The functional, whole-milk Greek yogurt contains 24 grams of protein per serving and is low in sugar. (
  • It is produced in Italy and has 13 grams of protein per 2 oz. serving. (
  • snack bars that would be containing 10 grams of plant protein derived from nuts and peas. (
  • High-mobility group proteins are chromatin-binding factors with key roles in nuclear homeostasis. (
  • A proteome may refer to the complement of proteins of a specific cell type (cellular proteome) or a subcellular system, as in a viral proteome or a nuclear proteome. (
  • This finding and the identification of the five new proteins that interact with the fragile X mental retardation protein give new insight into additional and alternative functions of fragile X mental retardation protein. (
  • Tannic Acid (TA), employed as the model polyphenol , was allowed to interact with the BSA on the silica support and its adsorption to the protein was detected by reaction with Fe( III ) and subsequent colour development. (
  • Now, one bottleneck in this model is waiting for proteins to actually interact. (
  • Celf1 has three RNA Recognition Motifs that directly interact with target RNAs to control mRNA decay, alternative splicing or translation into protein. (
  • Without the S protein, viruses like the novel SARS-CoV-2 would never be able to interact with the cells of potential hosts like animals and humans to cause infection. (
  • The whole-milk Greek yogurt is infused with CFM (cross-flow microfiltration method) whey protein isolate (WPI). (
  • These results suggest a conserved role for EGF-CFC proteins as essential extracellular cofactors for Nodal signaling during vertebrate development. (
  • Aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) is a soluble fusion protein which combines ligand-binding elements taken from the extracellular components of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2 fused to the Fc portion of IgG. (
  • It goes without saying that a high-protein diet is key for endurance athletes who can use surplus protein to provide that all-important energy alongside reaping the benefits of its muscle-building properties. (
  • For a very satisfying high protein vegan breakfast, I'm combining a lentil rice alternative with a pea protein milk alternative. (
  • Louise Barrett, Head of the Nestlé Confectionery Product Technology Centre in York, said: "Pea protein is a key focus area for us because it has a high protein content and is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of plant protein. (
  • Total protein is ready for immediate use in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-capillary electrophoresis, enzymatic activity analysis, gel shifting assay, protein-protein interaction, and tissue specific expression. (
  • Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis. (
  • RBP3 is found in all eyes. (
  • Specifically, the scientists found that the "fragile X mental retardation protein," which plays a crucial role in the cellular processes involved in learning and memory, needs five other proteins to function normally. (
  • They found that loss of any one of the five proteins caused the fruit fly's eye to be significantly less deformed, revealing that each is required for function of the fragile X mental retardation protein. (
  • Deposits of a mineral found in tooth enamel at the back of the eye could be hastening the progression of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of deteriorating eyesight in people over 50. (
  • New research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation has found that keratin-a type of protein that gives structure to the cornea and other tissues like skin, teeth, hair, and mucous membranes-protects against bacteria. (
  • Of the keratin proteins detected, the one that they found most consistently was a keratin known as cytokeratin 6A , or K6A. (
  • These are proteins that are usually in the nucleus of a cell, but we found them far, far away from the nucleus, participating in some form of communication. (
  • Under this agreement, Ingredion partnered with Clara Foods to globally distribute and market multiple proteins derived from yeast that are traditionally found in eggs. (
  • For millions of patients suffering from dry eye symptoms, relief may be found in a natural tear protein. (
  • Amelotin was only found in eyes with dry AMD. (
  • In these eyes, amelotin was sometimes found in areas of the RPE without drusen, but it was primarily present in soft drusen with large deposits of hydroxyapatite. (
  • The instability boundary, or spinodal surface, was found to be very sensitive to the strength of the attraction between the two proteins, and also to respond to this interprotein attraction strength in a non-monotonic fashion. (
  • Scientists have found a protein in the eye which plays a critical role in how an allergic response develops over a 24-hour period. (
  • In a study published today in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation , Professor Santa Jeremy Ono and colleagues from UCL's Institute of Ophthalmology and Moorfields Eye Hospital found that the macrophage inflammatory protein-1a, known as MIP-1a and located in the eye, plays a crucial role in the early stages of an allergic response. (
  • Previous research has shown an association between low levels of amyloid-β and tau proteins found in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture tests and preclinical AD, when pathological changes of AD present in the brain, but before the onset of clinical symptoms. (
  • 18β-Glycyrrhetic Acid Inhibits Immune Activation Triggered by HMGB1, a Pro-inflammatory Protein Found in the Tear Fluid during Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis. (
  • Notably, the presence of S proteins on the coronaviruses is what gives rise to the spike-shaped protrusions found on their surface. (
  • Protein is almost all-encompassing as it can be found in plant and animal foods, with fish, beans and pulses, eggs and meat providing a great source of protein for your daily diet. (
  • Here, honey bee queens are found to be vulnerable to temperature changes and the specific stress-response proteins activated in the spermatheca are discussed as potential indicators of heat stress. (
  • BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. (
  • BMP4 is found in early embryonic development in the ventral marginal zone and in the eye, heart blood and otic vesicle. (
  • These proteins are often found in the eye. (
  • We consider that the conjunctiva of the dry eye, without the lacrimal secretion components of lysozyme and lactoferrin, has an alternative protective antibacterial mechanism which is derived from serum proteins via chronically inflamed vessels. (
  • Employing this simple concept, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected as the model salivary protein and used to cover the surface of silica beads. (
  • To evaluate the protein expression profiles from serum samples of persons with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, end-stage open angle glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration as compared to individuals without ocular disease. (
  • Using an unbiased biochemical approach, however, we have identified a novel lacrimal gland autoantigen, odorant binding protein 1a, targeted by the autoimmune response. (
  • Using an unbiased biochemical approach, we identified a novel autoantigen, odorant binding protein 1a (OBP1a), as a target of the immune response. (
  • Protein 'stickiness' can be enhanced by biochemical means. (
  • Just as in human brains, the proteins are transported via neuronal axons, which are long, threadlike nerve fibers that extend from the eye into the brain via the optic nerve. (
  • Because this type of neuronal protein exists in other parts of the body, it may play a role in other nerve-cell communication disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (
  • It has been shown that channelrhodopsin-2, a monolithic protein containing a light sensor and a cation channel, provides electrical stimulation of appropriate speed and magnitude to activate neuronal spike firing. (
  • The cDNA sequence for PEDF predicts a unique protein with strong homology to members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. (
  • CTLA-4 shares 29% homology with another protein expressed on T cells, CD28, and binds to the same B7 ligands, B7-1 and B7-2. (
  • Proteins are usually the targets of drugs--so if you want to design a drug that will help communication between the eye and the brain, it helps to know what proteins those drugs would target," says Hollis Cline, PhD , co-chair of Scripps Research's Department of Neuroscience, who led the research project. (
  • Going into the study, Cline said she was curious whether similar types of proteins would travel to distinct targets within the brain. (
  • Light entering the eye changes the shape of a protein called retinal, triggering a chain of events that causes nervous impulses to be sent to the brain. (
  • Together, these results suggest that VEGF protects the retinal and glomerular microvasculature, not only through VEGFR2-mediated vasculotrophism, but also through modulation of local complement proteins that could protect against complement-mediated damage. (
  • Using this new method--developed over the course of several years--Cline's team was able to "label" about 1,000 different types of proteins that originate in the eye's retinal ganglion cells, and then watch how and where they travel in a living brain of a rat. (
  • We propose that a conserved regulatory network, rather than a linear hierarchy, controls retinal specification and involves multiple protein complexes that function during distinct steps of eye development. (
  • Retinal explants from Fas-deficient (Faslpr) and wild-type (wt) C57BL/6 (B6) mice were cultured with a Fas receptor agonist (Jo2 Ab) or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) 1-20 peptide-specific T cells, and then the level of HMGB1 in culture supernatants were detected by ELISA. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors currently used to treat eye diseases have included monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, and an aptamer. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the SLRP family member Asporin (ASPN) plays a crucial role in the early stages of eye development in Xenopus embryos. (
  • As compared to the M and E proteins that are primarily involved in virus assembly, the S protein plays a crucial role in penetrating host cells and initiating infection. (
  • BOSTON-Research on two members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins, CTLA-4 and PD-1, may one day generate novel, targeted therapies for autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (
  • He pointed out that this underscores the need to develop drugs that can specifically block the function of amelotin in the eye, which may delay disease progression. (
  • Conceptually, you could see coming up with drugs that specifically block the function of amelotin in eye, and this might delay the progression of the disease. (
  • These findings could help us build an accessible, and minimally invasive test to determine Alzheimer's disease risk, especially among patients with eye disease," says Lauren Wright, MD, first author on the study and ophthalmology fellow at BMC. (
  • Würthner and Rebek's solution was to copy the human eye. (
  • A light-sensitive protein in the human eye has been shown to act as a "compass" in a magnetic field, when it is present in flies' eyes. (
  • The study in Nature Communications showed that without their natural "magnetoreception" protein, the flies did not respond to a magnetic field - but replacing the protein with the human version restored the ability. (
  • Although humans, like migratory birds, are known to have cryptochrome in their eyes, the idea of human magnetoreception has remained largely unexplored since pioneering experiments by Robin Baker of the University of Manchester in the 1980s. (
  • M. B. Dolinska, K. L. Young, 2nd, C. Kassouf, E. K. Dimitriadis, P. T. Wingfield and Y. V. Sergeev: Protein Stability and Functional Characterization of Intra-Melanosomal Domain of Human Recombinant Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1. (
  • what's more, since they are based on a human protein, they have a better chance than some drugs of fighting infection without being shut down by the immune system. (
  • Peptides are chains of amino acids (the building blocks of protein) that are essential to human life. (
  • Investments are being made within the existing facility to make pulse-based protein concentrates and flours from peas, lentils and fava beans for human food applications. (
  • Concurrent chemical evaluations try to screen food astringency, by means of polyphenol and protein precipitation procedures, but these are far from the real human astringency sensation where not all polyphenol - protein interactions lead to the occurrence of precipitate. (
  • In this study, we investigated autoimmune dacryoadenitis and associated dry eye complications in Aire -deficient mice, a mouse model of the human disease autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1). (
  • The team also examined human cadaver eyes with dry AMD, wet AMD, or no AMD. (
  • The issue that we sought to examine is whether a broad profile of clusterin expression in the eye is consistent in primates (monkey and human). (
  • In situ hybridization and immunochemistry were carried out on human eye sections. (
  • Clusterin is expressed in a broad range of eye tissues in both human and monkey, suggesting that this is a characteristic feature in primates. (
  • Finally, the findings on Celf1, taken in context of our recent discovery on the conserved function of a Tudor protein Tdrd7 in human, mouse and chicken eye development (Lachke et al. (
  • This protein contains all human amino-acid sequences, which minimizes the potential for immunogenicity in human patients. (
  • Y. V. Sergeev, M. B. Dolinska and P. T. Wingfield: Thermodynamic analysis of weak protein interactions using sedimentation equilibrium. (
  • The interests of this section are in the area of protein structure as it relates to function, with a focus on the interactions of components involved in cell differentiation survival and maintenance. (
  • The central theme of this research is to understand how protein interactions alter the state of aggregation and the characterization of these interactions through light scattering properties of dense suspensions. (
  • One context where protein interactions have an impact on the state of aggregation is in protein crystallization. (
  • Here, a novel chemical approach that tries to mimic protein - polyphenol interactions in the mouth is presented to evaluate astringency. (
  • To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. (
  • Alternative splicing imparts distinct functions through isoform-specific protein-protein interactions. (
  • Moreover, modification of SRm160 by DOA kinase appears to be necessary for its activity, since Doa alleles suppress phenotypes induced by SRm160 overexpression in the eye and enhance those in genital discs. (
  • Overexpression of ASPN causes the induction of ectopic eyes. (
  • 2011) suggest that conserved post-transcriptional regulatory circuitries have evolved to control eye development in vertebrates. (
  • An individual cell within the developing eye will express many cell surface receptors and can expect to be presented simultaneously with several diffusible ligands ( V oas and R ebay 2004 ). (
  • In the case of birds, the receptors that sense the Earth's magnetic field are probably located in their eyes. (
  • Two important receptors, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), are both involved in peripheral tolerance. (
  • In addition, many of these proteins function as ion channels and receptors. (
  • These findings build on earlier observations that the eye can be reprogrammed to initiate head epidermis, antennal, and leg development. (
  • These findings indicate that proteins in the eye may be a potential source for an accessible, cost-effective test to predict future Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Conclusion: Together, these findings suggest that HMGB1 contributes to inflammatory disorders of the external eye, and 18β-glycyrrhetic acid may scavenge the protein and inhibit its detrimental effects. (
  • These findings point out that proteins within the sight could also be a possible supply for an accessible, price-efficient take a look at to foretell future Alzheimer's illness. (
  • Our prospective study findings provide strong evidence that KRIS proteins contribute to the inflammatory process underlying end-stage renal disease development in both types of diabetes. (
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (
  • The authors also report that 18β-glycyrrhetic acid impairs antibody recognition of HMGB1, suggesting direct binding to the protein. (
  • Here, we demonstrated that VEGF inhibition decreases local CFH and other complement regulators in the eye and kidney through reduced VEGFR2/PKC-α/CREB signaling. (
  • C. L. McCafferty and Y. V. Sergeev: Dataset of eye disease-related proteins analyzed using the unfolding mutation screen. (
  • The S protein is a highly glycosylated and large type I transmembrane fusion protein that is made up of 1,160 to 1,400 amino acids, depending upon the type of virus. (
  • The Bear lab focuses on how the brain sorts visual stimuli into these two categories, and how this pathway is damaged in eyes that are affected by amblyopia, commonly known as a lazy eye. (
  • SRP develops into optical recognition memory, but with amblyopia-affect eyes, this pathway underdeveloped. (
  • To test how well this protein works in mice, they used a technique called RNA interference to make the mice produce less K6A in their eyes, then killed some of those mice and incubated their eyeballs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a common, disease-causing bacteria. (
  • The present study demonstrates that mice lacking BMP-7 display severe defects confined to the developing kidney and eye. (
  • In the monocularly deprived mice, degradation in the affected eye was completely prevented. (
  • The other major photostimulation method is the use of light to activate a light-sensitive protein such as rhodopsin, which can then excite the cell expressing the opsin. (
  • If you're looking to incorporate more vegetarian protein sources into your diet, your best bet is to eat protein-rich foods such as vegetables, beans, lentils and chickpeas. (